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Term Paper Of analog SUBMITTED TO:

communication system Mr. I.Anwar sir

(ECE ‘302’)


Krishandeep Magotra
Conversion process
from analog to digital Sec:E6802A04

I thank GOD almighty for guiding me throughout the seminar. I would like to
thank all those who have contributed to the completion of the seminar and
helped me with valuable suggestions for improvement.

I am extremely grateful to lect. Imtiaz Anwar Department of Electronics And

Communication, for providing me with best facilities and atmosphere for the
creative work guidance and encouragement. I thank all staff members of my
college and friends for extending their cooperation during my seminar.

Above all I would like to thank my parents without whose blessings, I would not

have been able to accomplish my goal.

(krishan deep magotra)


• Purpose of an Analog-to-Digital converter:

• Analog to digital converter

• Sampling Frequency

• Quantization

• Non-linearity
• Aperture error


• Application:

• ADC Examples

• Accuracy
• References.:

among a theoretically infinite number of
values. Examples are sine waves, the
waveforms representing human speech, and
the signals from a conventional television
camera. The output of the ADC, in contrast,
has defined levels or states. The number of
states is almost always a power of two --
that is, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc. The simplest digital
signals have only two states, and are called
binary All whole numbers can be
represented in binary form as strings of ones
and zeros
4-channel stereo multiplexed
An ADC is an electronic device that
analog-to-digital converter
converts an input analog voltage to a digital
number proportional to the magnitude of the
Analog-to-digital conversion is an
voltage or current. However, some non-
electronic process in which a continuously
electronic or only partially electronic
variable (analog) signal is changed, without
devices, such as encoders, can also be
altering its essential content, into a multi-
considered ADC.
level (digital) signal or An analog-to-digital
converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) The digital output may use different coding
is a device that converts a continuous schemes. Typically the digital output will be
quantity to a discrete digital number. The a TWO COMPLIMENTARY binary
reverse operation is performed by a digital- number that is proportional to the input, but
to-analog converter (DAC).An analog-to- there are other possibilities. An encoder, for
digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or example, might output a gray code.
A to D) is a device that converts a
continuous quantity to a discrete digital An ADC might be used to make an isolated
number. The reverse operation is performed measurement. ADCs are also used to
by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). quantize time varying signal by turning them
into a sequence of digital samples. The
The input to an analog-to-digital converter result is quantized in both time and va
(ADC) consists of a voltage that varies
Digital signals propagate more efficiently "think" in terms of binary digital data,while
than analog signals, largely because digital a microprocessor can analyze analog data, it
impulses, which are well-defined and must be converted into digital form for the
orderly, are easier for electronic circuits to computer to make sense of it.
distinguish from noise, which is chaotic.
This is the chief advantage of digital modes Digital-to-analog conversion is a process in
in communications. Computers "talk" and which signals having a few (usually two)
defined levels or states digital are converted Binary digital impulses, all by themselves,
into signals having a theoretically infinite appear as long strings of ones and zeros, and
number of states analog. A common have no apparent meaning to a human
example is the processing, by modem of observer. But when a DAC is used to decode
computer data into audio-frequency (AF) the binary digital signals, meaningful output
tones that can be transmitted over a twisted appears. This might be a voice, a picture, a
pair telephone line. The circuit that performs musical tune, or mechanical motion.
this function is a digital-to-analog converter
(DAC). Both the DAC and the ADC are of
significance in some applications of DSP.
Basically digital-to-analog conversion is the The intelligibility or fidelity of an analog
opposite of analog to digital conversion. In signal can often be improved by converting
most cases, if an analog-to-digital converter the analog input to digital form using an
(ADC) is placed in a communications circuit ADC, then clarifying the digital signal, and
after a DAC, the digital signal output is finally converting the "cleaned-up" digital
identical to the digital signal input. Also, in impulses back to analog form using an
most instances when a DAC is placed after DAC.
an ADC, the analog signal output is identical
to the analog signal input.

Purpose of an Analog-to-Digital converter:

Most real world signals are analog in form. be in the range 0 - 64,000 with a 16 bit
Sound and light have infinite values without binary number or 1 - 16,000,000 with a 24
distinct, separate levels. People are very bit binary number. Video will use a value up
good at seeing and hearing these signals and to 1000 using 10 binary digits for each of
interpreting them. Computers on the other the three signals. The end result for video is
hand are not designed to handle analog a range of many millions of colors.
signals. As computers store and manipulate
numbers, analog signals need to be A to D converters sample the analog level
converted to a number form before a fast enough to capture the changes in level
computer can deal with them. as they happen. The process repeats and the
numeric data can be stored or passed to
An analog to digital converter is the device other devices as a stream of numbers.
that performs the task. It evaluates a voltage
that represents the signal level and converts The great advantage of using numbers is that
it into a number. For audio, the number will they can be stored accurately. It doesn't
matter how often they are stored, copied or signal .
sent to other devices, the numbers will The description of the signal chain does not
remain intact. At the end of the signal chain, take into account the compression that is
the numbers can be converted back to normally used in both video and audio
analog signals to be displayed on each pixel signals. MP3 and MP4 formats compress the
of a television screen or amplified before amount of data to make it easier to store and
being sent to loudspeakers. Although there transmit. There are some additional quality
are some tiny quality losses as the signals losses in this process but ideally, the losses
are first converted to digital, there will be no will not be noticeable for normal viewing .
more loss of quality throughout the complete

Analog to digital converter • Saturation

• Sampling
Analog Signal is
• Alias
• Continuous in nature

• Has a value at every instant in time •

• Converts an analog signal to discrete Quantization

• Values The process of converting a voltage
value to a binary word.Dependent on
• Most cases it’s a voltage signal to resolution of Analog to Digital
some converter.It Can range from 6 to 18 bits

