. N. Trench. BARON CLARK TTNIVBB8ITY CHICAGO THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY London : Kegan Paul. Triibner & 1906 Co. RIBOT TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY ALBERT FKLLOW IN H. Ltd. .ESSAY ON THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION BY TH.

* ** + . 1906 All rights reserved.COPYRIGHT BY THE OPEN COUET PUBLISHING CHICAGO. U. S. Co. A.

BY THE TRANSLATOR. WITH REVERENCE AND GRATITUDE. WHO FIRST INTERESTED ME IN THE PROBLEMS OF PSYCHOLOGY. UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. AUttt.. PROFESSOR OP PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION. pi?. . THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED.To THE MEMORY OF MY TEACHER AND FRIEND. i.

.

wild-eyed indeed the center of a cult.spook science&quot. &quot. though very indefinite. Prometheus-like. apparently real. now analyzed by M. has been one of the most persistent. and the imagination. constituting our author. Ribot has been for many years known in America. has brought it down from the heavens. but rarely with any attempt to understand its true nature. Whereas people have been accustomed something found only to speak of the imagination as an entity sui generis. the most attempts at scien For a long time it has been per se. It is quite has generally recognized that psychology remained in the semi-mythological. semi- scholastic period longer than tific formulization.TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. The present translation of one well of his more recent available in English classic works is an attempt to render what has been received as a exposition of a subject that is often dis cussed. The name of Th. &quot.geniuses.&quot. of psychological spooks. and has clearly shown that imagination is a function of mind common to all . as a lofty in long-haired. Ribot in such a masterly manner. and his works have gained wide popularity.

the numerous shortcomings of this version. preferably This idea is so clearly enun ciated in the present monograph. he does not claim any originality. aware. lucid un That the present rendering falls far below the French of the original. that when the end of the book is reached but little remains of the great imagination-ghost. at least. That Ribot is this view is not to his discredit not entirely original with M. We is find the view clearly actually embodies expressed elsewhere. I wish here to express my in friends who encouraged me obligation to those the congenial task of translation. . certainly as early as Aristotle. the translator is well trusts. he will take into however. and that it is shown in as in commercial leaders and highly developed form men as in the most bizarre of romantic practical inventors The only difference is that the mani idealists. indeed. which the author modestly styles an essay. he who permanent form. B.VI THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. A. in some degree. save the one great mystery derlying all facts of mind. that the greatest artist his vision and will in in social institutions. festation is not the same. N. H. that the indulgent reader account the good intent as offsetting in part.

It would be easy to show that the best. on the other hand. Its impor tance unquestionable. motor and form a collection of inquiries solidly everyone. tactile. most complete. study of the creative or constructive imagination. however. do not even mention it. and of continuing the work of former . based on subjective and objective observation.AUTHOR S PREFACE Contemporary psychology has studied the purely reproductive imagination with great eagerness and The works on the different image-groups success. and most recent on psy chology devote to it scarcely a page or two. are known to auditory. few articles. The subject does not. on pathological facts and laboratory experiments. treatises A monographs. scarce indifferent or contemptuous attitude. has been almost entirely neg lected. make up the sum of the past twenty-five years work on the subject. at all deserve this few brief. The visual. there are yet other objective processes that permit of our approaching it with some likelihood of success. a indeed. and even though the study of the creative imagination has hitherto remained al is most inaccessible to experimentation strictly so- called. often.

as the primitive and typical form out of which the indicated on. show ing that it has its beginning and principal source in the natural tendency of images to fied (or. Yet invention in that . in re and political institutions. ligious. and commercial inventions. more simply. present work is offered to the reader as an It is not our intention or first attempt only. and its in We the fine arts case. but with methods better adapted the requirements of contemporary thought. at is present. for reasons mythic activity has been taken in this work as the central point of our topic. For I manifold forms. to show in mechanical. its in the become objecti motor elements in it herent in the image). whatever cannot but maintain that. the human all mind has expended and made permanent as much imagination as in other fields. but only to seek the under lying conditions of the creative imagination. mili tary. the . to psychologists. the psychology of the imagination con cerned almost wholly with tion its part in esthetic crea the sciences. scarcely get beyond other manifestations have been occasionally mentioned never investigated. some profound changes. essay here to undertake a complete monograph that would The require a thick volume. industrial. is a faculty that in the course of ages has undergone a reduction or The constructive imagination at least. and then following in its development under they may be. We hope that in practical life. later So.yiii THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and in the sciences is only a special and possibly not the principal one. social.

to the principal types of imagination that observation shows us. of the knowledge of natural laws and their uniformity. The cre entirely unconfined. the third longer devoted to the imagination. 1900. in a pure state. The second ation in its or genetic part will follow the imagin development as a whole from the dim or concrete part. In the first or analytical part. careless of the possible and the impossible. hindrance. will be no mest to the most complex forms. May. unadulterated power there shown freed from all by the opposing influence of imitation. and study each of them singly.AUTHOR greater ative S PREFACE. Finally. IX number of is the others have arisen. of ratiocina tion. . but to imagin ative beings. we shall try to re solve the constructive imagination into its constitu tive factors.

.

Association: its role reduced external or objective. equivalent to will. personal character of both. their conditions. ject. the tions. Dissociation in series. ANALYSIS OP THE IMAGINATION. PAGE Translator s Preface v vii Author s Preface INTRODUCTION. Identity of development. CHAPTER I. analogy between the imagination and abulias abortive forms of the 3 FIRST PAET. formation of new combina The principal intellectual factor is thinking by xi . teleologic char acter. their meaning for our sub The imagination is. images. preparatory work. Dissociation in complete. incomplete and schematic to a single question. Its principal causes: internal or subjective. Transition from the reproductive to the creative imagina tion. Do all representations contain motor elements? Unusual effects produced by images: vesication. Proof: subjective.ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. stigmata. Dissociation. on the intellectual side. THE MOTOR NATURE OF THE CONSTRUCTIVE IMAGINATION. THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR.

Its mechanism on this &quot.inspired state. &quot. THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. but sources. tive to two great classes. to two. There is no creative instinct. Association by contrast. eses. The motor element in tendencies. Associations in unconscious form. analogy. new combinations under ordinary and extraordinary forms. Mediate or the ultimate nature of unconsciousness: latent association: recent experiments and discussions result of a summation of predominant tendencies.inspired state&quot. the 50 CHAPTER THE IV.&quot.-Physiological con- . ORGANIC CONDITIONS OF THE IMAGINATION. Its essential char acteristics. but an index. Constellation &quot. suddenness. transformation 15 CHAPTER II. Disagreements concerning two hypoth The &quot. the initial state of alcoholic intoxication and somnambulism on waking. Why Its : it is PAGB an almost inexhaustible source of Its processes reducible mechanism. Flechsig s theory. Its relations to unconscious Resemblances to hypermneactivity. THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. impersonality. viz. Proofs: Association of ideas on an emotional basis. sia. The great importance of this element. creation. themselves reducible to special Reasons for the prejudice in favor of a crea instinct 31 CHAPTER Various views of the III. and always arises from a need. personification. Proofs : All affective conditions may influence the imagination. subject. Anatomical conditions: various hypotheses. Obscurity of 3 question. The work of the imagination reduced needs. All forms of the creative imagination imply affective elements. is not a cause. inven tion has not a source.XJi THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

Difficulties of the subject. effect. : infantile insanity 93 . Why the animal imagination must be above all motor: lack of intellectual develop ment. between the synthetic principle and the ideal. THE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. merely outlined. Distinction or a fixed emotion. and shows itself through play: its numerous varieties. Attempts at experimentation. Is inexplicable. which is the principle of unity in motion: the ideal is a con The principal struction in images. extreme or semi-morbid. tion? Limitation of the question. Impossibility of an exact answer 65 CHAPTEE V. Comparison with young children.ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. ditions: are they cause. IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. It is a fixed idea Their equivalence. there any analogy between physical and psychic crea A philosophical hypothesis on the subject. The oddities of in Xlll PAGE ventors brought under two heads: the explicable and They are helpers of inspiration. Importance of the unifying principle. organic or middle. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMAGINATION. CHAPTEE I. or accompaniment? Chief factor: change in cerebral and local circulation. Obsession of the in ventor and the sick: insufficiency of a purely psycho logical criterion 79 SECOND PAET. in whom the motor system predominates the r6les of movements in animals. forms of the unifying principles: unstable. The degree of imagination in Does creative synthesis exist in them? Affirmation and denials. The special form of animal imagination is motor.

Eomantis intention lacking in peoples without imagination. Is a psychology of great inventors possible? and physiological theories of genius. Precocity: chronological order the development of the creative power. employs in order to create legends: idealization 118 CHAPTEE IV. Creation in play: tempts at invention. The golden age of the imagination. qualifying everything. PAGE CHAPTEE II. The non-explanatory myths role The of analogy &quot. Animating everything: analysis of the elements constituting this moment: the r6le of belief. Myths: hypotheses as to the origin: the myth is the psychophysical objectification of man in the phenomena that he perceives. Fanciful invention at 103 CHAPTEE PRIMITIVE III. decline. Pathological General charac ters of great inventors. The role of imagination. THE HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. MAN AND THE CREATION creative OF MYTHS. Transition from passive to creative imagination: per ception and illusion. Psycholog- . acme.constellation. How myths are formed. Survivals. period of imitation. suffer a partial transformation : Literature is a fallen and rationalized mythology.Xiv THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Unconscious processes that the imagination fusion.&quot. The explanatory myths undergo a rad ical transformation: the work of depersonification of the myth. Division of its development into four principal periods. The moment of creation two operations animating everything. IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. : and of association through The evolution of myths: ascension. Popular imagination and legends: the legend is to the myth what illusion is to hallucination.

Discussion as to the origin of this character is it in Mechanism of the individual or in the environment? Two principal processes complete. LAW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE Is the IMAGINATION. The role of chance in invention: it supposes the meeting of two factors one internal. THE PLASTIC IMAGINATION. creation 140 CHAPTEE V. . tion. Their three phases. 167 THIED PAET. transformation through logical form. Necessity or fatalism of voca The representative character of great creators. PRELIMINARY. subject to creative imagination. ternal. Chance is an occasion for. Subsidiary law of increasing complexity. the other ex creation. THE PRINCIPAL TYPES OF IMAGINATION. Period of autonomy. It makes use of clear images. not an agent of. His torical verification . tive imagination. in its evolution.ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. critical period. nal character. Why the creator com mences by imitating. through devia tion. principal manifestations: in the arts dealing . their resemblances and differences. Two cases: decay or period of definite constitution. ical XV PAGE reasons for this order. The need of a concrete study. Its in space. any law? It passes through two stages separated by a critical phase. Its exter Inferiority of the affective element. The varieties of the crea analogous to the varieties of char acter 179 CHAPTEE I. abridged. well determined and of associations of objective relations.

xv i

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.
PAGE
into with form; in poetry (transformation of sonorous in me visual images); in myths with clear outline;

chanical invention.
tion ita elements

The dry and rational imagina
184

CHAPTEE

II.

THE DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION.
It

makes use of vague images linked according to the Emotional ab least rigorous modes of association. Its characteristic of inward stractions; their nature.
ness.

ita

mantic

spirit,

principal manifestations: the chimerical spirit;

revery,

the

ro
reli

myths and

fine arts (the gious conceptions, literature and the symbolists), the class of the marvelous and fantastic. Varieties of the diffluent imagination: first, numer

imagination; its nature; two principal forms, cosmogonic and scientific conceptions; second, musical imagination, the type of the affective imagination. Its characteristics; it does not develop save after an
ical

interval of time.

Natural transposition of events in

Antagonism between true musical imag ination and plastic imagination. Inquiry and facts on the subject. Two great types of imagination 195
musicians.

CHAPTEE

III.

MYSTIC IMAGINATION.
Its

elements;
bolically.

its

special characteristics.

Thinking sym

The mystic changes concrete images into symbolic images. Their obscurity; whence it arises. Extraordinary abuse of
of
this

Nature

symbolism.

analogy. Mystic labor on letters, numbers, etc. Nature and extent of the belief accompanying this form of imagination: it is unconditional and

perma

The mystic conception of the world a general symbolism. Mystic imagination in religion and in
nent.

metaphysics

.

221

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

XV11

PAGE

CHAPTER
It is

IV.

THE SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION.
The need distinguishable into genera and species. for monographs that have not yet appeared. The
in

imagination

growing
the

sciences

belief

is

at

its

negative The conjectural phase; proof of its r6le of method. importance. Abortive and dethroned hypotheses. The imagination in the processes of verification. The

maximum;

in

organized

sciences

the

metaphysician s imagination arises from the same need as the scientist s. Metaphysics is a rationalized myth.

Three moments.

Imaginative and rationalist. 236
V.

CHAPTEE
Indetermination
of
this

THE PRACTICAL AND MECHANICAL IMAGINATION.
imaginative
form.
Inferior

forms:

Why

industrious, the unstable, the eccentric. people of lively imagination are changeable.

the

Superstitious beliefs. Origin of this form of ination its mental mechanism and its elements.

imag The

higher form

mechanical imagination.

Man

has ex

pended at least as much imagination there as in esthetic creation. Why the contrary view prevails. Resemblances between these two forms of imagina
tion.

Identity of development.

Detail observation

four phases.
best,

General characters.

This form, at

its

supposes

of

maturity, invention occurs

inspiration; periods of preparation, and of decline. Special characters:
in
layers.

Principal

steps

of

its

depends strictly on physical condi tions. A phase of pure imagination mechanical romances. Examples. Identical nature of the imag ination of the mechanic and that of the artist 256
development.
It

CHAPTER
Its

VI.

THE COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION.
internal creators

and
the

external
cautious,

conditions.

Two
The

classes
initial

the

daring.

of mo-

xviii

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.
PAGE

ment of invention.
mind.
nature.

The importance of the intuitive

Hypotheses in regard to its psychologic Its development: the creation of increasingly more simple processes of substitution. Characters in common with the forms of creation already studied.
Characters peculiar to it the combining imagina tion of the tactician; it is a form of war. Creative intoxication. Exclusive use of schematic representa

Eemarks on the various types of images. The creators of great financial systems. Brief re marks on the military imagination
tions.

281

CHAPTEE

VII.

THE UTOPIAN IMAGINATION.
Successive appearances of ideal conceptions. Creators in ethics and in the social realm. Chimerical forms.
Social
novelists.

Ch.

imaginer.

Practical

Fourrier, type of the invention the collective

great
ideal.
.

Imaginative regression

299

CONCLUSION.
I.

The foundations of the creative imagination.
is

Why man

able to create:
spontaneity,"

"Creative

two principal conditions. which resolves itself into

needs, tendencies, tion has a motor

desires.

origin.

Every imaginative crea The spontaneous revival of

images. The creative imagination reduced to three forms: outlined, Their peculiar fixed, objectified.
characteristics
II.

oi o

The imaginative type.

A

view of the imaginative life in all its stages.-Eeduction to a psychologic law. Four stages characterized: 1, by the quantity of images; 2, by their quantity
itensity; 3, by quantity, intensity and duration; by the complete and permanent systematization e imaginary life. Summary 320

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

XIX
PAGE

APPENDICES.
OBSERVATIONS AND DOCUMENTS.
A. B.

The various forms of inspiration

335

On

the nature of the unconscious factor.

Two

cate

gories

static unconscious, dynamic unconscious. Theories as to the nature of the unconscious. Objec

tions, criticisms

338

C.

Cosmic and human imagination
Evidence
in

346 350
353

D.
E.

regard

to

musical imagination

The imaginative type and association of ideas

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
THE MOTOR NATURE
OF THE CONSTRUCTIVE

IMAGINATION

It

has been often repeated that one of the prin
it

contemporary psychology is the has firmly established the place ard fact that importance of movements; that it has especially through observation and experiment shown the rep
cipal conquests of

resentation of a

movement

to be a

movement be
Yet those

gun, a movement in the nascent

state.

who have most

strenuously insisted on this propo sition have hardly gone beyond the realm of the

passive imagination; they have clung to facts of

pure reproduction.

My

aim

is

to

extend their

formula, and to show that it explains, in large measure at least, the origin of the creative imagina
tion.

Let us follow step by step the passage from repro duction pure and simple to the creative stage, show ing therein the persistence and preponderance of the

motor element
First of

in proportion as

we

rise

from mere

repetition to invention.
all,

do

all

representations include motor

hiccoughs. etc. circulation. and repre perceptions. Setting aside the fact that the vague im bound up with chemical changes within pressions the tissues are scarcely factors in representation. and the olfactory apparatus thus ob Smell and taste.4 elements? THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. vomiting. many tains with them a complexity of movements propor its importance. we note a kind of com pensation. . take into account its intimate secondary in human rank indeed among psychology. in some persons. Without emphasizing the matter we may. I say. Yes. can be caused by perceptions of sight or of hearing proves that representations of this character have a tendency to become translated into acts. we find that the sensations resulting from changes in respiration. it is of cases. office as sense-organ but if we connection with the vocal organs. are the remnants of past the ques that. So far as visual and tactile great majority there is no possible doubt as images are concerned of the motor elements that enter to the importance into their composition. ing -in and digestion are not lack motor elements. because every perception to movements presupposes sentations some extent. The mere fact that. so rich in capacity for motor combinations. The eye for its is very poorly en a higher dowed with movements . tionate to group of internal sensations that might cause dis cussion. without our examining Certain the this statement holds good for tion in detail. rise to a very high animals. then. micturition. and one that at times There yet remains the approaches that of sight..

These facts. E. For our purpose we need to recall only a few of them. to objectify it to externalize to project outside of our selves. The renowned physi ologist. F. surrounded with some mystery. but the creative imagination requires something sential new this is its peculiar and es mark. Weber.to imagination. Certain people can increase or inhibit the beating of their hearts at will. Finally. to lose its purely it. &quot. It should. All these revived images are repetitions. let us recall the persistent story of . by means of an intense and persistent representation. possessed this power. 5 that the it it. known for a long time.&quot. however.INTRODUCTION. character.. Still more remarkable are the cases of vesication pro duced in hypnotized subjects by means of sugges tion. reproduction to production. or of pains that may appear in different parts of the body solely through the effect of the imagination. e. Many instances have been reported of tingling tributed in a &quot. In order to grasp the transition from tion. from repetition to crea it is necessary to consider other. say that this thesis rests on a weighty mass of facts motor element of the image tends to cause . and at the power of the vague manner have been studied in our own day with much more system and exactness. i. be noted that what has just been said does not take us beyond the reproductive imagination beyond memory. more rare.inner&quot. and more extraordinary facts. and has described the mechanism of the phenomenon. found only among some favored beings.

first described by Reynolds. Though one may et la A. who. it may even end in complete movement. These and similar facts suggest a few remarks.&quot.&quot. the wonderful all effects of the &quot. by Charcot and his school under the name paralysis. . the miracles of places . or of the crown of thorns. re suggestive therapeutics of contempo raries. Such are the cases of by ideas&quot.paralysis movement. enumerates fifty cases.psychic viction that he cannot The patient s inward con move a limb renders him powerless for any movement. e. i. in his book L Astronomic Magie. and of later &quot. arrested is A movement of that vivid representation of a the beginning of the stoppage arrest of the &quot.6 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. sults of the us add the profound changes of the organism. from the thirteenth own day. First.. that we have here creation in the strict sense of the word. Maury. religions in all times and in all and this brief list will suffice to recall certain creative activities of the human imagination that we have a tendency to forget. inhibitory power. others 1 Let of the scourging. It is proper to add that the image acts not alto Sometimes it has an gether in a positive manner. the stigmatized individuals.faith cure. though it be limited to the or ganism. 1 What appears is ntw. and he recovers his motor power only when the morbid representation has disappeared. have been quite century down to our numerous and present some interesting varieties some having only the mark of the crucifix.

the remains of pre- . case is not a single state. to prove that they have a representation as the starting point. and other alleged miraculous phenomena : these are without precedent in the life of the individual. there are two In the first are concerned the motor etc.the this mechanism power of the a word where imagination&quot. Fortunately. in order that these unusual states may occur. need to penetrate into the inmost part of this mys It is enough for us to make sure of the tery. to those having an ardent faith. rapid and slow beating of the heart. To needed? Let us note It is first of all that these occur rences are rare. an indispensable concerned in such a is aversion. there are required additional elements in the producing mechanism. but a double one: an image followed by a particular emotional sire. and to show that the representa What more then is tion by itself is not enough. even though we may not be strictly able ordinarily to is produce them at absolutely untenable when we will. conditions: state (de In other words. Second. we do not very obscure. this position consider cases of vesication. This What is psychic condition. not within the power of every to acquire stigmata or to become cured of a body This happens only paralysis pronounced incurable. maintain that from our own experience we have a knowledge of formication. is merely to substitute an explanation is needed.INTRODUCTION. elements included in the image. a strong desire that it shall come to pass. facts. stigmata. ) . is At bottom invoke &quot.

not separated Then. is here images binations. This group of facts shows us the existence. which we shall have conclude : To to study later and which will lead us to the ultimate source of the creative imagination. while in imaginative creation we have several co-operating with com there is are extremely simple. . beyond images. of the two forms of imagination the purely repre sentative faculty and the faculty of creating by means of the intermediation of images. of another factor. I fear that the distance between the facts here given and the creative imagination proper will seem to the reader very great indeed. There are still others. coordination. in the ordinary sense. . and from the creator. grouping. a single representation more or less complex. vious perceptions in the second. as we shall see later on. But it must not be forgotten that our present aim is simply to find a transition stage 1 between repro duction and production to show the common . one operating cause. plus affective states. tendencies that sum up the individual s energy. of severance between the two. because these facts extremely complex. arrangement. because the creative activity here has as is its only material the organism. in stinctive or emotional in form. too. there are concerned the foregoing. And why so? First. and the creative imagination.g THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. It is the latter fact that explains their power. and to show at the same time the work of 1 origin separation.

and movements expressive of emotion constitute the primary material of voluntary move ments. the creative imagination does not rise completely armed. not new associations. at the start (for reasons indicated later on). voluntary activity : I unhesita the intellectual order. and take the subject precise. birth. which here correspond to muscular move ments. It goes through a period of trial. I shall not hesitate to dwell I on it. The will has it an inheritance: since it no movements of its own as must coordinate and associate. .INTRODUCTION. it attains its complex forms only through a process of growth. Reflexes. by right of In like manner. I. individual has to become his master of his muscles and by their agency extend sway over other things. and more psychological form. Growth of voluntary crossed and checked. instinctive movements. in put Which one among the ting the following question various modes of mind-activity offers the closest more analogy to the creative imagination? tingly answer. Let us justify this compari son by some proof. control The is progressive. is Imagination. It al ways is. Its raw materials are images. separates in order to form It reigns by right of conquest. : clearer. in the equivalent of will in the realm of movements. an imitation. II 9 Since the chief aim of this study is to prove that the basis of invention must be sought in motor mani festations. up again under another. Likeness of development in the two instances. slow.

limits itself to are always proof. . Both imagination and will have a teleological and act only with a view toward an end. subjective. The understand e.10 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. unnecessary. what we have just said of the This is imagination. On the other hand. for we might repeat exactly. as such. 3. But this first comparison does not go to the . Back of both. bottom of the matter there are yet deeper analogies. word. For the ponderance the outside world is the regulator. In both We instances there is now a simple end attained by im- . being thus the opposite of the understanding. character. is from within out wards toward an ing.. We are always inventing for an end whether in the case of a Napoleon imagining a plan of cam paign. there is a pre of the inner over the outer. be it worthless or important. or a cook making up a new dish. whatever may be our opinion concerning the ultimate nature of causation and of will. we have our true cause. the completely subjective character The imagination is anthropocentric its movement instances. understanding. which. impersonal. the inner world The world of my imagination posed to the the world of world of all my world as op~ understanding. word then. which is is my my fellow creatures. of both First. has it opposite characteristics receives is objective. wanting something. personal. the intellect in the restricted sense. For the creative imagination is the regulator. i. as regards the will. 2. there is a preponderance of the outer over the inner. from outside. objectification.

since it is the special . in its com practice. It is unnecessary to add that the similarity estab between the will and the imagination is only partial and has as its aim only to bring to light the role of the motor elements. has a tendency to become objectified. complete form will culminates in an act. plete form. ert. an attracting movement. to assert itself in a work that shall exist not only for the creator but for everybody. secondary likenesses between the Added there are other. On the contrary.spontaneity. The characteristic of novelty should by itself suffice. and a vis a fronte. Revery is the equivalent of weak desires. or the resolution remains in incapable of realization. but with wavering characters and sufferers from abulia de liberation never ends. Surely no one will lished here confuse two aspects of our psychic life that are so distinct. of asserting itself in The creative imagination also. II mediate means. dreamers are the abulics of the creative imagination. 4. abortive forms of the creative imagination and the In its normal and impotent forms of the will.&quot. now a complex and distant goal pre supposing subordinate ends which are means in rela tion to the final end. with dreamers pure and simple. In both cases there is a vis a tcrgo designated by the vague term &quot.INTRODUCTION. the imagination re mains a vaguely sketched inner affair it is not em . to this analogy as regards their nature. and it would be foolish to delay in order to enumerate the differences. which we shall attempt to make clear later. bodied in any esthetic or practical invention.

and a secondary (images and their associations. great or small. time as the although it is no longer a novelty. it may be decomposed into its ments. requires a unifying principle there is then also a synthetic factor. constituent ele posite. viz. a ter sible with our existing means. and the unconscious factor. .). formation in mental life. in order to understand its nature in so far as that is acces It is. But the analysis should be completed is not enough . if we assume a pri tiary mary layer (sensations and simple emotions). for voli and indispensable mark of invention. certain Being com elementary logical operations. is organic. by a All imaginative creation. the intellectual factor. After these preliminary remarks we must go on to the analysis of the creative imagination.. which we shall study under these three head ings. and tion The extraction of a tooth only accessory: as much effort the second requires of the patient is first.I2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. : sary to determine. etc. indeed. which it will be neces synthesis. the affective or that emotional factor.

PART ONE ANALYSIS OF THE IMAGINATION .

.

abstraction&quot. the imagination presupposes two funda mental operations the one. association. designates a genus of which the other is a species. the other.CHAPTER I THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. who well understood its of the older psy importance for the subject with which because we are now concerned. Considered under in so far as it its intellectual aspect. acts dissociation acts. negative and prepara tory. breaks up.dissociation&quot. strictly socalled. that is. Abstraction. but dissociation (or abstraction) already present in embryo in . the term preferable. only on isolated states of consciousness. borrows its elements from the under standing. it &quot. is the &quot. and constitu Dissociation chologists. Nevertheless. further. dissociation. Perception is a synthetic process. It is a spontaneous operation and of a more radical nature than the other. sciousness. dissolves. positive tive. on series of states of con which it sorts out. seems to me It is more comprehensive. and through this preparatory work makes suitable for entering into new is combinations.

But this is far too mild a statement. Observation and experiment show us that in the majority of cases the process grows won In order to follow the progressive de derfully. it with the ist alles. velopment of incomplete. just an individual fashion. nature dependent on that of previous per it is inevitable that the work of dissocia tion should go on in it. but which.j6 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.Apperception (Tr. my inkstand. a simplification of sensory data. order. J sense of the Are these images complete. the A painter.) . we may roughly study dif ferentiate images into three categories complete^ and schematic-^-and them in The group prises first.*. trary belief ever. Cf. the well-known &quot. how disappears when one confronts aphorism. a dealer. in the strict word ? They cannot be and the con . uninterested spectator same manner the qualities that interest one are : a sportsman. the sound of a church bell or of a neighboring clock. ac Everyone perceives after and the impression of the cording to his constitution moment.&quot. 1 The image being and its ceptions. have remained clean-cut in our we have memory. In this class are also included the images of things that perceived but a few times. etc. because the latter is a complex state. is a delusion of consciousness that. perception. of images here termed complete objects com daily repeatedly presented in experience my wife s face. this dissolution. for additional reasons. and an do not see a given horse in unnoticed by another.

which I believe preferable.an that he found after recollection&quot. in La deformation et les transfor mations des images ber. sees the truth of this statement when. ties I? all The mental image can contain the quali of an object in even less degree than the per ception.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. song. has never the certainty ad although very exact of things : missible as documentary evidence. who or three years two&amp. Revue PMosophique. . note that in this group the image always corresponds 1 1 See especially J. another form.gt. the image is the result of selection. The weaker it grows. vary ing with every case. one is placed in the presence of the original object. especially those of hearing (voice.&quot. the more is it changed in becoming the prop erty of my memory and the more valuable is it for the work that I intend for it. 1897. after a lapse of some time. painter Fromentin. it is not at all doubtful that the results hold good for others. he had barely noticed on a journey. harmony). reality. the following confession &quot. One its place. In proportion as the exact form becomes altered. makes elsewhere. however.My memory faithful. Philippe. partly real. of things. The was proud &quot. but recent investigations have shown that among men generally the so-called complete and exact images undergo change and warping. so that comparison between the real Let us object and its image becomes possible. May and Novem Although these investigations had in view only visual representations. partly imaginary. takes Note that the person speaking thus is a painter endowed with an unusual visual mem ory.

generic image/ least resembles the latter. etc. from impressions of which. . of a This is cigarette. deprived little by little of its own characteristics. is nothing more than a shadow. the image. who. when too often repeated. having gone through an avenue of poplars wants to picture a poplar or. or those entirely without mark the indefinite image of a rosebush. from perceptions insuffi ciently or ill-fixed. it is to certain individual objects. like objects and again. says he. having looked into a poultrywishes to call up a picture of a hen. of incomplete images. of suppression and addition. become blunted by their collision just as Images do bodies by friction. riences a difficulty his different memories rise up. Bk. expe yard. It has become that transitional form between image and pure concept that we now term or one that at &quot. The latter case A man.!g THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. well described by Taine. of a pin. the greatest degree of impoverishment. not the same with the other two groups. Vol. The experiment becomes a cause of effacement the images canceling one another decline to a state of imperceptible tendencies which their likeness and unlikeness prevent from predominating. I. end has been by becoming confused. ii. . of dissocia* On Intelligence. The image. . 2 This group leads us to that of schematic images. 2. comes from two distinct sources first. is subject to an unending process of change. The group according to the testimony of consciousness itself. Chap. then.

seemingly. . 1898) Ambrosi shows that this law is found already formulated in the Psychologia Empirica of Christian Wolff [d. as psychic atoms. works also upon them up. 1754] : &quot. This means that is not a dead thing. and for others. considered images as facts. it is not at all like a photographic plate with which one may reproduce copies indefinitely. which consists in the pass- La *In his recent history of the theories of the imagination. in actual life. but that is a purely theoretic position. They serve as material for different in their concrete . seen only a part of the work of dissociation and.law of 1 redintegration. then. by reason of their manifold radiate in all relations they all may directions. taking it all in all. through the senses. Being dependent on the undergoes change state of the brain. and reduces them to ruins. IQ it and corrosion. for the mechanic and the artist for the scientist in their schematic form. Perceptio prceterita Integra recurrit cujus prcesens continet partem. psicologia dell immaginazione.THE INTELLECTUAL tion FACTOR. The ideal law of the recurrence of images is that known since Hamilton s time under the name of series. mangles them. or rather since.&quot. cuts &quot. each of the foregoing three classes has its use for the inventor. the smallest far part. kinds o imagination form. is But subject to gains and losses. especially losses. Dissociation. nella storia filosofia (Eome. Images are not solitary form part of a chain. Thus we have We isolated have. the image it like all living substance. they of a woof or net. breaks them.

which would be outside of our province. a land scape. alone. We dissociation. depends on various conditions that revive the essential part &quot. no one has investigated whether the inverse process. too. . the principal ones of at first practical.essential&quot. an occurrence. and drop the minor details. while psychologists have for so long a time studied the laws of association. and this which survives dissociation depends on subjective causes. But there that frees us it is we should be is an opposite power It is dissociation. there are the internal it will suffice to indicate in passing two general conditions determining the asso The It revived image of a face. ciation of series. is. can not here attempt such a task. terial in the and there are many Then. a or subjective causes. utilitarian reasons. First. invention would be forever forbidden . also has not laws of its own. to the whole. emotional reasons governing the attention orientate it exclusively in one directionthese will be studied in the course other like instances. various remain unnoticed because they are imma concerns of life. If this law existed to us. very strange that. most often. only partial. we could not emerge from repetition condemned to monotony. each element tending ing from a part to reproduce the complete state. Helm- holtz has details shown that in the act of seeing. monument.2O THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. to exclude that of no from consciousness. each member of a series the whole of that series. which are the ten is It is dency already mentioned to ignore what value.

. James adds further transparency. The mentions. if FACTOR. all cold objects were moist. p. 502. that what has been associated sometimes with one thing and sometimes with another tends to become dissociated from both. Secondly.THE INTELLECTUAL of this work. Many truths (for example. When two or qualities or events are given as constantly as sociated in experience we do not dissociate them. and all moist objects cold. 21 Lastly. total impression. I. because it is necessary to break up closely oriental king ice. James. the elements of which had never been given us sep A If arately in experience. 1 In order to thoroughly comprehend the absolute necessity for dissociation. there are external or objective causes which are variations in experience. who had never seen whom Sully refused to credit the existence of solid water. we difficult to dis tinguish cold from moisture and liquidity from On his part. The uniformity of nature s laws is the great oppo nent of dissociation. Human Mind. 365 . let us note that total 1 Sully. more the existence of the antipodes) are established with difficulty. This might be called a law of association by concomitant varia tions. would be unanalyzable. tual reasons. p. knit associations. Psychology. if all liquids were transparent and should find it all non- liquids opaque. I. there are logical or intellec we understand by this term the law of mental inertia or the law of least resistance by means of which the mind tends toward the simpli fication and lightening of its labor.

the are on a dead level. poetry or prose learned by heart. we know that ignorant people. broken up. in geologic time. faultless musical rendering. Besides these thus becomes a those intel rare cases. etc. This is a process analogous to that which. but made all the readier as materials for the inventor. mem ory: one completely systematized. The acquisition forms a com new combinations. serious inconvenience. habits. give lectually the impor even* occurrence. produces old rocks. it is composed of This kind of less coherent groups. is per se a hindrance redintegration of people who can easily remember amples are given but if they want or pages of a book. Ex twenty thirty unable to pick it out a particular passage they are at the beginning and continue down they must begin Excessive ease of retention to the required place. which are but their imitations. g. Minds of this kind are inapt at invention. omitting the voluntary artificial causes. They omit no detail. shattered. select short. pact whole and cannot enter into The other is small. to creation. natural causes of association. the same invariable story of limited. new strata through the wearing away of . and We have enumerated the spontaneous. memory bined in plastic and capable of becoming com new ways. more or is not systematized. routine..22 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. in which all the parts useful and the useless tant and the accessory. say that there are they cannot In we may is two kinds of e. images are taken to pieces. As a result of these various causes.

in its relations to our three factors intellectual. consult Titchener. unconscious. it must be studied. its it it one of the big questions of psy does not especially concern our is easier than limiting our reducible to a very clear and What are the forms of asso will be discussed in strict proportion to use here. On the other hand. whereas associated modify one another by the very fact of their But. is faulty. Out Psychology (New York. the one most suitable for our subject the one that reduces everything to the two funda1 lines of For a good criticism of the term. should be eliminated. p. long usage.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. it would be difficult has been confirmed by to eliminate the phrase. II 23 Association is chology. those that are only repetitions. 1896). Our that very brief question ciation give rise to new combinations and All other under what influences do they arise? forms of association. in the debate. this subject can not be treated in one single effort. hensive enough. as it being connected. association being active also in It seems indicative psychic states other than ideas.as 1 It is not compre sociation of ideas&quot. Consequently. rather states of mere juxtaposition. . psychologists are not at all agreed as regards the determination of the principal laws or forms of association. I adopt the Without taking sides most generally accepted classification. but as subject. It is generally admitted that the expression &quot. emotional. Nothing task is : selves. 190. in turn.

some reducing re semblance to contiguity. is simple and homogeneous.24 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. strictly it. we must nevertheless recognize that this discussion is not without interest for the study of the creative imagin ation. we may sum up their re sults as follows: In so-called association by re Many doubt semblance it is necessary to distinguish three state mo ments (a) That of the presentation. they can later be recalled A reciprocally. and forms the starting point. reproduces the order and connection of things. In mental laws of contiguity and recent years various attempts have been made to reduce these two laws to one. state a A is recognized as more or less like a previously experienced. Association by contiguity (or continuity). Putting aside the ground of this dis cussion. Wundt calls internal. reduces itself to habits contracted by our nervous system. contiguity to re semblance. (b) That of the work of assimilation. although . resemblance. which Wundt It it calls external. a A is given in perception or association-by-contiguity. because it has well shown that each of the two fundamental laws has a characteristic mechan ism. an elementary law? Without entering into the long and frequently confused discussions to which this subject has given rise. others. which seems to is perhaps me very useless. and which due to excessive zeal for unity. Is association by resemblance. (c) As a conse quence of the coexistence of and a in consciousss. which speaking.

490. By analogy we mean an . imperfect kind of resemblance: like which analogue is a species. On the comparison of the two laws. a detailed bibliography will be found in Jodl. may not possibly have existed together. I. I. Consequently of the it is the principal source of the material sequel of this creative imagination. and that consists of an act of active assimilation. op. we come to the intellectual factor rightly so termed. Association by resemblance presupposes a joint it is an active labor of association and dissociation form. The essential. fundamental element of the creative imagination in the intellectual sphere is the capacity of thinking by analogy that is. 1896). 590. 213 ff. Psychologie.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. is a genus of Let us examine in some detail the mechanism of *For the discussions on the reduction to a unity. 25 and a have pre the two original occurrences viously never existed together. is Thus James maintains that mind perceives after the fact. as the work will sufficiently show. of distance. Lehrbuch der Psychologic (Stuttgart. p. ed.). Sully. causality. cit. by partial and often accidental resemblance. pp. op.it is the second. of accident. (Eng. which we have been little by little approaching. . and the associative machinery some second object which calls up. of container a relation that the just as it may per ceive the relations of superiority.. 152 iff. 331 ff Hoffding. After this rather long but necessary preface. clt.&quot. of substance and object. Outlines of Psychology. . is A evident that the crucial it moment &quot.. or of contrast between an and content. James. and sometimes. in It deed.

merely because it opens and shuts like the valves of a shell fish. below. which oscillates from the essential to the accidental. The abori gines of Australia called a book &quot.26 this THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. mode of thought in order that we may under stand how analogy is. from the reality to the appearance. each letter representing attributes. numerous agreements are possible.&quot.lt.mussel. is evident that the analogy between the two is very weak. It symbolically one of the constitutive attributes compared.) . there occurs Note here a in intellect &amp. to the scientist. the likeness between cetacians are great. an almost inexhaustible instrument 1. 1 A Analogy may have for its basis the quality or compound attributes. of creation. Fart II. the tion. characteristically naive working of the primitive explaining the unknown in terms of the known. 1 Lastly. If the number of the elements common to both in analogy will grow in the same propor But the agreement represented above is not infrequent among minds unused to a somewhat se creases. child sees in the moon and stars a mother surrounded by her daughters. since there is only one common element. in minds without power. by its very nature. Chap. provided one take no account either of their solidity or their frailty. again. vere discipline.!. (Tr. and slight. value of the To fishes the layman. It rests on a variable element. iii. 3.-. Here. d. solely Analogy may be based on the number of Let a b c d e f and r s t u d v be two beings or objects. 2.

and transformation or metamorphosis. ical. almost unlimited. reducible to two principal types or processes. Through it its pliability. 27 a semi-unconscious operation that we may call a transfer through the omission of the middle term. undulating and multiform. appar ploys in its creative work. analogy with g h a i f. and acts of will analogous to ours. always It goes out from ourselves toward other things. however. let us glance at the processes it em The problem is.THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. gives rise to the most unforeseen and novel groupings. and finally an and analogy becomes established between x y J z q for no other reason than that of their com abode mon rare. common between g h a i f and letter /. There is analogy between abode and g h a i f through the common x y f 2 Q through the letter a. After these remarks on the mechanism of think in equal measure ab ing by analogy. In the realm of the affective states. identical with It consists in attributing life to everything. that we may despair of finding any regularity whatever in creative work. so arbitrary. passions. which is produces surd comparisons and very original inventions. transfers of this sort are not at all Analogy. which are personification. but transitory. in sup life posing in everything that shows signs of and even in inanimate objects desires. inextricable. Analogies are so numerous. so various. ently. acting like ourselves . Personification is the earlier process. It is rad itself. Despite this it seems. an unstable process.

remains in the primitive man only a brief a permanent active. proceeding not from the thinking subject towards objects. and a large process of the number of word. but from one object to another. Works on abound in observations that leave for doubt on this point. an enormous mass of superstitions. from one thing to an other. of travelers in savage lands. But this stage. works of ethnologists. view of definite ends. Besides. This state of mind is adult civilized man. permanent process under many forms. all of us. and one that personification is always is This perennial fount whence have gushed the greater number of myths. have passed through this inevitable stage of universal animism. during our earliest child-psychology childhood.2g THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. at the of books of them commencement mythology. To sum up in a things that have been invented ex analogia hominis. We do not need to They fill the cite they are too well known. is he and he does so the more in propor more imaginative. all esthetic productions. of our lives. or a . mental bases semblances (a This operation rests on two funda depending at one time on vague re cloud becomes a mountain. but it incomprehensible to an must be admitted. since there are facts without num in ber that show its existence. It consists of a transfer through partial resemblance. no possible room child endows every The thing with tion as life. civilized which among disposition people lasts period. Transformation or metamorphosis is a general.

if form of resemblance as was we as sume among nesses and the objects compared a totality of like differences in varying proportions all necessarily allows scale.&quot. strictly so called . and we shall. briefly. for example. this. doubtless. com invention. it should not. in mechan ical and scientific invention. Hence it is not at all surprising that the imagination is often a substitute forerunner of. that analogy. for. symbols. later. on a resemblance with a predominating emotional element: per A ception provokes a feeling. and erroneous or arbi vent. industrial. Let us note. as an imperfect said above. analogy it restricted exact resemblance. artifice. is comparison to exaggerated likenesses. and becomes the mark. trary.). in practical life. however. the cypress. not to perceive. is At one end of the made between valueless or At the other end. allegories. or again. etc. the degrees. sign. reason. or plastic form thereof (the lion represents courage. and as Goethe expressed it. meet it We every give a large number of examples in support of this statement. in mercial. All cat. the so on). but the function of the imagination is to in All know that this process metaphors.a tional investigation there is a community of nature .THE INTELLECTUAL FACTOR. Between the creative imagination and ra &quot. be believed on that account that it remains restricted to the realm of art or of the de creates velopment of language. and scientific moment mechanical. approaches cognition. 2Q the sound of the wind a plaintive cry. is sorrow. mountain a fantastic animal .

3Q THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.thinkers&quot. and imaginative 1 ionaries&quot. like both presuppose the ability of seizing upon the predominance of the On the other hand. So-called &quot.&quot. be ranked whose efforts the progress of the world is made. can not. whether we can draw any clear distinction between the two The author is careful to base kinds of mind here discussed. that &quot. his distinction on the &quot.imaginative&quot.vis between &quot.rational&quot. nesses. an open question J It is yet. and will probably long remain. process.).&quot. results or accomplishments the crucial test of true on the other hand.prac is not the final ideal.) . great difference of opinion. the author seeks to make imagination rank of the two bents of (see Introduction). of the &quot. or of the &quot. who do intellectual attainment through with the persons of great nothing.thinkers. a difference exact process establishes from the outset dreamers (&quot. and probably forever will be. individual an undercurrent of feeling that the narrowly &quot. Even in this intenselyage practical there is tical&quot. and the innermost con viction of many is the same as that of the poet who declares but a thinker dies in a day. certainly. As regards the relative value or mind there has ever been.a dreamer lives forever. (Tr.predominance&quot.

who most often have criticised or condemned it as an endless cause of mistakes. It is necessary to show at the outset that the in is unlimited.CHAPTER II THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. but is. possible. although we may not be able at this moment to exhaust the topic. the emotional factor yields in importance to no other. strictly justified . tion is it is the ferment without which no crea Let us study it in its principal forms. indisputable fact For. The tion. The point of view of the psychologist is altogether different. He does not need at all to investigate whether emotions and which is an passions give rise to mental phantoms but why and how they arise. that it penetrates the entire field of invention with no re striction whatever. on the contrary. influence of emotional states on the is working of the imagination a matter of current observa But it has been studied chiefly by moralists. that this is not a gratuitous as fluence of the emotional life sertion.

esthetic aspect. facts. or from In the analysis.&quot. error of fact resulting from the confusion.emotion is imperfect the case of non-esthetic creation. turn the dejection of repulse and the joy of success. over. The creator may. of two distinct cases. orig inal factor. under its form of pleasure or of pain. often More even a state of gestation full of discomfort. a tendency. creation. haphazard. an unsatisfied impulse. a craving. Here . tative psychologists. in its most general form. in esthetic creation. the role of is emotional element double. Human Now. This statement has been challenged by authori i. that is. nature does not allow such a miracle. not in emo simple. a solitary challenge anyone to produce of invention wrought out in example I dbstracto. first. diverse forms of exaltation feel in go through the most and depression may .. finally the satisfaction of being freed from a heavy burden. of hope. it is concomitant. of spite. for all invention presupposes a want. it accompanies all the phases or turns of creation.22 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. of anger. who hold that &quot. Let us consider invention. etc. the role of the tional life is added to imagination in its This is an its mechanical and intellectual form. The emotional element is the primal. and free from any factors of feeling. let us take up the special case of esthetic and of forms approaching thereto. and that we are right following two propositions by : in maintaining the All forms of the creative imagination imply elements of feeling.

drawing out creative activity and develop then. I find opponents. he attributes to the first the exclusive privilege of influencing creative activity but though the author limits his study exclusively to the esthetic . as But. p. 2. two currents of feeling the one. Here. the dramatist. Graz. in his short and substantial monograph on the imagination. 1 1 Ueber Phantasievorstellungen. in addition. 33 we find the original emotional element as at motor. All emotional dispositions whatever may in fluence the creative imagination. in this second instance. and the musi cian often. even the sculptor and the painter characters. affective states become material for the creative ac tivity. almost a rule. that the poet. a well-known fact. the other. the novelist. 48. It is an accompaniment. The difference between the two cases that we have distinguished consists in this and nothing more than this.THE EMOTIONAL again first FACTOR. or exciting and depressing. indeed. 1889. . experience the thoughts and feeling of their become identified with them. constituting emotion as material for art. notably OelzeltNewin. again. Its absence in other forms of imagination does not at all prevent the necessary existence of affective elements everywhere and always. There are. then attached to various aspects of creation. ing along with it. Adopting the twofold division of emotions as sthenic and asthenic. The existence of an emotion-content belonging to esthetic production changes in no way the psychologic mechanism of invention generally.

that fear is the type of asthenic No one will manifestations. painters.34 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. which are various modifications of primitive fury. deny Yet is it not the mother of phan of altogether irra toms. facts contradict it completely. which seems to contradict my agent of destruction. consists indignatio versum? As for love. which is thesis. and sculptors with . but let us pass and we find in its place always of short duration. Are not vengeance. passion has vanished. imagination. over the storm. even understood thus. the disenchanted lover finds himself face to face with the bare reality. that all forms of emotion. everyone knows that its work is of creating an imaginary being. when the Sorrow rightly belongs in the category of depres sing emotions. inventions of all to esthetic creation. and so forth. premeditated these dispositions of the mind fertile in artifices. and yet. musicians. and The untenable. without exception. passing from the acute to the chronic state: envy. kinds? To keep even stratagems. that melancholy and even profound sorrow has fur nished poets. milder intellectualized forms. is it necessary to recall the say ing facit It is not necessary to demonstrate the fecundity of joy. is rather an Anger. it is easy to demonstrate act as leaven for imagination. jealousy. of numberless superstitions. which substituted for the beloved object. then. tional and chimerical religious practices? in its exalted. it has as great influence on Do we not know invention as any other emotion. is his thesis. enmity. violent form.

THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR.self-feel which reduces itself finally to the pleasure of ing. all. leads us directly to the motor elements that are the fundamental conditions of invention. Cf. santly bubble. . enfeebled power. that the artist does not create out of the simple pleasure of creating.. Above in this personal feeling. view is found widely advocated or &quot. fers However petty his invention. l Die Spiele der Thiere. there is the satisfaction of being a casual factor. it con upon him a superiority over those who have invented nothing. The &quot.&quot.being disinterested. The subject has been very well treated by this author. their 35 art frankly most beautiful inspirations? Is there not an and deliberately pessimistic? And this is influence not at all limited to esthetic creation.&quot. but in order that he may behold 2 Production is the a mastery over other minds.Der hinted at in literature. Goethe s Sanger&quot. as Groos has so truly remarked.). (Tr. e. asserting our power and of feeling its expansion. Jena.disinterested&quot. it 1 must be recognized. or to the pitiable feeling of our shackled. 294-301. Although we have been surfeited with the repeated statement that the characteristic mark of esthetic creation is &quot. on the of imagination? the well whence strange inventions inces contrary. Lastly. i. and every creator has a consciousness of his superiority over non-creators. a creator. 1896. pp. Dare we hold that hypochondria and insanity fol lowing upon the delirium of persecution are devoid Their morbid character is. that complex emotion termed &quot.

this with neither additions nor omissions.Interest interest&quot. g. cept. But formula expresses what ought to be.&quot.&quot. the completely systematized forms hardened into routine and habit. here means what affects us in some way under . recalling all the incidents a long voyage in chronological order.total as e.36 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. there is and practical opposed the law that actually obtains in the It is rightly styled the &quot. It not one that may not stimulate in remains to see this emotional factor work. among the many forms of the esthetics. that of &quot. and may be stated thus In every past event the interesting parts alone revive. ing&quot. of emotional vention. and sheltered from fluences. remains an abstract con To real this law of ideal value.. but. Thus. to note how it can give rise to new com binations. it outside of these cases. of memory.law of or the affective law. this brings us to the association of ii We of have said above that the ideal and theoretic is law of the recurrence of images redintegration. or with more intensity than the others. &quot.imagination&quot. at life. panying pleasure on condition that we extend &quot. and ideas. It what all actually oc supposes It suits man reduced to a state of pure disturbing in intelligence. &quot. without limiting there is.self-feeling. it unduly to to its full sense. : revival of images. natural extension of and the accom is the pleasure conquest. not curs.

and William James calls before them. emotional foundation. simple cases. tion we indeed. that representations that have been accompanied by the same emotional state tend later to become associated : the emotional resemblance reunites links disparate images. but be cause they have a 1 common emotional note. I. new combinations by There are the ordinary.&quot. laws. doubtless is less exact than the intel laws of contiguity and resemblance. not because they have been pre viously given together. Joy. Shadworth Hodgson. Schopenhauer. 37 a pleasing or painful form.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. Never theless. Let us note that the importance of this fact has been pointed out not by the associationists (a fact especially worth remem bering) but by less systematic writers. 1 it the &quot. strangers to Coleridge. . distinguish these three things If. and from association by resemblance in the intellectual sense. the Whatever the truth may be emotional factor brings about several processes. causes the practical law brings us near to causes. which is a repetition of expe rience. in the problem of associa facts.law that school. The states of consciousness be come combined. it seems to penetrate all the more in later lectual reasoning. ural. with a nat depending on momen They exist because of the fact tary dispositions. in this matter. The &quot. not because we perceive the agreement of resemblance between them. This differs and from associa tion by contiguity. 571 ff. of interest&quot. Psychology.ordinary or mixed association.

love. is etc. pride. must cause entirely offers an almost unexpected grouping to arise. e. and the survival.&quot. ennui. it is this state from a distant period of humanity. or latent.. ter This lat hypothesis seems to account for the greater instances.. i. but having emotional stamp. the result of nervous irradiation. melancholy. may become a center of attraction that or events having otherwise no ra groups images the same tional relations between them. if not for all it is . hatred.colored exceptional emotional base. a matter of &quot. and unlimited field for novel combinations. anatomically. number of tion. psychologically. erotic. the result of association. when must have been the rule. but. of the emotional factor.^g sorrow. Embryologically. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. etc. Two sensations absolutely unlike .affective&quot. physiologically. in a imagination enjoys complete freedom and works active influence. said. We been offered in regard to the origin of this phe nomenon. easily see haphazard. it would seem to be the result of an incomplete separation between the sense of sight and that of hearing. very frequent in dreams This form of association state of mind in which the and reveries. know that several hypotheses have hearing. admiration. the result of supposed anastamoses between the cerebral centers for visual and auditory sensations. as Flournoy imagina (for in- has observed. joyous. fatigue. the number We that this of images having a common emotional factor being very great. There are unusual and remarkable cases with an Of such is &quot.

an abnormal and tastes.). that is. taste. the color blue 39 and the sound i) may resemble one another through the equal retentive quality that they possess in the organism of some favored indi viduals. if we compare them with other. of a strangeness or surprising. I wish to speak of the forms of invention that permit only pushed to the extreme (Hoffman. and this emotional factor becomes a bond of association. ceptible cases. and seem clear. these modes of association are susceptible to analysis. barely per which is a subejct for supposition. which many cultivate and refine as though it were a precious rarity. subtle. fantastic conceptions. dependent on temperament at first. refined. known of no other men (the symbolists and decadents that flourish at the present time in various countries of Europe and America. Wiertz. for guessing rather than for clear com It is. Although we meet them only as exceptional cases. stance. smells. or pains. There . Goya.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. Baudelaire. Poe. a sort of imagination prehension. plains also the ored&quot. who believe. that they are preparing the esthetics of the It must be here admitted that there exists future). extraordinary thoughts. Observe that this much more unusual hypothesis ex cases of &quot. rightly or wrongly. almost self-evident. scarcely ever found outside the esthetic or practical life. association between given colors and pain. etc. moreover.col smell. the origin of belonging to very few people: certain artists and some eccentric or unbalanced minds. an altogether special manner of feeling.

an its subjective character. know that this form of only by and for us. the one. common measure between two As Wundt remarks. contraries exist . it seems evident the creative act. that the novelty. which result from repetition and habit. from its very nature. such as large-small. contrast ex ists only where a terms is possible. deep. superficial.4 lies THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. but not to a toothache. the true source of their invention. a wedding There is may be compared to a burial (the union and separa tion of a couple). Doubtless. indeterminate. high- low. in truth.. by most others to resemblance. Association by contrast is. us merely add that these abnormal manifestations through of the creative imagination belong to the province of pathology rather than to that of psychology. vague. consists of contiguity all of us have in memory as : sociated couples. to note even the particular states at the moment of To me at least. the strangeness of combinations. arbitrary. It rests. rich-poor. that of contrariety. indicates deep Let emotional rather than an intellectual origin. etc. brought down by some to contiguity. the other. it would be necessary their physical establish the direct relations between and psychical constitution and that of their work. . most often. on an essentially subjective and fleeting conception. In association by contrast we may distinguish two layers. to to assert this pertinently. which it is almost impossible to delimit scientifically for. right-left. It is association is not primary and irreducible. is resemblance. These two views do not seem to We me irreconcilable.

and below. p. because its mechanism. Psychologic. 219 . the effects of contrasts pleasure and pain. But. that is to say. 161. resemblance. that evokes and relates the con Whether this explanation be right or not. in creation of the free fancy. &quot. at least in that there may not be a common basis to which we may given tion relate them. . p. do not at all claim that it is entirely dependent upon the emotional factor. but not between a sound and a color. it is alto gether determined by the great opposition between Thus. contrast between sounds. contrast 41 between two colors. and scientific invention. mechanical. as 1 Hoffding observes. In associa by contrast. let us remark that association by contrast could not be left out.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. the special property of the emo tional life is moving among contraries. trans. instances of as in the previously sound.colored&quot. This form of association predominates in esthetic and mythic creation. Otherwise. an unconscious not clearly and logically element.. but felt scious elements. full of unforeseen possibilities. there are conscious elements op posed to one another. I lends itself easily to novel relations. are much stronger than in the realm of sensation. perceived. Eng. it becomes dimmed in the precise forms of practical. in Hitherto we have considered the emotional factor under a single aspect only the purely emotional that which is manifested in consciousness under an 1 Hoffding.

strict meaning. the specific instincts of the bee. could produce in turn an opera. But thoughts. in a given individual at a given result in a creative act.. hypothesis. what by ma- would be a creative instinct in general which. consist of a group of is terminate end that movements adapted for a de always the same. This motor element is what current speech and often even psychological treatises designate under the terms &quot. compared to a mere figure of speech. could it be? Every particular end hunger.&quot. but there is moment can ative no special psychic manifestation that instinct. that are deeper and emotions include elements i. desires. brilliant in the great inventors.creative feeble in exists in all men to some extent some.42 agreeable THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. motor. or disagreeable or mixed form.&quot. what that creators are guided by instinct and &quot. ant. an &quot. feelings.en instinct. tendencies. perceptible in others. &quot. this indicates that the &quot. mistake not. There regarded tity&quot. sex. an abstraction. e.&quot. instinct&quot.cre instinct has its own What. common to all men. indeed. Now. thirst. which. as a reality.creative instinct. beaver. are needs. appetites.&quot. For animal I do not hesitate to maintain that the creative taken in this is instinct. impulsive or inhibitory which we may neglect the less since it is in move ments that we seek the origin of the creative imagin ation.inventive in we express in another form when we stinct.are say pushed certain If I like animals toward the accomplishment of acts. a . may : be the &quot.

sources. The cooperation of both these factors : is . remains entirely destitute. A want so common as hunger or thirst suggests to one some ingenious method of satisfying it another . a need then. he is reduced to organic mani then no more than a bundle of that is. or. in order that a creative act occur. Suppose. there is required. nothing begins without the second. energetic. and so forth ? Inventive genius has not a source. I hold that it is in needs that we must it is ventions. ties. lacking a sufficient cerebral organ. appetites. a system of finance. that associating. be cause there is nothing to solicit it. 43 chine. is seek for the primary cause of all in evident that the motor element alone If the needs are strong. remembering. lectual factor insufficient. It is a a plan of military campaign.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. will produce nothing. In short. may spoil Many want to make discoveries but discover nothing. reasoning. and nothing All creative activity is then impossible. . is the intel it. festations. dissociating. again. man wants. of motor activi blind forces that. else. instincts. Let us consider from our present viewpoint the human duality. indis pensable without the first. they may determine a production. homo duplex reduced to a state of pure : intelli capable of perceiving. but pure fancy. nothing results. first. the Suppose man gence. is. if insufficient. a metaphysical theory. that it arouse a com.

Why let us put the opposite question. living remain crushed under the load encyclopedias. that objectify and realize itself in an appropriate form. On the other hand. they bring forth childish or chimerical So that we may answer the question productions. . Without contenting ourselves with these theoret remarks. it bination of images. what man has brought to pass in the domain of art. and on the other hand. there are act. shall try later (in the Conclusion) to answer In passing. people who easily move and but are limited. theless. Why is one not in in the imaginative? One may possess exhaustible treasure of facts and images and yet mind an for example. on the one hand. have seen and heard much. never erty condemns them to unproductiveness.44 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. men experiences only a few : who were tary events or mili partakers in great political who leave behind only a few dry movements. and who draw from their colorless anecdotes. who produce nothing great travelers. is one imaginative ? We the question. Their intellectual pov lacking images and ideas. prodigies of reading. who and of their erudition. and lastly. let us rapidly show that it is thus that these things actually happen. asked above: The non-imaginative person is such from lack of materials or through the absence of re sourcefulness. All the work of the creative imagination may be classed under two ical great heads esthetic inventions and practical in ventions. being nearer than the others to the imagin ative type. chilly memoirs.

as we shall see hereafter. defense. has reason for being. even to turn them to his . 45 Though this division it may appear strange. Man. religious conceptions. There are narrow sense that pertains to food. of one of the conditions of first all man s existence. they arise from the necessity of maintaining the coherence of the social aggregate and of defending it against inimical The work of the imagination whence have groups. arisen the myths. they are born of a vital need. because his reason . housing. Let us consider ations. To the numerous questions that necessity puts to him his is imagination alone responds.practical&quot. clothing. but in order to act upon the outside world and to draw profit therefrom. and the first attempts at a scientific explanation disinterested may seem life. etc. tions in the social Inven and political order answer to the conditions of collective existence. Every one of these special needs has stimu lated inventions adapted to a special end.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. at first and foreign to practical This is an erroneous supposition. in the the inventions &quot. all the products of this group coincide at one point: they are of practical utility. His curiosity theoretic. has a need of acting upon it he tries to conciliate them. service is by magic all not at and operations. first the class of non-esthetic cre Very different in nature. he does not aim to know for rites the sake of knowing. face to face with the higher powers of nature. its and unjustifiable. all else. the mystery of which he does not penetrate.

adapted there remains of it.46 shifting THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. The primitive need is modified. metamorphosed. Lastly. is not a question of existence but of better exist The same holds true of social and political ence. music. invention again Here. nonetheless. dancing. creation. and his scientific results then. which is shown first in the form of play. inventions which arise from the increasing complex and the new requirements of the aggregates ity forming great tive curiosity states. for it is that a well-known elementary psychological law upon primitive wants are grafted acquired wants fully as imperative. from urgent needs. dis interested. Let us now consider the class of esthetic creations. the nineteenth century Indeed. bounding activity. useless as regards the preservation of the individual. the fundamental activity toward . it is certain that primi has partially lost its utilitarian char acter in order to become. speculative. But all this in no way affects our thesis. by an urgent need . in taste for pure research some men at least. Most of our mechanical. the theoretical. knowledge nil. industrial and it commercial inventions are not stimulated by the immediate necessity of living. According to the generally accepted theory which is too well known for me to stop to explain it. play be comes primitive art. Then. and poetry at . art has its beginning in a superfluous. in the course of and on account of growing civilization all these creations reach a second is moment when their origin hidden. through transformation and complication.

According to him the theory of Schiller and Spencer. a prelude to the active functions of is life. 1898. he must have education of his capacities.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. which is the exercise In of the natural tendencies of human activities. but there are special instincts that are manifested under the forms of play. the 47 same time. it mechanism remains the same here ing cases. works on the subject. There no instinct of play in general. Die Spiele der Thiere. 1901). 1 has maintained with much power the opposite view. the of character psychological inutility. man and in the higher animals plays are a prepa ration. closely united in an apparently indis soluble unity. Play man there exist a great number of instincts that theory of Lazarus. in his two excellent proven biologically. this is obtained through play. trans. has a positive use. Although the theory of the absolute inutility of art has met some strong criticism. the inutility of play far from Groos. 1896. based on the ex penditure of superfluous activity and the opposite who reduces play to a relaxa a recuperation of strength are but is. but it acts only we shall only because is in man. which does not lack potency. In partial explanations. If we admit this explanation. is Nevertheless.. 1 . and ing. need it is it as in the preced say that in place of a vital a need of luxury acting. Appletons. the work of the esthetic Groos. let us accept false Aside from the true or for the present. New York. 1899 (Eng. and Die Spiele der Menschen. tion that An incomplete be are not yet developed at birth.

Whichever itself imagination necessity a separate category adopt. outside mechanics. not for in There are great creators who have been neither precocious nor confined in a narrow field. then. is reducible. tastic notion. tivity which we shall later give numerous ex resembles the innateness of in amples. to a particular. is a fan Whence.48 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. of mechanics. direction the Again. would be reduced to a biological for making and there would be no reason view we may of it. character of which definite it still instinct. orientation in a single of inventor is. often inapt at music. We on know the witticism of so Madame du awkward. and which cocity. the specific should be stimulation to creative activity. should say that this man had manufactured him which invention often it resemble (not always) manifests itself makes the work of a pre-established mechanism. are necessary for instinct. who was insignificant &quot. so to speak. invention remains established that any or indirectly. pre in the strict sense of the word. everything . so of Defiant Vaucanson. But these and similar characteristics may be lack Finally. of mathematics outside his own particular sphere. . They vention.One when he ventured self. directly and that to allow man a special determinate need. polarized he is the slave : .&quot. comes this persistent and in some idea that creation is an instinc respects seductive Because a happy invention has char tive result? it to instinctive ac acteristics that evidently relate First. of stinct. the ease with ing.

. geometry or painting. tical. that such is their character. trade or mechanics. meet people visibly borne along toward love or good cheer. At bottom the two questions are iden is and current psychology not in a position to solve them. acting within its ture. riches or good works. etc. Every invention arises from a par ticular need of human nature. strategy or music. may become the beginning of a creative act. It is a result of the individual organization. we have nothing in answer. 49 and who have given birth to their inventions pain Between the mechanism of in fully. we say that they are &quot. the secret of In ordinary life we which we do not possess.THE EMOTIONAL FACTOR. stinct and that of imaginative creation there are frequently great analogies but not identity of na Every tendency of our organization. ful own If sphere and for its own special end. laboriously.&quot. toward ambition. use or hurtful.so built. now it should be asked why the creative directs itself imagination rather than in another preferably in one line toward poetry or physics.

navigation. to the gods In the beginning. and istic religions. In and semi-mythological ap spite of its mysterious indicates a positive fact. fine arts commerce.inspiration. This concept has its and if it is permissible to apply a very general formula to a particular case we may say that it has developed according to the law of the three states assumed by the positivists. the term that is ill-understood in a deep sense. this term I designate principally. lation. always regarded as external and su to man. In the beginnings of all inventions perior other it is agriculture. etc.&quot.CHAPTER III THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR i By sively. inspiration is literally ascribed among the Greeks to Apollo and the in like Muses. not exclu what ordinary speech calls &quot. medicine. saints. the human mind discovered all considers itself incapable of having that. history. one pearance. we do . Creation has arisen. like all that is near the roots of creation. manner under various polythe Later. legis there is a belief in revelation.ay or an ural spirits. the gods become supernat In one w. angels.

&quot. and considered pect. will. through the force of tradition.enthusiasm. Here we have come out of the super natural without. does not depend on the individual As in the it case of sleep or digestion.&quot. forth. Inventors. &quot. Lastly. mere survivals.&quot. a particular. (i. &quot.&quot. we try to sound this unknown. &quot. in a total ignorance of the pro cesses. inspiration has two essential marks suddenness and impersonality. At It first sight. inspiration presents a in its negative as very definite character. such as &quot.. Later on these higher beings become empty for mulas. &quot. not 51 know how. never cease to complain over the periods of unproductiveness which maintain The wiser they undergo in spite of themselves. Psychology sees in it a special mani festation of the mind. But side by side with these formal survivals there remains a mysterious ground which is translated by vague expressions and metaphors. there remain only the poets to invoke their aid.&quot.possession by a spirit/ one. great and small. we may it .being overcome.the spirit whispers as it lists. however. try to call but not always with encourage success. e.poetic frenzy. semi-conscious. .THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. in the third stage. semi-unconscious state which we must now study. Considered in its positive aspect.having the devil inside etc. attempting a positive a scientific) explanation.&quot. the others among attempt to fight against their evil fate and to create despite nature. them watch for the moment. without believing in them. it.

says Du Bois Reymond.&quot.You shock striking you in the head.&quot. sudden.In a life I have had some happy thoughts. One might pile up like facts in abundance. inspiration bursts forth in deep sleep sleeper. a sudden resolve after endless deliberation seem able to come to a head. &quot.With says George Sand. voiced the same thought more than once. better. ness. strange to him although acting through him: a state which inventors have many . he It wrought without foresee would come complete.&quot. listen to the songs of birds. (b) Impersonality is a deeper character than the preceding. heart at the same time that is the mo^seizing your ment of genius&quot. It reveals a power superior to the con scious individual.creation &quot. the course of my little electric &quot. into conscious (a) It makes a sudden eruption but one presupposing a latent. there may be absence of effort and of appearance of preparation. &quot. &quot. after a long period of incubation. miraculous. gotten. was spon taneous. It has its analogues among other well-known a passion that is for psychic states. which did not Again.&quot. sublime. reveals itself through an act. and lest we may suppose suddenness to be especially characteristic of we see it in all forms of invention. or. frequently long. labor. ing. and when I was not Claude Bernard has thinking of the subject. for example.2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Some and awakens the this artists feel times. indeed. which.and I have often noted that they would to come me involuntarily. (Buffon). Beethoven would strike haphazard the keys of a piano or would Chopin.

they reduce themselves to these two principal prop ositions: for some the unconscious is a purely physiological activity. I put aside all the discussions on the subject as tiresome and useless for our present aim. . In order to to make sure of its nature it would then make sure first of the nature of the is be necessary unconscious. striving against ancient pythoness at the time of giving her oracle.&quot. remaining impersonal at bot and unable to appear in a fully conscious indi vidual. We do not lack them. Still others of a more all analytic turn have noted the concentration of capacities on a single teristics it point. 53 counted for nothing in to The best means of recognizing it would be write down some observations taken from the inspired individuals themselves. &quot. that inspiration is derived from the unconscious activity of the mind. which one of the enigmas of psychology. Let tion. Some sub just like the painfully. especially in religious inspiration. it mit to it Others. unless we wish to give it a supernatural origin. us only remark that this unconscious impulse acts variously according to the individual. for others it is a gradual diminution of consciousness which 1 Several of them will be found in Appendix A at the end of this work. a &quot. and some have the virtue of good observa 1 But that would lead us too far afield. submit themselves entirely with pleasure or else sustain it passively. that. Indeed. and But whatever charac their faculties tom takes on.I FACTOR.THE UNCONSCIOUS expressed in the words.cerebration . we must admit.

exists without being cipal e.. as we know.unconscious&quot. We find. But hypermnesia. On this subject see . pure and simple. con sists of an extraordinary flood of memories totally new com lacking that essential mark of creation It binations. in of what has been said about it.54 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. bound to me Both these are consciousness. or exaltation of memory. even appears that in the two instances rather an antagonism since heightened ory comes near to the ideal law of total redintegra there is mem tion. relating inspiration to mental states that have been judged worthy of explaining i.&quot. as a fact and let us limit ourselves to clearing it up. are alike only with respect to the great mass of separable materials. Let us take the &quot.circular insanity. full to the prin of difficulties 1 and present almost insurmountable objections. it. and especially under the form known as &quot.the gift of tongues&quot. indicating that a heightened memory some times accompanies a certain tendency toward in vention. at the mania. teaches us nothing in regard to the nature of inspiration or of invention in general. in religious epidemics. a hindrance to invention. Appendix B. beginning of general paralysis. the excited period of &quot. spite Hypermnesia. It is produced in hypnotism. some obser vations (among others one by Regis of an illiterate newspaper vender composing pieces of poetry of his own). is. i. but where the principle of which They unity 1 is wanting there can be no creation. it is true.

The &quot.gt. these are facts representing only a stim ulated. Under the influence . unnecessary to men of ideas. etc. Moreau de Tours. Inspiration has often been likened to the state of excitement preceding intoxication. a principal element ganizes and unifies is the directing principle that or lacking. not even an inspiration in the rather a beginning. 55 2. ether. into&amp. tion names. It is a wellknown fact that many inventors have sought it in wine. strict sense.artificial paradise&quot. Strictly. at the most they teach us concerning some of their physiological conditions. the eccentric spurts and caprices. alcoholic liquors. Theophile Gautier. an but analogous to the creations produced in It is dreams which are found very incoherent when we awake.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. toxic It is subtances like has opium. The abundance bounding fancy of which novel have given such good descriptions. the rapidity of their flow. its They do not take us may true nature. especially hashish. Baudelaire and others have made known to all an enormous expansion of the imagi nation launched into a giddy course without limits of time and space. artificial. an embryo. hish. temporary inspiration. outline. novel ideas. strengthening of the vital and emotional tone. make evident to the least observing that under the influence of intoxication the imagination works to a much that brief state of ists is Yet how pale that greater extent than ordinarily. One of the essential conditions of creation. of DeQuincy. compared to the action of the intellectual poisons above mentioned.

As this last explanatory expression is is won derfully abused. 87. Alfieri.it the latter state. in somnambulism it is the stranger himself who talks or holds the pen. of alcoholic drinks and of poisonous intoxicants at tention and will always fall into exhaustion. consciousness monopolized by the intensity of its images is closed to the influences of the outside world. has been sought to ex with certain forms plain inspiration by comparison is and it has been said that of somnambulism. 1897.56 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. (Of this we might seemingly authentic examples: him Shelly. or else receives only to make them enter the web of its dream. who speaks or writes 1 It would thus be the in a word. and called upon to serve in all conditions. this means that there is in a double inversion of the normal state. 3. somnam only the lowest degree of In inspiration it is as in a waking state. With greater reason it &quot. Le sulconscient sur les artistes. Paris.&quot.) is indispensable. individual is like an inspired awakened dreamer he lives in his dream. Psychologically. les savants. bulism though a strange personality were speaking to the author. internal life annihilates the external. Further. preciseness The cite etc. the unconscious or subconscious activity 1 which is Dr. modified form of a state that is the culmination of subconscious activity and a state of double person ality. et les tcrivains. . them The just the opposite of ordinary life. p. does the work. Chabaneix. To number and begin with.

seems to be accepted that genius.Des Indes a la plan&te Mars&quot. in inven 1 tion depends on the subliminal imagination. not on The recent case. Must we admit that the of the unconscious there are formed only fragmentary combinations and that they reach complete systematization only in clear con sciousness. only without a message to me. and of the work it is capable of doing by itself. or. in which translates deep levels it. while This much allowed. in is the creative labor identical It both cases ? It is difficult to decide. Flournoy in his book. that in clear con sciousness the step.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. It is proceeds likewise. we would go further. studied with so much ability by M. evident that all this is purely hypothetical. plays the impersonal character. rather. we may say that everything goes on realm of the unconscious just as in consciousness. facts in profusion could be given in support of this obscure elaboration which enters consciousness only when all is done. (1900). is an example of the subliminal creative imagination. we are thrown into increasing difficulties. 1 . work may be followed up it step by while in unconsciousness but unknown to us. if first part. Inspiration resembles a cipher dispatch which the unconscious activity transmits to the conscious process. passes to the first 57 preserving its plane. in the cally. &quot. But what is the nature of this work ? Is it purely physiological ? Is it psychologi Theoreti cal? We come to two opposing theses. The exist ence of an unconscious working is beyond doubt. or at least richness.

positive The nature of this can conclude nothing as to the ultimate nature On the other hand. true. proves Furthermore. a crisis. such as Newton s law of attrac tion. up. and is only a special of perfected state. is the other. It marks either the end of an unconscious elaboration have been very short or very long. never has an absolute begin ning. or which may else the beginning of a conscious elaboration which very long (this is will be very short or seen es by chance). indeed.58 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. sufficiently it. The one feigned.&quot. See Part II. Conscious imagination is a kind To sum degree. all the more as we are inclined to over value should. chapter . one may pass beyond many creations long in preparation seem without a crisis. uncon case of it. the history of inventions this. manner fix the value of the phenomenon in some to a very great work being unknown. it is an index.Mona Finally.Last Supper. it.&quot. the other. note that inspiration more exactly. we may in a of inspiration. artificial. signifies &quot. strictly so called. on the other hand. iv. inspiration in is the result of an under in hand process existing men. it never delivers a finished pecially in cases of creation suggested On the one hand. Leonardo da Vinci Lisa.Inspiration&quot. a mo a cause but an effect is not We ment. spontaneous. s &quot. many have felt themselves 1 We shall return to this point in another part of this work. and the &quot. we invention. which superficial is in nature and soon exhausted. a critical stage. it work. scious imagination.

often even in the moment. ii What has been said up to this point does not ex haust the study of the unconscious factor as a source of new combinations.&quot.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. character. His general formula is this : A recalls C. B. This mode of association seemed universally accepted when. that is.constellation. its who was the first to determine nature and to give a personal example that has become classic. Mediate association has been well known since the time of Hamilton. although there is between them neither contiguity nor resemblance. tions in latent is uncon These momentary disposi form can excite novel relations in two ways through mediate association and through a special mode of grouping which has recently re ceived the i. Loch Lomond recalled to him the Prussian system of education because. lat- . he had met a Prussian officer who con versed with him on the subject. name &quot. really 59 inspired 1 without producing anything of value. For this purpose we need of ideas. in part at least) must be sought in the temperament. Its role can be studied under a simpler and more limited form. to return for the last time to association The final reason for association (outside of contiguity. serves as a transition between A and C. in a passing it influence. when visit ing the lake. which does not enter consciousness. individuality of the sub ject. hardly perceptible because scious or subconscious. but because a middle term.

who admit mediate association. perience. all the intermediate conditions has been able to note between almost clear consciousness and the uncon mediate associa In order to pronounce as an il lusion a fact that is met with so often in daily ex and one that has been studied by so many required more than ex conditions of which perimental investigations (the are often artificial and unnatural). considers the existence tion as proven.. is of scious. which ment. now by resemblance. On the other hand. conclude for the affirmative. excellent observers. 239 ff. One series of 557 experiments gave him eight apparently mediate asso ciations. The New Arbeiten. it THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. now by contiguity. for which he offers an explanation other than mediate association. there moreover. after examination. he reduced them to a single one. has published some investigations in the negative. Aschaffenburg admits them to the extent of four per cent. the associationtime is longer than for average associations (Psychologische Consult especially Scripture. Another series of 961 experi ments gives 72 cases. with experiments in support of his . and has been attacked by Miinsterberg to experimenta others. like the others. which seemed to him doubtful. I and II). In the experiments by Scripture are found some of ir Thus Howe (American Journal of Psychology. vi.60 terly. 1 For my own part. Scripture. xiii.). People have had recourse has given results only in slight agree tion. some of which. The example given by Hamilton belongs to the first type. Psychology. I count myself among those contemporaries and they are the greater number. chapter conclusion. This form of association is produced. who and who has made a special study of the subject.

It is clear that by its very nature mediate asso ciation can give rise to novel combinations. The word the starting point of a host can call up a &quot. Why is one called up rather than an and at such a moment rather than at an other? There are some associations based on con tiguity and on resemblance which one may foresee.. the second type e. more be several intermediate terms. all it is the center of a network. An idea may become of associations. a scene of an opera. be relations.&quot. or of a group of : images. hundred. should up D It seems even impossible not to admit this in the hypothesis of the subconscious. where we see only the two end links of the chain. can radiate in direc- . which is usually only repetition.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. other. without being able to allow a break of continuity between them.Rome&quot. Con tiguity itself. through the vague memory of a flash of strontium light. Ziehen designates one of these under the name of &quot.constellation. but how about the rest? Here it is an idea A. which has been adopted by some writers. In his determination of the regulating causes of association of ideas. proves that there latent thanks to the elimination of the middle term. may not sometimes It is Nothing. which remain below the threshold of consciousness. 6l g. comes the source of unforeseen over. This may be enunci ated thus The recall of an image. call possible that A through the medium of b and c. 2. is in some cases the result of a sum of predominant tendencies. a red light recalled.

or it may be that D exerts C cannot prevail. him the idea of the near his house. B is in a state of tension and inhibitory an arrest and C is not. etc. He then recalled that broke upon him with much two hours before he had observed a lady wearing a beautiful brooch in the form of a gondola. tain day when this idea clearness. F. Hotel de to Ville. Sully rightly remarks that words of a for eign language when we return from the country where it is spoken than when we have lived a long time in our own. 4th edi Also. pp. *Ziehen. had never suggested Doges Palace at Venice. 1898. There tendencies. 174. tory physiological through diffusing 1 of receiving simultaneous excitations. D. C. Why is does it call up now B. . Human Mind. in consequence of which an Wahle reports that the Gothic association A few examples will make prevails. in until a cer spite of certain architectural likenesses.62 tions THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. to the active condi which may pass from the latent or this process may be reinforced tion. 343. Leltfaden der physiologischen Psychologic. later FT It is because every image comparable to a force. . I. because the tendency toward recol it is much easier to recall the lection is reinforced by the recent experience of the tion. 164. Sully. E. on C. sibility the existence of several currents the brain and the pos themselves basis : plainer this phenome non of reinforcement. and in are simultaneous checked by other images. Consequently ing influence and vic But an hour later conditions have changed This phenomenon rests on a rests with C.

&quot. No process To sum up: The initial element. and a whole array of work in the same direction. because of the ble. In my opinion we would find the finest examples &quot. and often depends on imperceptible causes. On each of these themes he builds stories. now or later when the final reso lution cannot be predicted. one direc tion or another. etc. wind. . of in regarded as a creative element. death. storms. stars. Accord?&quot. water. I anticipate a possible question: &quot. In conclusion. the material scarcely anything save natural phenomena the sky. formation and development of studying Everywhere and always man has had for myths.THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR. external or in ternal. excites associations that one cannot always possi in the foresee. apt to give what every in the novel and unexpected. spoken. or more ventor promises is richer in resources. seasons.Does the unconscious factor differ in nature from the two others (intellectual and emotional) The answer depends on the hypothesis that one holds as to the nature of the unconscious itself. latent dispositions that 63 read. the grandly imposing to the Every myth is the work of a laughably human group which has worked according to the tendencies of its special genius under the influence of various stages of in tellectual culture. acting and not acting. numerous orientations an analogous case to that which occurs realm of the will when there are present reasons for arid against.constellation. land. life. thousands of explanatory which vary from childish. words heard. of freer turn.

processes the preparatory and which enters consciousness ready made. it ing to one view would be especially physiological. to another. the unconscious form of the other two rather than a distinct element in invention.64 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the dif consequently different. Conse factor would be a special quently. . according ference can exist only in the processes: unconscious or emotional elaboration is reducible to intellectual work of which is slighted.

toward scattered present we incline localization. of extreme strained and closely to bounded bind localization men every psychic manifestation to a strictly determined point of the brain. First. of the imagination? Such is the form of the ques In that period tion asked for the last twenty years. Is there a &quot. and as w e often understand by &quot.seat&quot. functional rather than at r As properly anatomical. since that form of activity is related more than any other to the physiological conditions of the mental suitable for is life.CHAPTER IV THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS OF THE IMAGINATION Whatever opinion we may hold concerning the nature of the unconscious. the anatomical conditions. Today the problem presents itself no longer in themselves down this simple way. the synergic action of several centers . What we positive. is very i express concerning the organic may regard as little. the present time is it an exposition of the hypotheses that to permissible bases of the imagination.center&quot. or even as probable.

Are there cer of the brain having an exclusive or pre tain : portions in the working of the creative ponderating part Even in this form the question is imagination?&quot. a primary and relatively simple function like that have of visual. ments constituting imagination be determined in a makes rigorous manner. the ana tomical determination is beset with difficulties. the imagination is not hardly acceptable. (2) that each of these constitutive elements may be strictly related to its anatomic conditions. answers our more question indirectly only. then. ( I ) that the ele no pretense of being definitive. James Watt. But this method.). etc.66 differently THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. How draw a dividing imagina tion only its rightful share? In addition. mechan An in a attempt has been made to put the question precise and limited form by studying the brains of men distinguished in different lines. It is evident that we are far from possessing the secret of such a ism. but the foregoing analysis seen that it is a state of tertiary formation and very There is required. in avoiding the difficulty. Indeed. Most often great inventors possess qualities besides imagination indispensable for success (Napoleon. A method flourishing very greatly about the mid dle of the nineteenth century consisted of line so as to assign to the carefully a large number of brains weighing and drawing vari ous conclusions as to intellectual superiority or in- . to the individual case. We complex. grouped according our question becomes equivalent to &quot. auditory and other sensations.

attribute the greatest importance to Nowadays we morphology of the brain. Since we must choose from among these various anatomical views let us accept that of Flechsig. since it only another element of the problem. .ORGANIC CONDITIONS. and. of nerves there exist on the one and centers. try to translate into their conditions of mental own language the complex life. On this last point contemporary anatomists have given them selves up to eager researches. We logical know method order of time. feriority 67 from a comparison of the weights. it is same way. We find this point numerous documents in the special works published during the period mentioned. But this method of weights has given rise to so many surprises and difficulties in the way of explanation on that it we the see in has been quite necessary to give it up. although the cerebral architecture is not conceived by all in the proper for psychology to note that all with their &quot. association-centers.associational system&quot. the marked development of certain regions. the determination not only of centers but of connec tions and associations between centers. one of the most renowned and one having also the advantage of putting di rectly the problem of the organic conditions of the that Flechsig relies on the embryothat is. For him hand sensitive regions (sen sory-motor). oc cupying the remaining part. occupying about a third of the cortical surface. on the other hand.centers&quot. or &quot. to its histological struc ture. on the development in the imagination.

. on first chemical factors? We may hold the is opinion with all possible force. let us return to our special question. wants. or rather that is. hearing (first temporal). the unity of the fested . comes &quot. Genius always united to . according to our on special irritabil present notions. self cannot be mani a plurality of consciousness. and a middle center. This much admitted. in the absence of connections be tween them.knowledge of the body precedes develops first that of the outside world. Comparative that the associational centers are proves all sensation. smaller.68 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. de order: Organic velopment occurs in the following of cerebral cortex).That develop as we go up the which makes the psychic man may be said to be the centers of association that he pos In the new-born child the sensitive centers sesses. movements. the smallest of anatomy more important than those of the lower scale : (the Island of Reil). Among mammals they &quot. smell (base sensations (middle of the brain and part of the frontal lobes). in a definite part of the brain the body it results that to proper consciousness of its impulses.&quot. (parieto-occipito-temporal) . etc. and. which Flechsig asks in these words &quot. pains. sig supposes three regions ter In what concerns the associational centers. So far as the sensory centers are concerned. are isolated. FlechThe great posterior cen : much another.&quot. anterior or frontal . sight Whence (occipital lobe). and that this part appetites.On there is : what does genius ity? rest? Is it based on a special structure in the brain.

which is very much developed in all men of genius whose In have been studied down to our day.&quot. but we must allow. according our author. said he. incomplete. GeMrn und Seele. Let us now go on to the physiology. . as regards anatomical conditions. 1896. 1 to artists the latter among scientists.principally a center located under the protuberance at the top of the head. and probably also in Bach. contrariwise. In brains great scientists like Gauss the centers of the posterior region of the brain and those of the frontal region are strongly developed. in eminent men after a study of eighteen brains.ORGANIC CONDITIONS. a preponderance of the frontal and the former obtain especially among parietal regions artistic genius. we can at present give only fragmentary. All the convolutions and fissures were so developed. 1 Fleehsig. Riidinger had noted the ex years traordinary development of the parietal convolutions . &quot. Already.&quot. twenty before Flechsig. 69 the a special structure. that the parieto-occipital region had an alto gether peculiar character. The scientific genius thus shows proportions of brain-structure other than the There would then be. hypothetical views. that there are other regions. By way of summary we must bear in mind that. even when depend ing on the best of sources. to a particular organization of All parts of this organ do not have the brain. same value. It frontal part may has been long admitted that the serve as a measure of intellectual capacity . the enormous Beethoven. development of this part of the brain is striking.

is First. effect. or Prob the accompaniment of this activity. overheated head. concomitance consider it an accomplished fact. be initial and productive of psychic activity may changes in the organism.&quot. &quot. such is the classic. brilliant. Hypergemia seems rather the rule. chilly skin. sometimes a temporarily anaemic state. sunken. but we also know that slight anaemia increases cortical excitability.^o THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. may augment and prolong them. tellectual activity means an increase of work in the cortical cells. pale. dependent on a congested. The most instructive instances are those indicated by very clear manifestations and profound modifica tions of the bodily condition. the position to the physiologic conditions. if these already exist.Weak. or. work The general fact of most importance consists of Increase of in changes in the blood circulation. Such are the moments of inspiration or simply those of warmth from which arise in the form of sudden impulses. the employment of arti and maintain the effervescence of the imagination assigns a causal or antecedent Lastly. frequently quoted description of the physiological state during . II whether the physi might have rightly asked with the working of ological states existing along the creative imagination are the cause. ficial means Again. roving eyes. contracted pulse. We merely ably all the three conditions are met with. and we may as an organic manifestation parallel to to excite that of the mind.

translates itself also into motor form through movements analogous to flexes. hands. method through the examination of circulatory. increase of the formula covering the the cerebral circulation majority of observations on this subject. and it is admitted that this method of ex penditure is standing in all its clearness. and. most of all. in Beethoven. move ment of the feet. But that tells us nothing par ticularly about the imagination. indeed. Does experimentation. is not useless for preserving the under In a word.. It is a safety-valve for the excessive flow of nervous impulse. 71 of their There are numerous inventors who. work. teach us anything on this point ? Numerous and well-known physiological researches.ORGANIC CONDITIONS. that the brain- volume and the volume of the peripheral organs diminishes. . which is but a special case under the rule. it has been proposed to study inventors by an objective increases. this nervous tension. creative labor. etc. own accord. especially those of Mosso. re without special end. Latterly. who made use of cold douches to relieve it. their . in the case of Lagrange. mechanically repeated and always the same in the same man e. g. produces cerebral congestion . This elevation of the vital tone. etc. have noted these changes ir regular pulse. congestion of the head. their several respiratory. digestive apparatus. emotional. show that all intellectual. ringers whittling the table or the arms of a chair (as in the case of Napoleon when he was elaborating a plan of campaign). strictly so called.

fertile. so that the result would be ipso facto vitiated. kept rotten apples in his work desk. etc. in the strict sense moment&quot.72 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Were we to collect only those that authentic their we be regarded as could make a thick volume. or at least unconvincing? There still remains a mass of facts deserving summary notice the oddities of inventors. . Schiller. using his means of investigation. their intellectual memory and But up to this time no conclusion has been drawn from these individual descriptions that would allow any generalization. has an processes. can have the subject under his hand at the exact moment of inspiration of the sudden. brief creative impulse would not the experiment itself be a disturbing cause. Besides. Despite may anecdotal character these evidences do not seem to be unworthy of some regard. ever experiment. forms of association.psychological of none. it seems to : me that they are reducible two categories (i) Those inexplicable freaks dependent on the individual constitution. for example. Would it be possible ? Let us admit that all by some happy chance the experimenter. It is impossible to enter here upon an enumeration that would be endless. ? I know been made at the &quot. the modes of their general and special sensibility. and more often probably also on experiences in life the memory of which has been lost. of the word. After having collected for my own to information a large number of these strange peculiarities.

in order to invent. contemplation. others would immerse their feet in ice-cold water (Gretry. like Lamennais. the opposite side are those requiring retire ment.horizontally&quot. silence. are easy to ex physiological means consciously or unconsciously chosen to aid creative work. thus giving the name peripatetic to his school and system? (Tr. of the streets. who . Schiller).ORGANIC CONDITIONS. Rousseau would think bare-headed in full sunshine. In this class we find especial ly scientists On and thinkers Tycho-Brahe. Leibniz. For others there must be external pomp and a personal part in the scene (Machiavelli. . etc. They are more numerous. (2) plain. Very numerous are those who think &quot. Descartes. 1 or else prepare for work by physical exercise (Mozart). Guido Reni would paint only when dressed in magnificent style.) &quot. let us note those talk. Buffon). The most frequent method consists of artificially increasing the flow of blood to the brain.) Some require motor excitation. crowds. that is. Rossini. his pupils crowded about him and attending to his wants in respectful silence. For variety s sake. they work only when walking. Bossuet would work in a cold room with his head wrapped in furs. who must have the noise festivities. for twenty-one years 1 scarcely left his observatory Leib- la it possible that this would explain the fact of Aristotle lecturing to his pupils while walking about. 73 The others. lying stretched out and often flattened under their blankets (Mil ton. even shadowy dark ness. they are auxiliary helpers of the imagination.

74
niz,

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

who

could remain for three days almost motion
artificial

less in

an armchair. But most methods are too

or too strong

not to become quickly noxious. Every one knows what they are abuse of wine, alcoholic liquors, nar
tobacco, coffee, etc., prolonged periods of wakefulness, less for increasing the time for work than to cause a state of hyperesthesia and a morbid
cotics,

sensibility

(Goncourt).
:

Summing up
if

The organic

bases of the creative

there are any specially its own, re imagination, main to be determined. For in all that has been said

we have been concerned only with some conditions assimilation of the general working of the mind The eccentricities of inventors as well as invention. studied carefully and in a detailed manner would
finally,

cause

it

perhaps, be most instructive material, be would allow us to penetrate into their in

most individuality. Thus, the physiology of the imagination quickly becomes pathology. I shall not dwell on this, having purposely eliminated the mor
bid side of our subject. It will, however, be neces sary to return thereto, touching upon it in another part of this essay.

in
There remains a problem, so obscure and enig
matic that
I scarcely venture to approach it, in the that most languages the spontaneous ex analogy pression of a common thought establish between

physiologic and psychic creation.