• physical parameter
Sampling Frequency
F = 1 Ts = Sampling Period At each
sampling period the voltage
value at that time will be quantized
•Must satisfy Nyquist Criterion if we are
going to try to reconstruct the signal
ADC Properties fsample > 2 fsignal
•The sampling frequency is limited by the
• Quantization ADC
•Can vary from 1000 Hz to the MHz rang Important parameters for linearity are (INL)
and (DNL). These non-linearities reduce the
dynamic range of the signals that can be
digitized by the ADC, also reducing the
effective resolution of the ADC.
Types of ADC
Aperture error
• Flash ADC
Imagine that we are digitizing a sine wave
• Delta-Sigma ADC x(t) = Asin(2πf0t). Provided that the actual
sampling time uncertainty due to the clock
• Dual Slope (integrating) ADC JITTER is Δt, the error caused by this
• SuccessiveApproximation phenomenon can be estimated as

The error is zero for DC, small at low

frequencies, but significant when high
frequencies have high amplitudes. This
effect can be ignored if it is drowned out by
the quantizing error. Jitter requirements can
be calculated using the following formula:

where q is a number of ADC bits.

Non-linearity Analog to digital converter:

All ADCs suffer from non-linearity errors

caused by their physical imperfections,
causing their output to deviate from a linear
function (or some other function, in the case
of a deliberately non-linear ADC) of their
input. These errors can sometimes be
mitigated by or prevented by testing.

1. respective exciting components to an R/D

.Inputting a two-phase sinusoidal signal conversionportion converting an input
consisting of two-phase amplitude rotational angle (θ) into a digital angle
modulation signals (sinθ·sinωt, cosθ sinωt) output (Φ) and
which are outputted from a resolver and obtaining the digital angle output (Φ) using
amplitude-modulated with the two-phase a negative feedback control system
amplitude modulation signals having including the resolver within a closed loop

Feeding back a phase modulation signal through signal conversion of the two-phase
(ωRt Φ), as an exciting source (sinωt) of the sinusoidal signal using at least
resolver, from the negative feedback control multiplicationandanalog addition/subtraction
system of a phase locked loop (PLL) type in the R/D signal conversion portion.
using a control deviation (ε) obtained

There are many applications of the process
related to the conversion of varying analog used in digital meters, flash converters used
voltages to correlated binary values. This for high-speed applications, and the
process is often referred to as digitization successive approximation type converter
and is accomplished by sampling an analog used for many digital instrumentation
voltage at repeated intervals and then applications.
storing, in binary form, a number that We will be using an ADC0804 8-bit Analog
identifies the analog value of each sample. to Digital Converter IC in this experiment.
The resulting table of binary numbers can be This circuit is a state machine that utilizes a
stored, transmitted without electronic clock to drive an internal counting circuit
interference, and converted back to analog (successive approximation) and an internal
form if need be. Some electronic circuits digital-to-analog converter to perform the
that deserve attention include the dual-slope conversion process.

The analog input to this circuit is generated oscillator that is used to provide clock pulses
at Pin 6(V+) by using a voltage divider to the converter chip. The digital output can
created by the 100K potentiometer placed be connected directly to the trainer LED
between Vref (5V) and ground. displays. The conversion is started with
The RC pair made up of the 10K resistor atransition on Pin 3, WR.
and the 150pF capacitor create a digital


Analog-to-digital converters are used in a Information collected from analog

variety of information-processing phenomena such as sound, light,
applications. temperature, and pressure can be digitized
and made available for digital processing.
A codec (coder/decoder) is the device that A typical telephone modem makes use of an
transforms the analog signals to digital ADC to convert the incoming audio from a
signals. The process involves sampling, twisted-pair line into signals the computer
quantizing, and digitizing. The amplitude of can understand. In a digital signal
a signal is measured at various intervals. The processing system, an ADC is required if the
tighter these intervals, the more accurate the signal input is analog.
recording. Figure A-3 illustrates how a wave
is sampled 16 times per second with a Analog signals have a great advantage over
sampling rate of 16Hz. While sampling at digital signals in that they have a much
this rate is impractical for voice or music, it higher density which can present more
illustrates how each sample records a refined information. Essentially, there is the
different amplitude value for the sound. potential for the signal resolution to be
Generally, a rate of 8,000 samples per infinite. In addition, the process to create an
second or higher using 8 bits per sample is analog signal is achieved much more
adequate for voice-quality signals. simply. By merely adjusting the time
quantities, information can be presented

Application to music recording ADCs are

integral to current music reproduction
technology. Since much music production is analog recording is used, an ADC is needed
done on computers, when an to create thePCM data stream that goes onto
a compact disc or digital music file.

ADC Examples
•Vehicles •Oscilloscope
–ECU •Music
•Temp Sensor
•Oxygen Sensor Analog signal needs to be processed stored
•RPM or transported in digital form.Recording
•TV Tuner Card

ADC USE IN Oscilloscope




An ADC has several sources of errors. Quantization These errors are measured in a unit called the LSB,
error and (assuming the ADC is intended to be linear) which is an abbreviation for least significant bit. In the
non-linearity is intrinsic to any analog-to-digital above example of an eight-bit ADC, an error of one
conversion. There is also a so-called aperture error LSB is 1/256 of the full signal range, or about 0.4%.
which is due to a clock jitter and is revealed when
digitizing a time-variant signal (not a constant value).
• Annalog communication by Tomasi

• Georgia Institute of