Is

it

only a super-

ORGANIC CONDITIONS.
ficial
it

75

likeness, a hasty

rest

judgment, a metaphor, or does on some positive basis? Generally, the vari

ous manifestations of mental activity have as their precursor an unconscious form from which they arise. The sensitiveness belonging to living sub
stance,

known by
etc., is

the

names

tropism, reactions following it; organic memory is the basis and the obliterated form of conscious memory. Reflexes introduce voluntary activity; appetitions

like a sketch of sensation

heliotropism, chemoand of the

and
an
the

hidden tendencies are the forerunners of effective
Instinct, on several sides, psychology. unconscious and specific trial of reason.
is

like

Has

creative

power of the human mind

also analogous

antecedents, a physiological equivalent?

One metaphysician, Froschammer, who has ele vated the creative imagination to the rank of prim
ary world-principle, asserts this positively. there is an objective or cosmic imagination
in nature,

For him working

producing the innumerable varieties of and animal forms; transformed into sub vegetable jective imagination it becomes in the human brain
the source of a

new form
images
1

of creation.

"The

very
a

same

principle causes the living

forms to appear

sort of objective

a kind of living

form."

and the subjective images, However ingenious and

attractive this philosophical theory may be, it is evidently of no positive value for psychology. Let us stick to experience. Physiology teaches
1

1877.

Die Phantasie als Grundprincip der Weltprocesses, Mttnchen, For other details on the subject, see Appendix C.

76

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

that generation is a "prolonged nutrition," a sur in the lower forms of plus, as we see so plainly

agamous

generation

(budding,

division).

The

creative imagination likewise presupposes a super abundance of psychic life that might otherwise spend

Generation in the physical natural tendency, although order is a spontaneous, it may be stimulated, successfully or otherwise, by
itself in

another way.

artificial

means.

We

can say as
it

much

of the other.
to pro

This
long.

list

of resemblances

would be easy

But

all this is insufficient

for the establish

ment of a thorough identity between the two cases and the solution of the question.
It is possible to limit
it,

to put

it

into

more

precise

language. opment of the generative function and that of the imagination? Even in this form the question scarce
ly permits any but vague answers. connection we may allege
:

Is there a connection

between the devel

In favor of a

influence of puberty on the imagination of both sexes, expressing itself in day 1 dreams, in aspirations toward an unattainable ideal,

(i)

The well-known

Philos.,

passage from Chateaubriand (cited by Paulhan, Rev. March, 1898, p. 237) is a typical description of the situation: "The warmth of my (adolescent) imagination, my

*A

already charming everywhere, though invisible; I conversed with her as with a real being; she would change according to my frenzy. Pygmalion was less enamored of his statue."
idea followed

and solitude, caused me, instead of casting myself on something without, to fall back upon myself. Wanting a real object, I evoked through the power of my desires, a phantom, which thenceforth never left me; I made a woman, composed of all the women that I had seen. That
shyness,

me

ORGANIC CONDITIONS.

77

in the genius for invention that love bestows upon Let us recall also the mental the least favored.

the psychoses designated by the name With adolescence coincides the first hebephrenia. of the fancy which, having emerged from flowering
troubles,
its

swaddling-clothes of childhood,

is

not yet sophis

ticated
It is

and

rationalized.

thesis of the present

not a matter of indifference for the general work to note that this devel

first

opment of the imagination depends wholly on the effervescence of the emotional life. That fluence of the feelings on the imagination" and of imagination on the feelings" of which the moralists and the older psychologists speak so often
"in

"the

is

a vague formula for expressing this fact
is

that re

the motor element included in the images inforced.

(2) Per contra, the weakening of the generative power and of the constructive imagination coincide in old age, which is, in a word, a decay of nutrition,
a progressive atrophy. influence of castration.
it

It is

proper not to omit the

According to the theory of Brown-Sequard, produces an abatement of the nutritive functions through the suppression of an
internal stimulus; and, although its relations to the

imagination have not been especially studied, not rash to admit that it is an arresting cause.

it

is

However, the foregoing merely establishes, be tween the functions compared, a concomitance in
the general course of their evolution and in their
critical

periods;

it

is

insufficient for a conclusion.

78

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

ficiently

There would be needed clear, authentic and suf numerous observations proving that indi

viduals bereft of imagination of the creative type have acquired it suddenly through the sole fact of
their sexual influences, and, inversely, that brilliant

tions.

imaginations have faded under the contrary condi find some of these evidences in Cabanis, 1

We

Moreau de Tours and various
seem to be
to

alienists

in favor of the affirmative,

; they would but some seem

not sure enough, others not explicit enough. Despite my investigations on this point, and inquiry of competent persons, I do not venture to draw a
definite conclusion. will perhaps tigator.
Cabanis, Rapports du Physique et du Moral, Edition Peisse, pp. 248-249, an anecdote that he relates after Buffon. Analo
gous, but less clear, facts
1

me

question open; it tempt another more fortunate inves

I leave the

may

also

be found in Moreau de

Tours

Psychologic morbide.

CHAPTER V

THE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY
The
psychological

nature

of

the

imagination
all

would be very imperfectly known were we limited
to the foregoing analytical study.

Indeed,

cre

ation whatever, great or small, shows an organic character; it implies a unifying, synthetic principle. Every one of the three factors intellectual, emo

works not as an isolated fact account; they have no worth save their union, and no signification save through through their common bearing. This principle of unity, which all invention demands and requires, is
tional,

unconscious

on

its

own

at

one time intellectual

in nature,
i.

i.

e.,

as a fixed

idea; at another time emotional,
tion

e.,

as a fixed

emo

or passion. These terms fixed idea, fixed emotion are somewhat absolute and require re strictions and reservations, which will be made in

what

follows.
distinction

The

between the two
is

is

not at

all

Every supported and main tained by a need, a tendency, a desire; i. e., by an affective element. For it is idle fancy to believe in the persistence of an idea which, by hypothesis,
absolute.

fixed idea

g

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.
intellectual state, cold

would be a purely

and dry.

of unity in this form naturally pre principle in the prac in certain kinds of creation dominates

The

:

tical

the end imagination wherein

is

clear,

where

for things, where in images are direct substitutes to strict conditions under pen vention is subjected of visible and palpable check; in the scientific
alty

and metaphysical imagination, which works with laws of rational logic. concepts and is subject to the should realize itself in an Every fixed emotion idea or image that gives it body and systematizes it,
without which
states
it

remains diffuse; and

all

affective

can take on this permanent form which makes The simple emotions a unified principle of them. love, joy, sorrow, etc.), the complex or de (fear,
rived
ideas)

emotions

(religious,

esthetic,

intellectual

may

equally monopolize consciousness in their
fixed idea,

own

interests.

We

thus see that these two terms

fixed emotion

are almost equivalent, for they both imply inseparable elements, and serve only to indicate the preponderance of one or the other element.

This principle of unity, center of attraction and
support of
tion
all
is,

the

working of the creative imagina
is

that

a subjective principle tending to be

come

objectified

the ideal.

In the complete

sense of the
creation
ethics

word not restrained merely to esthetic or made synonymous with perfection as in
is

the ideal

a construction in images that
If

should become a

reality.

we

liken imaginative
is

creation to physiological generation, the ideal

the

PRINCIPLE OF UNITY.

8l

ovum

awaiting fertilization in order to begin velopment.

its

de

We

could, to be

more

exact,

make

a distinction

between the synthetic principle and the ideal concep tion which is a higher form of it. The fixation of

an end and the discovery of appropriate means are the necessary and sufficient conditions for all inven tion. creation, whatever it be, that looks only

A

to present success, can satisfy itself with a unify ing principle that renders it viable and organized,

but

we

can look higher than the merely necessary
ideal
is

and
its

sufficient.

The

the principle of unity in motion in
it

historic evolution; like all development,

ad

vances or recedes according to the times. Nothing is less justified than the conception of a fixed arche
type

(an

undisguised

survival

of

the

Platonic

Ideas), illuminating the inventor, who reproduces it as best he can. "The ideal is a nonentity; it arises
in

the inventor

and through him;

its

life

is

a

becoming.
Psychologically, it is a construction in images be 1 longing to the merely sketched or outlined type.

from a double activity, negative and posi or dissociation and association, the first cause tive, and origin of which is found in a will that it shall
It results

be so;
1

it

is

the motor tendency of images in the
form of imagination and

For the

distinction between this

the two others

reader to the Conclusion of this work, where the subject will be treated in
(fixed, objectified), I refer the

detail.

oxygen and hydrogen. olfactory. for ex ample. indeed. his interest. has been ques tioned. lllff. gustatory impressions differ ent in quality. does the whole appear as made up of its parts. prejudices. answers to positive facts. chemistry. character. juxtaposition or rapid succes sion of two different colors. pp. . exist in each separate L immaginazione nella Scienza. like 1 In other words.&quot. two different sounds. The inventor to his tempera cuts out. Harmony or tactile. with no modification. In no scientific or artistic production.g2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.We production that know nothing of the complex psychic may simply be the sum of component elements and in which they would remain with their own characters. discord does not. In this separa let us note tion. according ment. in water. nascent state engendering the ideal. among ity it has its own . similar to a combination. 1900. one important par ticular. The nature of the components disappears in order to give birth to a novel phenomenon that has its own and par The construction of the ideal is ticular features. not a mere grouping of past experiences in its total individual characteristics. which to J. Stuart Mill. I believe. to the phenomena of contrast and of their analogues. sympathies and in short. it is a case of mental a mosaic. Rome. in perception. &quot. is The due. suppresses. sifts. already studied. says Wundt. antipathies taste. Still it exactness of this expression. which we no more see the composing lines than we see the components. produces a particular state of con sciousness. .

moral.. but always unalter able. then. idealists and realists in the fine arts. In a complex state there is. separate. else. g. at all tations of the mental life. The idea of a pen or of an inkwell is not a stable thing clearly pictured like the pen or inkwell itself. chimerical to assume in psychology an equivalent of chemical combination. but only in the relations and sequence of have heretofore.PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. than any one consciousness.). come together anew. They have a common ideal because. in cer tain matters. it is a tertium quid. It is not so at all. . this point in his theory of of states of Outside of the given instances we could find many others among the various manifes It is not. More . We in the discussion of association of ideas. in addition to the component elements. of their varying rela tions. Consciousness. 83 sounds sound. says Titchener. like atoms. and even more so religious. At bottom the ideal is an individual concept. social and political concepts. etc. Too often we forget this resultant. It is not a transcendental idea that unites . cohere. If objection is offered that an ideal common to a large mass of men is a fact of common experience (e. they have the same way of feeling and thinking. the result of their reciprocal influences. resembles a fresco in which the tran sition between colors is made through all kinds of intermediate stages of light and shade. William James has insisted on &quot. .fringes&quot. the answer is easy: There are families of minds. very fre quently represented the states of consciousness as fixed elements that approach one another.

it. The ideal conception is the first moment not yet battling with the con creative act. and the ex treme or semi-morbid unity. Such was the imaginative into its mould and that could not. this them. picture. but result occurs because common engaged. (i) The unstable form has rectly its starting point di and immediately in the reproductive imagi- 1 This unifying. from the unity vaguely anticipated to Fol the absolute and tyrannical masterful unity. which I have reduced to three the unstable. monument.84 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. it is. ideal aspirations the collective in scholastic terminology. We know how the passage from the internal to the external life has given rise among inventors to deceptions and construction complaints. a method that seems to me best adapted for lowing these ill-explained questions I shall single out only the principal forms. placed face to face with any work what ever novel. financial or political institution while believing that they are merely considering critics. ditions individual mind that has not yet been projected of an which is externally with a form and body. they spontaneously characteristic of their psychology distinguishes This remake it. It is only the internal vision of the actual. the organic or middle. creative principle is so active in certain minds that. from their becomes dis a uniof the sersale post rem. scientific or philosophic theory. them from mere . unchanged. now examine the various forms of this 1 coagulating principle in advancing from the lowest to the highest. organizing. enter become a Let us reality.

the half-coherent dreams that seem to the dreamer to contain a creative germ. vac and changing without cessation according to the external impressions or modifications of our vital conditions and of our humor. the a concentration of poet Grillparzer used to say. nation without creation. because. The reinforcement of mind comes from the fact that its powers. which itself is the essential mark of attention. In consequence of the extreme frailty of the synthetic principle the creative imagination does not succeed in accomplishing its task and remains in a condition intermediate between simple association of ideas and creation proper. (2) The organic or middle form may be given as the type of the unifying power. associations. By way of ex illating ample let us recall the state of the day-dreamer building castles in the air. the inventions of the child fol lowing all the fluctuations of chance. instead of spreading themselves . unity-principle is a momentary disposition.&quot. judgments.is makes world rather than enclose the state of the several it. in attempts.&quot. it a center of attraction. should represent the all the forces and capacities upon a single point &quot. it stitches together the bits The ends only in beginnings.PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. grouping about the leading idea the images. Ultimately it re duces and presupposes nothing thanks to the process of &quot. which. It 85 its assembles elements somewhat by chance and of our life. of its caprice. tendencies and voluntary efforts. for the time being. the delirious construc tions of the insane.Inspiration.localiza more. itself to attention tion. &quot.

&quot.86 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. an imitation of the other. like them. artificial. and. What is the as regards esthetics only poet here maintains the organic forms of creation to all plicable is ap that by an immanent logic. op. intermittent resumptions. maintained with effort in a word. natural. it is voluntary. p. tit. The analogy between the two cases seems to me incontestable. and in order to those ruled to show that it is ple. imperson Then ality approaches that of the forces of Nature. . resembling works of Nature. laborious. the mis erable turns of which so many inventors have de scribed. touch one another. Again. on the other hand. over the whole world. painful.. Next let us note that psychologists always adduce the same examples when they wish to illustrate on the one hand. imagination. simply dependent on the interest that a thing excites in us lasting as long as it holds us in subjection. we offer the following is normally the true unifying princi remarks : Attention at times spontaneous. are contained within the bounds of a single object. The same is true of the The moment of inspiration is ruled its by a perfect and spontaneous unity. 49. recip rocally help and reinforce each 1 other. tenac ious attention. the develop1 Oelzelt-Newin. pre carious and intermittent. the personal moment. with out effort. and. the detailed working appears and long. then ceasing entirely. the processes of the persistent. In order to leave no doubt as to the identity of attention and imaginative synthesis.

for it persists in the uncon scious life where it has thrust its deep roots. . once settled. &quot. everits active idea. which from its nature semi-morbid. suffered does not permit anything to dislodge it save for the moment and with much pain. the like saying of Newton.Genius is only long patience. in a condition of obsession ance again. (3) is The extreme form. in attention (rela monoideism) a single image retains first place for a long time and tends to have the same import Finally. The normal sociation there state of our mind is a plurality of states of consciousness (polyideism). it are displaced in turn by still others emerging from the penumbra.always expressions of d Alembert.&quot. which pies first place. becomes in its highest degree plainly pathological. 87 mental labor without which creative work does not come to pass: &quot. notwithstanding relaxations and its incessant disappearances into the unconscious with return to consciousness. it. is Through as a radiation in every direction. The fixed idea. In this totality of coexisting images no one long occu is driven away by others.&quot. painfully this tyranny and have vainly struggled to break it.PRINCIPLE OF UNITY. Even then it is dis placed only apparently. because in the one case as in the other the funda thinking of and mental condition is the existence of a fixed. the unifying principle changes to a condition of obsession. tive On the contrary. (absolute monoideism) the fixed idea defies all riv Many inventors have alry and rules despotically. Helmholtz and others.

. too. the difficulty of establishing a dividing line between the two forms of obsession above mentioned re mains the same. It does not impose itself fatally on conscious ness 1 . knows -fixes. according as the idea or the affective Then they have been led to state predominates.The to has been said is self.gg THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. ask: Which of these it one? For some seems that these two elements is the primitive For others. fixed ideas has greatly occupied For other reasons and in own way into they. Pitres et Ke&quot. are the more numerous. accepted. and it the idea. and emotional. Nevroses et idees fixes. although it can act as a stimulus for creation. the individual knows the value thereof. Baymond et Janet. Stmeiologie des obsessions et des idees SSglas. in all cases normally longed for. each one? physiologically fixed idea often sought. have been led to divide the intellectual obsession two classes.gis. a natural question arises: Wherein is there a difference between the obsession mal. is no longer nor Consequently. of the inventor and the obsession of the insane. the affec is tive state is in general the sion always rests 1 in a retention of impressions. who most generally destroys in place of creating? The nature of contemporary their alienists. Lemons cliniques sur les maladies mentales. and it does not break the unity of the It : Are there characters peculiar &quot. At this stage the unifying principle. 1895. 1898 1878. primary fact.&quot. the obses on a basis of morbid emotion and But whatever opinion we may hold on this point.

Christopher Columbus.&quot. ligious field? If objection be made may. because in both cases ity. 89 where it leads him. case of psychic disintegration. and adapts his conduct to its For example. quitting and resuming it at their pleas an artistic. In real pure psychology is unable to discover a positive between obsession leading to creative work and the other forms. and not masters direct ing ure it. re It is of value according to its fruits. scientific.&quot. Obsession doubling of consciousness. What does it produce in the practical.parasitic. itself but by its effects. is &quot. whose self has been confis cated for the sake of the fixed idea. The special pathological fixed idea auto matic. The individual becomes only a a kind of is a person &quot. In spite of this parallel the distinguishing criterion between the two is very vague.possessed. moral. For that we must go out of the internal world and proceed We must judge the fixed idea not in objectively. at bottom. in order to stick to this change of front we to a strictly psychological . are rather taken up with the elaboration of their work. The must be sought elsewhere. because from the numerous. the same. difference the mental mechanism criterion is. esthetic. and whose sub mission to his situation is wrought with pain. social. sane to the delirious idea the transitions are very are obliged to recognize &quot. irresistible.that with We certain workers who it.PRINCIPLE OF UNITY.&quot. or mechanical conception succeeds in haunting the mind. imposing itself upon it even to the extent of causing suffering. discordant. requirements. scientific.

mechanism of the mind. In imagina which partly explains why shall its the pathological theory of genius (of which we speak later) has been able to rally so many to support and to allege so many facts in its favor. the fixed idea profoundly troubles the tive persons this is not rare. . state that it is certain that as soon as it passes beyond a middle point. which it is difficult to determine. point of view.go THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

SECOND PART THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMAGINATION. .

.

there is no lack of verified and authentic material. attempt to follow the imagination in its ascend ing development from the lowest to the most com plex forms.CHAPTER I IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS Up to this point the imagination has been treated This process alone would give us but a very imperfect idea of its essentially con crete and lively nature were we to stop here. will thus be exhibited in the inex haustible variety of its manifestations which the abstract and simplifying process of analysis does not permit us to suspect. from the animal to the human infant. I analytically only. Even eliminating mere anecdotes and doubtful observations. thence It to the highest modes of invention. but it still remains to inter pret them. not only because the question is much in volved but also because it is hardly liable to a posi tive solution. As soon as we begin to conjecture we . shall to primitive man. So this part continues the subject in another shape. I I shall not dwell at length on the imagination of animals.

even if not his with much system broadest sense.94 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.. 1. etc.* tion&quot. reproductive imagination. 3. At night. by he Romanes Taking in Mental Evolution in Animals. horses. Spontaneous revival. which may be called a passive In order synthesis. through an internal working of the mind. the sight of an orange reminds one of its taste. i. This is a higher form of up in ants. wasps.imagina in : its recognizes four stages For example. &quot. without suggestion derived from without. An object present calls an absent object. The other two constitute the higher imagination. This is a low form of memory. difficult it know how is to divest ourselves of all anthropomorphism. to establish its existence. The treated. It is the lower and primitive form of the creative imagination. It is met with very far down scale. Romanes reminds us in that dreams have been proven 1 dogs. because baying of a hound stops all the dangers he has undergone are represented in his mind. the distant the fox in his course. and a Chapter X. Provoked revival of images. . and the author furnishes abun it. These two stages do not go beyond memory pure and simple. bees. question has been formulated. which memory. resting on asso ciation in the animal by contiguity. dant proof of 2. e.. frequent fact explains the mistrustful sagacity of wild ani mals. The capacity of associating absent images.

and. 4. Is this character exclusively human. there must first be capacity for abstraction. this and is sometimes found the true creative imagination.IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. tional states. that certain animals. says he. cit. these facts. and appropriate emo This assertion is perhaps true. so frequent in animal psychology. and there is that in some produced a condition resembling nostalgia. and not without For creation. One of the conditions for creative imagination critical is thus wanting in the higher animals. when one asks. 1 good memory. pursued by phantoms. fulfill all the necessary 1 conditions for creative imagination subtle senses. or in a wasting away resulting from the absence of accustomed persons and things. Certain animals. expressing itself in a violent desire to return to former haunts. of birds. We in here come to one of those moments. . highest stage consists of intentionally reuniting images in order to make novel combina This may be called an active tions from them. but Op. large 95 number cially in anger. no.. or is it found embryo in lower forms? Thus it has been pos sible to support a theory opposing that of Romanes. Is in the animal kingdom? Romanes very clearly replies. All especially the latter. Appendix. offering a plausible reason. abstraction is very weak. can hardly be without a vivid recollection of the images explained of previous life. without speech. espe seem to be subject to delusions and lastly. The synthesis. says Oelzelt-Newin.

et al. It is not unreasonable to attribute to them an representation of their architecture. there yet remains the logic . white ants. certain animals modify them. It is equivalent the thing is possible. If. Judging from this. We mysterious synthesis of might with equal reason bring the instances of other building animals (bees. Shall we say that it is &quot. the logic of concepts forbidden it. is in the absence of words.) show that. consequently unconscious? At least. it does not establish it as a fact. how refuse them inven This contradicts in no way the It is sufficient very just reservation of Romanes. tion altogether? that the simplest are accessible to the animal intelli gence. the common ants. there is lack of voluntarily limits study to birds nests.instinctive. to remark that abstraction or dissociation has stages.). against Wallace and others. to saying that purely dialectic. reduced to the alternative of the impossibility of building or the modification of their habits. may we not group under anticipated changes and adaptations to new condi which these animals succeed in applying to Observa the typical plans of their construction? tions and even systematic experiments (like those this head. is it very certain that all the condi tions since for creative we have just shown that The author.96 it is THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.&quot. who abstraction? his imagination are present here.the nest-building requires representations. Besides. tions of Huber. wasps. beavers. etc. Forel. and the construction of their maintains.&quot. that &quot.

a recuperation.&quot. the reader is Evolution of General Ideas (English Co. Open Court Publishing Chicago). we must seek Generally speaking. does not rule out the other two. *For a more detailed study of referred to the author trans. a preliminary exercise for the active functions of life and for the 1 The last posi development of our natural gifts. 58-73. (Tr. but it comprehends both in a more general explanation. 1902. 1902. due to Groos. it holds the first valid for the young. tion. the The late Professor Arthur Allin devoted much time to See his brief article entitled investigation of play. We have already seen that there are three theories concerning fluous its nature &quot.&quot. chapter I.IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. sec tion I. vol. &quot. itself purely motor. A. animals can invent according to tions. we attribute only if a mediocre importance to a manifestation that might very well be the proper It is form of animal fancy. restoring of strength. through the its Although play may be as old as mankind.. and expresses various kinds of play. I.expenditure of super activity. in the University of Colorado Studies. 2 97 of images.. mending. the second for adults. vol.&quot. s this subject.a it is &quot. In our opinion. &quot. the extent that they can dissociate. psychology dates only from the nineteenth century. we may with any truthfulness power to animals. pp.an apprenticeship. it attribute a creative elsewhere.Play&quot. *A rather extended study of the subject by H. Carr will be found in the Investigations of the Department of Psychology and Education of the University of Colorado. which is sufficient for slight innova In a word. Number 2. I.) .

experimental physics. dogs. birds. bits of glass). Let us leave this doctrinal question in order to call attention to the variety and richness of form In this respect the of play in the animal world. viz. playing with a living or dead prey: the dog and cat following moving objects. often giving the animal a certain knowledge of the properties of the This is the introduction to an external world. and even fishes. consisting of trials at hazard without immediate end. optics. etc. by a kind of anticipation of the esthetic (6) Dollfeeling. (7) so familiar in monkeys (grimaces) . singing-birds which counterfeit the voices of a large number of . revealing itself especially in the build ing of nests: certain birds ornament them with shining objects (stones. and mechanics for the (2) Movements or changes of a very general place executed of their own accord fact as is proven by the incessant movements of butterflies. which often . a ball. whether civilized or savage. (5) Archi tectural art. in free space. feather. I limit He dis his classification.: (i) Those tinguishes nine that are at bottom experimental. flies. appear to play in the water rather than to seek prey the mad running of horses. i. etc.. its equivalent Imitation through pleasure. (4) Mimic battles. teasing and fighting without anger. brood of animals. myself to summing up classes of play. e. (3) Mimicry of hunting.gg THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. play is universal in mankind. aforementioned book of Groos is a rich mine of evidence to which I would refer the reader.. Groos believes he has found in certain animals.

Here. : they are not a repetition of daily life.which differ from the others in that they are not mere exercises. what is going on in the street. &quot. there is creation. its invention. Darwin s time. . value which has been denied Lloyd Morgan. sounds or songs) but. another.IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. under one form or tiful colors). (9) Love-plays. flight. beasts. so that all is limited to a spon taneous production and a collection of motor phe nomena. fights. Wallaschek. which is the only mental one meets in animals the dog watching.&quot. They have been well-known since he attributing to them an esthetic by Wallace. and Groos. It will doubtless be said that this form of imagi nation belongs to a very shallow. It cannot be otherwise. poor psychology. the purely motor character. Tylor. emission of noises. It is necessary that imagi- . dancing. acts necessary for self-preservation. and serve as a center for imagination acts in their grouping. it of a small number of images that become consists translated into actions. At one time the movements are combined simultaneously (exhibition of beau again (and most often) successively (amorous parades. perhaps even the image itself is hardly conscious. Let us recapitulate in thought the immense quantity of motor expressions included in these nine categories and let us note that they have the fol in They are grouped lowing characters in common combinations that are often new and unforeseen. 99 (8) Curiosity. from play a wall or window. but have in view a real object.

Even most of their inventions in . impulsive. of reflex. and imitative movements. breaking into bits the data of expe making them raw material for the future construction. especially as regards connections. Wernicke) outlined in the lower mammalia and attain only a mediocre development in the higher forms. His intellectual development is much inferior to that instinctive. during the first years of his life. lack of images. or as bundles of comare hardly misural fibers (Meynert. a very poor supply of images. of possible combinations of images. and the its special characteristic mark. It cannot have any others for the following reasons: the work incapacity for that necessarily precedes abstraction or dissociation. By way compare the higher animals with this comparison is not based on a of corroboration of the foregoing. In consequence of this predominance of the motor system.100 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. We know that the nervous elements in the brain serving as connections between sensory regions whether one conceive of them as centers (Flechsig). This last point is proven alike from the data of animal psychology and of comparative anatomy. a very weak capacity for abstraction. native production be found reduced to its simplest motor form must be expression in animals. the simple and imperfect images. in chil dren as in animals. tend to be immediately changed into movements. Man. and especially fewness rience. let us young children: few far-fetched analogies. has a brain but slightly differentiated. but in a thorough resemblance in nature.

in favor of the prevalence of the motor type in the child is of imagination furnished by the principal part taken by movements A serious argument in infantile insanity first : a remark made by many alienists. kicks. hallucinations) but by reason of its feeble intellectual development the . IOI play are greatly inferior to those enumerated above under nine distinct heads. there likewise exists in the child a sensorial madness (illusions. The disturb ances are in the primary centers of organization and according to the symptoms lack those analytic or constructive qualities. * Insanity of Children.a stage of this madness. . in Dictionary of Psy chological Medicine. that we find in adult insanity. If we descend to the lowest stage of human life to the baby we see that insanity consists almost entirely of the activity of a muscular group acting on external objects. 1 Has not chorea itself been called a muscular in sanity ? Doubtless. and these symptoms are the external measure of the degree of its madness. those ideal forms. The insane baby bites.&quot. 1 Hack Tuke. The physical ailment. merely a muscular delirium. they say. but disturbance of the automatic and instinctive func tions of the child is so often associated with mus cular disturbances that at this age the mental dis orders correspond to the motor ganglionic centers situated below those parts that later assume the labor of analysis and of imagination.IMAGINATION IN ANIMALS. is The found in the convulsions that are not &quot.

causes . it would be necessary to seek greatest simplicity where is reduced to the in the animal world. I consider shown bare. I do not believe that if out foundation. we merely a mental form with take into account the fore it going rather as a point in favor It is a singular invention. delirium a disorder of movements rather its than of images insane imagination is above all a motor insanity. it is Nevertheless. To hold that the creative imagination belonging move to animals consists of new combinations of ments is certainly an hypothesis. If we wanted it to discover it it. . of the motor theory of form of creation is instance in which the original facts.102 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

We could not dwell long on the organic causes without falling into tiresome repetitions. in what form. Reflex not complete in him. has no justification.CHAPTER II THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION CHILD At what ance? It IN THE age. the sensory centers itself is are undifferentiated. not pure reproduction by by sudden eruption. the associational systems re main isolated for a long time after birth. The new born infant is a spinal being. under what condi tions does the creative imagination is make its appear impossible which. its evolution is very slow on account of causes both organic and psychological. life composed largely of water. The psychological causes reduce themselves to the necessity for a consolidation of the primary and s . creative imagination develops to answer this question. and the corticomotor system only hinted at. with an unformed diffluent brain. For the little by little out of an evolutionary process. moreover. Nevertheless. have We given above Flechsig observation on this point.

In truth it gives its full . as does Baldwin. and imitation. agreeing too much or Furthermore. with much false interpretation possible. four mental development of the child ( I ) : (rudimentary sensory processes. rudimentary will. tive or final ideal (conscious thought. To be the creative imagination cannot take form. In order to enter into the child-mind. complicated movements. as their fancy passes the middle level. without which secondary operations of the mind. Whatever the propitious age may be. (4) subjec offensive activities. too little with the facts. studied live and grow up in a civilized The tion result is that the development of their imagina rarely unhampered and complete for as soon is .!04 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. precise. instincts of mem (a) appearance of special senses. we must become like a child. objective. the children environment. we accept this scheme as approximately correct. as it it is. primarily (b) complex memory. we might epochs in the affective distinguish. the rationaliz ing education of parents and teachers is eager to master and control it. defensive. grades. ory. simple motor adaptations) (2) and (3) in which the author establishes two . the study of the child-imagination is not without difficulties. pleasures and pains. constitutive will. the moment of imagination must be assigned to the third period (the second stage of the objective epoch) which fulfills all the sufficient and necessary conditions for its origina tion and for its rise above pure reproduction. If emotions). we are limited to an interpretation of in terms of the adult.

healthy. retired. checked in its flight by an antagonistic power. we must make a distinction between the imaginative and non-imaginative. otherwise. which treats it as a harbinger of insanity. observation shows from the start sufficiently dis tinct varieties. and the latter should be elimi nated. different orientations of the imagina tion depending on intellectual causes. I. such as the predominance of visual or acoustic or tactile-motor images making for mechanical invention. being at the same time repetition and construction. joyous. of character. without assigning them. exuberant. the attempt to follow the development of child-imagination. 10$ of measure and reveals itself in the fulness growth it is only among primitive peoples. and for this reason urgently asks that in his coffin his shirt be not tight at the neck : this odd prepossession of the mind belongs neither . according as the latter If is timid. With us children are not equally well-suited for this study. they are very fre I know a person who is always afraid of quent. The first stage consists of the passage from Its history would to include all the hybrid forms that passive to creative imagination. a rigorous chronological order. sickly. When we have thus chosen suitable subjects. Finally. or de pendent on emotional causes. Even in the adult. be long were are we made up partly of memories. we may distinguish four we now principal stages.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. partly of new groupings. that is. etc. being smothered.

Nevertheless.&quot. coming from with in. in order to finally perceive well. So that perception requires an apprenticeship we must feel.sensation&quot. memory nor first flights to imagination. There seems to be a radical difference between perception. remnants of former experiences. adds to the sensations present appropriate images. is only a fraction of the total and in the operation we call &quot. does not go beyond reproductive is imagination. there must be a synthesis of images. The sensory datum fact is. perfectly perceive. to rise it is generally admitted that in order above sensation to perception. elements are required To put one. which seizes reality. Without enumerating other facts of this kind. . more simply. a part only of the object represented. two forms has been so often proven by contem two forms of the psychic life porary psychology that a few words to recall this to mind will be sufficient.IO6 to THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . the other. and imagination. it the physiological stimulus acting on the nerves and the sensory centers.perceiving. then im . that apprehending an object is directly. The decisive step taken in illusion. however. which becomes translated in the consciousness through the vague state that goes by name &quot. This particular case illustrates in a the very clear form the nature of mind attempting to exercise its imaginative powers. . This. two coming from without. limiting ourselves to perception and illu The necessary presence of the image in these sion. it is more desirable to follow the of the imagination s development.

2. we shall return to it Works on psychology abound creates primitive in the next chapter. and there is the representative element is secondary. The creative imagination asserts its itself with peculiar characteristics only in the second stage. the chief element is the sensory.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. in the strict sense. of the mixed cases. since no perception but may undergo this erron eous transformation. and it is produced by the same mechanism. a distant noise seems the music of an orchestra. in the form of animism or the attributing of This turn of the mind is life to everything. but with interchange of the two terms. we have just the opposite condition what one takes : as perceived is merely imagined -the imagination assumes the principal role. Illusion is the type of the transitional forms. As the state of the child that mind at that period resembles which in myths. known to us. amplified by an immediate construction mind a branch of a tree becomes a serpent. His attitude to- . that con sist of constructions made up of memories. already though mentioned only s incidentally. : Illusion has as broad a field as perception. creations. in facts man demonstrat ing that this primitive tendency to attribute life and even personality to everything is a necessary phase that the tion. mind must undergo poor long or short in dura according to the rich or in inventions. IQJ know that illusion has as a basis and support a modification of the external senses which are meta of the We morphosed. without being. In perception. in illusion. level of the child s imagination.

One little fellow. thus. among all races of men.: ! &quot. hap an angle.I . two and carry them out One will find a large number of examples in Sully s work. They re pened to slip. I used to feel how dull it must be for the pebbles in the causeway to lie still and only see what was round about. being found in all countries without exception. so that the horizontal limb He One of Sully* s correspondents talking together had the habit of attributing intelligence says: not only to all living creatures but even &amp. and said: &quot. Studies of Childhood. in certain minds. can dare anything. . addressing it Another little boy well Dear old boy W.The Age of Imag ination.Oh. thus : on in his fourth year. and also the best example. Most of the observations given in the present chap ter have been borrowed from this author. when he made an F turn the wrong way and then put the correct form to the left. It is needless to pile up facts fice. because it is universal. when tracing a letter L. When I walked out with a basket for putting flowers in. which shows that at this particular moment animism.&quot. entitled &quot. F l.gt. he exclaimed. thus: formed saw the resem instantly Lj blance to the sedentary human form. &quot. to stones and manufactured articles. I used sometimes to pick up a pebble or to have a change. aged one year eight months. . conceived a special fondness for the letter W. I choose them on account of their extrava 1 gance.I08 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . he s sitting down/* Similarly. Two will suf on an uncontroverted point. wards his dolls is the common example of this state. Chapter ii.

not . ICX) Let us stop a moment in order to try to determine the nature of this strange mental state. this creative power investing the image with all its attributes of real existence is derived from a fundamental fact the state of belief. or rather. This has as is its This an important basis a reality that it includes. Lastly. but from the child itself The stick that the child holds between his The becomes for him an imaginary steed. because this however tiny. It does not come within my province to . presents shall a. from gestion. e. and since the creative imagination at its beginning. that takes possession of consciousness to the exclusion of everything else : it is the analogue of the state of suggestion in the hypnotized subject. all the more as it meet it again in primitive man. of his mental development makes all the poverty legs easier this contraction of the field of his conscious ness. it is auto-sug another. which assures the supremacy of the image. The mechanism is like that which produces reality. b. detail to note. i. gives objectivity to the imag creation and incorporates it with the external inary world. the material exciting them. the images.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. haunt his brain. adherence of the mind founded on purely subjective conditions. but with a stable character excluding cor The child transforms a bit of wood or rection. we The first element is a fixed idea. or group of images. paper into another self. illusion. c. an image.. with this sole difference that the suggestion does not come from without. because he perceives only the phantom he has created that is.

Spinoza already asserts &quot. is altogether unaccept The psycho viewpoint giving the true nature of the image has prevailed little by little. Representation and belief are it separated. It has had to at first as a real object. faith and it succeeds therein only because of the not completely the nature of the image to appear accompanying the image. imagination is the production of a reality of human this psychic state. Neglected in by the older physiology. has made itself though proven through acceptable only with great difficulty.HO THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. (Tr. logical 1 studies Apropos of this subject compare especially the recent by William James. is This psychological truth. on the other hand. Varieties of Eeligious Experience.that representations considered by themable in psychology. against a doctrine of the logicians who maintain that the idea is at first merely conceived with no affirmation of existence or non-existence (apprehensio simplex). nature of the imagination is The peculiarity of the totally incomprehensible. whose faculty-method it toward this omission. the origin. which is an abstract science. belief or faith has clined recently I 1 become the object of numerous studies.) . to remarking that but for necessarily limit myself treat incidentally such a large question. This position. legitimate in logic. a concrete science. struggle on the one hand against the prejudices of common-sense for which imagination is synonymous with sham and vain appearance and opposed to the real as non-being to being. observation.

ing as During the first.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. the less one the would believe the it. it is which we Existence is not a quality added to it founded on habit and is irresistible. Section VII ff. I think. enumerates very many facts whence he con treats the cludes that imagination is always accompanied by an act of belief. Finally.denies that it is possible to perceive [represent] without affirming. Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind. which is definitive. Dugald Stewart psychologist He question purely as a following the experimental method. but just commands happens strong representation persuasion like sensation itself. Hume : jective dispositions assigns belief to our sub Belief does not depend on the nature of the idea. . through the 1 effect of other states of consciousness Spinoza. Scholium. Dugald Stewart. and he &quot. but for which fact the more vivid the image. but on the conceive it. by us. by studying the nature of the image and its primitive character contrary of hallucination. has two moments. it is deprived of its a full objectivity. . Taine treats the subject methodically. Hume. Ill. Ch. II. appear and complete reality. it is objective. when who does not regard as proven that it enters consciousness. Human Under standing. there is no psychologist the image. I. Part II. Vol. On Intelligence.&quot. Taine. selves contain Ill no errors. Ethics. 49.&quot. during the second. Part III. reduced to a completely internal event. 1 At present. manner in The difference between fiction and belief consists of a feeling added to the latter but not to the former. More explicitly.

as soon as these affective and active dispositions disappear in life s its the. love. There are active faculties that we sometimes under designate by the name standing by the term. Besides the intellectual element which is its content. The Will to Believe and Other Essays. passions. 139 ff.112 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . After 1 this.will. religion. character. not only delib erate volition. James. owes its creative and vivifying power to general dispositions of our constitution. is it necessary to remark that belief p. ) giving the image its intensity. fear. prejudices. experience. being only a mode of existence. leaving in its place a formless content. faith falls with them. belief can withstand the logical assaults of the rationalizing intelligence power is found everywhere. then negation. explains politics. an empty and dead representa tion. &quot. etc. sectarian feeling. It lasts as long as mind waits and consents. and ful 1 this has justly given rise to the truth saying that the test of belief is action. as James says. which oppose and finally annihilate its objective There is an affirmation. in the moral in and elsewhere. but all the factors of belief (hope. 10. fear.&quot. This life. and assur ing it success in the struggle against other states of consciousness. then inhibition. an attitude of the mind. Faith. how in love. but. and so 2 forth). * De la croyance. Payot. impulse. its material the thing affirmed or denied there are tendencies and other affective factors (desire.

that creative activity depends images. phantoms complete. Insofar as concerns the special case of the child. remark that this applies only partially to the ignorant and even less We to the savage. the second (the rectifying) is nothing: there is hypertrophy of one. the first consequence of experience and habit. wherein the image should be affirmed as a reality. On the one hand. For the adult the contrary indeed. the first of the two moments (the affirming) that the image undergoes in consciousness is all in all for him. nevertheless. doubt must indeed arise in him from time to whose . perfectly identified with a horse? Was that showed its doll a series of engravings to It choose seems that we must rather admit an intermittence. unreserved. from. atrophy of the other. an alteration be tween affirmation and negation. we return by another route to the on the motor nature of thesis supported in the first part of this essay. in is true in many cases. Is the stick that he bestrides Sully s child. ask is ourselves if the child s belief in his absolute. atrophied. is only virtual.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. nor belief without imagination. is literally must. We might. entire. On the other hand. 113 depends peculiarly on the motor elements of our organization and not on the intellectual? As there is no imagination without belief. however. completely deceived? the skeptical attitude of those who laugh at it dis pleases the child. moment. who is like a devout believer faith is being broken down.

It is no longer a simple combination of images. lates defence. gives cer tain vague notions concerning the nature of things such it is . gives himself infra). reasons for which we shall give later (see chapter iv. child. rectification could or never it occur one away. coachman. merchant. To the period of imitation succeed more serious attempts he acts with a his &quot. simu in movements. Play serves two ends for experimenting: as an introduction to knowledge.U4 time. 3. up to large plans acts. but the child soon passes beyond this lower stage. for creating: this is its principal function. boats. etc. he is possessed by idea which he tends to is realize.spirit of mastery. like the animal. He and constructs houses. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. He begins by imi tating: this is The human a physiological necessity. for without belief this. coincides As a form of creation it is already preceding. third stage is that of play. flight. imagination retreats. expends itself forms associations new to it. known dren. robber. but he imitates most in his own person making himself in turn soldier. but then. attack.. under this form. The in with the one just chronological order. .&quot. but in passing it grows in from animals to chil complexity and becomes intel- lectualized. sailor. in order to construct by means of images (ideally). opposes This second work proceeds the other drives little by little. The he is personal character of creation really interested only in shown in that a work that emanates . which. to us.

IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. whose inventions seemed to him very poor. my awkward &quot. Perez. wholly imaginative (i. tive children e.I believed foot. which requires a more refined culture. 323. p. his for. in many a book. this experience and it others like is have taught me that their creative said.I at a childish construction. Les trois premieres annees de I enfant. he remarked shortly that at all entertaining/ it The author adds and I : &quot. Perez relates that he wanted to give a lesson to his nephew. planted little branches on both banks. feels himself the B. being tion. put a bridge across. In addition. Perez scratched in the sand a trench resembling a river. cool.&quot. cast in three or We know the taste of imagina surfeited: in this for stories to and legends. useless to persist. which they until have repeated them resemble semi-civilized people. At a purely internal.&quot. and had water flow through it. aged three and a half years. experiencing all the emotions appropriate to the respect they *B. It begins at about images) creation.this At each new Out isn t act the child would remain admiration would always have to be waited of patience. 1 trampled at - under tempt read it laughing at myself. but this time I had already had learned from experience that the is free initiative of children make force always superior to the imitations we pretend to for them. and launched boats. four years of age. who listen greedily to rhapsodies for hours at a time. .. 115 from himself and of which he cause. &quot. much weaker than has been the fourth stage appears romantic inven 4.

almost groaning. 145. The groaning continued. he will have Sometimes the to get some powder to heal it. It may even be the sign of an inborn vocation and indicate in what direction the creative activity will be orientated. pp.Too-too A little girl of about three called to finally the sick. struck his poor leg. op. having found a hollow rock. which them to create in their own turn. aged five years nine months. A child of three often longed to live in the sky. or like a star Another.1 16 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. a semi-passive. tion. semi-active will permit an apprentice period. tuelle et morale de I enfant. too-too train started on again. and when was overjoyed that too-too . Thus the first attempts are made with reminiscences. invention is less realistic. It 1 is not as common as well endowed. This form of imagination the others. etc. p. invented a fairy story the hole was a beautiful hall inhabited by brilliant : mysterious personages. and a half saw a lame man and exclaimed &quot. and imitated rather than created. Of this we find numerous examples in the special going along a road. 1 L evolution intellec- (Some time ago the writer was riding on a train. for some reason or other. child of three : A leg. etc. he has dot [got] a bad poor Then the romance begins He was on a high horse he fell on a rock.&quot. until it finally came to a full stop. jerking..) ) sick. the prelude to crea state. like a fish in the water.Look at that ole man. &quot. works. This is incidents of the tale. : . began to slow up. belongs to those whom nature has It forecasts a development of mind above the average. Sully. mamma.. puffing. the child was well again. (Tr. cit. her mother.&quot. Compayre&quot. 59-61. when the engine.

at first to his nurse. an abundant source of often picturesque metaphors. processes that appear and intermingle in an unforeseen manner. Darwin. Preyer. invents romances.The grass is crying. Let us briefly recall the creative role of in 117 the language. and extends language. rational thought. 1 Sully. the other secondary it contains a germ of thought and ventures a fanciful explanation of the world which can not yet be con ceived according to abstract notions and laws. tit. A child called the cork of a bottle called little &quot. They have shown that its psychological mechanism de pends sometimes on the perception of resemblance.baby dollar dew on the grass. The extension of the meaning of words has been studied by Taine. Thus. &quot..mambro&quot. seeing the American a &quot. then to a sewing machine that she uses. one principal it creates plays. p.door. 164. 1 We have elsewhere given where we perceive the funda mental difference between thought by imagery and more similar cases. coin was by a another. op. then to his toys representing animals. a child applies the word &quot. and others. To conclude: At this period the imagination is the master-faculty and the highest form of intel lectual development. said. again on association by contiguity. then by analogy to an organ that he sees on the street adorned with a monkey.&quot. through the intervening imagination of a factor already studied thinking by analogy.IMAGINATION IN THE CHILD. .&quot. It works in two directions. a small .&quot.

but is no longer an enigma in animals. one so rich in information rightly concerning the creative imagination. It is there revealed to us in its entire spon1 Primitive man has been defined as * he for whom sensuous data and images surpass in importance rational concepts.&quot. in it ? more favorable conditions for knowing is is.CHAPTER III PRIMITIVE MAN AND THE CREATION OF MYTHS to a We come now unique period in the history its of the development of the imagination golden confined in savagery age. many contemporary The mental would be primitive. who nor a transitory phase as in the civilized rapidly advances to the age of reason. and state of the human . being. permanent and lasting throughout 1 life. it reaches its full bloom in the creation of myths. and we are In primitive man. that a purely imaginative the imagination marks the summit of intellectual development. From artists this standpoint. still astonished that psychologists. deed. his prior to civilization. have neglected such an im portant form of activity. obstinately attached to esthetics. or just starting toward civilization. Man. it He does not go as beyond child it is this stage. find Where. a fixed state. novelists. poets.

however. taneity: it 119 has free rein. for him.CREATION OF MYTHS. unconscious work. which. philosophy. it is sovereign. which. it is no longer necessary in our time to show their interest and importance. This working of the pure imagination. misunderstood. While past ages forgot. a totality of phenomena subject to laws. and nothing limits or hinders him. disfigured. As primitive man has knowledge neither of nature nor of its laws. he does not hesitate to less embody the most sense The imaginings flitting through his brain. Thanks to the labors of the nineteenth century. it can create without imitation or tradition. world is not. it is not imprisoned in any conventional form. religion. as unworthy of an hour s attention. is sufficient in every way. they offer an almost inexhaustible content. as long as lasts. science. left to and unadulterated rational itself by the intrusion and tyranny of into one elements. poetry. has not as yet drawn all the benefit possible from them. an anony rule mous. becomes translated its form the creation of myths. moreover. and. the advantage of being the incarna of pure imagination. . we must also take account of the (comparative) simplicity of the social environment. even for psychology. history. and often des pised myths as aberrations of the human mind. comprehends every thing law. individual is not enough for such a determination. they per tion Myths have mit psychologists to study them objectively.

Apollo. genealogical. Hercules are three per sonifications of the sun. spring. whose pion is Max of a disease of language &quot. two designated by more than twenty names in the Vedas. Phaethon. The same adjective. (b) Homonomy. or anthro 1 pological. its every word tends to become an entity having and its legends. The opponents of J etc. wrong construction. concepts from a single origin the worship of the dead. refers to the sun. holds that myths are the result words become transformation things. literally. who brings down all religious and mythic cer.&quot.&quot.nomina numina.shining. etc. The first. We the other. ones the one. is (a) Polyprincipal linguistic causes Thus the sun several words for one thing. this doctrine maintain that in Let us mention the euhemeristic theory of Herbert Spen taken up recently by Grant Allen (The Evolution of the Idea of God. But before commencing the psychological study of the genesis and formation of myths considered as an objective emanation of the creative imagina tion. In short. a fountain. V around (night) and Yama (death) express at first and have become two attributes distinct the same conception. for several things.I2O THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. This another source of confusion. . etymological. a single word is &quot. or cipal linguistic . we must briefly summarize the hypotheses at find two prin present offered for their origin. is This the effect of nomy. deities. Let us also add metaphors taken plays upon words. 1897). principal though not sole cham Miiller. ethno-psychological.

penetrates further to psycho it leads us to the first advances of logical origins the human mind. me. much more general than the foregoing. It regards the myth not as an accident of primitive life. often immoral. Mito e Scienza. the purely philological explanation mains without value for psychology: it is neither it does not solve the question. meant to arouse attention and to provoke opposition. best adapted for psychology. . the formation of myths.When I tried to briefly characterize mythology In its inner nature.&quot. &quot. and respect for According to the definition that seems antiquity. habits. because they are survivals of a distant epoch. 51. the mythic crea tions seem absurd. &quot.&quot. 121 words represent scarcely Whatever may be the worth of this re assertion.CREATION OF MYTHS. but as a natural function. the myth is psychological objectification of man in all the 2 It is a humaniphenomena that he can perceive. Later. The word is only an occasion. it true nor false merely avoids it. working of the mind exciting would change. a mode of activity proper to man during a certain period of his development. a vehicle. p. without the it. Moreover. language and thought are de Myfhologie. Max Miiller nothing this. five per cent. I called it a disease of language rather than a dis ease of thought. p. 1 himself has recently recognized The anthropological theory. Nouvelles Etudes Vignoli. The expression was strange but intentionally For so. cherished and conse crated through tradition. 27.the to me zation of nature according to processes peculiar to the imagination. 1 inseparable.

. winds and storms. It Are these two views irreconcilable? seem so to me. the sun. whence it results that origin the numberless myths are reduced to a very small number of types. Have they inspired myths ? Just the opposite surprising races have &quot. have their we may suppose. provided we accept the a partial explanation. : and other animals supposedly the most intelligent.&quot. elephants. Ritual. and Religion. 1 now study the psychology of this creative it reducing to these two questions : How Marillier. on monkeys. of the ideas that the various Let us activity. compared to the fecundity of nature. of the and destiny of man. Lang s Preface to the French translation of Andrew Myth. sickness. moon and stars. in which respect they need a little psychol The periodic returns of the dawn. etc. This is the objective factor. both schools important for us that the first human life : birth.122 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 1 shows that it is the human imagination that takes the principal part and that it is on the whole perhaps not so rich as we are pleased to say that it is even very poor. does not agree on one point material for myths is furnished by the observation of natural phenomena. death.the monotony made final causes of phenomena. the effect also. The creation of myths has its explanation in the nature of human imagination this is the subjective factor. can not deny that most works on mythology have a very decided We tendency to give the greater importance to the first factor. including the great events of as only In any event. ogy.

and travelers fill This state of mind does not par large volumes. describe separately.CREATION OF MYTHS. and eyes it if we would with our own is not at all necessary to the whole. and other objects (seemingly) incapable of movement. principal moments that of romantic invention. for there are frequent reversions even in civilized lands. the lower races of humanity the sun and stars. may theoretically. plunge into virgin countries. a. Animating everything. the trees and rivers. The first consists of attributing life to all however. Of this inborn and irresistible tendency there are so many facts in proof that an enumera tion is needless : it is the rule. become . it It is still in see existence. it is contemporary. it On must be regarded as conceded that to says Tylor. be regarded as that of creation proper. that is attributing life and action to everything. we have things. of the its rise. mythologists. representing everything to one s self as living and acting even mountains. the winds and clouds. are 123 myths formed ? ? What line does their evolution follow The psychology work that causes of the origin of the myth. ticularly belong to long-past ages. The evidence gath ered by ethnologists. the second of assigning qualities to all things. and for the sake of facilitating analysis. rocks. two and The moment of creation presupposes two to inseparable operations which.

no no form of sickness escapes. 1897. but coherent and serious. useful or One hurtful.The alone. Primitive man lives and moves among the ceaseless phantoms 2 of his own imagination. They are good or bad. has caprices. kind or cruel. All of the nature to whom he owes his soul speaks to him through the noise of the wind. like a man. remains stupefied before the swarming of these numberless genii act of beliefs whom no natural phenomenon. hidden behind The grounds on which such ideas are use. it avoids the thicket . inseparable. as The second operation of the mind. Crooke s book. periods of anger . Popular Religion and India. Indian traversing the Montafia never feels himself Legions of beings accompany him. distinct personality. like animated creatures living that men and beasts. in the roaring of the waterfall. remain unbroken even among the tribes that 1 are in contact with old civilizations. being. The insect like the bird everything. Folk-lore of Northern *On this point consult a work very W. its depths. and these life. attributes to these imaginary beings various qualities. they depend on a vast philosophy of nature. even to the bending twig wet with dew for him has language. The forest is alive in *&quot. rich in information. weak or powerful.124 T&E CREATIVE IMAGINATION. we have said. from the first. certainly rude and primi tive. but all impor tant to man. makes based cannot be regarded as less than a poetic fancy or an ill-understood metaphor. ful function in creation filling their special or rather what the human eye can reach is only the instrument or the matter of which some gigantic the visible things.

p. for sprouting grain. Thus. &quot. the second moment that of fanciful invention. Des Andes au Para. for grain in flower. the psychological tive 125 moment is very simple. Entities take form. feeling factor previously studied is a matter first of all thinking by analogy. The Indian knows all that. very different from that of reason. but had its own presiding genius. where miserable goblins exhaust all their witchcraft upon him. no act.Analogies that for us are only fancies were for the man of past ages b. for under the tread of the huntsman. the validity of an objec tive connection between things. cast in our mould. mechanism of the crea It depends on a single It important conceiving beings analogous to ourselves. the religion of the Romans peopled the universe with an innumerable quantity of genii. what seem alike. But the logic of images. for blighted grain. no detail. There was one for germinating grain. it re gards as alike. is real&quot. Whence arises the discord between the imagined world and the world of reality. drags him into infected swamps. . it attributes to an internal linking of images. he knows those dread genii by name. then qualifying them and determining them according to the attributes of our own nature. Monnier. concludes an objective resemblance. of poor and dry People imagination do not reach the second period. cut after our pattern. (Tylor). or again presses him more closely. : they have a history and adventures they become the stuff for a romance. into closed bogs.CREATION OF MYTHS. that is. No object. Lastly. In the genesis of myths. drink his blood by attaching their lips to the wounds made by briers. 300. and this is of and acting.

its hinges. such as celestial See Part Chapter IV. its Besides analogy. construct a romance. Who created those legends and tales of adventure constituting the subject-matter of mythology? Probably inspired individuals.&quot. the very few themes upon which has labored. hallucinations. in certain cases. . There was a myriad of misty. they are the work of imaginative minds par excellence (we shall study them later) who. Ordinarily they have been studied in their historical development accord acter.constellation. etc. importance. the 1 human imagination I. abstraction has killed imagination. this imaginative creation has as principal source the associational form already described under it the name &quot. they are derived from several Whatever their origin. formless entities. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. we must see it act in large masses. This operation has al ready been expounded theoretically with individual 1 But in order to gauge its examples in support.. We based on the fact that. its lock. This is animism arrested at its first stage. They came perhaps from dreams. priests or prophets. if we consider only i. their content e. the arousing of an image-group is the result that is know of a tendency prevailing at a given instant over several that are possible. ing to their geographical distribution or ethnic char If we proceed otherwise. must.126 the door. because of their nature. Myths allow us to do this. confronted with any event what insane attacks sources. ever.

etc. These variations are due to of fire. terrestrial disturbances. What prised at the wonderful richness of variety. or on a level of civilization. which have orientated the imagi nation now in one direction. the manner of living totally savage. floods. collective character.&quot. the we are sur origin of the universe. of man.chance. explain the multiplicity of the imaginative concep tions of the world.CREATION OF MYTHS. Let us mention the principal ones whether the imagination istics : Racial character is clear or mobile. in contrast to the unity and simplicity of scientific conceptions. To begin with. ii The form attention by of imagination now occupying our reason of its non-individual. poor or exuberant. and decline. or those of creation. the physical environment external nature cannot be reflected in the brain of a Hindoo in the same way as in that of a Scandinavian. of considerable and lastly. of water ! multiple causes. anony in its successive phases mous. diversity in the solar myths. The variable combinations of these different factors. is it necessarily inherent in the human mind ? Are there races or groups of men totally devoid of myths? which is a slightly different question from that . now in another. 1 27 phenomena. attains a long develop ment that we may follow of ascent. that assemblage unexpected causes grouped and under the term &quot. with the predominance of one or the other. climax.

mythic creation appears early. the Australian aborigines. battle. the na of the Andaman Islands believed that the at first sterile and dry. 23-24. of which he has taken the form of an alluring epic celestial over the possession.. Later. tit. organized by birds. &quot. grasshoppers. is wounded by Indra after a heroic and restores them to the earth. all the water been swallowed by a gigantic frog or toad having which was compelled. furnish a good example of the development of myths it is possible to mark out stages and rounds according to the degree of culture and intelligence. More advanced pp. by queer stratagems. religious there tribes totally devoid of that there are such were in Although it is very doubtful now. agree with Vignoli that we already find in the higher animals embry onic forms of animism. when man had scarcely left thoughts?&quot. it. Cosmogonies. Among the These are little children s imagin Hindoos the same myth takes the dragon watching waters. Lang remarks.Are usually asked. . all trace of animal worship *0p. Savages who could not know themselves tives the Iroquois. the brute level at least if we 1 In any event. spiders. We can infer this from the signs of puerility of certain legends. to earth was regurgitate ings. The natives of Oceania believe that the world was created and .128 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. it is probable that there the beginning. and various peoples regard powerful animals as gods in disguise (such are certain Mexi can divinities).

land-tillers. 162. Aryan and Indo-Iranian passes little In the course of this slow evolution the work of the from infancy. Lang. cit. anthropomorphic. imagination becomes more and more complex. has Kuhn. myth. the ten fingers of the sacrificing priest. In the Aryan race. all the accidents of sky. the cit. disappears. 3 It nature may be. the forms of mist. but also the seven forms of flame. says Taine. excellence is considered as the period par &quot. or rather us to discern. p. the Vedic epoch. and the character of the 1 I2Q myth is purely a special work. the move causes ments of the air. shown how the successive stages of social evolution in express themselves in the successive stages of myth ology myths of cannibals. not here (in the Vedas) a disguise. 320. no language is more true and &quot. sailors. but an expression.. of herders. Agni. fire. I. change of seasons. 2 Max Miiller. of hunters. 8 Nouveaux Essais. op 12.is more supple: it permits a glimpse of. the wood that lights x it.CREATION OF MYTHS.. op.&quot. admits at least two periods panprior to the Vedic period. subtle and refined. p. animates everything not only fire in general. . and passim.&quot. the imagination is equally so.The of mythic efflorescence. 2 Max Miiller Speaking of pure savagery. despite its by little sacerdotal ritualism. storm external nature has never found a mode of thought so graceful and flexible for : reflecting itself thereby in all the inexhaustible However changeable variety of her appearances.

1^0 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Thought by imagery cannot remain itself and take on a rational dress. at present met with only in mystics and in some poets. Immediately.&quot. substituting the analytic. however. that have been able to rise above the age of (pure) See Lang. ra tional language of our time for the image-making names. quality or an act. and even the railing surrounding the one example among many others. Myth. the mythic signification of which has been lost the sun rises. To this triumphant period there succeeds among i. I. p. Ritual and Religion. Benfrey. This is moment every word is a because every word is a name designating a myth. a passage from the Rig-Veda. e.. the etc. the sea is treacherous. 2 . wind is mad. &quot. itself. and Langlois. the races that have made progress in evolution. The partisans of the linguistic theory have been able prayer altar. the earth is thirsty. abstract. transformed by the imagination Max Miiller has translated a page into substance. Endymion&quot. Thus. 234. at the same time The mental state that marks the zenith of the is free development of the imagination. The most skilled linguists often declare themselves unable to change the pliant tongue of the imagina 2 tive age into our algebraic idioms.Selene kisses the becomes the dry formula. preserved numerous vestiges of it in current expressions.It sleeping is night. all the mythical material vanishes. Wilson. &quot. Lan guage has. to maintain that at this of Hesiod. with four very different translations by Max Miiller.

. Let us follow them in the accomplishment of their destinies. from utility. from a pure desire to create these : undergo only a partial transformation. resulting from a need of luxury.) position held by Plato. irreconcilable. it is hard to believe that he is is not curious he holds his life at that price. 1 The affirmative and negative answers Spencer. two great categories: arising The explicative myths. reducible to a. The non-explicative myths. Tylor says yes. if we take account of the differences in races. let us first note that myths are decline. is While our subordination himself dependent on every as regards nature is limited by the 1 knowledge of her laws. . radical transformation. 13! imagination. in the presence of the universe just as we or when confronted with an Is it unknown animal useful or hurtful? He has all the more need feels for a conception of the world since he thing. Taking it generally. answering the various needs of act. Is much the in order . compare the (Tr. from the necessity of knowing. a. the period of waning. are not. afterwards to knowing more numerous. thus. These undergo a b. of In order to understand it and perceive the how and why of it. He are fruit. of regression.. no. he on On curiosity as the beginning of knowledge. The question primitive man by nature curious? has been variously answered.CREATION OF MYTHS. perhaps. The myths are of the first class.

the imagina tive explanation takes is the place of the rational not arise first. 1 On what general Interpre tation of the Savage Mind. etc. 1903. account of his animism in a position similar to ours before an assembly of persons whom we have to It is approach or avoid. Whence we have the thorough subjectivity of his 1 In short. There has been alleged the indifference of primitive man to the complicated engines of civilization (a steamboat. His conception of the world is a product of the imagination. explanation which great reasons can yet unborn. because of the extreme weakness of his logic and especially of his conception of causality. the myth is a response to a host of theo retical and practical needs.1^2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. in the Psychological Review. May. conciliate or yield to. . because no other is possible for him. and which for which remain unbroken periences to contradict in the absence of other ex and shatter them. For him. This shows. ergo propter hoc. The problem is imperatively set. secondly. engenders a multitude of erroneous associations. because the poverty of his experience. which most often reduces itself to a post hoc.&quot. not lack of curiosity. he solves it as best he can. limited to a small circle. The author justly criticises the current description of this general subject consult the interesting though article by Professor John The some Dewey. a watch. that is necessary that he be practically curious indispensable for his preservation. but absence of intelligence or interest for what he does not consider immediately useful for his needs. primitive interpretation of the world.).

anthropomorphic character in order to become all the more objective. progressive substi tution of a rational conception of the world for the imaginative conception. in well- endowed It does not concern the subject in hand to trace here the fortunes of the old battle whereby the imagination. 133 man makes without exception or reserve. logical rigor. A few remarks will suffice. assailed by a rival power. critical Then comes the period of transformation: a slow. an epitome of a practical philosophy. hypotheses. savages in negative terms. with reserves. This transformation occurs thanks to two prin cipal supports: methodical and prolonged observa of phenomena. opposed to the caprices of animism (example: the work of the ancient tion astronomers of the Orient) reflection . the growing power of at least and of races. which little by little loses its subjective. It results from a work of de personification of the myth. Thus. without ever succeeding therein completely. which suggests the objective notion of stability and law. what science makes provisionally. and contends that there is general misunderstanding of the true nature of the savage and of his activities. loses little by little its position and preponderance in the inter pretation of the world. the explicative myths are as we see. proportioned to the requirements of the man of the earliest. and by means of concepts namely.) . (Tr. and in terms of images. or slightly-cultured ages.CREATION OF MYTHS.

biology.On a treatise Myth at this time of the hypotheses admitted as such Without speaking and remain in on account of the sciences their usefulness. begun by the philoso more firmly established in the first attempts science (the Alexandrian mathematicians. an observing.&quot. in the mystic speculations of the pearance. begin with. This work of elimination. Stallo has been able to propose to write &quot. is Nevertheless. Even to Thales. but for the &quot. At the beginning of the nineteenth 1 It is now well accepted that Thales cannot be regarded as propounding a materialistic theory when he declares that every water&quot. concepts remained alive to in physics. phers. down bitter the sixteenth we know the struggle that the against occult in two following centuries witnessed Even qualities and loose methods. we know how imaginary century. the employment of leaving myth is not merely a playful mannerism. of pure naturalists like Aristotle. 7&amp.) . out his theory of Ideas.134 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.spirit that is in water as well the water-spirit &quot. there yet many latent signs of primitive anthro pomorphism. is the Grundprincip. even remains of primitive animism. as is seen of Empedocles. calculates eclipses. positive spirit that the world is full of daemons. Love and Hate.gt. for with him. (Tr. our day. stands thing is derived from water. in Science. certain Greek physicians). chemistry. in the cosmology ruled by without total two human-like antitheses. 1 In Plato.H 2 O. not merely for the substance that we call chemically &quot. Pythagoreans. but a real survival. the To myth but is transformed into disap philosophic speculation. &quot.

are In addition to the explanatory myths. as ancient Egypt) : it is the first appearance of that form of literature. although they have perhaps been originally sug gested by some phenomenon of animate or inani mate nature. But notion. although have had to recede incessantly before a more is solid and better armed rival. not yet completely annulled.properties of that we now regard this latter as merely modes of energy. mythology transformed and adapted to the variable conditions of civilization. to make concrete and representable. To examples. 135 in several &quot. then. we see that so far as this slow regression. the may b. we should note the following. it resolves itself into the feeling of muscular effort. romances (which are found as early popular tales. since they do not answer multiple neces sities of life. there those having no claim to be in this class. is for science only an abstract. symbol ical it formula : if we attempt to embody it. from myths wherein there figure at . esthetic activity destined later to become superficial Here. If this statement appear doubtful or disrespectful. takes on a produce no other concerns the last term of imagination it human character. Such are the epic or heroic stories. Historically.CREATION OF MYTHS. whether we will or no. They are much less numerous than the others. an expression of permanence underneath the various manifestations of nature. century people believed matter&quot. the mythic activity suffers only a metamorphosis the essence is not Literature is changed. that is.

as the popular imagination. and nature of man into the fictitious beings their creator upon whom the belief of and of his hearers confers an illusory and pets fleeting existence. on a level. anonymous. Scandinavians. niques. as a non- collective.136 first THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. esthetics. Greeks. Psychologically. live in the same world. the imaginative work that has character at first created the whom man bows gods and superior beings before because he has unconsciously pro duced them. becomes more and more humanized as it becomes conscious. but in pure form. etc. when In passing from natural phe creating legends. the construe- individual. Yes. its unmodified as in literary creation. ideas. reproduc life. until it becomes the romantic novel. work? . there arise the epics of the Hindoos. the myth approaches the ordinary conditions of human life. in which the gods and heroes are confounded. only divine personages. The gods have become pup feels himself. nomena to historic events and persons.. but it cannot cease being a projection of the feelings. tions of the social earliest the creative activity of the ture is time remains at bottom unchanged. in Does the mythic exist activity of ancient times still among civilized peoples. Litera a decadent and rationalized mythology. unconscious. and finally the realistic story. Little by little the divine is rubbed out. whose master man and whom he treats as he likes. Throughout the manifold tech documentary collections.

CREATION OF MYTHS. and myth are total imaginations. a ence. . the historic metal. is necessary that the mythic form be fashioned before one may pour into it. a natural phenomenon event. first The myth precedes &quot. then. 137 tive imagination takes a slightly different position which we may characterize thus legend is to myth what illusion is to hallucination. what. legend can run all the way from exact history to pure myth. the same is and myth. The psychological mechanism is the same in both : cases. in one case. are the unconscious processes that the imagination may distinguish employs for creating them? The We two principal ones. The difference between illusion and hallucination is sometimes Illusion hallucination imperceptible . Sensory illusion sometimes true of legend is produced by an addition of images changing perception. the historical personage or event enters into the mould of a pre-existing myth. The the fact. and legend are partial imaginations. Imagination had created a solar mythology long before it could be incarnated by the Greeks in Hercules and his exploits.&quot. according to the facts. in the other. Illu sion may vary in all shades between exact percep tion and hallucination.It process is a fusion or combination.There . is in the material used. &quot. a fact of history. datum of sense. in a more or less fluid state. legend is also produced by an addition of images changing The only differ the historic personage or event. a human psychological genesis of legends being thus established in general.

perhaps even an Arthur. which can act conjointly with the other. but with numerous deformations. at another time. the Cid of the Middle Age tra ditions to the character of history. cruelty. 59-60.138 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. through It The in which a dominating characteristic of the personage is chosen and everything else pressed. of loyalty. and other abnormalities. tit. of love.&quot. Even much nearer to us. The second process is idealization. Compare the Alexander. he him. historically a Roland. 39. one time the man is completely hidden by the myth been and This becomes is only transfigures exactly what occurs in the simpler phe nomenon of sensory illusion: now the real (the perception) is swamped by the images. is more complex. but the greater part of the great deeds that the poetry of the Middle Ages attributes to them had was accomplished long before by mythological 1 At heroes whose very names had been forgotten. is trans assumes an absolutely aureole legendary. . this process of simplification 1 extreme which the law of mental inertia or Max Miiller. the Charlemagne. mythic creation a process addition to presupposes labor of abstraction. Popular imagination incarnates in a real man its ideal of heroism. of piety. op. cast historic is sup into oblivion: the ideal is center of attraction about which becomes a formed the legend. formed. and the objective element reduced to almost nothing.. the objective element remains master. or of cowardice. that again. wickedness. the romantic tale. 47-48.

&quot. tests of historians and the documentary evidence sists that they produce avail nothing: the work of the have just passed over a period of mental evolution wherein the creative imagina tion reigns exclusively. .CREATION OF MYTHS. &quot. Henry IV of good fellowship. prosaic and well-to-do. with Tylor. is suf It has been said that the ficient for everything.. although it is often an effort toward wisdom. of least effort : 139 is sufficient to explain always per Lucretia Borgia remains the type of debauch The pro ery. etc. seems so to us. that it represents a state intermediate between that of a man of our time. or of a man in the delirium of fever. e. We It would be more correct to say. i.a imagination To conclude: resists everything. explains everything. and that of a furious madman. It imagination is temporary derangement. toward the comprehension of things.

our task is limited to the attempt to sepa rate characters that seem. or as the current expression has it.CHAPTER IV THE HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION pass from primitive to civilized man. . from collective to individual creation. or whether even monographs teach us no more concerning their nature than general explicable theories that are never applicable to all cases. &quot. as synonymous with great in ventor. as with the average man. we find who exhibit them on a we may dismiss the treat already noted. although the latter is not the least among them. Taking genius. from observation and experiment. then. anomalies. Besides. accepting it dc facto historically and psycho logically. ment of the oft-discussed. Fortunately.&quot. never-solved problem of As we have the psychological nature of genius. the charac ters of We now which it remains for us to study as them in great inventors large scale. there enter into its composition fac tors other than the creative imagination.spontaneous variations. we may ask in limine whether their psychology is men being by means of simple formulae. great exceptions. to belong to it as peculiarly its own.

immediate cause of which the higher faculties of genius are effects. far from eagerly accepting this view. manifestly false evidence. the two states no relation of cause and neurosis. we meet first attributing to it a pathological origin. . &quot. is it in there effect between genius and mere coexistence. through the excessive labor and excitation volves. attempts to give it more precision by substituting for neurosis in general a specific neurosis larvated epilepsy. as we know through timid. it has reached.).HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION.Genius is a neurosis. have set themselves to and to maintain that Lombroso has com promised everything in wanting to make the term too precise. and men above the aver age without a neurotic blemish or.&quot. reserved. the intellectual superiority. Neuropathy was for him the exaggeration of vital properties and consequently the most favorable con dition for the hatching of works of genius. the one Hinted at in antiquity (Aristotle. combat it they say: either the neuropathic state is the direct. since there are found very mediocre neuropaths. or. causes neuropathic disturbances. finding his predecessor s theory too vague. There are several possible hypotheses. or. 14! Putting aside vague dissertations and dithyrambics in favor of theories with a scientific tendency as to the nature of genius. Alienists. in a book teeming with doubtful or Lombroso. etc. but . Seneca. suggested in the oft-expressed comparison between inspiration and insanity. its and partial statements (Lelut) complete expression in the famous formula of Moreau de Tours. Later.

because many athletes are affected For him. however.&quot. the other physiological effects. On the third step are geniuses of judgment without energetic will .142 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and divers nervous troubles. Rontgen). hierarchy of men of genius: At the highest of the ladder are those in are equally powerful. Recently. &quot. Follow ing this definition. resulting from organic conditions that pro duce according to circumstances genius.the essential ele ments of genius are judgment and will.athleticism is a cardiopathy&quot. has main tained that it is just as reasonable to say that &quot. Napoleon) these are masters of men. with no hyperdevelopment of will these are masters of matter (Pasteur. are both the one psychic. insanity. as that &quot. There remain for consideration the sane geniuses who. Nordau. physical eccentricities and disorders of retains all kinds that the pathologic theory much probability. reject ing the theory of his master Lombroso. Every one of these hypotheses can allege facts in its favor. recognize that in most men of genius are found so many peculiarities.genius is a neurosis&quot. and who have made possible the enunci ation of another theory. whom judgment of action rung and will men who make world-history (Alexander. Helmholtz. despite many efforts and subtleties. have not yet been successfully brought under the foregoing formula. On the second level are found the geniuses of judgment. We must. Cromwell. he establishes the following with heart disease.

HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. and Spi and whether. never made . can. tween Alexander. this remark is abso creates nothing In the definition above cited the lutely necessary: creative faculty par excellence imagination nec essary to We all inventors. without examining whether it is even since there is no common measure be possible. on the other hand. It would perhaps be necessary to recognize distinctions between the various forms of They require very different organic and psychic conditions in order that some may profit by morbid dispositions that are far from useful to invention. however. society. common noza. classification. opinion is not right in putting on the same level the great creators.&quot. they do form a Creative work requires of them a nervous excitability and a predominance of affective states that rapidly become morbid. Shakespeare. thinkers and philosophers. &quot.because it new and exercises no influence on Without discussing the value of this phenomena. others. Although it is impossible to admit that &quot. Pasteur. whoever they be. In this way they have provided the pathological theory with most of its facts. This point should deserve a special study hitherto. is entirely left out. derive some benefit from this arbitrary division. create nothing new and have no influence on special group. solely because they are far above the average. with the emotional geniuses 143 What then shall we do ? the poets and artists Theirs is not genius in the strict sense.emotional geniuses&quot.

which is reducible to natural bent becomes manifest as soon as cir it cumstances allow is The story tion. poetry. the attraction of immediate gain. chronological order. reduce to three the characters ordinarily No one of them is without exception. chance. Precocity. mental influence. ops in a very clear. will there remain many natural and irresistible vocations? We 1 have seen above that the passage from re productive to constructive imagination takes place toward the end of the third year. 1 See above. In music. thencefor by ward the upward progress is continuous. We shall met I. exhortations and advice. According to this initial period should be followed a depression about the fifth year. The innateness. from its nature and content. False vocations abound. environ deduct those attracted through imitation. in most great inventors. moment the flash as is is the .144 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. mechanical invention. the sign of the true voca same in all cases: at one occurs but this is not as frequent If we supposed. with the exception of a few child-prodi we hardly find personal creation before the age of twelve or thirteen. As examples of precocity gies. scientific imagination such is the usual order of appearance. plastic arts. . But the creative faculty. Chapter II. devel some authors. Music. aversion to a career imposed from without which they shun and adoption of an opposite one.

Arago tells that at the same age Fresnel was called by his comrades a &quot. are ten. . at sixteen. twelve. at ten.man of genius. In the plastic arts. eight. thirteen. Bernini. at least as imitation. eleven. Men delssohn. Guerchin. perhaps the only very early in developing. is age. Raphael. precocious. we know that the began talent for versification. because he had determined by &quot. in shown perceptibly later.the correct experiments length and caliber of chil dren elder-wood toy cannon giving the longest range. four. thirteen. Schubert. Greuze. at the age of three . Rubens and Jordaens being also In poetry we find no work having any individual character before sixteen. At nine.. also. Van Dyck. etc.&quot. fifteen. eight. Michaelangelo. be cited : Mozart. Besides this. Oelzelt-Newin. which green or dry woods used in the s Some of these and the following figurea are borrowed from cit. Chatterton died at that example of so young a poet Schiller and Byron also leaving any reputation. eight. Albrecht Diirer. Handel. twelve. Those late Web twelve. 70 ff. and developing 2 are fewer by far. Cherubini.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. Wagner. op. on the average about the fourteenth year: Giotto. five. 145 may er. Beethoven. Poncelet bought a watch that was out of order in order to study put it it. vocation and creative aptitude many others. Haydn. In mechanical arts children have early a remark able capacity for understanding and imitating. pp. then took it apart and together correctly.

For the plastic arts a longer apprenticeship is necessary for the education of the senses and movements. The form invention of abstract imagination requisite for in the sciences has no great personal value before the twentieth year that age number. We know prior to speech: that the acquisition of musical sounds is many children can repeat a scale correctly before they are able to talk. To acquire manual dex terity one must become skilled in observing form. Leibniz. who Pascal. aphasic patients lacking the most common words.&quot. Hughlings-Jackson.146 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and the creative in this direction finds 1 power when acting material for its very early use. however. can nevertheless sing. Almost all are mathematicians. as dissolution follows evolution in inverse order. and apt at repro ducing them. Sound-images are thus organized before all others. Gauss. Poetry and first attempts at novelwriting presuppose some experience of the passions of human life and a certain reflection of which the 1 Compare the well-known theory of Dr. Newton. On the other hand. Auguste Comte. (Tr. In general. and scarcely comes earlier than that of scientific discovery. These chronological variations result not from there are a goodly have given proof of it before : chance. but from psychological conditions necessary for the development of each form of imagination. the average invention is later.) . manufacture of bows have most strength and last of mechanical ing power. combinations of lines and colors. etc.

At this period of its development the imagination is in large part imitation. no need. . lacks technique. scientific imagination practical necessities. requires the education of the senses and movements and. is incapable. the need of producing in a deterstinct. at first. We must explain this creator begins by imitating: this is paradox. ra tional combination of means. first it Aside from the its fact that the imagination at disposal only a very limited material. is. as in the plastic arts. as in the case of the experimental sciences. which is a matter of slow Mathematicians are the most precocious growth.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. calculation. original mind subject to few exceptions. child 147 Invention in the mechanic arts. termined line. must suffer the necessity of a provisional This explains reaching full how it is that later the inventor. which is acquired only with time.&quot.the creative in Nature gives only one thing. consciously or s disciple. because their material is the most simple they have nothing without a high . creation he must indeed borrow it from another. unconsciously somebody It is necessarily &quot. rigorous adaptation to Lastly. further. found the suitable form into which to cast his his ideas shelter. This internal factor alone is insuf ficient. that is. and it is The most so. of an extended knowledge of facts. consciousness of himself. such a well-known fact that it is needless to give The proof of it. the processes indispensable for has at realizing As long as the creator has not itself. . is development of the capacity for abstraction.

has often been likened to This characteristic of instinct. and burns what he at first adorned. back.&quot. orientated in a definite direction. II second character consists of the necessity. but particular tendencies. We have seen that there is no creative instinct in general. they feel that they are A charged with a mission. This very widespread view has been ex amined before (Part I. In the Beethoven. instinct. own peculiar manner . wrote.148 in order to THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. complete mastery of his methods.Art On alone has kept me seemed to me that I could not leave the all world before producing that I felt within me. It is which in most respects resemble contrary to experience and logic to admit that the creative genius follows any path whatever at his choice^ a proposition that Weis- . they remain bound their to their like it. even when they have a certain versatility. if they attempt they try to be unfaithful as respects their vocation. Ordinarily. but because he must do it. Chapter ii). have a task to accomplish. large darkest days of his life thought of suicide. It number of testimonials this point we have a and avowals. the Great inventors feel that they fatality of creation. they fall much below irresistible themselves. impulsion which makes the genius create not because he wants to. haunted by the &quot. often breaks with his models. inventors are apt in only one line. they have mark to change if Michaelangelo or.

monstrum per excessum. he has done this or that: that is his mark. as far as the others are concerned. a matter of education and circumstances. Michaelangelo. or must . The Darwinian theory as to the all-powerful action of environment has led to the question whether the representative character of great inventors comes from themselves. in his 149 horror of inheritance of acquired char acters (which are a kind of innateness) is not afraid That is true only of the man of talent. mann. which we class somewhat at hazard. such as Vinci. and from them alone.&quot.representative. what is a subject of discussion is the origin. Even those exceptional men who have given proof of multiple apti tudes.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. Hypertrophy of a special aptitude often makes genius fall. which. tinction The dis between these two orders of creators the has been made too often great and the ordinary to need repetition. not the nature of this individuality. in common sums them up. Yet genius remains. Goethe. as Scho penhauer used to say. There is no other opinion as to this.. that there are names that cause us to hesitate. He is &quot. always have a predominating tendency opinion. to support. ex cessive development in one direction. in A his third characteristic is viduality of the great creator. although it is proper to recognize that it is not always easy in practice. the clearly defined indi He is the man of work. etc. below the average level.

a being without a peer. He can be explained neither by heredity. Grant. et al. We discussion. Nietzsche. &quot. Carlyle (Hero-worship). for ation. is seen in the race and external conditions. not rather be sought in the unconscious influence of the race and epoch of which they are at a given This debate goes be instant only brighter sparks. nor by environment. to circumstances. Allen. Spencer.&quot. a demigod. should we look for his representative character within him or without? Both these alternatives Is the inventive have authoritative supporters. et al.Uebermcnsch. totally avoid this it touches the very springs of cre genius the highest degree of per or a synthesis of masses? the result of sonality himself or of others? the expression of an indi vidual activity or of a collective activity ? In short. For Schopenhauer. or to the environment. For him. and a whole people in one or several men. however.I^O THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the great man is an autonomous product. To decide whether changes are due mostly to the accumulated influences of some individuals and their initiative. to heredi tary transmission.The the important factor . yond the bounds of our social subject. Goethe held that a whole family line is summarized some day in a single one of its mem bers. can not.). For others (Taine. Louis XIV and Voltaire are respectively the French king and writer par excellence. &quot. is not a problem for psychology to solve.

&quot. then it is adopted with the it vators and inventors at We is statement that 1 had been known for a long time. Without presuming to solve this vexed question. is only the result of his environ Since this influence acts on many others. there should be in addition a personal factor. intellectual condition of the the great creator ment. it is very necessary that. others.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. the invariable sentence on everything novel &quot. says Tolstoi. The Economic Interpretation of History. or &quot. say the profoundly the social make and this blossoming possible.) .&quot. Why? into ferment by the the deep Because. masses and raises For the former the ferment is deep down.bad. As showing the later trend of thought on this general theme. The great historic epochs are rich in great men (the Greek republics of the fourth century B. French Revolu tion. &quot. etc. its Each party explains the same facts according to own principle and in its own peculiar way. in oppo sition may know it to the exclusively environmental theory we bring the well-known fact that most inno first arouse opposition. say some. for the latter it is on top. the Roman Republic. see Tolstoi s Physiology of War.). I lean toward the view of individualism pure and It seems to me very difficult to admit that simple. (Tr. C. !$! alleged great men. For an elaborate and interesting discussion of this subject. the Renaissance. they give their names to events. Besides.false&quot. in great men. see the excellent summary by Professor Seligman.&quot. periods put working of the masses Because.are only the labels 1 of history. this flowering modifies their level.

on account of complexity. Baldwin. etc. with the American psychologists. In the hypothesis of collective invention. We first. in How many they came before innovators have been disappointed because their time! But this distinction is does not reach to the bottom of the question. but convenient we may enunciate the following law: William James. Jastrow. a Darwinian term explaining nothing. in the second. J.. we can hardly solve through peremp tory reasoning. which. Social and Ethical Interpreta 218 tions. and not at all sufficient as an answer.. he opposition to it because he goes beyond it. Psych. ff. 307. ibid. which and impossible depends on the social surrounding. p.152 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the creator sums up and clearly translates the is aspirations of his milieu.. The misoneism of crowds seems to me one of the strongest arguments in favor of can doubtless distinguish two cases in the the individual character of invention. The Will to Believe and other Essays. Eev.spontaneous vari ation&quot. Eoyce. and let us try to examine objectively its the relation between creation and environment in order that we may is see to what extent its the creative imagination. 1898. it seems that the mass of people should applaud inventors. seeing its confused thought take form and body: but most often the contrary happens. without losing ter individual charac intel lectual If. Let us leave this problem. March. 1 . pp. 1898. 1 we term the disposition for innovating a &quot. recognizing itself in them. May.

and would not our great creators beings better endowed than we. to idea. is favors more men. for equal populations. consequently homogeneous. as Jastrow says.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. as he says. The barbarian environment plex and heterogeneous ments of civilized life. Thus comparison between whites and blacks. The lower races show a much smaller degree of differentiation than the higher. between primitive and civilized peoples. Psychologic des grands . military. seems impossible to agree with 2 Joly that neither primitive nor barbarian peoples produce superior minds. individual variations and richer in superior But these variations are rarely produced out political. there is an enormous disproportion as to the number of innovators. very small ? The 2 civilized environment. and as the period just before the adult age is the plastic period per se} this diminishes the chances of a departure from the common type. in them.&quot. shows that. Joly. &quot. requiring division of hommes. Greatness altogether a seem. 153 The tendency toward spontaneous variation (in vention) is ahvays in inverse ratio to the simplicity of the environment. The savage environment is in its nature very simple. physical and psychic maturity is more precocious.&quot. : is much more com all it contains the rudi it Consequently. those is their But simply surpass there a criterion other is that than that? relative I see none. it &quot. side of a very restricted field religious.by So this name we mean congeners.unless.

. it is more favorable to tradition than to innovation. growing com labor and consequently a constantly is an open door plexity of heterogeneous elements. 1 We on which they are every moment dependent. 1 In Osborn. conse the conditions under which the imagina quently Let us sup tion is active change with the times. Doubtless. Van Helmont. and create a few more complex melodies. Moreover.154 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Weismann justly says. warm is competition be tween individuals and peoples it a natural antidote favors useful variations. evolution. civilization means pose. How many creators have been necessary for their inventions wrecked because the conditions were lacking? Roger Bacon foresaw several of our great discoveries. and it has been possible to write a book talk so much of the free flight of imagination. extend the gamut of three or four tones to seven. of the all-compre hensive power of the creator. What he accomplish? At the most. something of that tendency toward stagna tion that is the rule in lower social orders. the differential calculus. chemistry. the social spirit always for all vocations. that in the Samoan could Islands there were born a child having the singular and extraordinary genius of Mozart. but he would be as unable to compose symphonies as Archimedes would have been to invent an electric dynamo. But retains the inevitable necessity of a for that natural inertia. Cardan. From the Greeks to Darwin. that we forget the not to mention others sociological conditions on the forerunners of Darwin.

. survives and it superficial. this respect. by its own power. or industry. whether we con sider vegetables. frequent in the higher. The need of innovating is only a special case. By way of summary. or the physical and mental man. Let us return to invention. or scientific research. as we have collaboration the highest expression of seen. not from within. is fundamental or it corresponds to genius. minds of the second order are dragged into the current showing that a goodly part of their power is in the aptness. strictly . the orientation comes from without. and survives through processes analogous As to natural selection. corresponds prospers chiefly through the help of circumstances and environment. Here. rare in the This tendency toward variation As fundamental. i. or military art. or music. anonymous which. 155 no invention is personal in the strict there always remains in it a little of that sense. animals. but for imitation. not for invention. According as the spirit of the time inclines rather to poetry or paint ing.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. e. is the mythic activity. so-called. to talent. we may say that there is a universal tendency in all living matter toward variation. and whatever be the causes. II The determination of the characters belonging to the inventive genius has necessitated some seem ingly irrelevant remarks on the action of the en vironment. superficial : lower races.

Every normal person creates little or much. no occasion is another aspect in creative logical work to be considered its psycho develop mechanism. The natural disposition should be accepted as a For inventing there fact. man forming new does a create? Because he of is combinations ideas. invent what has been already done a thousand times. merely social marks. However naive this answer may be. Why of capable other. and in them the mechanism this At of invention is easier to study. that idea. is always required a natural sometimes.156 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. it is none the less such for the individual. in his ignorance.is a new and impor that is the Novelty only mark: importance and utility are ac psychological Invention is thus cessory. Even if this is not He a creation as regards the species. a happy chance. aptitude. as has been tant said. followed by a period of rapid or slow have already seen is We execution. there is no The only thing possible. essential unduly limited when ors only. and the form of its ment. an invention is &quot. observation reveals . It is wrong to say.&quot. is the determination of the conditions necessary and sufficient for pro ducing novel combinations: this has been done in the for first part of this book. we are con cerned only with these. that holds that there how false is the theory always a sudden stroke of inspiration. On the contrary. we attribute it to great invent moment. however. and there is But there going over it again. may.

synonymous with end or goal or more simply.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. spends nitely establishing his discovery &quot. sense. the two processes. Darwin gathers material during his voyages. completely fin ished. an understanding the word not in its transcendental &quot. IDEA 1st phase 2nd phase 3d phase (commence- INVENTION. while he was near a bridge in Dublin. there is a directing idea. of the given problem.&quot. or VEEIFICATION. and at the time of defi lasted The period by calculation he was so overcome with emotion that he had to assign The mathe to another the task of completing it. it idea excites attention and takes a fixed char of brooding begins. it is the middle. The locus of the idea. that moment I had the result of fifteen years labor. 157 many processes that apparently differ less in the content of invention than according to individual I distinguish two general processes In all creation. but merely as the ideal in is at the beginning : in the &quot. matician Hamilton tells us that his method of quaternians burst upon him one day. great or small.complete&quot.abridged&quot. For Newton seventeen years. or ment Special incubation of more or less duration DISCOVERY (end) APPLICATION The acter.ideal&quot. of which the rest are variations. a problem to solve.In . temperament. is not the same in In the one I term &quot. There are also other differences tables will which the following make more clear : First Process (complete).

Without form attempting what enumeration of examples. See &quot.158 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. This seems is the process in intuitive minds. Second Process (abridged). Compare the striking instance of this moment as given by Froebel. dramatiques. &quot. only an instant. 96. briefly compare them. of creation would a tedious we may two comprises classes say that this those to maturity through an internal impulse. Pailleron. when the creator 2 With it.Psychologic des auteurs in L annte psychologique. a sudden stroke of inspiration. be Such etc. in connection with his idea of the Kindergarten. and those who are coming suddenly illumined by chance. seem to be the cases of the Goncourts. creation similar The second phase is the moment of discovery. but essen tually or really ended. The two processes differ superficially rather than Let us essentially. in his Autobiography. etc. to have been the case of Mozart. I. then through the chance reading of Malthus book. (Tr. 1 the first phase is long and fully con- Such. the work is vir exclaims his &quot. With some. tial In literary and 1 examples are frequent.Eureka!&quot. a long time observing plants and animals. hits upon and formulates artistic his theory. according to Binet and Passy.) . Poe.

Tor a long time. 1898. Philos.I had the habit of need to scratch 1 racking my and now is I scarcely my forehead. F. &quot. equal to zeroit there is nothing of because there exists a natural or acquired tendency toward equilibrium.. they include species and varieties that a patient and minute study of the processes peculiar to various inventors would reveal to us.&quot. so that for these the second creative process is shortened in appearance only. M6moire et Imagination.) Paulhan (&quot.) distinguishes three kinds of development in inven tion: (1) Spontaneous or reasoned the directing idea per sists to the end. 2 . which comprises several contradictory evolutions succeeding and replacing one another &quot. The two processes above described seem to corre1 Quoted by Arreat.&quot. Everything runs naturally. but merely a sketch. 590 ff. We must bear in mind that this work makes no claim of being a 2 monograph on invention. 118. The second phase cases: is it almost the same in both it only an instant. and there remains only the finishing touch or the verification.De 1 invention. Eev. It is long for others. (Paris. Such seem to me the two principal forms of the mechanism of creation. December. because they must pass from the perceived idea to complete realization. These are genera. says Schumann. brain. is Lastly. pp.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. (2) transformation. p. and be cause the preparatory work is faulty. but it is essential the moment of imaginative synthesis. 159 in others it seems negligible. because the main labor is already done. Alcan. the third phase is very short for some. scious .

but the organic form does not appear in a trice. The intuitive. a detail. essentially synthetic form. an anecdote. analogous to an immanent logic. and the com tween the intuitive bining or reflective imagination. In science. The combining. discursive imagination proceeds from starts details to the vaguely-perceived unity. Kepler fur nishes a good example of this combining imaginain consequence which is of impressions and feelings. I regret this it was worthy of being authentic. Recently (and that is why I do not reprint it here) has been suspected of being apocryphal. a rapid glance. distinction be spend on the whole to the oft-made or spontaneous. The mind proceeds to details. development is organic. According it to Goethe. Shakespeare s Hamlet could have been created only through an intuitive process. An adventure. and becomes completed little by little. The subject is at first comprehended as a whole.!6o THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. It from a fragment that serves as a matrix. in the sciences. As a type of this creative form there has often been given a letter wherein Mozart explains his mode of conception. and we may com pare it to the embryological process that causes a living being to arise from the fertilized ovum. deviation. suggests a literary or artistic creation. . a scene. etc. from the whole and savages. (3) a composite of the two preceding forms. The generative idea resembles those con are of wide range cepts which. is found children principally in the purely imaginative types. because they condense a generalization rich in con sequences.

The crisis over. and &quot. I confess to having held this prejudice. have seen that in the case We of Chopin. all.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. First of both these forms of creation are intuitive process can suffice for an necessary. I find it doubtful. was spontaneous. tion. and form ing living bodies. a story. (Tr. not any &quot.lower. a profile. IOI It is known that he devoted a part of his trying strange hypotheses. is superior to the other. is a difference. the well-known doctrine of Empedocles. one. miraculous.&quot. all life his ized system. until the day when. it would be neces sary to look for it in the strange conceptions of ancient cosmogonies: they believed that from an earthly slime arose parts of bodies and separate organs which through a mysterious attraction and happy chance ended by sticking together. an ornamental stroke. coming complete and sudden. But George Sand adds &quot.creation : *Cf.) . the abridged or intuitive process. etc. having discovered the elliptical orbit of Mars. a little mechanical contrivance. even false. invention of short duration: a rhyme. then commenced the most heartrending labor at which I have ever been pres&quot. The a motif. On There examination. But as soon as the work requires time and development the discursive process becomes absolutely necessary: with many inventors one easily perceives the change from one form to the other. former work took shape and became an organ Did we want to make use once more of an embryological comparison.&quot. It is 1 an accepted view that of these two modes.higher&quot.

&quot. then. likewise. excelling in Logically - develo ping in making conception. &quot. and consequently accessory. for days ent. .&quot. according to his biographer. Toulouse. scious.1 62 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. most out of one Work primarily uncon- Patience the preponderating role.&quot. and weeks. which we may contrast as follows : Ready-witted minds. the whole alpiece. and that this difference is reducible to natural dispo sitions. intuition and pure combination are exceptional ordinarily.imagines a novel. from induction to induc tion. and she pictures him to us agonized. Zola. If we note. excelling elaboration. it is a mixed process in which one of the two elements prevails and permits its qualification. after the bits of lost inspiration. that it would be easy to group under these two headings names of the first rank. minds. always starting out with a general idea that dominates the work. running his Faust. not in the is nature of creation. we shall conclude that the difference is altogether in the mechanism. To sum up : Pure . Goethe. in addition. he draws out of it the characters and all the story. full &quot. primarily con scious. Actions slow. in a letter to Humboldt regarding which occupied him for sixty years.The of interruptions and gaps difficulty has been to get through strength of will what is really to be : gotten only by a spontaneous act of nature. Work Actions quick.

depends on the number of notions and chance thoughts coming to the inventor s mind. a picture. of figures. We know is that one of the best conditions for inventing abundance of material. of melodies.. a ma poem.Genius for discovery. The reve capacity lations of inventors or of their biographers leave no doubt as to the necessity of a large number of sketches. no matter maintain that the nature of whether chine. In its broad meaning. .&quot. a building. to monuments to inventors in there would be fewer statues to children. says Jevons. III &quot. Turgot. the other narrow.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. etc. To be fertile in hypotheses that is the first requirement for finding something new. purely psychic circumstances.But it is according to the nature of his work.&quot. etc. of mechanical agents. knowledge which augment the chances of original It association of ideas. a &quot. animals. an opera.Were 163 we to raise the arts and sciences. preliminary drawings. Chance may be taken in two senses one general. The inventor s brain must be full of forms. accumulated experience. has even been possible to memory implies the of creating in a special direction. &quot. a it is a matter of industry. The importance of the last factor has been much fortune. plan of campaign. trials. commerce. and especially In this wise expressed himself one of the sage thinkers of the eighteenth century. men than exaggerated. of commercial combinations. chance depends on (i) entirely internal.

the I *P. was quite necessary to bow before the accom to include the plished fact.164 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. So much for chance within: whatever may have been said of finally is indisputable. especially scientific and have been made had the inventors been arrested by the ruling and presum The inventor was all the ably invincible dogmas. the other. true. of utensils. not a sufficient condi tion for creation. external (the fortuitous occur impossible to determine all that invention owes to chance in this sense. . 6-7. more as it free the more he was unaware of them. that could not There are inventions. erroneous view. industrial. it but depends the non- on individuality from is it arises anticipated synthesis of ideas. in the narrow sense. tion. is we know. pp. is a partial. the manufacture of weapons. is a fortunate (2) occurrence stimulating invention but to attribute to : new it the greater part. In primitive humanity its influence must have been enormous the use of : fire. It it is not even a necessary condi has been remarked that a relative ignorance sometimes useful for invention: it favors assur ance. The abundance of memory-ideas. vergence of two factors rence). It is genius). Chance. along other lines ^ Nothing is more it it. theory was broadened discovery and explain it. we must think we were seeking. find are exactly those very rare that the ideas we In order to find. what we call chance. Souriau. Thtorie de invention. is the meeting and con one internal (individual Here. Then.

novelists. were it not for an unfore seen combination of circumstances. its That of the Yet not at all apparent to the ordinary mind. internal factor is less so. for example. extremely important. and artists have the best part of their inspirations: literature the arts abound in fictitious characters whose real originals are known.HIGHER FORMS OF INVENTION. To chance. thanks to the phos phorous odor of air traversed by electric sparks. fortuitous factor.&quot. escap it is ing the unreflecting. and of hundreds of others owed something to It is said that &quot. of Fraunhofer. the invention of the telescope it would require that &quot. also. playing with pieces of glass in an optician s shop. The gard discoveries of Grimaldi and of Fresnel in re to interferences. : 165 casting of metals all that came about through acci dents as simple as.&quot. of Arago. a tree falling across a stream suggesting the first idea of a bridge. So much role It is is clear.a is known we owe it to children superhuman genius who were . The same fortuitous event passes by millions of men without exciting anything. dramatists. of Kirchoff. Schonbein discovered ozone.fortune. How many of Pisa s inhabitants had seen the lamp of their cathe- . those of Faraday. Who does not know of Newton s apple. for the external. In historic times and to keep merely to the modern period the collection of authentic facts would fill a large volume. the sight of a crab suggested to Watt the idea of an ingenious machine. many owed and poets. Galvani s frog? Huyghens declared that. Galileo s lamp. of Foucault.

it. we ought to end by remark ing that chance is an occasion for. The happy chance comes only one must awake In order to profit thereby. that isolates and fixates the acci worthy of first dent. if it is a matter of scientific or practical seizes inventions. the penetration that tions upon it rela and finds unforeseen resemblances. . organizes. then. wide attention. although it is often misunderstood. not an agent of. the imagination that con structs. creation. dral before Galileo! He does not necessarily find who wants to those to find. possess the spirit of observation.l66 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Without repeating an evident truism. if con cerns esthetic productions. gives life.

or. Leaving aside the moment of origin. this term appear too ambitious. a vague term.&quot. may enunciate thus: The creative imagination in its complete We development passes through two periods separated . As the direct cause of invention. if specific development. evolution. we have attempted is to make .a faculty. the imagination acts without assignable determinatoin. in the course of larity ? that is it is. some law? The capricious question thus it asked is too simple. does it present. considered in its individual and seem to follow any law. which clear. great or small.spon taneity&quot. and we must make more precise. subject to so often called &quot.CHAPTER V LAW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMAGINATION Is imagination. does the inventive power. any perceptible regu Observation separates out an empirical law extracts directly an abridged formula that . in this sense it is what is known as &quot. its only a condensation of facts. law it results irreducible to any from the often fortuitous convergence Its appearance of various factors previously studied.

a period of definitive con phase : stitution presenting several aspects. a critical moment. Nevertheless. adolescence. gains an influence over the imaginative activity and tends to reduce it. critical by a a period of autonomy or efflor escence. This formula. .l68 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. without any rational element. romantic inven and fantastic conceptions of the world mythic sum it up first. grows asserts itself. according to the accepted principle that phylo genesis and ontogenesis follow the same general line. little by little. which is tinct sources: (a) individual the safest. being only a summary of experi ence. in most. and the proportion begins very as it late. In normal man. and embraces in is fancy. it: it We are already acquainted with the imaginative age. youth: sometimes a shorter period. or historical develop ment. sometimes a longer. This growing antagonism is repre sented in the following figure. should be justified For this purpose we can borrow and and explained by the latter. Play. it begins at about the age of three. the latter wins a Reflection including under the term the working of the intelligence slowly. after that. place. (b) the development of the species. clearest. easiest to observe. First Period. and For a long time it remains especially sexual love. tion. facts from two dis development. imagination is dependent on the influence of the passions.

and reaches at X the level of the imaginative curve. in any case. . the resultant of this obscure. metamorphic stage. Second Period. The curve IM this first period. in other words. in the psychologic order. advances much more slowly. This critical moment can be Its characterized only by its causes and results. the antagonism between the pure subjectivity of the imagination and the ob jectivity of ratiocinative processes. present like The two intellectual forms two rivals. As for the results. causes are. but progressively. in the physiological sphere. dotted line represents the rational developits RX N R ment that begins later. This is a critical period of inde terminate length. the forma tion of an organism and a fully developed brain . The position MX on are the ordinate marks the beginning of the second period. they appear only in the third period. always much briefer than the other two. then at a height that attains a rapid ascent and keeps marks The greatest attainment in this earliest form. is 169 that of the imagination during It rises at first very slowly. between mental instability and stability.LAW OF DEVELOPMENT.

not an end. its early and childish . The power manifested in the stage remains true to itself. but this change is not reducible to a single formula. as (1) is indi cated in the figure. only truly imaginative minds are exceptions. This is the case with truly imaginative beings. MN. The creative imgination falls. and always fol lows the same trend. it is no longer pure imagination. only becomes accessory. etc. in whom inventive power long remains young and fresh. of definitive constitu tion with rational transformation. This is the most general case. and XO. It is definite: in some way or another and in some degree the imagination has be come rationalized. presents several varieties. the burial of the dreams of youth.170 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. This period of preservation. the imagination. One falls little by little into the prose of practical such is the downfall of love which is treated life as a phantom. Third Period. it (2) adapts itself to the conditions of rational thought. It keeps up but becomes transformed. for the cre ative imagination disappears completely in it no man . but becomes a mixed form the fact is indicated in the diagram by the union of the two lines. and simplest. transformation into creative logical form. the rational. This is a regression. First. those whose vocation appeared Invention loses never changed direction. where the imagination curve descends rapidly toward the line of abcissas MN without ever reaching it. Such are the precocious in first ventors.

where the imagination. becomes atten uated by slow atrophy without undergoing serious change of form. cannot style it otherwise is rare but not without examples. me or industrial invention started out with mediocre efforts in music. the drama. or the vague sketches of his inventions as a the adolescent James Watt with is Another case of creative power. 171 or juvenile character in becoming virile. Ordinarily the creative imagination. politics. Nevertheless. his fortieth year. been said above concerning the chronological devel opment of the imagination would be tiresome repe tition.LAW OF DEVELOPMENT. painting. impulse did not discover its true direction at the out What has set. i. e. who have left a great chanical the metamorphosis or deviation know what numbers of men We name in science. it imitated while trying to invent. and fiction. The need of creating followed from the first the line of least resistance. more knowledge. more accumulated might here ask whether the contrary case is also met with. first We would return to the inclinations of the This regressive metamorphosis for I period. written in his teens. in this third period. dating from man.. there are no other changes. I am able to cite the case of a well-known scholar who began with a . when it has passed its adult stage. experience. and especially The imaginative poetry. But in order to arrive to full consciousness of itself it needed more time. where it found certain materials ready to hand. Compare Schiller s Robbers. with his Wallenstein.

grownbut of the candor and inherent sim imagination itself. is hardly reconcilable except with esthetic cre Let us add the mystic imagination. the imagination. a . taste for art. Thi:. Indeed. less in its religious conceptions. in some for there are very many forms Finally in turn. up children. al most childish form. hardly modified by a minimum of rationality. hood of the imagination. subsidiary law. ly to literature. which is. always retains its youthful. produces curiosities rather than lasting works. it follows a progressive line from the simple to the complex. especially plastic art. became totally disgusted with scientific re came back to literature and finally to the search. which have entirely monopolized him. an anomaly.172 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. plicity of the This exceptional form ation. though strong. scarcely passes be yond the first stage. in which he gained a very deserved reputation then. that of increasing complexity.&quot. It could furnish examples. in a word. Let us note that it is not a question here of the characteristic ingenuousness of some in ventors.prolonged child scientific turn. went over rapid . law of the imagination but of the rational development exerting an influence on strictly speaking. which has caused them to be called &quot. than in its reveries of a Contemporary mystics have invented of the world that take us back to the adaptations mythology of early times. arts. devoted his life to biologic studies. it is not. which are without control. At this third period in the development of the imagination appears a second.

it has lost the assurance of its infancy. It is a law of the mind that knows. scientific and social worlds the higher up we go the more we have to know in order to create. and in default of this condition we civilizations has merely repeat when we think ii we are inventing. the creative imagina in primitive man toinal habits tion it is is subject. no longer absolute mistress of itself. In the practical. it 1 73 by a counter-action. But from the time that the mind distinguishes clearly between the possible and the impossible. Aside from the exceptions given above and even they are partial exceptions only creative power de pends on the ability to understand. nolens volens.LAW OF DEVELOPMENT. technical. in the species. which imposes upon it its form and developmental law. It is needless to show that theoretical and practical intelligence develops as an increasing complex. it would be mere reiteration in a vaguer form We . the devel line of it. which draws it along in its train. not of one that imagines. between the fancied and the real which is a capacity wanting as soon as man has formed raand has undergone experience the im press of which is ineffaceable. to new conditions. will not repeat progress as in the individual. In liter ature and in the arts comparison between the sim plicity of primitive creations and the complexity of advanced become commonplace. opment of the imagination follows the same Historically considered. and is under the rules of logical thought.

are those first two stages that have everywhere and always been the harbingers and preparers of civilization. it man now again. we have just said. the institution of chivalry. ceaselessly repeated epidemics of accessories superstition. the beginning modern music. better known form the his tory of intellectual development in Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire. after which the cycle begins over Although this too hypothetic conception is forgotten. heroic or fabulous. the quan tity of imagination applied during this epoch to . On the other hand. and imposing monuments heroes. indeed. hu to see the or historic. legends. with all its . THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. epics and martial narratives. It shows very distinctly our three periods. re ligions. Let us now consider this question under a more definite. No one will question the preponderance of the imagination during the middle Ages: intensity of religious feeling. courts of of love.174 of what suffice. etc. Many erected in honor of gods and nations whose evolution has been in complete have not gone beyond this stage. chivalric romances . efflorescence of Gothic art. A few brief notes to be will Vico whose name deserves first mentioned here because he was the good that we can from myths for the study of the imagination get divided the course of humanity into three successive ages: divine or theocratic. What. heroic poetry. is sufficient for our purposes. if not the triumphant period of the imagination? It has produced myths. more limited.

is made up partly of antique traditions. by stimulating industrial and commercial inventions. On the one hand the come development of science. on the other hand the great maritime dis coveries. the other economic. partly rationalized. Their scientific buried in very Latin jargon.LAW OF DEVELOPMENT. posi tive science is almost nil. when there rises. opposed to imagination. There have arisen points of attraction that have drawn it into other paths. one imaginative. small. practical. with its two curves. have imposed upon it other forms of creation that have often been neglected or misunderstood and that study in the Third Part. it will be admitted without dissent that social imagination has during the modern period be partly decayed. and a transformation analogous to that which we have sance is No more will a critical noted in the individual. we shall . part ly of fancies what the ten centuries added to . Finally. anyone question that the Renais moment. thus ap plies just as well to historical development as to invidual development during this first period. the other rational. have given the imagination a new field of activity. under the influence of two principal factors one scientific. 175 is industrial. a rival power. a transition period. Our figure. commercial invention culture.

.

THIRD PART THE PRINCIPAL TYPES OF IMAGINATION .

.

but only no &quot.imagination in general.&quot. This will be neither analytic nor genetic but concrete. an abbreviation and an abstraction. the diversities in creation.creative imagination. ever numerous. The reader need not fear wearisome repe our subject expression is is is sufficiently complex to permit like all a third treatment without reiteration. and the determination of these varieties lated to will. should be reducible to types that are varieties of imagination. their modes of action bear the stamp of their individual one there is a personal factor that. analogous to that of character as re when we have settled upon the physiological and psychological conditions of volun tary activity we have only done a work in general psychology.&quot. who do The so in different ways. in each its ever . tition. general terms. Men being variously constituted. rapid or slow. describing its principal forms. puts its mark on the will and makes it energetic or weak. men how who imagine. stable ity . what ultimate nature. The There &quot. in this last part. is Indeed.PRELIMINARY After having studied the creative imagination in constitutive elements and in its development we its purpose. and reality is in them.

but by themselves they cannot reveal to us the and varieties that have their origin in an anterior and superior tendency of mind. are not a negligible element. The materials. auditory. are the essential part. keeps up the er roneous notion that in the creative imagination images. We shall species see in the sequel that the very nature of constructive imagination may express itself indifferently in sounds. consequently. lines. know it completely without a study of its varieties. toward which the lowing chapters are an attempt. which at one time means mere reproduction of images. rests on the equivocal use of the word &quot. Is not the types? way clear motor and mixed and is it not well enough to go this solution in this direction? However natural may It appear. or unstable. The method that should allege to settle the various according to the nature of images would no more go to the bottom of the matter than would a classification of archi tecture according to orientations of creative activity the materials employed (as . The same cannot is true of the creative imagination. and which.imagination. psychologists distinguished. colors. the raw materials. words. method is indicated Have not visual. and at another time creative activity. fol How are we to determine these varieties ? Many will be inclined to think that the in advance. according as one or another of image-groups pre ponderates.&quot. and even numbers. it is illusory and can lead to naught.180 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. We without a special psychology. no doubt. continuous or intermittent.

military. we shall try merely to distinguish and describe the principal forms. this and I seek in vain for a point of support. and one soars too high. we follow? The matter even more perplexing than the study of character. do In our subject I find nothing like ing. commercial. l8l wood. to the essential domi nating attributes but. then. as regards the varieties of the creative imagination. feeling. political. more skilled or more fortunate. thinking. etc. as was said above. despite their differences. A true classification should be in touch this with facts.) with no regard for differences of style. Leaving. termination.PRELIMINARY. rock. no one of the proposed classifications has been universally Nevertheless. religious. such as . distinguish two great classes the intuitive and the combining. We From another point of view we may distinguish invention of free range (esthetic. less restricted (mechanical. if it to others. brick. Classi fications are made according . indeed. iron. Although various authors have treated the latter subject (we have attempted it elsewhere). since the determination must is made according what method to the individuality of the archi shall tect. This method be aside. because these have they the advantage of resting on a common basis the accepted. large manifestations of human nature. coincide in several points. social). the task of a rational and systematic de be possible. mystic) from invention more or scientific. But these two divisions are too general. what are they? may. leading to nothing.

emphasizing those that have been neglected or misinterpreted. the psychologist. in a little-noticed composition of the &quot. If the intuitive imagination is joined to the in ductive spirit we have the talent for observation of the naturalist.then on multiple combinations of images. may be in &quot.&quot. the pedagogue. e.principal which he reduces to four: forms It of talent. If the intuitive imagination is combined with the deductive spirit we have the analytical talent of the . The tuitive.that conferring on representations a clearness of it or combining. understanding (Verstand). special forms. very marked development in both directions at the same time is uncommon the author assigns reasons . What fol lows is thus neither a classification nor even a com plete enumeration.&quot.l82 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. con passage of his Physio has undertaken to determine the logical Psychology. &quot. is imagination. may be inductive inclining toward the col lection of facts in order to draw generalizations from them or deductive. for this. experience gives them to us.&quot. A operates sense-perception. determined by and subject. Wundt. The second element It is i.. taking general concepts and laws to trace their consequences. We tent shall study at first creative imagination two general forms of the the plastic and the diffluent their and later. first element is. the man of affairs.

the analytical element. . in Gauss.PRELIMINARY. the artist and the poet the power of compos gives in industry. systematic naturalist.&quot. plus the deductive spirit gives the speculative talent of the mathema tician The combining imagination and philosopher. Vol. II. in the ing their works. deduction predominates 1 in the former. imagination in the latter. 183 In Lin naeus and Cuvier the intuitive element predomi nates. pp. of the geometrician. 490-95. The combining imagination joined to the induc tive spirit constitutes ly it so-called. Physiologische Psychologie. 4th German edition. &quot. 1 Wundt.the talent for invention strict technique of science .

approaching perception. the imagination that Between perception a very complex synthesis of and conception qualities. and in modes of rough association of images. there predominate associations with objective relations. I special characters clearness and precision of form. materializes. between concrete and abstract.CHAPTER I THE PLASTIC IMAGINATION understand that which By &quot. is in the images. now . in which. The the plastic mark. determinable with precision. more explicitly those forms whose ma has for its terials are clear images (whatever be their nature). often of only a single word accom panied by vague outlines and a latent. or relation.plastic imagination&quot. quan tity. now full of reality. the image occupies an intermediate position and can run from one pole to another. requiring modifications which the it is reader himself can make. potential knowledge. therefore. In somewhat terms. too. giving the impression of reality. attributes and relations which is only the consciousness of a quality.

it makes use of visual images. coming especially from sensation. then of motor images. lastly. Plas imagination depends most on spatial conditions. greatly devoid of that internal mark that comes from feeling. is inferiority of the af appears only intermittently and is blotted out before sensory impression. it fact gives its creations an air of The second fective element characteristic . Among these naturally objective elements the plastic imagination chooses the most that objective. diffluent imagination. which depends least upon that factor. groups of images present to a great extent the character of externality and objectivity. it is an external imagination. We is shall see that its opposite. in practical In a word. arising to from sensation rather than from feeling and needing become objective.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. and profound . of tactile images. Thus tion. aims it is especially at sensation. reality which and life. if there is at the same time intense vision adequate to reality. This entirely form of the creative imagination. Thus rather superficial. in space sight. or is most free from it. the three invention. The repre sentation here styled plastic descends towards its point of origin . because they arise from sensation well determined tic movement. 185 almost as poor and pale as a concept. touch. The clear ness of form of these three groups proceeds from their origin. its First general characters are easy of determina and foremost. But if it chance that both sensory and affective elements are equal in power.

Carlyle. violent shock.&quot. Michelet. invisible spirits flying in the night. in his Modern Painters. Thus Michelet: as 2 &quot. Taine says of Carlyle: &quot. the great folio begets the oc becomes the parent of the small vol ume.The great streams of the Netherlands. in him every thought is an explosion. The ascending proc ess assigns to inanimate objects life. creating under the very eyes of tyrants the circulation of liberty. like Shakespeare. many on For a point of view in criticism that has seemed correct to this matter. a flood of seething passion reaches the boiling-point in his brain. Despite the vigor of this sketch. he must paint. gives body to We see that he is possessed and haunted by glittering or saddening visions. of ephemeral pamphlets. of booklets. It is needless to describe this form of imagination. must touch forms.He cannot stick to simple at every step he drops into figures.) 2 . emotion.l86 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. by Ruskin. makes them flesh and bone .&quot. tired ish though with their very long course. desires and feel ings. of images runs over the banks and rushes with all its mud and all its splendor. He cannot reason. compare the well-known chapter on the &quot. per from weariness in the unfeeling ocean. then there arise extraordi nary imaginative personages.Pathetic Fallacy&quot. tavo.&quot. gives them body. (Tr. &quot. the Middle expression. The de scending process materializes abstractions. the perusal of ten pages of Sartor Sesartus or of the French Revolution teaches more in regard to the nature of this imagination than all the commentaries. excellent pen-pictures of which have 1 been given by the critics let us merely note that its psychology reduces itself to an alternately ascending j and descending movement between the two limiting points of perception and idea. and the torrent every idea. which overflows.which Elsewhere.

62 ff. of details. in anguish of heart. p. In this dazzle of images is a momentary return to primitive animism. it the material in which their creations are wrapped Even leaving out the striking acts requiring up. arm. . black. etc. 115. a form.) gives a large number of examples of Ibid.. are scarcely more than words. on the other hand. 187 Ages become &quot. For the painter.a poor child. i. animal. is necessity tect.&quot. head. as in the case of Ga- and limiting ourselves merely to the demand an observant imagina tion.red. torn from the bowels of Christianity. 1 usual.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. First. 2 *Arr6at (Psychologie du peintre. is the arts dealing with form. archi evident. born amidst tears. sym bols expressing a rough synthesis. exact remembrance of faces at the end of twenty years. let us take up its principal manifestations. a color. the plastic arts fleeting. pp. painter.. tree. etc. blue. where its The sculptor. must have visual and tactile-motor images. dying with there out achieving anything. &quot. positive elements of perception and movement. this. ii In order to more fully understand the plastic im agination. and what he sees beneath the words or in real objects are analyzed facts. images have a very high precision mouth. grown up in prayer and revery. white. ). such a sure and tenacious external vision (portraits executed from memory. For the majority of men the concrete image of a face. usually remains vague and varni.&quot.

&quot. &quot. entirely equivalent to the visual memory of the portrait painters mentioned above. embroidery. motor regions and wrote a contemporary painter.l88 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. have nevertheless The been able to fashion busts of close resemblance to the original. it is the poetic or fin ished type.. literary form.&quot. &quot.as we do sewing. a broader range and throw light upon his psychol Thus we are told that &quot. movement . carve. 2. guided shown It is by contemporary psychology. cant. filing and turning. Some facts have ogy. unnecessary to give proofs. the development of definite sensory- and on psy the acquisition and organiza chological conditions tion of appropriate images. like all manual labor requiring associated and combined acts. becoming blind. we need only open his works at hazard to find a stream of glittering images. This is memory of touch and of the muscular sense. sawing.he never dictates or in writ- rhymes from memory and composes only . role of tactile-motor images is not insignifi There has often been cited the instance of sculptors who. But what is their nature? His recent biographers. depends on cerebral Practical of contour and relief conditions. In short. Of it we find in Victor Hugo a As all know. Another form of plastic imagination uses words as means for evoking vivid and clear impres sions of sight. knowledge of design and modeling i. though resulting from nat ural or acquired disposition. have well that they always paint scenes or movements.We learn to paint and their connections. touch. e.

2nd part.&quot. Victor Hugo could have become a mathematician of the highest order. and so on indefinitely. as in he needed to fixate the image 1 order to find the ap word. A &quot. the mountain raises himself and looks about. asserts that &quot. who knows and understands him so well. beyond any present sensation. to be spoken aloud. says : I also believe that in the sentence an ocular rhythm. order and position in space. III. . Benouvier.The ruffles of sound that the fifer cuts out . the mountain rends the cloud. In literature this altogether foreign 1 mode of cre- For further details on this point.&quot.Victor added that Hugo if never spoke his verses but wrote them out and would often propriate illustrate them on the margin.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. II. for he believes that writing has its 189 own features.on account of his aptitude for representing to himself the details of a figure. into visual and motor images &quot. book It is is we need most of all made to be read. the flute goes up to alto like a frail capital on a col : A umn. consult Mabilleau. and he wants to see the words.the cold caverns open their mouths : drowsily. This thoroughly plastic imagination re mains identical with itself while reducing everything spontaneously. the thorn an enraged plant. &quot. Theophile Gautier. and like them without form or figure. IV. more curious fact is the transposition of sonor ous sensations or images of sound. in the book devoted to the poet.&quot. chaps. After visual representations come those of move ment the steeple pierces the horizon. unconsciously. not &quot. Victor Hugo. to spatial terms. the wind lashes the rock into tears with is the waterfall. ing.

save as regards the materials employed. in a more artificial manner but one suit able for our subject. just like precious stones not yet cut and mounted in bracelets. without which he does badly. is taken literally. regard as perfectly absurd the mania that people have of hoisting them (the poets) up onto an ideal I pedestal. I see ence. For the usefulness of the one and the &quot. or not. . In the teeming mass of myths and religious conceptions that the nineteenth century has gathered with so much care we could establish various classi fications level . nothing is less ideal than a poet. intellectual and. be tween the imagination of poets and the imagination active in the mechanical arts. they charm the un derstanding that looks at them and takes them from the finger to the for future use. of the other is a characteristic foreign to invention itself.&quot. him words have in themselves and outside For the meaning they express. no matter what may be it is not necessary that he have more intelli man. necklaces and rings. according to race. their own beauty and value. little pile where they are put aside whether sincere no longer any differ If this statement. 3.190 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. faultless form &quot. according to the degree of precision or fluidity.a gence than a laborer and have knowledge of a state other than his own. whose the formula.uselessness&quot. content. is a work poet. Theophile Gautier claims that said of him. found its ative activity has among creed the Parnassiens and is summed up in and impassiveness. most complete expression their congeners.

find the Germans and is But the mythology of the former clear. on emerging from the earilest period. poetry. well is 1 that of the latter fleeting kept within large lines. and yet their fluid mythology statue. 19! Neglecting intermediate forms. some are clear in out line. we the Celts. most of the myths belonging to Greece when. have made gods and their history. 1 As bearing out the position of the author. resembling a definite historical relation form. others are vague. bas-reliefs. definite the attributes of the and even painting. we may also call attention to the fact that while the Hebrew race has had very slight development in the plastic arts. types are the work Such are. have covered their temples with numberless sculptures. is the opposite of the Greek.PLASTIC IMAGINATION. divide them into two groups. if we eliminate oriental in fluences. multi contradictory. change into one another. Without denying this influence we must nevertheless understand that it is only auxiliary. tales are mixed and are of the plastic The former imagination. To those who would challenge this opinion let us recall that the Hindoos have had gigantic poems. their characters . are consistent. Among ities in the peoples no who have incarnated their divin in no human or animal form. relatively logical. the imperceptible in the whole. It has been held that the plastic character of these religious concep tions is an effect of esthetic development: statues. incoherent. we may. and inconsistent the despair of scholars. yet its mythology has . indeed. they attained their definite constitution.

the preponderating characters of a race. in short. as its im tions. is a species.) only in its materials and in end. then.192 It is. called realistic is not identical with the form is more comprehensive. certain that myths of the plastic kind are the fruits of an innate quality of mind. Moreover. even when dealing with the vaguest and most abstract subjects. the latter expression being reserved by custom for creation. ( See Chapter V. both of the whole and It it of the details. in serves a separate study.realism&quot. not in its primary nature. infra. and that it differs from other forms (scientific. clearness in complex- always taken a very definite form. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. I purposely digress in order to dwell on this point: that the esthetic imagination has no essential character belonging exclusively to esthetic it. of a form of imagination and ultimately of a special cerebral structure. 4. it de and what allied thereto. and.) . portance has been too often misunderstood. at a given mo ment in its history. ) in Such are the ination : principal traits of this type of imag clearness of outline. On summed up the whole. tic The most complete manifestation is of the plas imagination is met with in mechanical invention consequence of the need of very exact representations of qualities and rela But this is a specialized form. it is a genus of which &quot. the plastic imagination could be in the expression. of a mode of feeling and of translating. its mechanical. etc. (Tr.

. Would it be improper to consider as a variety of the genus a mode of representation that could be expressed as clearness in simplicity f It is the dry and rational imagination. our intellect excels less in rep resenting to itself real things than in discovering relations between possible or necessary things. we may say that it is Without depreciating it rather a condition of imagi native poverty. The Chateaubriands. the things themselves. We hold with Fouillee that the average Frenchman furnishes &quot. intellectual session of. 185. always preserves the mark of i. the abstract view of life.&quot. Flauberts. Psychologic du peuple fransais. 1 Hugos.The Frenchman. schemas ap proaching general ideas. and pos fancy of the . It 193 its ity. are exceptional with us. Its psychological constitution is reducible to two elements: slightly concrete images. Zolas. In it is a logical and combining imagina tion that takes pleasure in what has been termed other words.PLASTIC IMAGINATION.&quot. original and those disposed to enjoy and understand him it tends to approach the source e. for their association. more the products of 1 Fouillee. says he.. not usually have His internal vision has a German and Anglo-Saxin mind it is an and distant view rather than a sensitive resurrection or an immediate contact with. rela tions predominantly rational. a very strong imagination. p. in the creator clearness of perception. neither the hallucinative intensity nor the exuberant &quot. We reason more than we imagine.does good example of it. Inclined to de duce and construct.

reason than of imagination it Consequently. . the logic of the intellect than of the logic of the It lacks the sudden. a form of invention and construction that is of more the work proper. Both make use of analogous modes of association. Both are above all objective the first. the latter is made up of internal images is bordering upon concepts. Opposition exists only on one point the former is made up of vivid images that approach : perception . dependent more on the nature of things than on the personal impression of the subject. because it is rational. let us merely note the likenesses and differences. as species to genus? It would be idle to enter upon a discussion of the subject here without attempting a classification. the other. plastic Rational imagination imagination desiccated and simplified. arise It is making them and grouping them in unforeseen combinations. because it is sensory. is it not paradoxical to relate to plastic imagination. violent shock of emo feelings. tion that gives brilliancy to images.194 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

concrete. insufficient. cise. nor the semi-schematic representations of the ra tional imagination. discovers a certain class of ill-understood images. how ception to conception. indistinct but one that consists completely opposed to the foregoing. These images are re duced to certain qualities or attributes of things. taking the place of the whole. two things for our consideration images and of their associations. reality-penetrated images of the plastic imagination. images that are evoked and joined according It to the least rigorous modes of association. presents. then. the nature of the (i) It employs neither the clear-cut. but those midway in that as cending and descending scale extending from per This determination. and chosen from . indeed. and we can make it more pre Analysis. which I call emotional ab ever. and which are the proper material for the diffluent imagination. of vaguely-outlined. is stractions.CHAPTER II THE DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION The It diffluent is imagination is another general form.

images of have an &quot. i. The mark. arbitrarily selected because it im in the final analysis. a quality. whispering. extension. what we Emotional abstraction. Some depend on the intellectual factor. the origin of is affective. a passing glimpse we may justly call them crepuscular or twilight ideas. resistance. the most usual are based on . the others for various reasons. act less through a direct influence than by from and evoking.matter. solely because it is in direct relation to the disposition of our sensibility. with no other preoccupation because it somehow this class pleases or displeases us. plification come Thus. They have a very marked subjective character. an attribute is spontaneously. They are tracts abstractions in the strict sense ex They simplifications of the sensory data. and abbreviation. to represent. on the other hand. through sim call &quot. e. Some aspect of a thing. the relations linking these images. suggesting. which becomes the substitute for all the rest that is omitted. results from the permanent or temporary predominance of an emotional state.impressionist&quot. presses us at the given instant ..&quot. comes into relief. or impenetrability. : for the forms of association. character. they do not depend so much (2) As on the order and connections of things as on the changing dispositions of the mind. or at least principal. essen tial or not. they permit a glance. among which We shall comprehend their na ture better through the following comparison: Intellectual or rational abstraction results from the choice of a fundamental.196 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. Others depend on the affective factor and are ruled by the disposition of the moment: association by contrast. 197 fur chance. which have been previously studied. the opposite of the plastic imagination. often from a simple and fugitive impression. trait for trait. Its creations have not the organic character of the other. the diffluent imagination is. Even scientific with these exceptions there is still left for it a very wide range. It has a Thus general character of inwardness because it arises less from sensation than from feeling. it ventures is produces only abortions. especially those alike in emotional basis. even on assonance and alliteration. where the imagination may be used only to create a theory or invent processes of dis covery (experiments. but they act by dif fusion and inclusion. and of the world. very well-known manifestations of the tion diffluent it imagina does not those obliterated forms in which . schemes of reasoning).) (First Part. ii By its very nature it is de jure. excluded from certain territories therein it if if not de facto. Chapter II. lacking a stable center of attraction. which permits neither vague images nor approximate constructions. Let us rapidly pass over some very frequent. This true of the practical sphere. on distant and vacillating analogies ther down.

in spite of themselves. it is wrecked. invol out of untarily. Here we come away (3) The fantastic mind. known to everyone. to become realized. . (1) Revery and related the purest specimen of the kind. aspires to become external. who are fertile methods of enriching themselves or their country by means of agricultural. but states. industrial or com mercial enterprises. make up. it ventures into a world other than its own. a story I shall later whole give examples of it according 1 In to the written testimony of several people.198 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. which they substitute for the real. person. the makers of the Utopias of in 1 See Appendix E. spontaneously. reach complete development and cannot give the full measure of its power. one re quiring the rigorous conditions of the practical imagination. mining. At bottom mantic spirit asserts itself this fantastic through its per form is the ro tending toward objectification. or succeeds only through chance. concerns themselves or others they create whatever an imagined world. confronted by any event whatever or an unknown cloth. The which was at first only a thoroughly in ternal construction and recognized as such. and when invention. comes substantial and manence. and that very rarely. those who. from the vague forms the diffluent imagination be . This is it perhaps remains embryonic. This is seen in (2) The romantic turn of mind. To this class belong those inventors.

1896. experienced a perceptible emotion. which should bring about 2. Gotternamen. religious emotion e. order to start a dairy there with the best cows in the world. Before 2 Let us cite merely the case of Balzac who.000 francs to him. is never identical with though produced by the same phenomenon. He has the commune of Sevres deed over to him a walnut tree. the manifestation of what was imagined the divine imagination created at first (Augenblicksgotter ) part in the emotion felt. It is 199 a form of imagi 2 nation unnaturally oriented toward the practical. until at the end of four years he sees himself obliged to sell his domain for 3.000 francs. But it the religious imagination self. it translates itself. In addition. politics. by two different words.&quot. . religious names must have been applied not to classes of beings or events but to individual beings or events. (4) The list increases with myths and religious conceptions finds itself . in biographers.000 francs. Depending on maintained that. because all the townspeople dump their rubbish there. from which he expects to receive a net income of 3. same income.&quot.during the human race. etc. &quot. gives rise to a new name &quot.000 fr. at two different moments. linguistics.Every i. And so on. with Malaga plants. &quot. 1 Usener. high-grade vegetable gardens. society. among . after spending on it thrice that sum. early periods of the As a consequence. a new divinity. worth annually 2. in the presence of a phenomenon.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION..was always odd.* the has recently been Aryans at least. he translated it by a name. vine yard. says one of his He buys a property. the imagination in its its diffuse form here on own ground. finance. the it only momentary gods Every time that primitive man.

but an expression. Derketo. with advancing capacity for gen eralization.2OO THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. or even opposite. but we see Agni and (fire) Kama Taine. true and more it or rather. Tanit. says a great clearness. causes us to discern the forms of air. movements of the changes of seasons. at shows that cer given stages of their history. and still others. which has aroused many criticisms. Every god can change himself into another.such &quot. But it is in the early Aschera. clouds. have created such vague. men must have worshiped each one of the comets they beheld crossing the sky.&quot. Later. . It permits a glimpse supple. Astarte. one. worshipping the comet or the fig-tree. authentic evidence tain peoples. hypothesis. these &quot. divinities would If this be condensed into more consistent gods. everyone of the fig-trees that their eyes saw. that we cannot succeed in delimiting them. &quot. no language is more of. The of this. the vedic pents. Semitic religions might furnish examples There has been established the identity of Istar. Nearer to us. Mylitta.&quot. hymns not only are the clouds now ser now cows and (desire later fortresses (the retreats of dark Asuras). The myth here is not a disguise. or love). Indra becoming becoming Varuna.instantaneous&quot. Baalath.We cannot imagine. of the Hindoos that we perceive best this religion In kaleidoscopic process applied to divine beings. different. be sound if this state were met with it would be the ideal type of imaginative instability in the re ligious order. and so on. fluid myths.

they are changeable like the things themselves. everyone is of nature. Thus. to include its neighbor apperception or be included by it. Nothing is more questionable. apperceptive Every moment of nature and every moment may furnish one of 1 them. . 320. they blend one into another. fire. indeed. regardless of contradiction. 2OI all the happenings of sky. than this inter pretation.impressionism. In this versatility some writers believe they have dis The assignment covered a vague pantheistic conception. of attributes passes suddenly from one to the other.&quot. this imagination corresponds to has no fixed gods. p. may be. fundamentally. It is more in harmony with to the psychol ogy of these naive state extreme assume simply an of &quot. according to the of the moment. the to whom he addresses himself and while he is is praying. there is a complete antithesis between the imagination that has created the clear-cut and Greeks and that whence have issued those fluctuating divinities that allow definite polytheism of the ^Nouveaux Essais de critique. for the worshiper.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION.&quot. able. note that. no distinct personality. It Everyone of them one of them is a only a is in turn the supreme deity. storm: external nature has never met a mind so impressionable and pliant in which to mirror of its itself in all the inexhaust ible variety appearances. explicable by the minds logic of feeling. However change able nature it. always the greatest and most powerful. god Let us. In this fashion they swarm moment and teem.

the god of wisdom. etc. of praise. wis The Hindoo its through limitless symbolism: several divinities legs. This form of art despises the clear and exact representation of the outer world it replaces it by a sort of music that aspires to express the changing and fleeting inwardness of the human soul.. &quot.&quot. but merely of a consideration of it as a porary example that is created the art of the psychological fact likely to instruct us in regard to the nature of the diffluent imagination. the ideal forms of human dom. To that end. animal forms.who wants to know only mental states.. of form of the diffluent imagination. a question of criticism. with the head of the elephant.&quot.human qualities raised to their highest (Tr. It is : the school of the subject &quot. as e. complete and systematically It is not here &quot. imagination proceeds have several to symbolize or better still. Finally. reputed the wisest of animals.&quot. heads. as it has been expressed.2O2 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. arms. power. and Let us limit ourselves to a single contem places. power. Ganesa. let us note that the Hellenic imagination realized its gods through anthropomorphism they are majesty. attributes etc. times. g. 1 beauty. it makes use of a *Or. or even of appre ciation.) .symbolists. power. several intelligence. literature (5) It would be easy to show by the history of and the fine arts that the vague forms have been preferred according to peoples. the presentation of the future doctrine of universal illusion another more refined Maya.

&quot. or rather. the traveler. and leave to things only the power of moving. As. employment of new words Ordinary words retain. all the and unstable characters of the pure. . and appear vague and these are the words &quot.written in the mysterious The writers do not name they leave it depths. in spite of everything.suggestion&quot. the knight. it should give us emotions ing to rather than representations. is of no period in time: it is the forest. it is necessary that it The word lose. associating them in such a way that they lose their precise meaning. In short. but by the general condition that it excites. Something happens. rose is not described by A the particular sensations that it causes. words forAnother method is the or words that have fallen into disuse. A principal process consists of employing usual words and changing their ordinary acceptation. &quot.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. the wood. one knows not where or when. She. sometimes is the sign par excellence. This process of fails.&quot. accord the symbolists. less affective state. : for us to infer. It. less even He. it belongs to no country. &quot. its intellectual function and undergo a new adaptation. sometimes succeeds. natural or floats in a 203 artificial lack of precision: everything dream. men as well as things. contentvague frequently. the city. often with out mark in time and space.They banish commonplaces through lack of precision. partially. somewhat of their customary meaning. associations and thoughts codnensed in them through long habit.

To sum up nation the authority. to paint emotions.to to appear as cause things forms. indeed. In this form of the diffluent imagi factor emotional exercises supreme May the type of imagination. difference.204 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. them in its own way. but we know that the itself to symbolic school has applied the plastic arts. be con sidered as identical with the idealistic imagination? tions of .musical notes in the service of an impassioned psychology. semblances. pressing to treat All this. a to give to the logic of events imposed thought expresses its itself in upon them. words.&quot. the chief manifesta which we have just enumerated. The how ever. in ges change of tone: it finds and classic expression in music. which Lastly. to make of them the instrument for trans lating and suggesting emotion through sound alone words have to act not as signs but as sounds: they tures. interjections. still more radical method is the attempt words an exclusively emotional valuation. Unconsciously or as the result of reflection some symbolists have come to this extreme trial. gotten during four or five centuries escape this con dition they are coins without fixed value. cries. The complete symbolists want to transfer the role of sound to words. feeling. outlines. concerns only imagination ex itself in words. in a word. is in the vesture that the esthetic ideal assumes. The pre-Raphaelites have attempted. Ordinarily. : are &quot. mere sources of emotion. by effacing &quot. colors.&quot.

subtilized. Nights. a survival of the mythic when the imagination is given free play without control or check whereas. By the nature of for it its favorite images. art and especially literary creation . are two kinds seemingly belonging to the diffluent imagination which. 2O$ This question is similar to that asked in the pre ceding chapter. Here. do not permit it to completely include them. to In addition. color. centuries. so as to approach as nearly as possible to a purely internal state. because there are among them. it would be erroneous to regard the fantastic imagination as idealistic.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. it believes itself adapted for practical work and acts in that direc : claim to the term tion. (a) The and s &quot. Ariosto epoch. doubtless. sublimated. vague associations by its and uncertain presents all the characteristics of dif imagination. refined. and permits the same answer. it must be recognized that were we make a complete review of all the forms of esthetic creation. as in the case of characters. mixed or com posite forms. etc.wonder&quot. in the course of . but the latter covers a much broader field it is the genus of which the other is fluent : a species. touch. we should frequently be embar rassed to classify them. for example. preference relations. it has no on the contrary. however. the Thou sand One poem. the material element fur nished in perception (form. In idealistic art. class (fairy-tales.) is romances of chivalry. Thus. effort) is minimized.

in an impossible: it is a liberated realism. to the living. where one feels rather than per ceives. They are such by virtue of their vision. reigns. we have mythology. the rigorous logic of char and events they rationalize the improbable. then. in an things unreal atmosphere. Wiertz. environment of pure fancy. and other analogous subjects that have often attracted painters. are classed by critics as realists.206 becomes. acters the precision in details. The &quot.satanic literature. already said. terri fying. 1 : On the other hand. where only caprice the characters appear clear. Goya paintings of robbers and thieves being garroted.&quot.wonder&quot. in the environment is strange. a genius bizarre to the point of *The same statement holds good as regards the &quot. (b) The fantastic class develops Its chiefs under the same et al. vague as well as to the plastic imagination.) conditions. (Hoffmann. as rationalized THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. a decadent and This form of invention idealizing the external world. class belongs. according to the temperament of the creator. without consists neither of taking into account natural laws. s &quot. the horrible. nightmare-producing. well-fashioned. intensified to hallucination. Poe. and despising the Often. . nor reproducing it with the minuteness of realism.Tempta tions of Saint Anthony&quot. but remaking the universe to suit oneself. It is thus proper to remark that this class shrouded mystery: men and move easily glides into the deeply sad. more or less to one or to the other.

since it we can to a relation with unity. NUMERICAL IMAGINATION Under this head I designate the imagination that in infinity of time takes pleasure in the unlimited and space under the form of number. one that I have pieces of this class. the pathology in There yet remains for us varieties that I connect tion. nothing unlimited in two directions starting from any term always reduce : in the series. of Religious conceptions could also furnish a fine lot examples: Dante s Inferno. is less vehicle. or rather the series of numbers. study two important with the diffluent imagina to&amp. It seems at first that number ber is these two terms imagination and must be mutually exclusive. Every num precise. it owes But the series of numbers is to fancy. The working of movement increasingly or the mind gives it rise to a possible infinity that is limitless: thus traces a route for the The of the imagination. which are perhaps the master But all this belongs to another division of our subject. 2O? extravagance. expressly eliminated from this essay of the creative imagination. who paints only suicides or the heads of guillotined criminals. etc.gt. rigorously determined. the twenty-eight hells of Buddhism. number.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. ever we may go on ever decreasingly. an object than a .

000. merely one of 365 days of divine leave to the reader. then 259.You. if he is so inclined.000.000.000. and in science. the to serve as basis : their numerical fancies Kalpa is the Koti. also.000 years. The Egyptians. O Greeks.000 oceans of years.000. one ascending. each ocean years. : 2. the Fish-god. the deluge renewed the face of the earth. two work of The calculating this apalling number.000 there were a lofty rock. (i) Numerical imagination has nowhere been more exuberant than among the peoples of the Orient. you are only have done better than children!&quot.200 years came a period of 432. and one touched it once in a hun- being itself &quot.000. and at the end of these 691.000.2O8 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.If . produced in two religious conceptions and cos is . But the Hindoos and content for all that. They have invented enormous units millions.000.328. equivalent to ten (or the age of the world be tween life Each Kalpa : I 4. divide time into two periods.000 years.000 years taken up with the reigns of mythical personages. the destructions).000. equivalent to 1. relates that Chaldean cos Oannes. devoted mogony to the education of mankind. Djanas the other descending each is of fabulous duration. &quot. They have played with number with mag nificent audacity and prodigality. and in the face of the brief and limited chronology of the Greeks (another kind of imagination) were wont to exclaim. sixteen miles in each dimension. were liberal with millions of years. This form of imagination principal ways in mogonies.

he not take on these delirious forms . deprived of the atmospheric vapors that protect it. have determined the vol- . burn nation. Geology follows the devel opment of our earth through upheavals and cata clysms : it foresees a distant future when our globe. it would be reduced to the size of a wango-stone before a fourth of one of these Kalpas had rolled In the sacred books of Buddhism.&quot.000 parasols. and then become condensed. as they ordinarily are.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. and this surpasses all the rest had experienced many vicissitudes during 10. covered with spots. dry..000 Kalpas. 2(X) dred years with a bit of the finest Benares linen. poor. which people often accuse of stifling imagi vaster than esthetics. imagination in its numerical forms is triumphant. colorless. Scientific culture. by. (2) Numerical imagination in the sciences does &quot. will perish of cold. glow become chilled.000 persons). surrounded by minor gods forming an assemblage of 68. The hypotheses of physics and in regard to atoms and molecules are not chemistry less reckless than the speculations of the &quot.Physicists Hindoo imagination.000 Kotis (i. : at first with the feeble light of a nebular mass.100. 680. The Lalitavistara is full ing monotony of nomenclatures and enumerations of fatigu Buddha is seated on a rock shaded : by 100. e. This makes one dizzy.&quot.000. like suns. 000. it has the advan tage of resting on an objective basis: it is the substitute of an unrepresentable reality. on the contrary opens to it a field much Astronomy delights in infini tudes of time and space it sees worlds arise.

J it might be i .Sup pose we were able. unity fol equal to the cube of 10. within the length of a second. it would take more than 250. if our life were then destined to hold the same number of impressions. would not yet have reached the end.000 times R.&quot. protoplasmic elements. would contain a number of molecules at least i.000 years: the being who commenced the task at the time that our solar separate in system could have been no more than a formless 1 nebula. e. hypotheses on hereditary transmission by means of infinitesimal subdivisions. gemmules.000 lowed by twenty-one zeros. Dubois.000 events distinctly. which speaks off-hand of periods of a hundred thousand years. of a molecule. 286. as now. we find that a cube. and many other scientific theses that I omit. a millimeter each way (scarcely the volume of a silkworm s ume egg).000. More than one scientist has even made use of this form of imagination for the pleasure of developing a purely fanciful notion. .000. to note 10.. and referring to the numbers that they give. Leyons de pliysiologie g&nfrale et compare. One scientist has cal culated that if one had to count them and could thought a million per second.2IO THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. its plastids. suppos ing that in we might perceive the portions of duration another way. the theory its Biology. offer fine material for the ical numer imagination. imagines the changes that would result therefrom in our outlook on nature: &quot. with of evolution. p. instead of barely 10. Thus Von Baer.

oooth part of the sensations that time. leaving a fiery trail behind him. and personally If born in know nothing of the change of seasons. . annual shrubs will rise and fall from the earth like restlessly boiling water springs. 211 We should live less than a month.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. we now believe in The motions sun would stand free still in the sky. etc. in this case. whence the possibility of an endless movement in all directions. and the possibility of filling either with a myriad of dimly- perceived events.&quot. then.000 times as long. But now reverse the hypothesis and suppose a being to get only one i. These events not being susceptible of clear representation as to their nature and quantity. I. in James. Winters and summers will be to him like quarters of an hour. these: Absence of limitation in time and space. the motions of animals will be as invisible as are to us the movements of bullets and cannonthe sun will scour through the sky like a 1 meteor. the moon be almost from change. winter. and so on. the imagination makes its constructions with substi tutes that are. The era. we get in a given and consequently to live 1. ^on Baer. The psychologic conditions of this variety of the creative imagination are. balls. as short. not seen. numbers. escaping even a schematic representation. Mushrooms and the swifter-growing plants will shoot into being so rapidly as to appear instantaneous creations. 639. Psychology. we should believe in summer as the heats of the Carboniferous of organic beings would be so slow to our senses as to be inferred.

namely. Chapter IX. he succeeds. The musician him. an affective memory. wants. a many men at least. capacity. of timbre. dispositions. feelings. through exercise. to show that it has its own individual mark that it is the type of affective imagination. and the knowledge of harmonious relations is for him what design and the knowledge of color are for the Psychology of the Emotions. I hold that there exists also a form of the creative imagination that is purely emotional the contents of which are wholly made up of states of mind. . in that is. and that the characteristic of the composer of genius. and not merely of the intellectual conditions that caused and accompanied them.He sees in the world what concerns carries in his head a coherent system of tone-images. &quot. I 2 have elsewhere attempted to prove that. IV MUSICAL IMAGINATION Musical imagination deserves a separate mono the task requires. it is and emotions of all kinds. aspi rations. . there exists. Part I. in which every element has its place and value he perceives delicate differences of sound. of the born musician. a profound knowledge of musical logical history I As and technique. in addition to psycho graph. purpose only one thing. memory of emotions strictly so called. in pene trating into their most varied combinations. it cannot be undertaken here. con trary to the general opinion of psychologists.212 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

and were I persuaded to the contrary. People have spoken to a tiresome extent of the vagueness of musical expression some have been pleased to hold that every one may interpret it in his own way. not understand at all .lt.&quot. if we compare them to the true music that fills the soul with a thousand things better than words. for anyone to be able to match words to it. words seem to me vague. standards to which he qualities are. 3 Memoire et Imagination.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. . These sound-elements and their combinations are the words of a special language that is very clear for some. rhythm and tonewere. 118. those and consequently always give and those who understand well wrong renderings and in this last category there are grades as varying half understand who as the aptitude for perceiving the delicate and subtle shades of speech. who allege that. painter: intervals 213 and harmony. ambiguous. We must surely recognize that emotional language does not possess the precision of intellectual language. I would not compose music. . and to want to explain it by means of words is to make the meaning obscure.at. his Lieder: Mendelssohn wrote to an author who composed verses for Music is more definite than speech. p. impenetrable for others. words are always understood: for me it is just the other way. relates his present perceptions and which he causes to enter into the marvelous constructions of his as it 1 fancy. (&amp. *Arre&quot. rather than too indefinite. There are people who accuse music of being ambiguous. What the music that I like expresses to me seems to me too definite. I do not think that words suffice for that end. unintelligible. but in music it is the same as in any other idiom: there are those who do .

214 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. shall be able to We associate various melodies. its Modern polyphony with power of expressing at the same time different. have opened a new path. Hence forth melody will be able to develop and give rise to the richest combinations. of tenuous. even opposing. However it be. in part at least. has been long in seeking independent manner of the different voices consti tuting harmony. by their treatment in an states. its chief province (imitative. Bach analysis and the contrapuntists. feelings is a marvelous instrument . to the fact that the affective imagination. fugitive its methods of and of expression. it take the trouble to invent. Many centuries passed between the early ages when man s The native voice and the simple instruments imitating it trans lated simple emotions. assign concerted voices. to the period when the efforts of antiquity and of the middle ages finally furnished the musical imagination with the means of express ing itself completely. being made up. or in alternation. materials necessary for this form of imagi construction are gathered slowly. music arts The development of slow and belated as compared to the other has perhaps been due. ments. and allowed complex and dif ficult constructions in sound. descriptive. sing time. subtle. picturesque music being only an episode and accessory). vary indefinitely The boundless realm of musical them at the same them to various instru the pitch of singing and has been worth while to combinations is open. contrary to sensorial imagination.

The case of Schumann is perhaps the most curious of all: &quot. and half unconsciously. for a 21$ clear-cut in space. form of imagination which.always In his fourth symphony he expressed musically the destiny of Napoleon. alien to the forms moves only in time. of his young comrades. any undergoes change of a certain kind. : con external or internal impression. in the ninth symphony he tries to give a proof of the existence of God. even a metaphysical idea. occurrence whatever. He sometimes succeeded in making such striking resemblances that all would . in a room draped in black. alone in the house. he would amuse himself with sketching what might be called musical portraits.&quot. The biographers instances of Mendelssohn relate analogous transposition under musical form. drawing by means of various turns of song and varied rhythms the shades of character. furnishes this What us the best entrance into the psychology of sists in this form of imagination is the nat It ural transposition operative in musicians. &quot. and even the physical peculiarities.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. composed one of of his Preludes. a storm that almost engulfed George Sand. under the influence of his agony. Messiah. he impro vises the adagio of the sonata in C sharp minor.From the age of eight. any An lowing examples better understood than Beethoven said of Klopstock maestoso. During Chopin. which the fol will make amount of commentary. By the side of a dead friend. written in s D flat major.

rays cause the basin in which the 1 In like silver. grand Oelzelt-Newin. at the hour &quot. pp. After . Let us recall again that Weber interpreted in one of the finest scenes of his Frey- schutz (the bullet-casting scene) landscape that he had seen near the falls of Geroldsau. I reflect on all that in my own politics. the events there. by literature..I on in the world men.a when the moon s water rushes and boils to glisten short. Phil.2l6 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the figure recognize. he exclaimed. we know.How pompous and grand that 1 is ! It seems to op.&quot. pression traverses the brain. &quot. see Paulhan. way and it issues outwards in the form of music. cit. 1898. 234-35. mix and come out changed into a musical struc plastic it The proof: imagination furnishes us a counterThe musical im transposes inversely. me like a procession of 22-23. though important. ture. That is why many of my compositions are so hard affected all that goes they relate to events of distant interest. &quot. indicated by the skillful fingers that genius was feel myself He said later: already guiding. go into the composer s brain. but comes out transformed into visual images.&quot. pp. For analogous facts from contemporary musicians. with no further designation. . but everything remark able that is furnished me by the period I must to understand: express musically. I) Goethe. We have already cited examples from Victor Hugo (ch. sets it in turmoil. having the young Mendelssohn render an overture from Bach. Bev.&quot. had poor musical gifts.

a few of the answers am see absolutely nothing I occupied altogether with the pleasure of the music I live entirely in a world of sound.Does people was this hearing or even remember ing a bit of symphonic music excite visual images : dent you and of what kind are they?&quot. generally have no visual images. I give arise. In : &quot. it is only momentarily. : accordance with my knowledge of harmony. in gala attire. It made : for a different answered clearly enough the question propounded above the conclusion has arisen of itself. For self evi reasons dramatic music was expressly ex cluded: the appearance of the theater. 217 personages. goal. any charge of a preconceived opinion. The question asked orally of a large number of &quot. at the outset. The result of observation and of the collected answers are this is summed up as follows: Those who possess great musical far culture and - more important taste or passion for by If these music. might generalize the question and ask We whether or no there exists a natural antagonism between true musical imagination and plastic imagi nation. unsought which fact saves me from happens that it .DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. liable to An answer in the affirmative I be challenged. seems scarcely had undertaken an inves tigation which. and scenery impose on the observer visual perceptions in that have a tendency to be repeated later in the form of memories. and by chance. descending the steps of a gigantic staircase. stage. I .&quot.I .

people familiar with design or painting. music calls up pictures and various scenes . as 1 Appendix D. Because of their anti-musical natures.&quot. the street. is I believe that the chief effect of music to heighten in every one the predominating feelings/ Those who possess especially those having little little musical culture. one of these persons Here says that he is &quot. I picture the instrument to myself.besieged by visual images.&quot. 1 the hearing of music acts as excitant. It very clear visual representations. &quot. &quot. selves to sit have must neverthe they avoid concerts. I see the man turning the crank.I : I am given up wholly to my impressions.the C execution the it The other sees in tumult and excitement of a fair. evidently For the sake of brevity and clearness I do not give here the observations and evidence. since the nature and quality of the music does not matter we may quote &quot. resign them through an opera. An s excel lent pianist plays for a friend Beethoven its sonata in all sharp minor. If military music sounds from afar. see nothing the development of the phrasing. and taste for music. less be admitted that it is very hard to investigate these people. I follow analyze the harmonies but not for long.&quot.2l8 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. putting into pathos of which he is capable.&quot. or at the most. title Under the An experimental test of musical expressive- . They will be found at the end of this work. However. I see a regiment marching.Hearing a Barbary organ in : here. Here the musical rendering is misinterpreted through misap I have several times noted this in prehension.

Eleven selections were given.even then they are fragmentary.&quot. The author characterizes himself as a he declares that music arouses poor visualizer . 463 ff. appearing on a dark background. No. not to cases we may say that during the working of the musical imagination the appearance of visual images is the exception. the char which is interiority. No.DIFFLUENT IMAGINATION. remaining moment or two.) May we not assume that the state of fatigue. &quot. in him only very rarely visual representations. the rendering of the third. and visual imagi Intellectual nation. consisting of simple forms without bond between them. he sees nothing during the first number: the visions begin during the andante visible for a of the second. .) has published a personal observation of Macdougal in which sight-images accompany the hearing of music only excep tionally and under special conditions. that when this form of imagination weak. V. in American Journal of Psychology. which is the basis likewise diminishes the tendency of affec tive dispositions to arise again under the form of memory? On the other hand. and vol. is Furthermore. 1 (1892-3). There is an irreducible antithesis acteristic of between affective imagination. having gone to the concert fatigued and jaded. 4. emotional states. (See Appendix D. of the emotional vital tone. this result of observation is alto gether in accord with logic. &quot. I note that three or four at the most excited visual images ten (perhaps eleven). and accompany &quot. at least. basically objective. vol. the Psychological Eeview (September. insofar as it is permissible in psychol to make use of general formulas and with the all proviso that they apply to most. 1898. More recently. language Gilman. ness. by lowering the life. has studied from another point of view the effect of music on various listeners.&quot. 219 ogy In a word.in profusion&quot. and soon disappearing. pp. unless they are reenforced by a state of semi-morbid excitation. But. sensory images remain without opposition and come to the front. IV. the appearance of images is the rule.

of melodies and language music is an harmonies that are signs of affective states in order to be understood. relations. they must call up in consciousness the corresponding affective modifications. in : the non-musically inclined. Emotional appropriate ordering of successive or simultaneous sounds. extracts of things: in order to be understood they must call up in con sciousness the corresponding images. The exterior excita tion. of which it has been able to make wonderful use. and in their innumerable combinations. the only great Division possible between the different types of imagination is perhaps reducible to this To speak more exactly. follows the line of least and acting according to the psychic na ture of the individual. to study the less There now remains for us general forms of the creative power. . The stuff of its creation is found in the mental states enumerated above. tends to arouse objective images. the evocative power is small sonorous combinations excite only superficial and unstable internal resistance. These two have : chapters given a sketch of them. which fixes in it expresses and language peculiar to itself. visual representations. it alto Taking gether. But. pictures. qualities. ill To sum up which has its : In contrast to sensorial imagination. well or adapted.22O speech is THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. origin without. an arrangement of words that stand for objects. states. affective imagination begins within. that of the sounds. there are exterior and interior imaginations.

and does not draw conclusions after the method of scientific hypotheses. which we shall try to separate out. in the present instance. as is the most complete and most daring of purely Related to diffluent imagina form. which. Mysticism rests essentially on two modes of mental life feeling. repre sents the intellectual factor. especially in the latter s affective its own special characters. . which we need not study. The conclusion He therefore finds no On the other hand. the mystic considers the data of sense as vain appearances. or at the most it is as signs revealing and frequently laying bare the solid sup world of port in he scorns reasoned thought. Indeed.CHAPTER III. inductions. and imagination. halt He makes neither deductions nor ing half-way. it has theoretic invention. THE MYSTIC IMAGINATION it Mystic imagination deserves a place of honor. looking upon it as a cripple. reality. consciousness that this state of Whether the part of mind requires and permits be imaginative in nature and nothing else easy to find out. perception. tion.

(2) Symbolic images. to The every material phe nomenon or occurrence. save ex analogia hominis.image&quot. construction in images that then. which the others are derived. that he imagines.. having only indirect and mediate relations with things. earliest to be received. with which they have a direct and im mediate relation. in its broadest sense may be divided into two distinct groups: 1 i ) Concrete images. residues of our perceptions. of secondary ac quirement.idea&quot. In doing so. being representations of greatest power.222 is THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. being representations of lesser power. yet is not on that account a mystic. then. from penetrate to it. i. let of all that our images understanding the word &quot. and he never proceeds. root of the mystic imagination consists of a tendency to incarnate the ideal in the sensible. The nature of this symbolism must. or signs. and does not proceed here. e. the Concrete images are: . In the visual sphere. that he realizes a is for him knowledge of the world. in natural principle that reveals itself to whoever may Its fundamental character. to suppose in things a supradiscover a hidden &quot. Let us make the differences between the two clear by a few simple examples. is thus a way of think ing symbolically. but the algebraist also thinks by means of symbols. us note first be determined.

Concrete images result from a per sistence of perceptions their validity. Its mode of. so that all mani this process even It festations of nature or of human art take as signs or symbols. etc. recollection of faces. etc. no more do they disappear in the same way. significant gestures. and uses them as such. the illusions of those who have had limbs amputated. in the auditory order. of expression neces sarily synthetic. to perceptions. etc. wind. and even better. symbolic and draw from the latter all images result from a mental synthesis. is proven by very numerous examples is The originality of mystic imagination : found in this fact transforms concrete images into sym It extends bolic images. spoken words or verbal images . also differs .. We itself. If they have not the same origin. etc. a melody. these two groups are not iden tical in nature. in the motor order.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. from an association of perception and image. motor sphere. Psychologically. the human voice. 223 in monuments. the finger-language of deaf-mutes. the auditory sphere. In makes use and because of the mate it differs from the affective it imagination previously described. the remembrance of the sounds of the sea. writ . or of image and image. . ideographic signs. shall later find on a value numerous is examples of rials that it this. in the resting after Symbolic images are: In the visual order. the tossings one feels when having been at sea. as of aphasia. ten words. landscapes.

number of First. full of leaps. as far as possible. it is. methods that merely indicate and suggest or hint instead of giving jects: real. which is purely subjective. ch. We find in almost We might add that obscurity and unintelligibility of all those who have it even in the plastic arts. viz. from sensuous imagination. movements. inaccessible to the greater causes. definite ob which fact makes them people. it makes use of the language of images. Again. . whatever &quot. just as the 1 Philosophy of the Unconscious. character the manner of writing ( i ) An external : and of speaking. which makes use of forms. as having a value of their own.. Other characters are related to this one of : sym bolism. 1 written.. in the thought and in the form of in which that is it rendered. more often turgid and em &quot. says von Hartmann. IX. especially visual images a language whose ideal is vagueness. Excess of imagination betrays itself there. and gaps. have attempted. and from the imagination developing in the functions of words. or else are derived from it.is phatic. metaphorical in the extreme now flat and ordinary. jerks. It has thus a rather special mark. ordinarily. the mode of expression. colors. A may which has been believed is sign mysticism often be taken as an essential sign. . part 2. through an analytic process.decadents&quot. I.The dominant style among mystics. This characteristic of obscurity is due to two is mystical imagination guided by the logic of feeling.224 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. symbolists and &quot.&quot. language.&quot.

has given commentators a freedom to imagine equal to that of the myth- creators. X les fondements de la . p. surprising if we do not understand him. the mystic uses a personal idiom : things becoming symbols at the pleasure of his fancy. having their disposal overexcited senses. With warm imagination. but the imagina tion left to itself stops at no extravagance. hoping thereby world s mysteries.) thinking An by means of symbols. he does not use signs that have a fixed and It is not universally admitted value. and rightly. they are lavish of to explain the changes of expressions and figures. After J. parable. ideal of verbal 225 All this can language in a is precision.&quot. All this is yet very reasonable. Essai sur connaissance mystique. the Bible.&quot. Darmesteter.One of the characteristics : the pushing of allegories to the at extreme limit. While seeming to speak like everyone else. has been said. which is boundlessly arbitrary. had already remarked of these authors is Bossuet. (2) extraordinary abuse of analogy and com parison in their various forms (allegory. a natural consequence of a mode of etc.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. We know to what inventive labors the Vedas. in Kecejac. 124. not concepts. that &quot. the Koran. be summed up phrase the subjective character inherent in the symbol. a great opponent of mystics. and other sacred books have given rise. &quot. The dis tinction between literal and figurative sense.the only force that makes the vast field of mysticism fruitful is that proceeds It 1 analogy.

etc.un numbers. 1 Be representing the moon and the planets. may perhaps be best found the genesis of superstitions in regard to &quot. Again. each one begging to be chosen as the creative element of the universe. mind employs struction. sides these fantastic meanings. they would composing words the represent in substitute for the letters num bers that these letters the Hebrew numerical system and form the strangest combina tions with them. Thus. 7. 4. the a marriage. which have such per (Tr. . The Pythagorean auspices philosophy. it becomes a symbol and material for fanciful con Hence arise those &quot.226 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. as Zeller has shown. the last letters of the words composing a verse. itself on words and imaginative mind exercises the caballists would take the first or letters. like the number 13. and form with them a new word which was to would reveal the hidden meaning.) sistence. etc. teeming in the old oriental religions 3.lucky&quot. symbol of the trinity. all the letters of the alphabet come before God. different from numerical imagination heretofore studied. the having strained the meaning of expressions. there are plicated inventions calculating. number is no longer the means that in order to soar in time and space. Here. is the systematic form of this mathematical mysticism. the years of of 1 In such notions present the lucky&quot. more com from the letters of one life of a sick person. In the Zohar. symbol of the cosmic elements.sacred : numbers&quot. and &quot. for which s name. Let us also bring to mind numerical mysticism.

by explaining. for reasons that we is shall indicate. but its enchanting capac Without doubt suggestion exists much more weakly. This exaggerated symbolism. acter does not consist merely in freedom in images. . has nevertheless an undeniable source of energy in ity to suggest. chapter II. even in the lection. But this illusion of imaginative construc has degrees. just as real as a percept. In the esthetic a field. Fancy. which makes the works of mystics so fragile. already know that when an image We enters consciousness. and in the case of the man of affairs. is Its special char necessarily joined to appearance. also in art. is accompanied by remarks Groos. (3) Another characteristic of mystic imagination the nature and the great degree of belief accom 1 panying it. creation momentary belief. of a form of a it recol purely passive reproduction. 227 relations. by being embodied in an invention that is useful and answers its purpose. in the case of the scientist. what distinguishes it from association and from ^ee Part Two. In the scientific and practical world. Much more tions. in the case appears at first. and for a moment. and with mystics it attains its maximum. so. numbers are not symbols of quantitative but the very essence of things. the work of the imagination is accompanied by only a condi tional and provisional belief.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. The construction in images must justify its existence. and which permits the mind to feed only on glimpses.

the other. is memory is this that what is taken for the reality. super natural. and has its origin in the intensity of the affective state that excites and supports this form of invention. but such a frequently hallucinatory form as in the mystics. 308-312. and which these phenomena as valid and true revela regards tion. Visions. tends outwardly.228 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. until they become commonplace. In either case. inner and voices. This contest does not concern we may make the positive statement that the constructive imagination has never obtained us here.wordless&quot. as psycho-motor hallucinations which we now regard all that we meet every moment in their works. by a spontaneous movement that 1 Groos. to the nature of these psychic states there are only two solutions one. This character is peculiar to them. &quot. The merely representative creative artist has a conscious illusion (bewusste Selbsttauschung) : the esthetic pleasure is an oscillation between the appear ance and the reality* Mystic imagination presupposes an unconditioned and permanent true sense belief. they have Mystics are believers in the faith. the mystic imagination seems to us naturally It tending toward objectification. possible But as naturalistic. that we shall indicate. There has much dispute as to the objective value of those symbolic forms that are the working material of the mystic imagination. . which most theologians hold. Die Spiele der Thiere. touch-illusions. external voices. pp. knowledge only been when Intuition becomes an object of clothed in images.

MYSTIC IMAGINATION. to caution lifeless 1 and encourage me. dos. and metaphysical constructions. religious. dreamers. man s body the and its structure. etc. It is rare. war. Mabilleau. was frequently &quot. &quot. p. produces cosmological. Gerard de Nerval (who. a summary exposition of which will help us understand its true nature. harvesting. the gable. op.. and is nowadays met a few artists. with only esthetic in abnormal. as a kind of survival and tem porary form. all-embracing cosmological form is the of the world by a purely imaginative conception (i) The being. church. working along the liar lines pecu to it. 132. places it 229 on the same level as reality. the console. Victor Hugo sees in each letter of the alphabet the pictured imitation of one of the is the objects essential to human knowledge: head. justice. arx. Thus. . or morbidly persons. tree. no imaginative type has the great gift of energy and permanence in belief. E is the basement. geometry. all that is comprised in the alphabet through the Even more radical is mystic virtue of form. mountains. so that man s house and architecture. Whichever conclusion same adopt. the cross-beam. its etc.At certain times every subject to hallucinations) : 1 thing takes on for me a new aspect secret voices come out of plant.. moreover. II we Mystic imagination. from the humblest insects. animals. Formless and have mysterious turns the meaning objects cit. and then music.&quot.A D is the back. the arch.

The absence of abstraction and generalization.&quot. is In our day of intense intellectual development. the eye is contemplation. characteristic of humanity in its early beginnings.&quot. everything believe in . consciousness. a figure. distinct. the symbolism of the cathedrals. symbolism does likewise.230 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. but it does not an autonomous. animals there is nothing that does not become subject for interpretation. the buttresses and abut ments are the divine assistance. the stones and the mortar the assembly of the faithful the windows . has disappeared. the hairs are the saints. is There are extant special books in which does not know seriously explained. life. Every . particular soul inherent in each thing. land. all the members of the body are emblems. activity. that Who and the vagaries to which it has given rise ? The towers are prayer. real world is a fairy The middle ages and is a period of lively imagination overflowed in this direc slight rational culture that on this earth everything tion. when it peoples the world with myriads of animate beings. &quot.Many thought a sign. we still find a difference. all etc. the legs are the apostles.the To others. it not given to many to return sincerely to a mental condition that recalls that of the earliest times. Plants. the head is Christ. and so on to the minutest detail. are the organs of sense. the columns the apostles. contemporaries. and that the visible is worth nothing except insofar as it covers up the invisible. Even Primi into we come near tive man puts if it. of which I understand/ &quot.

Although it may be held that every religion. there are religions very slightly those of savages. according to Aristotle. let be brief. were not dogmatic teaching. strictly utilita mystical in fact matter how rian. imaginative builders. following the special mode of mystic imagination that we already know. but a show. it descends from a At single primary. logical relations and methods. personal or impersonal. (2) Mystical imagination has often and erron eously been identified with religious imagination. by deduction and induction 1 . no dull and poor. 1 However. Rome and Greece. the reach of sense. the others. among civilized races. between the dogmatists and the mystics. acting by evocation. build by means of abstract ideas. attains its To ject. presupposes a latent because it supposes an Unknown beyond mysticism. 23! source of activity revealed by symbols appears as a fragmentary manifestation. the root of this imaginative construction there is always either theism or pantheism. care If we leave out oriental influences and the Mysteries. The for mer. or sug gestion. an assemblage of symbols. spring. rational architects. even though the mystic imagination religious is not confined to the bounds of it thought. which. the martial cults of the Germans and the Aztecs. and to keep strictly within our sub us note that in the completely developed great religions there has arisen opposition between the rationalists and the imaginative expounders.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. history shows us that there completest expansion. . among barbarians.

. which are. and consequently their wholly symbolic speech is at the same time an original construction. being repugnant to the mystic nature. or tags. direct substitutes for reality. concrete. pure con s cepts. On the other hand. in the various forms of communion also necessary that they take .232 little THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and all colorless like direct representative value words that by long use have lost and are merely marks i. etc. the relations between God and man. legend. On summing up the aspirations for final the other hand. the myth changing into symbols. differ as much from words as sketching and and they drawing from our alphabetical signs.the mystic fact is a naive effort to apprehend the absolute. they must become fixed in time and space. they are.in they speak a language made up of concrete images. represents the tendencies towards pity and resignation. The mystic imagination is a transformation of the mythic It imagination. and condensed into images Buddha rest. the idea of divine protection in incarnations. e. ever. however. &quot. It how must. forming a personality. or rite. purely internal. be noted that if &quot. g. as we have differ seen. diffuse. a . Thus.&quot. medi But the images made use of are not dry ators. because in their feelings. it is on images through which they may be seen e. abstract ideas. their derivatives or abbreviations. for this learned magnificence vivid creations is them they excel in because the moving energy with their hearts. cannot escape the necessity of this. the affective states cannot longer remain vague. Being symbolic. event..

for they have attempted to go beyond it through ecstacy..History strated rational statements 3 the form of assertions of a This declaration of a metaphysi cian saves us from dwelling on the subject long. that lives on symbols and finds in them the only fitting expres 1 it seems that this imaginative sion. nothing substituting for the form of images and undemon(3) &quot. s (Tr. 139 One at once calls to mind Plotinus. aspiring 2 to grasp the ultimate principle as a pure unity. vol. turned ^ecgjac.&quot.. pp. with out image and without form. part chapter IX. . in the direction of religion. I. not dialectic. and we cannot consider them at greater length here. these attempts. and further. Hartmann. whose highest philosophy is a kind of indescribable ecstacy. phase has been to some minds only an internal form. 233 mode of symbolic. op. thinking.&quot. cit. op 2 principal in a metaphysical direction. become foreign to our sub ject. we find it in the nature of the constitutive elements. by their seeming or real elimination of every symbolic element. luring one on further different route. ff.) 2. shows that philosophy has done but transform ideas of mystic production. Turned presupposes two and feeling. mystic symbolism elements imagination it cit. system.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. which metaphysical realism hopes to attain by other methods and by a However interesting they may be for psychology. When we seek the difference between religious and metaphysical or philosophical symbolism.

the sysygies or couples of Gnosticism and itself reflection. . the pro between Plotinus and the fren gression apparent zied creations of the Gnostics and the Cabalists. truth. metaphysical mysticism is a of gods. The construction is of greater logical regularity. This substitution involves appreciable devia tion from the primitive type. It would be weari some to follow these extravagant thoughts. cosmic romances. a very small rational presupposes imagination and element. immutable forms of soul being. In this imaginative plan of the world we may recognize stages according to the increasing weak ness of the systems. we come into a world of unbridled invents the fancy which. although these two tendencies have always been inimical in the history of philosophy. inspiration and depth and silence. each unfolding comprising seven eons. the ten Sephiros of the Cabala. hereditary entities of spirits and In short. and this the important characteristic. by the unfolding of fifty-two attributes. is With the latter. etc. Besides. the absolute manifesting . which. just as in the history of religion. reason and life. in place of human romances. depending on the number and For example. half concept. half symbol. transition-form towards metaphysical rationalism. etc.234 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. allegorical beings. the subject-matter is though still resembling symbolic images tends to become concepts: such are vivified abstractions. quality of the hypotheses. appear Here allegorical beings mentioned above. corresponding to the 364 days of the year.

Following the most venturesome methods of analogy.MYSTIC IMAGINATION. is second to no form. is the type par excellence. which. . and its richness. Moreover. 235 though the learned may treat them with some respect. in its alluring freedom. its variety. To conclude: The mystic imagination. have for the psychologist only the interest of pathologic evidence. this form of mystic imagination presents too little that is new for us to speak of it without repeating ourselves. it has constructed conceptions of the world images made up almost wholly of feelings and symbolic architectures. not even to esthetic invention. according to common prejudice.

and then.CHAPTER IV THE is SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION It is quite generally recognized that imagination indispensable in all sciences. If there does exist a if very widespread preju dice to the contrary culture throttles many hold that scientific imagination we must look for the explanation of this view first. could only copy. and in order to be accepted. in the equivocation. of art. the must become subject to preestablished of This variety imagination being.. that makes the essence of the creative imagination consist of images. in is determined. which are here most often replaced by abstractions or whence it results that the created work does not have the living forms of religion. or even of mechanical invention. order to exist. after the . pointed out several times. requirements regulating the develop it may not wander at e. in extracts of things the rational ment of the will. imitate that it is a stimulus driving us onward and launching us into the un known. that without it we . repeat. invention rules. creative faculty In either case its end i.

scientific imagination&quot. one will question that mathematicians have a of thinking all their own but even this is too way The arithmetician. No more generally the tains in analyst. motor. the algebraist. consequently. since he . tion is The physicist imagina is inces necessarily to refer to the data of sense or to santly obliged that totality of visual. Whence arises the need of monographs. tactile. Does anyone think that Monge. stone ideal cutters in their labors. we may A complete study of the subject. acoustic. esthetic form. and that. we may remark that there is no &quot.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. . then. mechanics. One may well speak geometry the empirical origin of which is no longer anywhere contested but we cannot escape from representing them as somehow in space. the creator of descriptive geometry. architects. remains yet to be made. are at least two well-marked varieties. in whom invention ob the most abstract form of discontinuous functions symbols figures and of their relations cannot imagine of the like the geometrician. however. who by his work has aided builders. to say nothing of mixed forms. and general. could imagination as the mathematician given up all his life to have the same type of who has been the theory of number ? s Here. that its form must vary according to the nature of the science. described. more concrete. the 237 one that psychologists have best therefore be brief. in general. each one of which should be the work of a competent man. it really resolves itself into a certain number of genera and even of species. Indeed.

and apply it also to invention in social matters.&quot. but we them in thought e.238 thermic. has need of visual representa tions of the exterior and interior. with level of perception. plexity of the imagination increases still more in the geologist. etc.properties of Our i. the botanist.gt. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and The com their arrangement in compound bodies. we term says dilate. ists. reverberation. microscopic and of the various forms of diseased condi macroscopic. The same remarks are true of chem The founders of the atomic theory certainly saw atoms. that eye. proven and made certain from the symptoms. its The increasing details. the zoologist.f diseases.. for one must represent to oneself not only the elements of the past and of the present. It might be objected that the foregoing enumera tion proves a great variety in the content of creative . but of the discovery of a new pathologic &quot. in whom science becomes also an art.&quot.entity. the &quot. if we do not hesitate to give a very broad extension to the term &quot. to the physician. representations matter. Lastly.) . by means of visual images.. it approaches more and more. which is a matter of repro diagnosis ductive imagination. we shall is still more exacting. and us also add that we are not speaking merely of o&amp.&quot. tac let representations (touch.scientific. and pictured them in the mind s eye. but in addition construct a see that the latter picture of the future according to probable induc tions and deductions. auditory representations (auscultation). etc. cannot see sound waves contract and construct Tyndall. tile tions.

in certain cases. there does not exist a so-called scientific imagination. and that nothing has proven that under all these various aspects. is nothing but a pure abstraction called for It The monographs lectively above would. that the role is only from them col of the imagination in the sciences could be completely shown. chapter II. and body and Invention. then. all the sciences dealing with from astronomy to sociology suppose three moments.&quot. it turned. For we have seen above that there exists no creative instinct in general. and is indicates to the all mind the direction in which it treason in this regard is paid for aborted construction. the sense. although the imagina In order to tion is not entirely barred from it. observation. then. we study 1 See Part I. its influence on scientific development. 1 This position is untenable. Mathematics facts aside. no one mere indeterminate images. that.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. is &quot. be a not unneeded work. third on rational operations. excite novel but only wants combinations of The nature of first the separable materials. . verifica tion. separated from what gives soul. a factor of the importance it is determining. conjecture. that always remains identical. by painful labor for some by petty result. namely.creative power. 239 imagination but not in the imagination itself. The first depends on external and internal the second on the creative imagination. . and we might by abstraction separate out the characters common to all varieties the essential marks of this imagi native type.

rational explanation. preferring a semblance 1 of knowledge to its total absence. conjectural solution in place of an objec This substitution has tive. reason is always troubled with questions which can not be ignored. for they were the beginnings of more exact disciplines and their fan cies have not been without use. that its lack of completeness measured by the amount of includes. magic. It is imagination that necessity.. Our .. ii has often been said that the perfection of a science is measured by the amount of mathematics It it requires. the pseudo-sciences 1 (2) The semi-sciences. occultism. because they spring from the very nature of reason.). (b) in the established sciences. conversely. (Tr. it furnishes a subjective.) . because they transcend the powers of human reason.240 shall THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the processes of verification. which it would be more proper to call embryonic sciences. astrology. we might is it say. . degrees 1 i ) : The sway of in the imagination is almost com plete (alchemy. corresponding to the myth-making period already studied. study it (a) in the sciences in process of (c) in formation. etc. a psychological explain or prove. In the history of science. this is the golden age of the creative imagi nation. and which cannot be answered. there it invents. Imagination fulfills Where the human mind cannot the function of a substitute. incompletely proved (cerCf the Preface to Kant s Critique of Pure Eeason.

however. Aside from the quantity of imagination expended.).two electric these cohesion. There are in the sciences hypotheses that are not in. that the two phenomena are really one We merely the two aspects of one and the same state of But faith i.&quot. the adherence of consciousness. we attach no explanatory value. although they show a regression of imagina tive explanation repulsed by the hitherto absent or portions insufficient experimentation. sociology. contradict.. destroy one a need to be dwelt mythology. or rather. that are preserved for their didactic because they furnish a simple and con usefulness. often without great profit. another. fluids. etc. repeatedly that the intensity of the imaginary con ception is in direct ratio to the accompanying belief. the &quot.. regarded by physicists as distinct qualities even in first matter&quot. etc. There is also to be mentioned the hypothesis held . of biology. electricity. half of the last century. believed erties of (heat.). the its mind to an undemonstrated assertion is here at maximum. affinity. e. magnetism. nevertheless abound in commonplace truism that does not on they furnish ad libitum of what has been rightly termed scientific examples is hypotheses. there is another character to be noted the nature of the belief that accom have already seen panies imaginative creation. psychology. It that succeed. tain 241 etc.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. in chemistry are some of the convenient and admitted expressions the to which.prop venient method of explanation. Thus the &quot.

proven sciences than anywhere more The less proof there flourishing is. the latter harmonize with its so much does : inner states. truth itself the hypothesis regarded as the one that is accompanied by a complete. and has been put into practice by Lastly. absolute. it seems to the mind should have itself discovered the hypothesis. for example we need not mention its high philosophical bearing. show us But daily observation and history that in the realm of embryonic and illthis disposition is else. remains an hypothesis. there is many of them. but for many it is an all indisputable and inviolable all controversy. dogma. however wrong logician. the truly accompanied by a pro this is as an approximation of reality scientific position. raised far above They accept it with the uncompro mising fervor of believers: a new proof of the underlying connection between imagination and belief they increase and decrease pari passu. 111 Should we assign as belonging solely to the . to the hypothesis because the latter is its own crea tion. in principle at least. belief. It is visional and ever-revocable by all belief. scientists. or.242 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the more we believe. Nevertheless. This is admitted. and the immense influence that it exerts on almost it still forms of human thought. from the standpoint of the This attitude. that it because in adopting it. seems to the The mind clings tenaciously psychologist natural. Let us take the hypothesis of evolution.

whatever is new in the well-organized sciences that form a body of solid. but for which fact we could manufacture inventors just It is as we make mechanics and watchmakers.methods&quot. If one has not imagined beforehand. and even the solu tion of their problems. for we cannot reason concern Even when a problem seems to advance towards solution wholly through the reason. the imagination ceaselessly intervenes in ing the completely unknown. is not induction and deduction going from the known to the un known ? Without desiring to depreciate the method and its value. imagination into acceptable. trials. The . Reasoning is only a means for control and proof it transforms the work of the . says preventive. logical results. help the traveler to walk. but keep him from falling it is over. It is of value especially as a habit of mind. and possibilities that it proposes. That which raises scientific knowledge above popular knowledge is the use of an experimental method and rigorous reasoning processes. which do not Condillac. guesses. not inventive. with the position.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. People have wisely discoursed on the &quot. it must nevertheless be admitted that It resembles. the logical method is aimless and useless. the form of a succession of groupings. There are none. that provides the rational faculties with their materials. the imagination that invents. constantly- broadening doctrine? It is a hard question. the parapets of a bridge. 243 imagination every invention or discovery in a word. but. of invention.

It is true that it has been concluded. the work of the combining imagination. 1 In the rare Notes that he has left. He might have said all the mathematical truths. we see what should follow. conversation concerning the place of imagination in verification scientific work.. is function of method 1 to determine its value. from which are borrowed most of the facts here given. to accept or reject it. must be brought under previously established general principles prior to the decisive moment of rational : it is &quot. For further information we refer to the Logique de I hypoby E. Let us show by a few examples that conjecture.&quot. is at the root of the most diverse scientific inventions. &quot.244 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 2 thdse. he enumerates the processes that. Naville. . Thus. being an cylinder. employed in turn. having imagined the masterpiece of his discovery. i.a great French mathematician expressed the opinion to me that the greater part of mathematical truth is acquired not through deduction. James Watt writes that one afternoon he had gone out for a stroll on the Green at We in which he Glasgow. should expand and be precipitated in a space for merly void. and having made a vacuum in a separate vessel and opened communication between the steam of the cylinder and the vacant space.&quot. allowed him to perfect it. and his thoughts were absorbed with the experiments was busied. without being wrong. e. trying to prevent the cooling of the The thought then came to him that steam. 2 Every mathematical invention is at first only an hypothesis that must be demonstrated. but through the imagination. says Liebig. elastic fluid.In a only a thing imagined. know that Pascal dis covered the thirty-second proposition of Euclid all by himself.

SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION.

245

wrongly perhaps, that he had

also discovered all

the earlier ones, the order followed by the Greek geometrician not being necessary, and not excluding

other arrangements. However it be, reasoning alone was not enough for that discovery. "Many people,"

says

Naville,

"of

whom

I

am

one,

might have

without rinding out the of Euclid." This fact alone thirty-two propositions shows clearly the difference between invention and

thought hard

all their lives

demonstration, imagination and reason.

In the sciences dealing with facts, all the bestestablished experimental truths have passed through

a conjectural stage.
this point.

What

History permits no doubt on makes it appear otherwise is the

fact that for centuries there has gradually

come

to

making a whole, stored away in classic treatises from which we learn from childhood, and in which they seem to be ar
be formed a body of solid
belief,

ranged of themselves.

We are not

told of the series
1

of checks and failures through which they have Innumerable are the inventions that re passed.

mained for a long time

in a state of conjecture,

matters of pure imagination, because various cir cumstances did not permit them to take shape, to be demonstrated and verified. Thus, in the thir
teenth century,
1

Roger Bacon had a very

clear idea

come

This much-criticised defect has been only partially over in our methods of education through "object" lessons,

and, if we may call them so, evolutionary methods, showing to Cf. J. Dewey, "The the child "wie es eigentlich gewesen."

School and

Society."

(Tr.)

246

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.

of a construction on rails similar to our railroads; instruments that would permit, as does of
optical

the telescope, to see very far, and to discover the It is even claimed that he must have invisible.

phenomena of interferences, the demon stration of which had to be awaited ten centuries. On the other hand, there are guesses that have met success without much delay, but in which the
foreseen the

know that easy to locate. lacking inventive genius but rich in Tycho-Brahe, capacity for exact observation, met Kepler, an adventurous spirit: together, the two made a com
all
is

imaginative phase demonstration

that of the invention preceding

We

plete scientist.

We

have seen how Kepler, guided
"harmony

by a preconceived notion of the
spheres,"

of the

after

many
his

trials

and

corrections,

ended

by discovering

laws.

Copernicus recognized

expressly that his theory was suggested to him by an hypothesis of Pythagoras that of a revolution

of the earth about a central

fire,

assumed to be

in

a fixed position. Newton imagined his hypothesis of gravitation from the year 1666 on, then aban

doned

it,

with observation ;
lapse of a

the result of his calculations disagreeing finally he took it up again after a

few years, having obtained from Paris
of the terrestrial meridian that

the

new measure

permitted him

to prove his guess. In relating his Lavoisier is lavish in expressions that discoveries, leave no doubt as to their originally conjectural
character.
is
"He suspects that the air of the atmos not a simple thing, but is composed of two

phere

SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION.

247

very different

substances."

permanent (lime, magnesia) should not be considered simple And he adds "What I present here substances."
:

alkalies

presumes that the (potash, soda) and the earths

He

is

at the

We

most no more than a mere conjecture" mentioned above the case of Darwin. Be have
of scientific discoveries
is

sides, the history

full

of

facts of this sort.

phase

The passage from the imaginative to the rational may be slow or sudden. "For eight months/
"I

says Kepler,

have seen a first glimmer; for three months, daylight; for the last week I see the sun On light of the most wonderful contemplation."

the other hand, Haiiy drops a bit of crystallized cal cium spar, and, looking at one of the broken prisms,
cries out,
"All

is

found!"

and immediately
1

verifies

his quick intuition in regard to the true nature of
crystallization.

the psy reasons for these differences. chological Underneath all the reasoning, inductions, deduc
tions,

We have already indicated
demonstrations,

calculations,

methods,

and

logical apparatus of every sort, there is something animating them that is not understood, that is the

work of

that

complex operation
:

the constructive

imagination. To conclude

The

hypothesis

is

a creation of the

mind, invested with a provisional reality that may,
after
verification,

become permanent.

False hy

potheses are characterized as imaginary, by which designation is meant that they have not become freed
1

See above, Part Two, chapter IV.

248

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.
first state.

from the

different neither in their origin

But for psychology they are nor in their nature

the

scientific hypotheses that, subjected to of reason or of experiment, have come out power to addition in abortive victorious. Besides,

from those

hypotheses, there are dethroned ones.

What

theory

was more
tions,

clinging, more fascinating in its applica 1 than that of phlogiston? Kant praised it as

one of the greatest discoveries of the eighteenth cen

The development of the sciences is replete with these downfalls. They are psychological re
tury.

gressions: the invention, considered for a time as adequate to reality, decays, returns to the imagin
ative phase whence it seems to have emerged, and remains pure imagination.

IV

Imagination

is

not absent from the third stage of

scientific research, in

tation, but here

we must be

demonstration and experimen brief, (i) because it

passes to a minor place, yielding its rank to other modes of investigation, and (2) because this study would have to become doubly employed with the practical and mechanical imagination, which will

occupy our attention later. The imagination is here only an auxiliary, a useful instrument, serving (i) In the sciences of reasoning, to discover in
:

genious methods of demonstration, stratagems for avoiding or overcoming difficulties.
1

Preface to the Critique of Pure Eeason.

SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION.

249

(2) In the experimental sciences for inventing methods of research or of control whence its anal
ogy, above mentioned, to the practical imagination. Furthermore, the reciprocal influence of these two

forms of imagination
tion of

is

a matter of

common ob

servation: a scientific discovery permits the inven new instruments; the invention of new in

struments makes possible experiments that are in
creasingly
tion at

more complicated and
further
:

delicate.

One remark

This constructive imagina the third stage is the only one met with in

many scientists. They lack genius for invention, but discover details, additions, corrections, improve ments. recent author distinguishes (a) those

A

created the hypothesis, prepared the ex periments, and imagined the appropriate apparatus; (b) those who have imagined the hypothesis and the

who have

experiment, but use means already invented; and (c) those who, having found the hypothesis made
of verification.

and demonstrated, have thought out a new method 1 The scientific imagination becomes
poorer as

we

follow

it

down

this scale, which,

how
and

ever, bears

no relation firmness of method.

to exactness of reasoning

Neglecting species and varieties, we may reduce the fundamental characters of the scientific imagina
tion to the following:
Colozza, L immaginazione nella Scienza (Paravia, 1900), In this author will be found abundant details re pp. 89 ff. specting famous discoveries or experiments those of Galileo,
1

Franklin, Grimaldi,

etc.

250

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.
its

has concepts, the degree of abstraction of which varies with the nature of the

For

material,

it

science.

employs only those associational forms that have an objective basis, although its mission is to
It

form new combinations, "the discoveries consisting of the relation of ideas, capable of being united, 1 which hitherto have been isolated." (Laplace.)
All association with an affective basis
cluded.
It
is strictly

ex

aims toward objectivity:
it

in its conjectural

con

struction

attempts to reproduce the order

and con

nection of things.
realistic art,
reality.
It
is

Whence
is

its

natural affinity for
fiction

which

midway between

and

esthetic imagination,

unifying, and so just the opposite of the which is rather developmental.

It puts forward the master idea (Claude Bernard s idee directrice), a center of attraction and impulse

that enlivens

the entire work.

The

principle

of

unity, without which no creation succeeds, is no where more visible than in the scientific imagination.
1 Here is an example in confirmation, taken from Duclaux s book on Pasteur: Herschel established a relation between the crystalline structure of quartz and the rotatory power of the

substance;
acid, etc.

on, Biot established it for sugar, tartaric for substances in solution, whence he concluded that the rotatory power is due to the form of the molecule
later
e.,
i.

not to the arrangement of the molecules in relation to one another. Pasteur discovered a relation between molecular
itself,

dyssymetry and hemiedry, and the study of hemiedry in crystals led him logically to that of fermentation and spontaneous gen
eration.

SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION.

251

Even when

illusory,

it is

useful.

Pasteur, scrupu

lous scientist that he was, did not hesitate to say: "The experimenter s illusions are a part of his

power: they are the preconceived ideas serving as
guides for
him."

It does not seem to me wrong to regard the imagination of the metaphysician as a variety of the scientific imagination. Both arise from one and

the

same requirement.

Several times before this
point
that the various

we have emphasized

this

forms of imagination are not the work of an alleged "creative instinct," but that each particular one has arisen from a special need. The scientific imagina
tion has for
its

prime motive the need
;

o<f

partial

knowledge or explanation the metaphysical imagin ation has for its prime motive the need of a total
or complete explanation. The latter is no longer an endeavor on a restricted group of phenomena, but a conjecture as to the totality of things, as aspira

toward completely unified knowledge, a need of final explanation that, for certain minds, is just as imperious as any other need.
tion

This necessity
cosmic or

is

human

expressed by the creation of a hypothesis constructed after the
only apparently ob

type and methods of scientific hypotheses, but rad
ically subjective in its origin

jective.

It is a rationalised

myth.

The

three

moments

requisite for the constitution
:

of a science are found here, but in a modified form

252
reflection

THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.
replaces

observation, the choice
its

of

the

hypothesis becomes all-important, and

application

to everything corresponds to scientific proof.

The first moment or preparatory stage, does 1 i ) It requires, however, a not belong to our subject. word in passing. In all science, whether well or ill
established, firm or weak,

we

start

from

facts de

rived from observation or experiment.

are replaced by general ideas. every science is, then, the starting-point of philo

Here, facts The terminus of

sophical speculation: metaphysics begins where each separate science ends and the limits of the lat ter are theories, hypotheses. These hypotheses be
;

come working material
sequently,
is

for metaphysics which, con an hypothesis built on hypotheses, a conjecture grafted on conjecture, a work of imagin ation superimposed on works of imagination. Its
principal source, then,
flection applies
itself.
is

imagination, to which re

Metaphysicians, indeed, hold that the object of
their researches,
stract,

far

as

in
is

science,

from being symbolic and ab or fictitious and imaginary,
absolute

as in art,

the very essence of things,

reality. Unfortunately, they have never proven that it suffices to seek in order to find, and to wish in

order to get. (2) The second stage is critical. It is concerned with finding the principle that rules and explains
In the invention of his theory the meta physician gives his measure, and permits us to value
everything.
his imaginative power.

But the hypothesis, which

systems (idealism. a personal totality Every metaphysician has a point of view. sum the sciences. Secondary causes are tems. must its involution and justify universal validity by explaining everything. the of Schelling. in 253 is science is always provisional and revocable. The causes: choice of the principle depends on several The chief of these is the creator s indi viduality. when the scientific process of verification is replaced e. The between in the these two types of mind. morality. esthetic culture. the social variable predominance of religions. by a process of construction. the in- concussum quid. here the supreme reality. way of contemplating and interpreting the of things. Without troubling ourselves with classifications.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. Nature-philosophy Schopenhauer s .. indeed. are proven in develop ment. the milieu. Leibniz Monadology.) we for our purpose. divide metaphysicians into imaginative is the and rational. etc. (3) The fundamental come out of its state of principle. the fixed position. g. materialism. All imaginative metaphysics have a dynamic basis. according differences clearly as the imagination rules superior to the reason or the reason the imagination. otherwise very numerous. the Platonic Ideas. : herents. monism. This is the third moment. a belief that tends to recruit ad the influence of earlier sys of acquired knowledge. already shown its choice of the hypothesis. into which we may group shall.

and this is no longer questioned by meta 1 are living things. to compare these systems with the archi possible tecture of the Gothic cathedrals. sciences. in the skill with which the gen erative principle it is constantly brought in. the mystics. it is seen in the systematic con catenation. but also in the numberless details of its application. Avenir de la Metaphysique. in which the domi nant idea incessantly repeated in the numberless details of the construction. . the construc tion more geometrico. etc. those very They have rich digressions of Schopenhauer. Spinoza s ceptions. this point Fouillee. they on the other hand. physicians themselves. and Hartmann s Unconscious. 79 ff. of Leibniz. chilly aspect. etc. which brings them nearer the abstract Such are most of the mechanical con Hegelian Dialectic. fascination of a work of art as much as that of the science.254 Will. the Summa of the Middle Ages. the Semi-ab a world-soul. semi-poetic constructions. explaining everything. whatever view we L adopt as to its ulti mate value. But art is not wholly absent. Further. it must be recognized that the imaginacf. *On pp. in the beautiful ordering. systems that assume are permeated stract. have a Rational metaphysics. in showing It has been ever-present. they with imagination not only in the general conception. and in the branching is multiplicity of ornamentation. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Such are the &quot. These are buildings of concepts solidly ce mented together with logical relations. in the sym metry of division.fulgurations&quot.

. if it does not indeed surpass them. It is equal to the highest.SCIENTIFIC IMAGINATION. by the originality and fearlessness of its conceptions. is inferior to no other form. by its skill in perfecting all parts of its work. 255 tion of the great metaphysicians.

determination of this form of imagination. this func tion is not a negligible quantity: it includes the plans and constructions for the future. let us take a subtract is man regarded as least ative : the moments when his imagin con sciousness busied with perceptions. life Where is does it be and where does even in its it end? it Penetrating all our least details. often insignificant. no man but makes such. all the rest emotions. This had to be mentioned . Even thus limited. gin. so that at we enter the field random. logical thought and action of his mental life must be put down to the credit of the imagination. fact. and wander unguided in an unexplored But the principal obstacle is in the lack of region.CHAPTER V THE PRACTICAL AND MECHANICAL IMAGINATION The study without of the practical imagination is not First of all. likely to lead us astray through the diversity. of To convince ourselves of this its manifestations. attracted psychologists. memories. and all the dreams of escaping from the present and there is . it has not hitherto difficulties. and in the absence of boundary lines.

in or der to dwell on the higher form chanical imagination.&quot. or imagined profits. however. The active. be recognized that these small little. always imagining what they haven t. and consequently the field of the creative imagination is unduly restricted. hunters of adven ture. It facts teach us must. becom- . this expression.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. inventors frequently of questionable means. unstable people hungry for change. ingenious. 257 it on account of its very triteness. we shall rapidly pass over the lower forms of the practical imagination. trying in turn all professions. in to &quot. opportunity. un derstanding by singles out for one whom his nature no special invention we see that he excels moment. dustrious mind. following our in adopted procedure. furnishes a If we good example. dwelling longest on the clearer and more evident cases which the work of cre ating appears distinctly. being limited little by little to exceptional cases. descend from this form of sane imagina first tion toward the morbid forms. for the petty needs constantly in is It arising in human life. because is often forgotten.take knows how hold of American. adapted for a for a detail. technical or me If we take an ordinary imaginative person. enterprising cording to circumstances. we meet the knights of industry. cap able of passing from one occupation to another ac things. the small inventions. one that a fruitful. Consequently.

but it is not sufficient. Each new or merely modified disposition becomes a center of at traction and pull. down are found the acknowledged are but the at the brink of insanity. One character common to all is mobility the ten dency to change.freaks&quot. and who.258 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. who extreme form of the unstable.. sailors. nothing would happen. attributes opinion. which establish notable differences between them. etc. in my just upside down. not from expediency. abstract. to the imagination. tion that It is a matter of current observa men Common ists of lively imagination are changeable. after hav ing wasted haphazard much useless imagination. merchants. us eliminate the intellectual Let and moral qualities characteristic of each group. end in an insane asylum or worse still. soldiers. Doubtless the inner push is a If necessary condition. It is not because they have an active imagination that they are changeable. this instability. or semi-abstract representations. which is also the opinion of moral this and of most psychologists. opinion. is mo bility. there were not within them a sufficient number of concrete. Let us consider these three groups together. but the origin of invention and of its fre quent or constant changes of direction lies in the . but it is because they are changeable that their imagination is active. Further &quot. but from natural instability. susceptible of various combinations. and let us consider only their inventive capacity as applied to practical life. ing workmen. This. We thus return to the motor basis of all creative work.

to every There are peculiar beliefs. Part One. i. in passing. complete view. superstitious beliefs form a goodly province. longer on a subject already treated. without possible question. is and vice versa? This. we always find the vague. 1 but it was proper to show. imaginary creations. subjective fan cies. speculative or practical. for the common opinion that restricts super stition within the bounds of religious faith is an in too. Has it not often been said that the religion of one is superstition to another. chapter . chance. at the bottom of all such beliefs. only a single instance from among many others . and present su- See above. from which the most radical freethinker is not exempt. Even 1 summary collection of past II. foreign dogma and every religious feeling. places. fate. for example. What is superstition? it ? do we recognize An By what positive signs exact definition and a sure It is criterion are impossible. not in the quan I shall not dwell tity or quality of representations. Indeed. the superstitions of gamblers. In the immense empire of the practical imagina tion. 259 emotional and motor constitution. e.. semi-conscious notion of a mysterious power destiny.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. and nature of minds. having a reality only for those admitting them. Without taking the trouble let to set arbitrary limits. us take the facts as they are. that starts common opinion from an erroneous conception of the primary conditions of invention whether great or small. a flitting notion that depends on the times.

tian priests : Herodotus says of the Egyp have discovered more prodigies and presages than any other people. 1 would be endless. others almost as numerous surround civil life. auguries drawn list from the meeting or acts of certain animals. would fill a library. ergo propter hoc. reduced to a post hoc. set in motion desire. because. the psychology of which simple. propitious or fateful words. appearance and healing of diseases. when &quot. since hold that the origin of all imagin a need.260 perstitions THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. a tendency. orientated in the direction of the future. marriage. see A. . dies fasti atque nefasti. it produces the vain images of the implies: superstitious. a desire. where ative creation then is the origin of that inexhaustible fount of is we fancies? In the instinct for individual preserva tion. (i) A deep idea of causality. is in the last analysis very in We shall thus answer an indirect and criterion.They some extraordinary thing appears. Lehmann. by this fate. birth. 1898. Aside from those having a frankly religious mark. death. incomplete manner the question of First. and by various means to act on the order of things to modify it for his own advantage or to appease his evil As for the mental mechanism that. Man seeks to divine future events. Aberglaube und Zauberei von den dltesten Zeiten bis in die Gegenwart. All that can be attempted here is The a determina tion of the principal condition of that state of mind. they note it as 1 For a complete and recent study of the question.

This (2) The abuse of reasoning by analogy. says Lang. that dares everything. stars that are billions of miles apart. having 1 (pulverized lasted a long time. bril (Venus) or livid (Saturn).PRACTICAL IMAGINATION.&quot. It is the hypothesis of an indissoluble association between two or more events.influences. so that a simi prodigy appears anew. I. which even day still in our The gave cultured people? physicians of the time of Charles II. assumed without verification. and a different way. Gold in solution has There will be found many other facts of this kind. sign of blood. . mummies) because 1 the mummies. know what clever structures of conjectures and prognoses have been built on these foundations. Astrology groups into &quot. has adherents among their patients &quot. op cit. and deduces there from alleged &quot. Need we mention the acts in We Middle Age practice of charms.mummy powder&quot. but an hy quality it pothesis of the mind imposed on things. This manner of thinking depends on the weakness of the logical faculties or on the excessive influence of the feelings. This star is reddish (Mars). life.constellations&quot. without criticism. well as lar all 26l if the events following it. great artisan of the imagination is satisfied with likenesses so vague and agreements so strange. liant silvery light this other is of a pure. Resemblance is no longer a of things imposed on the mind.&quot. they expect to see the same events reproduced. human or any other. believes that it discovers there an ani mal shape. must prolong Lang.. 96.

says one philologist. . order to get rid of a disease nothing is more fre quent among primitive men than to picture the sick fect substance. point. one could reconstruct a people or a society. . . Works on linguistics are full of evidence on this One could do better still by attending exclusively to the vernacular. &quot. to slang. With it. It is the triumph of the theory nomina numina. however expressing. not only. especially the function of to study J analogy. But the working of the mind on words. and to strike the injured part with an arrow or knife.Slang. means. we need not return to it. gold. but with a very marked preference for the worse or degrading meanings. the activity that creates myths and final basis is the of 2 all constructive imagination ap pears also here. low its origin. .262 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. are metaphor and allegory.&quot. It lends itself equally to methods that degrade or ennoble existing words. in the extension and transformation of the meanings of words. (3) Finally. conferring life and power on them of in a word. which shows us creative force in action. we should have had language as an instrument of the practical life in its relations to the creative imagination. there is the magic influence ascribed to certain words. being a per In should produce perfect health. &quot. Its principal. in order to annihilate the sickening principle. been esteemed as a medicine person on wood or on the ground. and picturing language. erecting them into entities.&quot.has the property of figuring. ii Up to this point we have considered the practical imagination only in its somewhat petty aspect in small inventions or as semi-morbid in superstitious If this book were not merely an essay.

I see no way than to put ourselves face to face with the works that it has produced. Of a work of this kind. the view above mentioned? Why are people inclined to believe that our present subject. will not seem paradoxical to those considered the question. after all. the This asser balance would be in favor of the latter. which is. and in tech and mechanical invention on the other. 263 We now come to its higher form. then.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. merely to take therefrom what of interest for psychology and what teaches us in regard to the characters peculiar to this type of is imagination. shall is seem to so widespread and so persistent. fancies. we can give here only a rough sketch. however. which would be very long because the materials are scattered. other In order to appreciate its importance. This subject has not been studied by psychologists. is who have only an impoverished . Why. to speak of it very evident. but they limit themselves cursorily. tion. The erroneous view that opposes imagination to the useful. Not that they have misunderstood its role. to question the his of discovery and useful arts. if not entirely foreign to the imagination. and claims that they are mutually ex clusive. without emphasizing it. that we many to be expressing a paradox when if we say that imagination that nent in esthetic nical we could strike the balance of the man has spent and made perma life on the one hand. to profit by the tory disclosures of inventors and their biographers. mechan ical invention.

i. to change an ending.. Moreover. it allows creation. nized as such. is cast in a mould that only a feeble &quot. of art a poem. forms.264 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. furnish naive novelist in the course of his his characters. personal work character. artistic itself More sounds. It is arbitrary neither in its choice nor in its its means . arbitrary in its choice of means. a novel. and lastly. of a manual operation of supreme importance. it requires the constant intervention of calculation. remains a fictitious matter recog A ture. it seems is that mechanical invention outside the realm of the imagination. It is possible to work changes dramatic author who. a statue is. it is end in itself. in defer ence to public sentiment. is in The mechanical imagination objective it must be embodied. when complete. It is at this cost that it becomes tithesis a reality. a pic It simply fixed.material&quot. substitutes a happy de nouement in place of a catastrophe. an opera. of reasoning. We . subjected to rigorous physical conditions. it is not a free creature having ceed. and as we instinctively establish an an between the imaginary and the real. to add or reduce an episode. a drama. take on a form that gives it a place side by side with products of nature. is has a frankly subjective. colors. expressing words. over. In order to suc to a determinism. it ? form of sons: I account for it by the following rea fully Esthetic imagination. the The who testimony of this freedom of imagination. reality. lines. might have been otherwise than it modify the general plan. e.

these dif ferently realized imaginations are equally useful.. g. often of long duration (e. in music. similar to all other instances of in decisive. As for the latter. which is. tending to become Otherwise.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. and psychological theory. when the idea arises. esthetic is and not The former independent of technical apprenticeship. which belongs rather to esthetic creation. addressing myself to those. I and quality and power of imag identical in both cases. we should not exaggerate its de Often the same end can be reached by different inventions through lows that. antecedents. manipulation make us forget its the initial moment. and secondly in the nature of the materials employed. should not vention. the differences here pointed out be tween the two forms of imagination mechanical are but relative. objective. prove that the birth and development of mechanical whom I knew to be strangers to . any preconceived Their replies agree. preferably. ination. But this last moment. 265 may say without many mechanical because it is exaggerating that the success of creations depends on the skillful of materials. different mental constructions. which may be have questioned certain inventors very skillful in mechanics. especially for psychology. things Others have confounded two distinct liberty of imagination. sculpture. after by means differently imagined. and it fol all allowances are made. terminism. painting). The difference between the two types is found in the nature of the need or desire stimulating the in vention.

has comes incubation. in the same individual. or on the occasion of &quot. this latent work is sufficiently complete. or that. &quot. is . &quot. as far as regards mechanical inventions. &quot.We may. As an example. the idea suddenly bursts forth. the milieu.But this image always appears simple and clear. and the bring ing to an issue is the most thankless part of the in ventor s work. tearing the veil that hides the sur mised image. even unconscious. often very long and painful. In order to get the ideal solution into practice. flowering. and completion. it may be at the end of a voluntary tension of mind. &quot. or. there required a struggle against matter. aptitudes.266 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and. I cite the following statement of an engineer.By germ I mean the first idea coming to the mind to furnish a solution for a s problem that the whole of one struck one. follow ing the mental disposition. which I render literally: so-called creative imagination surely pro &quot. distinguish four sufficiently clear phases the germ. put by another.When a chance remark. studies. Instinctively as well as voluntarily one brings to the solution of the problem all the materials that the eyes and ears can gather. and researches has put before one. again. invention are very strictly like those found in other forms of constructive imagination. incubation. according to tempera ment.The ceeds in very different ways. however.Then observations.

This is then. how one may in a general all way understand lows from the genesis of an invention. in getting novel combinations producing new effects.In 267 order to give consistence and body to the idea caught sight of enthusiastically in an aureole. the imagination acts through association of ideas. I. the foregoing remarks are not enough. until the latter has attained the simplicity that alone makes invention viable. forms of the constructive imagination. towards the realization of which his mind has in advance been bent. the same spirit of invention and imagination must be constantly drawn upon for the solution of the details. General Characters I ical term general characters those that the mechan imagination possesses in common with the best least questioned known. through association of ideas.&quot. and it is against this arduous require ment that the great majority of inventors rebel again and again. one must have patience. But for a slightly explored subject. the inventor succeeds.Thanks to a profound acquaintance with known mechanical methods. It fol this that here.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. as almost everywhere. In order to be convinced that. so far . I believe. One must view on all sides the mechanical agencies that should serve to set the image together. &quot. a perseverance through all trials. &quot. It is necessary to de termine more precisely the general and special char acters of this 1 form of imagination. In this work of bringing to a head.

instances.268 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. The idea is at first hidden. of a destiny they had to fulfill. and associations of images. little by little. of being realized. that this coincide in the is the model par excellence. e. It thus presupposes a dissociation of expe rience. a machine. ensemble of means converging toward a common end. an spondent center of attraction. as in the discovery of explosives.. in which groups appropriate it is enwrapped and organized into a structure. We shall see that the essential psychological conditions two The mechanical imagination thus has er its like the oth a perfection conceived and put forward as capable. What more have poets and artists done? The fixed and irre sistible idea has led more than one to a foreseen death. The practical imagination is no more foreign to inspiration than the esthetic imagination. i. &quot. since it is agreed. an agency for building anew with the debris. the first . excites. decomposes. breaks or makes of experience a tool. it as concerns these characters let does not differ from us take. ideal. the rest. for the sake of comparison.the germ. rightly or wrongly. s phrase.&quot. tory of useful inventions is full of men The his who suf fered privations. fascinated not by the hope of future gain but by the idea of an imposed mis sion. an instrument. that it is. the principle of unity. The up in thought. inventor undoes. persecution. to use our corre suggests. who fought to the bitter end against relatives and friends drawn by the need of creating. esthetic imagination. ruin.

Triptolemus. first a venture is made. . . have done same and we find the same condition in Egypt. effort is wasted with small thetic imagination. and many others. Ample information on this point will be found in the work of Espinas. changes and modifies accord ing to his own inspiration. to enter the humanistic age. sub jected to fixed rules and an undisputed tradition. Mechanical and industrial imagination. of the great inventors. and mechanical arts tion. Prometheus. its the periods of the precursors. from a true intuition. aeronautics. primi have put on a level great poets and great inventors. despite their dry imagination. during which the artisan. after him the work passes into the hands of dii 1 minorcs. abridge. Les Origines de la Technologic. Moreover. has : zenith and decline the man has come too result. . 269 attempts at lightning conductors. considers himself an instrument of divine revela Assyria. early or lacks clear vision. The the Chinese. like es its preparatory period. when. he labors freely. and of mere At perfectors. being fully conscious of being the author of his work. and everywhere. who add. 1 Little by little he has emerged from that theological age. blos soms. erected into divinities or demi gods historical or legendary personages in whom the genius of discovery doos. Daedalus and Icarus. is personified : among the Hin Vicavakarma among the Greeks. tive civilizations Thus. pupils or imitators.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. the practical have passed through a first period of no-change. Hephaestos. then a great imaginative mind arises.

be coming capable. later lightened. at massive and cumbersome. an inborn quality. not toward the attainment of theoretical knowledge of nature. : the im provements made the statement. The many-times writ ten history of the application of steam. is one proof of Another example is the machine for measuring duration at first a simple clepsydra. that does not originate in experience latter and owes the is only its development. not in the realm of a bent in a practical. : modify such is the order. This quality to act. a tendency dreams or human feeling. useful direction. shall position. then a water gauge causes a hand to move around a dial. 2. becomes the watch. with Tycho-Brahe. a natural dis ventors. then there are added marks indicating the subdivi sions of time. from the time of the eolipile of Hero of Alexandria to the heroic period of Newcomen and Watt. but . Special Characters characteristics The special of the mechanical imagination being the marks belonging to this type. we study them at greater length.270 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. then two hands for the hours and minutes. and the clock. and since their time. not on individuals or social groups. then comes a great moment by the use of weights the clepsydra becomes a clock. There is first of all. at least in great in (I) that is. of marking sec first onds and then another moment . Huyghens invents the spiral spring to replace the weights. simplified and lightened.

&quot. mechanical invention shows itself very early in some children we gave examples of it before. Later. If. My The same correspondent. there no creative instinct in general. it would move like a locomotive. great or small. to transform them and adapt them toward an end. A man distin guished for various inventions along practical lines.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION.&quot. gives me the following details: &quot. arises from is a particular need. Our inventor adds: &quot. a speech of Bismarck made me so angry 1 that I immediately thought of arming my my having asked him in regard to this. when about thirteen. I can state : my case conception always results from a 1 It springs up suddenly. I began a childish construction of one. to 271 become master over natural forces. but lacked wheels. that in Thus. material or mental need. .When about seven years old I saw a locomotive. for. we repeat again. forming a natural consequence of the principal con ceptions born of the period of youth. I told my father. without father s stove also made fire and smoke.My imagination was strongest at about the age of 25 to 35 (I am now 45 years old). The tendency toward etc.As far as writes my memory allows. in 1887. Every mechanical invention arises from a need from the strict necessity for individual preservation in the case of primitive man who wages war against the powers of nature from the desire for well-being and the necessity for luxury in growing civilization from the need of creating little engines. . imitating In a word. its fire and smoke. instruments and machines. : . After that time it seems to me that the remainder of life is good only for producing less important conceptions. which my father made me give up. in the child. the sight of a steam threshing-machine suggested to me the idea of making a horseless wagon. then. every particular invention. we put wheels under the stove.

but inventor. but I have the design of the gun that I invented. &quot. previously If we measure the distance traversed since the distant ages when man was naked and to the present time of the of machinery. often use lessly lavished.272 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. unarmed before nature and we ask ourselves how such a so lightly work could have been misunderstood or appreciated. country with a repeating I had already made various applications to the ministry of war. 1 law of growing complexity&quot. rifle.subsidiary It is a fine verification of the discussed. So we should feel grateful to a historian of the useful arts. tactile. for 1 make even a summary table of ment. as in the sciences.&quot. still patriotism was fully satisfied. I learned that the Lebel system had just when been adopted. but have had a chance of being adopted. . Among the requisite qualities I mention the nat ural and necessary preeminence of certain groups of sensations or images (visual. The reader can consult long develop See above. more completely. unfortunately. L. chapter V. It does not pertain to our subject to this the special works which. motor) that may be decisive in determining the direction of the (II) Mechanical invention grows by successive stratifications and additions. Part Two. Bourdeau. we are astonished at the amount reign of imagination produced and expended. are most often fragmentary and lack a general view. My This communication mentions two or three other in ventions that arose under analogous circumstances.

abounding in facts. the nature&quot. Be fore all else. This very substantial work. and for having fastened it down in the following formulas l : (a) The exploitation of the powers of nature is made according to their degree of power. according to the observations of M. In this manner there gradually formed an arsenal of instruments. has applied his creative activity to natural forces and has set them to work according to a regu lar order. Paris. as a hammer. Les Forces de I Industrie. with L. man created weapons: the most cir cumscribed primitive races have invented engines for attack and defense of wood.state Human of by special adaptation : the battle-club serves as a lever. Man. Bour- deau. viz. Bourdeau. . 2/3 having attempted to separate out the philosophy of the subject. : only ones available dur and the savage state. (b) The extension of working instruments has followed a logical evolution in the direction of grow ing complexity and perfection. we do it Some still better birds. 1884. &quot. with the ax. conceived after a systematic plan. are superior to all as soon as we set our If the rodents with their sharp teeth better than cut wood we can. the flint is ax as a hatchet. &quot. (i) ing the forces. the 1 chisel. bone. the tomahawk etc. the saw.Inferior to most animals as regards certain work that would have to be done with the aid of our organic resources alone. as Then the weapon became a tool they were able. stone.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. we tools at work. has aided us much in this study.

the trowel than the beaver s for beating and spreading mortar. An animal is a machine. so that the still Man creative imagination in man is a succedaneum of the generative powers of nature. ness with which to equip to the chariots. He even succeeds in surpassing tools. etc. superior to the carnivore s teeth for tearing meat the hoe better than the mole paw tail for digging earth. : the wimble do the same work quickly. them.&quot. (2) During the pastoral stage man brought ani mals under subjection and discipline. but this training has required and stimulated all sorts of inventions. these inventions arose animals : from a voluntary imitation of but even supposing such an origin. pp. ready-made. the help of a strong beak. it. pene trate the trunk of a tree but the auger.. thus reproduces and sums up in his technical con trivances the scattered perfections of the animal world. it and roads with which and on which *0p. be cause. . the wing of The distaff and spindle allow our imi the bird. life fine place for personal creative has produced by conscious effort what realizes by methods that escape us. the gimlet. Man tating the industry of insect spinners. moves. The oar per mits us to rival the fish s fin the sail. from the har wagons. that needs only to be trained to obedience. cit.274 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . better and more s The knife is . by repeated blows. 45-46. in the form of he uses substances and combinations of effects that cannot figure as part of 1 It is scarcely likely that most of an organism. there remain a would work.

powder and all its which has steam. before becoming a and realized thing. e. motors. (4) Lastly. great or small. if he please to note that fixed every invention. its author the credit for its dis The immense majority of inventions are anonymous some great names alone survive.and water-mills. has man imagined not excepting even esthetic to such a great ex One of the reasons though not the only one that supports the contrary opinion is. was at first an imagination. at re first . without leaving covery. the natural motors air and water have furnished new material for human ingenuity. If the reader please to represent to himself well the immense number of facts that we have just in dicated in a few lines. sawing. ex plosives. whether individual or mains imagination. milling. inventions are grafted one on another. collective. much later. wind. in navigation. he will be forced to admit that nowhere production tent. that by the very law of their growing complexity. derivatives and sub great made such progress. an assembly of new new relations. g. and so gradually wrought.. But.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. used at first to grind grain. then for a multitude of uses etc. that each one of them passed unperceived. combinations or a mere contrivance of the brain. come products of an artificial al ready stitutes mature civilization. imagination In order that the plow. 275 (3) Later. lifting hammers. In all the useful arts improvements have been so slow.

mechanical imagination depends strictly on physical conditions. every great invention has been preceded by a period of abortive attempts. (Ill) More than any other form. through a long series of inventions. through a long series of modi fications described in the special works. not being born viable. which.initial moment&quot. a simple piece of wood hardened by the fire and pushed along with the human hand. of a mechanical discovery. are con densed imagination.276 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the uncertain flame of a resinous branch guid ing vaguely in the night leads us. however. even the most ordinary and most com mon that now serve us in our everyday-life. Compared to it. its ation has much more freedom hypotheses. All objects. Others are known as curiosities because they have blazed the path. of imaginative construction that has not been able to enter into the mold of an appropriate determin ful trials : ism. know that Otto de Guericke have We . ! who knows In the same how many imaginations have labored way. should become what it is to-day. It cannot rest content with combining images. the scientific imagin in the building of In general. History shows that the so-called &quot. is the moment ending a series of unsuccess we thus skip a phase of pure imagination. followed by its improve ments. tions that There must have existed innumerable inven we might term mechanical romances. we cannot refer to because they left us no trace. it postulates material factors that impose themselves unyieldingly. to gas and electric lighting.

&quot. stout case.imitation clouds. They do not emerge from the stage of pure imagination.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. From the end of the sixteenth century there was offered the possibility of com municating at a distance by means of electricity. p 354). 1 many Quoted by L.In distance) for the aid of lovers who. 1787). the absence of lovers having such fail Mechanical inventions that erroneous or unverified scientific correspond to hypotheses. he said. Lhomond (France. which fell on cooling. letters of the alphabet is would be written the and the drawing accompany almost a picture of Breguet s tele But the author considered it impossible 1 ability. and so on. would cause a needle to move about ing the text graph. people could converse at a &quot. by the connec tion of their movements. 1780. Thus.&quot. Salva (Madrid. The brothers Montgolfier were possessed with the desire to make &quot. a work published in 1624 the Jesuit. &quot. Battencourt (Spain. Bourdeau (op. order to imitate nature.in a dial on which . . Then they finally succeeded. a German (1794).&quot. 277 made four fruitless attempts before discovering his air-pump. they tried . 1787). cit. The insufficient study of dynamic electricity did not permit them to succeed. Beiser. who also mentions other attempts: an anonymous Scot in 1753. described an imaginary apparatus (by means of which. 1796). Lesage of Geneva.In those they saw moving over the Alps.&quot. after a succession of hypotheses and failures. they at first enclosed water- vapor in a light. like &quot.. hydrogen then the production of a gas with electrical properties. Father Leurechon.

do not interest .278 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. a theater. but they are instructive to the psychologist because they give in bare form the initial work of the con structive imagination in the technical field.Before is the least personal of it is all the arts.&quot. climate. a spectral image haunting a dreamer s brain. one can reach the same goal Besides. Thus it has been possible to say that &quot. a palace before else subordinate its work to the This is not all: it must signed to it in advance. but it example. habits of all things that may require much skill. of adaptation to the properties of matter. location. soil. But. tact. take account of materials. we repeat. which. There still remain the requirements of reasoning. In this respect. these determin ing conditions are not lacking in any type of imagin ation. this determinism has sev eral possible forms through different means. What must end as it builds all a temple. there is only a difference as between lesser Every imaginative construction from it is little more than a group of fancies. submit to external conditions on which it depends. sense that it an industry in the has nearly always a useful end that is being an art imposed on ever it it and rules its manifestations. calculation. must take on a body. however. of calculation.Architecture &quot. is subject to so many limitations that its process of invention strongly resembles technical and me chanical creations. and which materialize it some the and greater. architecture is an excellent It is classed among the fine arts. moment that what.

panting or smoking breath. p. : &quot. The additus naturae. 315. has been too formula. for it.&quot.Those constructions that at other times are the marvel of the ignorant crowd deserve the admira tion of the reflecting : Something of the power that has organized matter seems to have passed into com binations in which nature is imitated or surpassed. the means. doubtless. Thus. there is an identity of nature between the constructive imagination of the me chanic and that of the artist the difference is only : in the end. so varied in form and in function. machines. capable of giv Their ing inert substances a regular functioning.PRACTICAL IMAGINATION. muscles of leather. organs of steel. soul of fire. L Esthetique. and exploiting everything for our sake. Esthetes. . They are counterfeits of animate beings. fest its 279 and do not permit architecture to mani 1 purely esthetic qualities. are the representatives of a new kingdom inter Our mediate between senseless and animate forms. skeleton of iron. art as such. Veron. at bottom. hold that them a loftier quality a disputed question that psychology need not dis cuss. the essential mechanism is the same in their imagination has for the two cases a great mechanic is a poet in his own way. and the conditions. because he makes instruments imitating life. hav ing the passivity of the former and the activity of the latter. rhythm of movement 1 sometimes even the shrill or plaintive E. it should often restricted to esthetics comprehend Ars homo everything artificial.

233. expressing effort or simulating pain : all that contributes to give them a fantastic likeness to life a specter and dream of inorganic life. Bourdeau..&quot. cit. . op.280 cries THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. p. 1 L.

. etc. Invention in the commercial or financial subject to various conditions with field is which we are not concerned : (i) External tical. conditions: social. as in mechanical invention. time. as elsewhere. varying according to Such is its external de social here in place of cos mic. the great among these are inventors of all kinds human mind equal those is whom general opinion ranks as highest. all inventions dividual or collective enrichment. I &quot. this imaginative manifesta tion reveals as much ingenuity as any other. and people. the great body invent nothing. The There largely busied in that way. in routine and imitation. place. terminism human and . live according to tradition. Here.commercial&quot.CHAPTER VI THE COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION Taking the word signification. physical. making for in Even less studied than the form preceding. Geographical. poli economic. in its broadest all understand by this expression those forms of the constructive imagination that have for their chief aim the production and dis tribution of wealth.

most of (2) Internal. the necessary and exclusive role of schematic images. selfish mixed forms. calculation. if we would avoid repetition at the initial is moment of in vention. the mercantile and gain-hungry ex plorers of the fifteenth. on the other hand. in a word. we generally understand a prac- . They have a broader sweep. Of this sort were the merchant-sailors of Tyre. and Greece the merchant-travelers of the Middle Ages. principal types In the former the rational ele are cautious. ment predominates. from our subject. American &quot. great a changed form. ment is first. psychological conditions. two the venturesome. assurance. strong capac Whence arise. with no great moral or social preoccu In the latter.intuition&quot. soaring into the ity for action. then. I see only two points for us to treat. ventive act: . are foreign to the primary and essential in which on one hand. what is not the purely imaginative element in order to study it alone. sixteenth. unknown in a word. Eliminating. the organizers of the inventors of monopolies. foresight.trusts. the active and emotional ele pations. capacity for re strength of reasoning flection. the intuitive act that its germ. recklessness. in companies. These are the great imagin centuries . if we leave out the the calculating. ative minds. during the period of development and organization. etc. They exploiters.2 82 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and seventeenth . i By &quot. calculating. later. Carthage.&quot.

in their limited sphere.. &quot. there are ignorant people peasants. and of grasping chances. &quot. but in commercial invention someone has said. easy. very difficult. the politician who knows human na ture. if one attempts to discover its mechanism. a matter merely of giving examples.Genius for business. It does not depend on the degree of culture. every intuition is an anticipation of the future. mous or out. all But quired experience of a special nature that gives the judgment its validity and turns it in a particular direction. divination. these facts teach us nothing concerning its Intuition presupposes ac psychological nature. the merchant who scents a good venture. not to mention women. groups symptoms in order to deduce a new disease from them.&quot.&quot. etc.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. wisdom. 283 immediate judgment that goes straight to the Tact. like Duchenne de Boulogne. this accumulated knowl of itself gives no evidence as to the future. whose insight into practical matters is well known. are the equals of fine diplomats. on a higher level. edge Now. who. for it is found in parvo through it is preponderat ing on account of the necessity of perceiving quickly and surely. Nevertheless. that intuition does not belong exclusively to this part of our subject. First let us note equivalent expressions. furnish examples of intuition. . tical. even savages who. are synony goal. scent. if it To characterize the mental state is The physician who in a trice diagnoses a disease.consists in making of is exact hypotheses regarding the fluctuations values.

Which is the chief process here? struction. becomes concrete as a judg ment. chapter XI (end). Every intuition. i.intuition&quot. Mental Physiology. because it is not a matter of fan cied hypothesis. people mean only Carpenter. By &quot.&quot.unconscious cerebra deserves to be consulted. it finds at the diffi shot the proper one.&quot. ing.284 resulting THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. if new case. reaction. from among many possible first solutions. it is perhaps to be preferred to other proposed explanations we such as automat ism. In my opinion this culty arises largely from a partial comprehension of the problem.&quot. penter. he reprints a letter that Stuart Mill wrote to him on the subject. &quot. equivalent to a conclusion. a representative con Evi dently the former. tion. But what seems obscure and even mysterious in it is the fact that. in John which he says in substance that this capacity is found reflection. Although questionable.. imagination. then. habit.instinct. . Car who as promoter of &quot.. experience and lean toward attach little importance to theory. g. the chemist foreseeing a e. in persons who have but practical 1 things. from only two processes e. but of adaptation of former expe rience to a operations binations.nervous connections. likens this state to In ending. &quot. : inductive or de ductive reasoning. Intuition resembles logical much more than it does imaginative com We may liken it to unconscious reason are not afraid of the seeming contradic tion of this expression which supposes a logical operation without consciousness of the middle term.

the former ac cessory. Fuegians. This primitive period. artificial could not arise in from needs. and follow it development. Without dwelling longer on in its to this initial stage. a spe cial case What constitutes the originality of the operation is not its accuracy. arising like the other forms simple and indispensable fluous later. cases in which the divination is 285 the other.or left-handed: expe rience does not give it only permits it to be put to use. correct. but its rapidity the latter is the essential character. which we do not need examine here. Further. is The act by which one reaches a conclusion of it. which was long. at first. corresponds to the age of the horde or large clan. and their class seem to have had no idea whatever of exchange. far more numerous. they forget cases that are failures. The human race passed through a pre-commercial The Australians. ii age. denied to another: people are born with it. let us return to the commercial imagination. must be acknowledged that the gift of seeing correctly is an inborn quality. and super that dim period when the groups had almost their sole relations with . it just as they are born right. vouchsafed to one. Commercial invention. that is a question comes down to the natural distinction between accurate and erroneous minds. As for knowing why the intuitive act now suc ceeds and at another time that fails.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION.

gold and silver are replaced by the letter of credit. L Evolution du commerce dans les diverses races Tiumaines. Finally. For details. va ried with the time. however. the evolution has not always proceeded strictly this order. and the numerous forms of fiduciary money. Nothing called it one another as war.286 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the Azteca were ignorant of its use. appeared early and almost everywhere. see Letourneau. cocoa-seeds. . and people certain slaves. straw-matting. etc. Thus. struck under the authority of a chief or of a social group. cloth. which. g. place. money of fixed denomination. the bank check. but For thousands of years Egypt used ingots. subject to theft and the inconveniences of weighing. But at a higher stage the rudimentary form of com merce. Paris. 354. 330. etc. 1897. money.&quot. etc. Then. salt. Negotiable drafts were known to the Assyrians and Carthagin 1 in ians. for stitution. the precious metals.. cattle. mercial evolution the chief effort at invention con sisted of finding increasingly in the more simple methods mechanism of exchange. . 1 Historically. seems the most logical one. exchange in kind or truck.standard values. for all the rest : their choice e. cumber some. 384. Then this long. but this innovation held all the remain it was the first attempt at sub But during the earliest period of com der in the germ. the Peruvians made use of the scale. new world. 264. inconvenient method gave place to a more ingenious invention the employment of &quot. especially pp. not real it was acquainted with In the fiduciary money. to arise. in the form of powder and ingots. there suc ceeded to these disparate values. beings or material objects serving as a common measure shells.

in several ages though in the same our earth. with the great maritime discoveries. It came into being toward the end of the The appearance Republic. We now come to the its invention attains great masses.&quot. its psychological the same as that of any other creative first In the instance. by the mixed expeditions. is 287 is -one of these I forward steps due to in it say inventors. because proven that every change in the means of ex change has been imagined several times. Every ventors. social and economic conditions and political extension. . way on the surface of Summing up is the inventive labor of this period reduced to creating increasingly more simple and rapid methods of substitution in the more cial commer mechanism. in the sixteenth century by the Con- quistadores. in the plural. and which are often accompanied by armed bands that fight for them. cities. hungering for adventure and wealth. later on. from . whose expenses are defrayed by merchants in common. After the interrup tion of the Middle Ages the activity is taken up Roman again by the Italian etc. lastly comes the incorporation of great companies that have been wittily dubbed &quot.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION.Conquista- dores of the counting-house. moment when commercial complex form and must move mechanism work. the idea arises. is Taken as a whole. of commerce on a large scale has on the state of agriculture. in the fifteenth century the Hanseatic League. ways depended of communication. industry.

and become a requires &quot. must be overcome. of forms already studied. the grouping of stockholders. repre sents to himself the material to be worked upon. (i) cial It is a combining or tactical imagination. derived from the very nature of its determinism. or is only half-suc cessful. the making up of a cap and selling. etc. in order to emerge from the in ternal. very exact calculation of frequently numerous.288 inspiration. purely imaginative phase. Every Heretofore.&quot. Finally. commer imagination would be merely the reiteration. but Did cial it has characteristics all its own that must be dis tinguished. All ital. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. or in the nature of the images. In the second phase it is necessary to pro a castle in the air must be made ceed to execution a solid structure. which is very different from that lim iting the scientific or mechanical imagination. we have met nothing mark is commercial project. Then comes a period of fermenting during which the in ventor sketches his construction in images. the work is triumphant. or by chance. Then appear a thousand obstruc tions in the details that everywhere else.coming to a head. This spe like it. even . it keep only to these general traits. the mechanism of buying this differs from the genesis of an esthetic or me chanical work only in the end. divergent. As minor inventions become grafted lets us see the poverty or richness in resource of his mind. with slight changes. fails. from reflection. reality. on the principal invention the author .

strife. can It is a undergo changes. Moreover.self. commercial imagination pre supposes a well-studied. Let us follow to the end the working of this creative imagination. detailed campaign for at tack and defense. life what is at first sought end and be desired for means may become an A very sensual pas- .&quot. contrary elements. multiplied and increased into a noticeable initial intuition that Besides that shows opportune business and moments. as he deals enormous is quantities. namely. the least error means great of account. in regard to the probable chances of rain or drouth. he buys and in sells haphazard. the smallest profit on a unit is and gain. Like the other forms. All this totality of special conditions results from a general condition. etc. a rapid and reliable glance at every moment of execution in order to incessantly modify this plan it is a kind of war. of the expansion of the individual under the form of enrichment. the tariff duties of the various countries.feeling. losses. But this tendency. competition. Lacking that. this kind of invention arises from a need. well-known law of the emotional as a itself. and with it the resulting imagin that ative creation. We shall come back to this point at the end of the chapter.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. that export or import. a desire that of the spreading of &quot. ing in grain is 289 The American dealer speculat under the absolute necessity of being quickly and surely informed regarding the agri cultural situation in all countries of the world that are rich in grain.

But let cause of this change us note well that the primary and sole is in the affective and motor element. as everywhere. His imag ination. he becomes. Zola. in an unmeasured and morbid want of expansion of self. tion of images. . but for art. an author of romance. and the tion. daring the extraordinary. in an hypertrophy of the lust for power. is obliterated. the pleasure of invent 1 ing for invention s sake. the source of invention the emotional nature of the inventor. set at the only its beginning toward gain. it is the victory of pure construc the unheard-of The natural equilibrium between the three necessary elements of creation mobility. speculator is launched into adventure with the possi bility of a dazzling success or astounding catastro phe. calculation tional element gives way. now seeks complete expansion. in his own way. the assertion and erup its tion of creative power.290 sion THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. is Here. combina The ra is destroyed. may at length first because people study a science at later because of its fascination and . it is useful. hoard it. in among them Money. second special character of commercial (2) imagination is the exclusive employment of sche matic representations. Here it is the same is and : later in order to the financial inventor often possessed with a kind of intoxication he no longer labors for lucre. and we may desire money in order to spend it. Although this process is also A met with 1 in the sciences and especially in social This condition has been well-described by various novelists. undergo a sort of idealization.

I mean their very nature. as the difference between the chief types of creative imagination depends in part on the materials employed on the nature of the images that serve in mental building a precise determina- . i. that. intermediate those that are. Even etc. e. their is auditory. imagination. the type of which found in musicians. symbolic images. etc. complexity. distinguishes them only with regard to their There are other differences. would be copies of reality. visual. may seem improper but it is to add another class to this subtlety. for a description. then. like everything living. but approach more nearly the concept. not a meaningless Indeed... damages. separation into not sufficient. 29! inventions. there are no images in general according to the ordinary conception. twisting. list. undergoes : corrosions. by between the concrete image and the pure concept.. very different kinds We of have already pointed out concrete representations material pertaining to plastic and mechanical images. is affective images. fa It miliar in mystics. This. On the other hand. be cause it origin.schematic images&quot. have seen We that the image. composition. tive elements. and transformation whence it comes about that this remainder of former impressions varies according to in simplicity. the emotional abstractions of the dif fluent imagination. the imaginative type that we are now considering has the privilege of using them with out exception. is the proper moment By &quot.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. grouping of its constitu its and takes on many aspects. motor.

to the concept. I do not regard it as impossible. impoverished. The work would be delicate. let us represent by a line. this determination of all the degrees has never been made. images belonging to each tion of the nature of the type is not an idle operation. the generic image results from a spontane we should ous fusion of like or very analogous images such as the vague representation of the oak. from the percept. even as I do not pretend that I have given above the complete list of the various forms of images. If. In order to clearly explain what we mean by schematic images. is less and less in contact with loses reality. At X it crosses the middle threshold to approach nearer nearer to the concept. Indeed. For further details on this point. J . P. primitive forms of generalization. we refer the reader to our Evolution of General Ideas (chapter I).292 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. and some of constitutive elements. then. which require a higher function of mind. the image in moving. at S. PC. I have no intention to undertake it. we consider the foregoing figure merely as a means of representing the gradation to the eye. 1 place farther along. As far as I am aware. At let us locate and G generic images. P. the horse. schematic images. from the mo ment of perception. becomes its simplified. C. whose nature and process of becoming are well-known. the scale of images acording to the degree of complex ity. by hypothesis.

materials become values that are in turn reducible to symbols. the of the idea an invariable in its psychological development and detailed construction the commercial imagina tion is made up chiefly of calculations and combina tions that hardly permit concrete images. freed from is all sensuous elements or pictures. Aside from the finding state it moment of invention. jects. because from the time that it it requires a substi tution of increasing generality. it proceeds as in the stating and solving of abstract problems in which. then. in the present instance. While the artist not different from a pure con and the mechanic build with concrete images. the commercial imagination can act directly neither on things nor on their imme diate representations. and reduced. 293 it The schematic image it belongs to only one class of ob results from a volun it tary act. after having sub stituted for things and their relations figures and letters. etc. calculation works with first signs. and indirectly with things. to the it is mere notion of value cept.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. If we and this is unquestionable that these admit. is At a higher level. the negro. Con goes beyond the primitive age sequently. are the materials par excellence of the creative imag ination. is not limited to exact resemblances it rises into abstraction. . must be recognized that we shall be disposed to hold that the imag inative type we are now studying is a kind of in- . so is scarcely accompanied it by a is it fleeting representation of concrete objects almost reduced to the word.

294 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. must take shape. exchange by means of another. Every system rests on a master-conception.systems. as regards the conditions that necessity it. said he. least. commodity or universal . and relates this form of imagination to that of scientists and philosophers. by the first state. Commerce. a case of impoverishment thesis as acceptable but strictly regards the invention itself. imposes upon In closing. se- more managable. ad dress itself strenuously to a problem as complex as the reformation of the finances of a powerful state. ciates : All the civilized nations count in their history men who imagined a financial system and succeeded. a center about which there is assembled the mental construction made up of imagination and calculation which.&quot. if circumstances permit. or at of the most notorious of these &quot. consecrated by usage.system. act on greater masses. must Let us call to show that it can live. us note that financial imagination does not always have as its goal the enriching of an individual or of a closely limited group of asso let it can aim higher. abandoned hitherto to chance and em His ideal was the institution of credit piricism. on an ideal. an unacceptable volution. The word &quot. with various fortunes. was during its stage the exchange of merchandise in kind. makes un necessary any comment. mind the author of the first. to social economy. methods of Law claimed that he was applying &quot. in a second stage.the philosophy. value. in making it prevail. the principles of Descartes.&quot.&quot.

in its higher mani Here. a former professor in the War College. Paper represents money. Between the various types of imagination hitherto studied we have shown great differences as regards A general. 1 festations. con latter credit. &quot.&quot. but it must also do what individuals cannot do create currency by printing on the paper of exchange the stituting seal of public authority. but a simple promise. would be the place to study the military imagination. in We said above that is commerce. The state must do systematically what individuals have done instinctively. Why. the eulogies and criti but because of the original it has received : and boldness of his views. the inexhaustible fe cundity of his lesser inventions. it must enter a third stage when exchange will be made by a purely conventional sign having no value of its own. just as the represents goods. We know the history of cisms ity the downfall of this system. ! . The subject cannot be treated save by a man of the pro fession.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. so I shall limit myself to a few brief re marks based on personal information. or gleaned from authorities. that is war &amp. 295 curity equivalent to the object it represented. disputed place Law holds an un among the great imaginative minds. then.lt. he could not keep from exclaiming. the conception of the whole. told me 1 that when he heard a great merchant tell of the quick and sure service of his commercial information.with the difference that the paper is not security. and the care in all the details of his operations. a kind of war.

While the so-called forms of pure imagination. the materials are rigid. reli their external conditions. as in political or social invention. gious. the others can become em bodied only when they satisfy an ensewible of numer ous. can realize themselves by submitting to material conditions that are simple and not very exacting.296 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.that art of in venting without which veals itself to we hardly power advance&quot. human inative construction is confronted with problems of The most inge constantly growing complexity. So one can advance only step by step. or the offensive combination of opponents. mythic. this creative 1 everywhere. in spite of everything. but from the multiple elements of the problem to be from ceaseless changes in their positions. whence esthetic. and the difficulty arises not merely solved. letting his work develop through an immanent logic: the early plan must be continually modified and readapted. as in commerce and war then the imag . little the goal is fixed. mystic creations arise. and go for calculations ward by sibilities. nious inventor cannot invent an object as a whole. If there be inflexible laws of nature unforeseen added to the passions and determinations. reasoning). rigorously determined conditions. Leibniz. inevitable. spontaneity (the apt ness for finding new combinations. there is choice of the appropriate means. . &quot. and strict Hence it results that examination of pos underneath this intellectual condi thick covering of material and tions (calculation. 1 ) re few clear-sighted persons is but. .

we come to art. &quot. en gines. based on a principle that may be summed up thus : . mercenaries. etc. Thus &quot. said Napoleon. place. because of its extreme complexity.science. Ad vancing more and more within the secret psychology of the individual. tried troops (3) The general principles of study of the masters. the conception. rapid intuition at the commencement of the opoprtune moments. the characteristic work of pure imagination.are army strong. although not applicable exclusively to the military imagination. &quot. and it in order to be successful is necessary that we think All several times in regard to what may happen. vary ing according to time. acquired by the personal is the power of reflection. a natural gift bearing the hall mark of each inventor.the Napoleonic es thetics was always derived from a single concept. (6) Lastly.Battles. (5) Let us note the exact. a national or weak and new.&quot. instruments of destruction and supply.&quot. vivifying These general remarks. able at a precise moment to cease being a dream: (i) Arms. flowing agency. the foregoing should be headed &quot. Let us rapidly enumerate. like 297 a subterranean streams. proceeding from without inwards. richness of the coun (2) The equally variable human element try. find their justification in it. the enormous mass of representations that it has to move and combine in order to make its construction adequate to reality. the habitual solving of tactical and strategic problems.&quot.COMMERCIAL IMAGINATION. thought out at length. war. the creative ele ment. (4) More .

expendi ture without limit on the decisive point.. and one could explain all his acts by means of &quot. i. 151).In a medley of imagination. organization&quot. Such. for it arises from the in nermost depths of the inventor. 6. such were the heterogeneous elements that clashed in that powerful Op. and it is to be spring attributed neither to experience nor to reasoning. when the shock of the circumstances. and The dreams of an Ossian with the positive cast of mind of a mathematician and the passions of a Corsican this singular complex. p. (p. causes to flash from his brain the spark stimulating the artistic solution par excellence. e. This prin of the master. and unconsciously is that he applies it. . p. nor to wise combinations. in analytical terms.. 137.&quot. in which it is synthetized and summed 1 up. &quot. it directs ciple inspires the strategy everything.&quot. appears the hidden that makes everything move. especially his battle-tactics. economy wherever it can be done. one that reaches the limits of human 2 perfection. General Bonnal. tit. calculation. passion. &quot. in the depths of it the unconscious.there was something of the poet.298 Strict THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.The principle exists in him in a latent state. says the writer. Les Maitres de la Guerre. 1899. him (Napoleon). of goal and means.

corresponds only in part to the contents of this chapter. e. and actions. social invention is the utilitarian form. 1 . psychic elements instincts. both being speculative. passions. i. and that mechanical and indus trial a common invention approaches social invention through tendency toward the practical. This title. sis. I shall not insist on this distinction. it aiming towards application and in utilization. In industrial aspect. ideas. which. feelings.. Consequently. Esthetic crea tion is the disinterested form. it ends in the hypothe its a disinterested creation. to know. it can use only its idea. we may say that invention in science resembles invention in the fine arts. classes of ideas as materials to embody (1) Natural phenomena. seeking to explain. as will be seen later. ends practical. (2) Human. In its scientific form. interested inventions. to be definite. the forces of the or ganic and inorganic worlds.CHAPTER VII THE UTOPIAN IMAGINATION When two the 1 human mind creates.

Zoroaster. and which we need One only belongs to the successive appearance of idealistic conceptions that. who were inventors or re formers in the social and moral That a We where. tend to realize themselves. no matter who is its author. that the expression inventor in morals may seem strange to some. bestowed on all men admit. and may repeat. not a ready-made morality. societies depends on a multitude of factors. etc. indeed. ing of new combinations arising from the predomi nance of one feeling. but a morality in the it must and in all times. po is mention that invention. re mains none the less invention. litical and moral evolution large. part of the inventions attributed to them must be credited to predecessors or successors is probable.. . I merely wish to whose role in social. of The development economic our topic human war. the creation of an individual or of a group. must. geographic conditions. or from an unconscious elab oration (inspiration). on the other hand. have said else semi-legendary persons Manu. be. like all other creations of mind. but the invention. spheres. as observation compels us to do. such as race. Confucius. This the Utopians do not do. in order to be a success. universal. on partial characters. because we are imbued with the notion of a knowledge of good and evil that is innate. If we making.30O rests only THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Moses. the moral ideal consist neither enumerate nor study.. etc. At the beginning of civilizations we meet semihistoric. or from analogy. adopt certain processes while neglect ing others.

see the Psychology of the Emotions. and were promoters. there arise moral geniuses at all. in comparison with : But it is not enough that they feel they must create. the founders of great religions were inventors of this kind. chapter VIII. or from a collectivity of which they are the sum and incarnation. Second Part. All the crowd. In them moral invention has found like all invention. 1 For reasons of which have also been we are ignorant. in their moral dispositions. it its complete form. to an extravagant of this He perceives it. then he beholds the light. Whether the invention comes from themselves alone. at first. and during fifty years of ceaseless wanderings preaches. . analogous to those that produce a great poet or a great painter. they must realize their ideal in a belief and in rules of conduct accepted by other men. The legend relates organic. gives himself up. possessed with the desire of rinding is the perfect road of salvation for himself and all other men. but there men who. 3OI Everybody recognizes inventors in geometry. who feel strongly what others do not feel just as does a great poet. matters little. initiators. were very superior to their contemporaries.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION. asceticism. in music. Soon he renounces the life of contemplation. and from the necessity of being born again. the uselessness For seven years he meditates. in the plastic and mechanic arts. that Buddha. makes con and renounces dor facts in support. He comes into posses sion of knowledge of the means that give freedom from Karma (the chain of causes and effects).

we may divide ethics into living and dead. organizes his followers. categories of minds the fantastic. losophers.302 verts. Eureka! then the inner reve and through the his disciples labors of the master and becomes com In what plete. is always happiness. from the viewpoint of our present study. under various and often con . arise from reflection upon. positive ideal which. speculative. the The former. habits and laws they offer to men a concrete. does this mode of creation. recede from distant origins the light grows. are closely related to poets artists. and the rational codification of. mere ma terial for dissertation and commentary. Stored away in the writings of phi living ethics. purely imaginative The latter. with out appreciable influence on the masses. visionaries. and creators or reformers. they remain theoretical. The lifeless from which invention has withdrawn. trary ethics. belong to the family of in- . aspects. the decisive moment of lation manifests itself outwardly. imposes itself on millions of men. respect at least in the practical order ? Thus. stimulate an imaginative construction that becomes fixed in ac tions. capable of organizing. this tale A fixed and besetting idea. is Whether true or false historically. Living ethics arise from needs and desires.differ from others. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. followed by failure. trial psychologically exact. Utopians. and invention in the social and moral order becomes manifest as the work of two In proportion as we principal positive. practical beings.

Thomas More s Utopia. The the social sciences.Wisest Verulam. an ideal life. Harrington s : 1 However idealistic Oceana. without ever pass It is the ing through the test of application. materials of their ideal are taken from the surround ing reality. (Tr. as their fancy pleases. chimerical form of imagination. is not amenable to rules. Fenelon s Salente. have lived only within themselves. 303 ventors in the industrial-commercial-mechanical or der. Campanula s City of the Sun. Nothing is better known than their names and their works The Republic of Plato. etc. human societies in their large outlines ists. be 1 it Our author does not mention Bacon s New Atlantis.) . re strained to its first phase.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION.&quot. spreads out freely. Such are the cre ators of ideal republics. seeking for a lost or to-bediscovered-in-the-future golden age. taking account neither of the external determinism nor of practical requirements. creative imagination in its unconscious form. one of the best specimens of its kind. and in their details. subjected merely to the conditions of an inner logic. They are social novel who bear the same relation to sociologists that poets do to critics. Their dreams. &quot. applied to is the one that. one could easily show that all the they may be. active and distinguished in so many fields. as elsewhere among the foremost empiricists and iconoclasts. constructing. and is here found among idealists. they bear the stamp of the milieu.

. His con ception of the future world with its &quot. who would of individual psychology deserve a study Ch. etc. True to its mission. Assuming for every soul a periodical rebirth. I doubt whether we could find one superior to him he is teristic equal to the highest. Christian. with no rational preoccupation. the constructive imagination is a spur that arouses. his psychogony.&quot. If it is a question merely of fertility in pure construction.&quot. etc. where there will be &quot. On the other hand. Fourier. others have acted as stimuli or ferments. &quot. which is make innovations. is one example of hundreds hot and showing ions: the his inexhaustible richness in fantastic vis work of an imagination that is overflowing. His cosmogony seems the work of an omnipotent demiurge fashioning the universe at will. it hinders social routine and prevents stagnation.anti-lions.whales. is He such a fine type of the imaginative intellect that he deserves that we stop a moment.counter-cast&quot. where the present ugliness and troubles of animal reign become changed into their opposites. it should not be forgotten that in the Utopians is everything not chimerical some have been to re- vealers. creations.anti.&quot. in which they lived. English.304 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. &quot. gives itself up to numerical vagaries. almost contemporary. he assigns it first a . with the special charac of being at the same time exuberant to de lirium and exact in details to the least minutiae.anti-crocodiles.. and Greek. Among the creators of ideal societies there is one. based on the idea of metempsychosis borrowed from the Orient.

&quot. But in the construction of hu man ful ical society. This rare imaginative type well deserved a few remarks. 1 The principal part of his psychology. 9. 305 period of &quot. comprising twenty-four to thirty-two groups . instrument of invention. that chief intellectual Let us add an incredible abuse of analogy. questionable in many respects. organization the group. He &quot. city.000 years. whose first stage is 27. the universal metropolis. and the second 4. a phalanx that includes eighteen . the second thirtysix thousand.&quot.his has a passion for classification and ordering. beneath all these pulsating inven tions of precise. then comes a period of completion. city. Part III. : We know his power method to composed of seven nine persons. the theory of the emotions. and then a period of &quot. the duality of his imagination and minute reappears. petty details.000 years.descending sub version. the provincial the imperial capital. is relatively rational. the foundation is none the less a purely speculative construction of the mind. the first phase of which lasts five thousand years. because of its mixture of apparent exact ness and a natural. groups.&quot. phalanstery works like a clock. chapter III. This form of imagination is already known to us. .ascending subversion. constituting the phalanstery the small a general center of phalanges.000 years.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION. unconscious utopianism and ex travagance. the series. of his which only the reading of 1 books can give an See above.000 years a total of 81. For.

but because they have a comprehension of The imaginative construction must be possibilities. always an excellent accountant.goldfinch depicts the child born of poor parents. and he took ad The study of the vantage of it in his calling. is in the taking the effect for cause.. the idealistic imagination agrees so well with the indefinite series of numbers and makes use of it why as a vehicle. the pheasant represents the jealous husband. pp. the cock is the symbol of the man of the world . in Le Monde to the reader the &quot. 1 See above. etc. .He has a still Hindoo The term would apply better to Fourier. ii With falls practical inventors and reformers the ideal not that they sacrifice it for their personal interests. orientals.&quot.&quot. where he will learn that the &quot. 1 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. imagination.306 idea. There are several pages in this tone. 244 ff. with alleged reasons in support of the statements. Heinrich Heine said of Michelet. in whom coexist unchecked pro fusion of images and the taste for numerical ulations. 2 numerical imagination has shown how it is fre quently met with tive among is development whose imagina and we have seen unquestioned. mutilated. chapter II. &quot. accum People have tried to explain this abund ance of figures and calculation as a professional habit he was for a long time a bookkeeper or But this cashier. corrected. narrowed.Epilogue sur 1 AnaloIndustriel.&quot. if it is to enter into *We recommend gie. the cabbage is the emblem of mysterious love. This dualism existed very nature of his mind.

the understanding by this term the unifying it principle that excites creative in its work and supports development undergoes metamorphosis and must be not only individual but collective. professional unions. This process to repeat ideal has been described several times. the cre munion of of wills . the great Catholic or Mohammedan con gregations. Less complete because it does not cover the individual altogether in all the acts of life is the creation of secret associations. un til it becomes adapted and determined. and it is needless it here in other terms. sects like Mormons. the semi-lay. the Shakers. That form of imagination. etc. semi-religious the Moravian Brotherhood. end. of their free choice.com minds. the earliest Christian ligious in form communities.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION.&quot. ation does not realize itself save through a &quot. manifests itself in various degrees creators. according to the tendency and power of There are the founders of small societies. the monastic orders of the Orient and Occident. creating and organiz ing social groups. men grouped tion. 307 the narrow frame of the conditions of existence. learned societies. Nevertheless. by a co-operation of feelings and the work of one conscious individual must become the work of a social consciousness. re the Essenes. and puts etc. or by coopta- There is social or political invention strictly so called invention operating on great masses ordi- . The founder conceives an one limited to a given having for material ideal of complete living or it into practice.

that was sufficient for primitive societies. Re naissance) when triumphed the pure imagination. ations that were the result and keep to cre of reflection and of great pretension. not that inventive genius. or commercial invention. which would require useless repeti tion. rational elements. but on its part it has had to make increasingly greater room for ex periment. customs. It has to struggle against natural forces. If we omit the spontaneous. which. traditions. e. Without entering into the details of this inevitable determination. we may sum up the role of the constructive imagination in social matters by saying that it has undergone a regression i. is subject to requirements despite its coercive power. rind like all other creation. has suffered an eclipse. Between the creation of the mind . however. passions and ideas. even more numerous than mechanical. instinctive. (i) A and the play of the free fancy that spends itself in social novels.308 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. industrial. we : can roughly distinguish three suc cessive periods very long idealistic phase (Antiquity. only in success.. inductions and deductions that permit foresight for practical necessities. but most of all against human forces inherited habits. calculation. It must make terms with dominant ing its justification. narily not proposed but imposed. that its area of devel opment has been little by little narrowed. semi conscious invention of the earliest ages. reduced to pure construction in images.

phase in which imaginative creation be (3) A comes subordinated to practical life: The concep tion of society ceases to be purely idealistic or con1 For an excellent account of the principles of these move ments. pp.Communistic Societies in the United ff. we find many failures and some of successes. ing fixed in books. from facts.UTOPIAN IMAGINATION. when an attempt is to pass from the ideal to the practical. Political Science Quarterly. tends to become objectified in acts. but some of his theories have filtered into or have become incorporated with other doctrines. and for an account of some of the trials. instead of merely becom some Rousseau) drew up constitutions. see Eae. when the work of the imagination. Plato and More to realize their would they have wished (2) dreams ? made intermediate phase. his Autobiography. after his and with varying fortune founded short-lived colonies. Contemporary Socialism. the primitive civilization after his ideal rapidly dis appeared.&quot. 309 and the another. for Owen s ideals.phalan in France. Let us recall the fruitless attempts steries&quot. reformed New Larnak. Bushee s &quot. Saint-Simonism has not entirely died out. 625 (Tr. During this period. the &quot. in the philosophers (Locke. selves life of contemporary society there was no relation.) . at the request of interested persons. and in the 1 United States. strangers to one to The true Utopians scarcely troubled them make applications. Robert Owen was more fortunate. States. vol. they were worlds apart. in Algeria. Already. in four years he ideal. XX. An pure speculation to social eighteenth century. Brazil.

Social ism is a well-known and excellent example of this. it recognizes the conditions of its environment. In other words.310 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. form. adapts itself to the necessities of its development. with its difficulty and without we calculations. . can appreciate the amount of imaginative elements lost in favor of an at least equivalent quantity of rational elements and positive dle of the last century. It is the passage from the absolutely autonomous state of the imagination to a period when it sub mits to the laws of a rational imperative. by deduction from a single princi structed a priori ple. sci and especially the practical. down to about the mid contemporary forms. Compare its former Utopias. the transition from the esthetic to the entific.

CONCLUSION. .

.

is found in the action of his needs. chapter II. Part I. appetites. mag will changes? And We put the question in a very different manner: Being given the physical and mental constitution of man such as it is at present. and even worse. nature. motor in two principal reasons. 1 i. The second is the possibility of a spontaneous revival of images that become grouped in new combination. We have already shown in detail that the 1 See above. childish. We might just as well ask why does man have eyes and not an electric apparatus like the torpedo? Why does he perceive directly sounds but not the ultra-red and ultra-violet rays? Why does he perceive netic changes of odors but not so on ad infinitum. .CONCLUSION i THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION Why is the human mind able to create? In a certain sense this question may seem idle. tendencies. desires. how is the creative imagina ? tion a natural product of this constitution Man The is able to create for first.

The need and for individual and and social expansion or disinterested extension has given rise to military. agination we have always been careful to note that every mode of creation may be reduced. in its form. everyday as well as The wants of man in contact with his fellows have engendered. desires it matters not which term we adopt been the generators of the whole of which consti tutes the instinct of individual preservation. that excite The wants. the numerous regulating or harsh. commercial. well or . a want. these desires. human and practical creations and they are rough or groups. as regards mula but in the strict sense. stable or unstable. kindly The need of knowing and of explaining.creative instinct. and machines. to a tendency.314 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Let us recall for the last time these initial conditions of all invention it. through instinctive or reflective action. an In studying the various types of im empty entity. housing. just or unjust. de terminate desire. industrial invention. tendencies. esthetic creation. if the expression is used not as an abbreviated or metaphorical for is a pure chimera. As in for the sexual instinct. making of weapons. all have inventions dealing with food-getting. less its no way than the physical it is psychic fertility is an inexhausti life ble source of imagination in in art. social complex. con scious or not. hypothesis of a &quot. instru ments. its beginnings.&quot. a special.

desires. tendencies. 2. the ultimate basis of the constructive imagination is motor. to the same definition of spontaneity. Every invention. indirect. and into these final elements it is that analysis must resolve &quot. of long duration. Sensation from without or from within bring them 1 It is a postulate of contemporary physiology that all the neurones taken together cannot spontaneously. ac cording to his personality. has created myths. philosophical sys tems. then. idiosyncrasies. tendency or desire may. Whence arises the need of a second condition the spontaneous revival of images. character in a word. which. religions. by another route. not to a special prop 1 erty.creative spontaneity.CONCLUSION. give rise to any movement they receive from without. and restores outwards according to his own organiza par excellence the moment for psychology. Thus. by itself or associated with others. are the direct and immediate expression.&quot. So we come back. for the higher psychic acts. of which needs. Every want. in reflex and instinctive actions. be come creative. . then. In many animals that are endowed only with memory the return of images is always provoked. seem con may be tinuous. of them selves. But needs and desires by themselves cannot create they are only a stimulus and a spring. But this intermediate moment moment of tion. temperament. a third interposes. that is. scientific hypotheses. and expend their energy outwards. between the two moments that. reasonings in logical form and reflection regarding a decision to be dency to become changed into acts. is made have a their feeble ten effects motor are and at a long range. This vague ex pression corresponds to a sum. Nevertheless. It is also the the personal equation: every man receives. 315 ill. has a motor origin. trans forms.

original. fixed. it is a nascent moment or first appears first of all in dreaming an embryonic. Peo duction. new associations. objectified. the constructive imagination seems to me reducible to three forms. and some higher animals. pure and sim whence we have repro ple. man from his second year on. the simplest of all. unconscious elaboration. contain the first elements of the creative act.316 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. or takes on a material but con tingent and unstable form. unstable and uncoordinated manifesta tion of the creative imagination a transition-stage attempt. go beyond this stage they are capable of spontaneous vival that revival. which I shall call sketched. But. of former experience. as a matter of fact. without personal in- . We know that these act in a latent form. or is subjected to the conditions of a rigorous internal or external deter minism. Taken altogether. without apparent antecedents. repetition without ple of slight imagination and used to routine ap into consciousness proach this mental condition. grouped into new associations. affective This sudden dispositions. associated by chance. It between passive reproduction and organized con struction. whose flitting images. and consist of thinking by analogy. and however numerous its manifestations. (a) The sketched form is primordial. By this term I mean that re comes about abruptly. according as it remains an internal fancy. under the form. appearance excites other states which. A step higher is revery.

More coherent are the imaginary constructions known as &quot. having no power to art. etc. has its peculiar characters the unifying principle is nil or ephemeral. penetrat ing our entire life. sequence of its weakness of ternal will.sketched&quot. or a useful invention. automatic form. Lastly. The the coherent. eral law ruling the development of mind passage from indefinite to definite. basically chimerical nature or of which reduces it to a strictly in needless to say a permanent and definite form with the dreamers living in a world of existence. the goal of which seems to be forever beyond our reach. still higher.castles in the works of a wish considered unrealiz Spain&quot. Conformably to the gen primitive. form is or remains an elementary.CONCLUSION. This vague and &quot. power and wealth. does not change into acts. from the incoherent to &quot. from the reflex to the voluntary period the imagination . ambition. fancies of love.outline&quot. a con . from spontaneity to reflection. come all the plans for the future conceived vaguely and as barely possi foreseeing the end of a sickness. organize them. able. which fact al ways reduces it to the dream as a type it does not externalize itself. imagination. to change them into a work of a theory. of a political event. It is and individual that this kind of imagination is ceaselessly reappearing images. tervention. of a business ble enterprise. are nevertheless vivid 317 enough to exclude world it from consciousness every impression of the external so much so that the day-dreamer re-enters only with a shock of surprise.

are the work of a free will. they could have been otherwise they preserve an indelible imprint of contingency and subjectivity. lines. the fixed form is projected outwards. rejected. examined.outline&quot. musical sounds. for its creator and for others. criticised. its swaddling-clothes.318 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. comes out of Then ap it for an adaptation. they are language. While the hypotheses. is changed the intervention of a teleological act that through of rational ele assigns it an end through the union . the lat by is itself. made something else. forms. Fiction rests on the same level as reality. and of metaphysical theories ? the action of a novel or drama as though it were a matter of real events? the character of the dramatis personae as though they were living flesh and blood ? The fixed imagination moves in an elastic frame. imagination remains an internal and scientific phenomenon. thermore. Do not work people discuss seriously the objective value of certain myths. the accepted. in spite of the spontaneous adherence of the mind accepting them. colors. we know that its creations. pear the (b) The fixed form comprises mythic and esthetic ments that subdue creations. existing only in and for a single indi vidual. (c) This last mark is rubbed out without disap pearing (for a thing imagined is always a personal . The former has no reality other than the momentary belief accompanying ter exists it . philosophical &quot. The material elements circumscribing it and com posing it have a certain fluidity . Fur writing. other two forms.

We not dwell longer on this pointed out.outline&quot. in dustrial. shadows. it According to general opinion the great imaginers are found only in the first two classes. commercial. borrowed real they have their place in the totality of physical and social phenomena. the peresprit of spiritualists. the &quot. to be at the same time the servant of.fixed&quot. a complete organization after . social. &quot. or political. The body. etc. subject like them to fixed conditions of shall existence and to a limited determinism. the bodily organs. genii. The imagination is a soul or spirit surrounded by an almost immaterial sheath.double&quot. imagination is a soul without a spirit. a pure &quot. without determination in space. nature. but must undergo transformation. They resemble creations of ity . or savages.CONCLUSION. according to spiritualism. 319 thing) in the objectified form that comprises suc cessful practical inventions whether mechanical. like angels or demons. in order that it may become practical just as the soul. reductions and adaptations. military. which is. in the strict sense of the word. must bend to the necessities of the body. last character. These have no longer an arbitrary. so often In order the better to comprehend the distinction between the three forms of imagination let us borrow for a moment the terminology of spiritual ism or of the common dualism merely as a means of explaining the matter clearly. in the full . true. tion is soul The objectified imagina and body. and served by. the pattern of living people the ideal is incarnated.

there are intermediate forms. word false. those of a or realistic turn of mind. What in deceives us is the fact that we see Here the imaginative the open. transitions from one category to another. to present to the reader a picture of the whole of the imagina tive life in all its degrees.out or even &quot. and ii THE IMAGINATIVE TYPE. on what Besides these three principal forms. halffixed 1 and \ve find religious and social and political conceptions. living chiefly on the external world. it avails nought without them. First..&quot.&quot. but shares its power with competitors. . partly theoretic or fixed. partly practical or objective. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. its intellectual e. that are hard to classify: certain mythic creations are half -sketched. by way of conclusion.320 sense of the line. it still rules. .positive&quot.fixed. they can do nothing without it. the constructive imagination can reign as supreme mistress. principally under insofar as it knows and thinks. deducting its emotions ity and voluntary activ the observation of individuals distinguishes some very clear varieties of mentality. Let us try now. &quot. If we consider the aspect human mind i. As long as it remains &quot. it no longer stroke resembles those powerful streams of water that of canals in must be imprisoned in a complicated network and ramifications varying in shape and 1 diameter before bursting forth in multiple jets in liquid architecture. Objectified.

Such are the pure mathematicians.CONCLUSION. or. as happens. these If two tendencies exist together. are grafted one on the other. energetic but limited by real things. between the outer and inner life. which Taine has so admir 1 He has shown in detail how the ably treated. abstract minds. without anything to spirit counterbalance them. which fact distin whom The guishes them clearly from the abstractors. On Intelligence. is 321 perceived and what is immediately deducible . Book II.&quot. noted by symbols. in a more general form. 1 Taine. Second. limited. I shall not dwell long on this point. The explanation of the various phases of this de velopment is reducible to a well-known psychologic law the natural antagonism between sensation and image. the abstract perfect form. attains its Midway between iners in these two groups are the imag- the internal life predominates in the form of combinations of images. They have a schematic representation of the world. &quot.quintescence abstractors. men of action. former alone interest us. I. others. phenomena of . ch. and we shall try to trace this imaginative type in its development from the normal or average stage to the moment when ever growing exuberance leads us into pathology. Part I. reduced to a hierarchy of general ideas. the pure metaphysicians. therefrom alien or inimical to vain fancy some of flat. or. them with whom the internal life is dominant in the form of combinations of concepts. between phenomena of peripheral origin and central origin. of the earth earthy.

break in vari become associated. (2) quantity and intensity. aborted by the opposing shock of real sensation. producing on it an arresting action and maintaining it in the condition of an internal. . more and more feeble. subjective fact. and the world momentarily the reality. Thus. invading they teem. their hallucinatory tendency of dreams is no longer kept in check. the frequency&quot. intensity and duration. combine easily and ous ways. The psychology of the imaginer reduces itself to a progressively increasing interchange of roles. Images become stronger and stronger states. one that is.322 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. image is a spontaneously arising sensation. opposite to nature I note four steps. not in repeating past ience. (3) : quantity. exped but in sketching I little romances. which is its reducer. One my See Appendix E. 1 From of among many examples 1 choose one. (4) complete systematization. but during sleep. All the imaginative persons who have us their experiences either orally or in given writing agree in regard to the extreme ease of the forma tion of associations. per In this movement ceptions. and intensity of impres sions from without press the images back to the second level. however. when the external world is as is it were suppressed. each of which corresponds to particular conditions ( i ) The quan tity of images. ( i ) In the is first place the predominance of imagi nation tions apart. during the waking hours. marked only by the quantity of representa consciousness.

Surely this disposition normal. Weak states (images) become (perceptions) become weak. our noc turnal imaginings vanish as empty phantasmagorias at the inrush of the perceptions and habits of daily life they seem like faraway phantoms. the interchange of place. in the struggle occurring. on a street. between images and perceptions. or in a railway station. and for some time go along parallel with it. his attention is at tracted to a person man or woman he immediate ly makes up. The impressions from without are powerless to ful fill their find regular function of inhibition. it departs from the average only by an excess of imagination that is replaced in others by an excessive tendency to observe.. Taine was perhaps the first to see the importance . more 2. manner of life. from the appearance. the apartments. or to criticise. strong. indicated above. Next. etc. find fault. on waking. is necessary occurs. a construction most often erroneous . 323 correspondents writes that if at church. furniture. reason. Ordinarily. strong states We the simplest example of this state in the exceptional persistence of certain dreams. the latter i. occupation representing to himself the part of the city he or she must dwell in.CONCLUSION. e. In order to take the decisive step and become abnormal one condition intensity of the representations. are not always victorious. to analyze. theatre. I is have many proofs of it. There are dreams imaginary creations that remain firm in face of reality. without ob jective value. But. carriage and at tractiveness his or her present or past.

tional persistence of certain But this ephemeral in the triumph of the image. accidental and in normal man. is nothing but and appearances. announced the seriously to several persons. I Sogni. and maintains that they are even. Bailhis friends had news been appointed editor of a journal. Tissie. because its and its hands touch it. while the wild ideas of the land of dreams became in turn not only the feeding ground of my daily existence but positively the sole and entire life existence a itself. Others describe their as &quot. Edgar Allan Poe: things of the world would affect me like visions. esp. and eyes see it only so. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. giving way only to proof. Soone of our neighbors. and several weeks afterward meets his creditor.had very early the conviction that the majority material universe in which it is mistaken. the case of a . on the contrary.a Sante de Santis. The real Likewise. 165. Since then contemporary psychologists have gath 1 ered various observations of this kind. merchant who dreams of having paid a certain debt. Dr. is frequent and stable class. that the believes.&quot. The emo in his dreams is known. He having dreamt that one of reports that his relative. p. larger. chapter X. odious role.&quot. plays in a dream an and-so. For him the invisible phantoms world. Les Eeves. imaginers of the second Many among them have asserted that this internal world is the only reality. was the only one not chi merical.324 of this fact. we may have a feeling of repulsion or spite toward him persisting throughout the day. Gerard de Nerval &quot. and doubt arose mind only toward the end of the afternoon. Dr.

(3) If the changing of images into strong states preponderating in consciousness is no longer an episode but a lasting disposition. may by little it engrosses the greater part even entirely supplant the earlier self. then the imagina undergoes a partial systematization that approaches insanity.) his Pathologic des Emotions. 325 permanent dream. . On a higher level this invading suprem acy of the internal life becomes a habit. Little it of life . its sphere becomes ex first tended. pp. Let us take an exagger ated instance This permanent dream is. 345-49. Aside from the poets and artists. the above-mentioned authors are so frequently. Everyone may be &quot.absorbed&quot. : only a part of their existence. This third degree is but the second carried to excess. F. temperament and habit. but. In an 2 account by Fere one may follow step by step this * For the complete account.CONCLUSION. We could multiply examples. Thanks to two causes acting in unison. indeed. the imaginative and internal life tends to become systematized and to encroach more and more on the real. cases of double personality (those of Azam. see (Paris. similar The growing working of the imagination is to this. Alcan.&quot. while is it above all active lasts. it through its intensity. violent and painful shock. then its appearances are repeated. external life. it absorbs them so completely that they enter the external world only with a sudden. tive life for a moment. Reynolds) are known in which the second state is at Some embryonic and of short duration. the mystics would furnish copious examples.

had from childhood a decided taste for solitude. he often succeeded in continuing his musing in the presence of other people. . the head of a prosperous business house. whole hours would be spent in this way. and lastly became fixed in a definite form. a By successive additions the pavilion became chateau. The furnishings of the inside had been modified at the same time. Seated in an out-of-the-way corner of the house or commenced from that time on to out of doors. as before.&quot.They former construc commenced by or being. of systematization which work its we abridge here to chief characteristics.326 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. but gradually they acquired more intensity and duration. he had some respite. horses. then he returned to his tions. servants. often he would see and hear nothing. a park. replaced every day by new his They became progressively more con . here is what this ideal life. &quot. lasting almost from his fourth year. the garden. . meant had : M built at Chaville.he build castles in Spain that little by little considerable importance tions in his life. A wife had come to give life to the picture two children had been born. At college. . The subject. &quot. not very durable absorbing. &quot. M . sistent. a man thirty-seven years old. When he had well entered into imaginary role.To sum up. an imaginary summer residence surrounded by a gar den.&quot. Married. Nothing was . water-fixtures came to ornament the domain. on the outskirts of the forest. took on a His construc were ones. at first ephemeral.

He was so absorbed in the matter that he did not notice a man coming toward him. that form of imagination that insanity has not adopted. he answered. only the being true. aroused in I him a said. given in I believe that public. this One day he was household. occupied in watching an upholsterer who was changing the arrangement of the tapestry. The completely systematized and per life manent imaginative is excludes the other. was ready do anything to get rid the imaginative type is at its maximum. which remains impervious Its world becomes to impressions from without. the extreme form. the world. Imagination study. . . from which pathology has in the insane would deserve a special would be lengthy. Asso ciations and combinations of images form the entire Here content of consciousness.&quot. was foolish/ he Coming to to himself. because there is no been excluded. parasitic life undermines and cor its rodes the other in order to become established in place tion it parts adhere more closely. the beginning of insanity.CONCLUSION. real terror. at the brink of insanity without being over it. without This reply. and at the question. which outside our subject. if you please is ? He at Chaville. he declared that he of his ideas. . . *M thinking. it forms a compact mass the imaginary systematizaits complete. The grows. (4) The fourth stage is is an exaggeration of the This is foregoing. 327 wanting to . in his imaginary salon at Chaville.

he eyes. he said in a letter to Coleridge. &quot. be abundantly supplied with facts. It would be difficult. of a venture into the unknown! How many innovators have been regarded as insane. in an article on &quot. or as at ity&quot. compositions.Imagination in Insan (Annales mtdico-psychologiques. for social and in plans and political reform. religious. 1876). Barine. We 1 should.&quot. Everything seems to me now insipid in Quoted by A. vents complicated and symbolic attributes. then.I insane. of an act of the creative faculty. perceives invisible relations and enjoys spectacles that escape the material Such was Gerard de Nerval. or mystic life. in persecuted. cast a longing glance backwards to the condition in which I found myself. for while it lasted I had many hours of pure happiness. Ntvroses. in poetry. dress. in industrial. having passed through a period of insanity. would assert that he should be envied the days spent in an insane asylum.&quot. mechanical. and in the sciences. There are also great imaginers who. how much more then. Coleridge. the decorations. comparison.328 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. .Sometimes. strange writings. lunatics love the naive and childishly wonderful. As for Charles Lamb. symbolic designs. when it is a question of an inventor. that you have tasted the grandeur and all the transport of fancy if you have not been &quot. military projects. com mercial. Ill no period have insane creations been lacking in the practical. the general paralytic lives in grandeur and attributes capital importance to everything.as a state in which the soul. p. and improbable designs. The maniac sketches. e. holds that every kind of mental disease has its own form of imagina *Dr. have strongly regretted it &quot. megalomaniacs look for the effect of everything they say and do. Max Simon. December. if in ordinary life we are often perplexed to decide whether a man is sane or not. bordering on the horrible. 326. i. the fine arts. Do not believe.. for. more exalted and more refined. that tion expresses itself in stories.

to that first affirmation of being sciousness. having no reality except in con for the one experiencing it. realistic there are One. its reality due only to belief. in difficulties of a subject that is order to determine merely the criterion belonging to the fourth stage. visionary 329 invoke ! We cannot even success as a criterion. Many non-viable or abortive inventions have been fathered by very sane minds. life. This much borne in mind. He distinguishes . subjective. The other. the answer must be sought in the nature and degree of belief accompanying the labor of creating. being real not only for me but for all those whose constitution is similar or analo gous to mine. psychological How may we rightly assert that a form of imaginative life is clearly pathologic? In my opin ion. let two degrees of the development For the imaginer of the third us compare the last of the imaginative stage. the mind so often described. Let us leave these not our own. existing in consciousness and outside of it. least unbalanced. the two forms of existence are not confounded. objective. but for realism mental psychology is of necessity two distinct forms of existence. and people regarded as insane have vindicated their imaginative constructions through success.CONCLUSION. It is idealist or realist of an axiom unchallenged by anyone whether any shade of belief that noth ing has existence for us save through the conscious and experi ness we have of it.

or else are interpreted in accordance with the diseased fancy. and the shells bursting under the walls of the maintained asylum. through the : effect of a tempted to describe. basic it remains identical with its itself in its nature. The observation of Fere. imaginative the only kind with which we are concerned labor is the two kinds of so systematized that the distinction between existence has disappeared. There is an of passing from one to the other. even the most extra reality. Throughout its multiple manifestations. is a proof of this.330 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. At the fourth stage. during the Franco-Prussian War. The diversity of its deeds depends on the end desired. . under the col- There has often been cited the instance of certain maniacs at Charenton. All the his brain are invested with objective phantoms of Occurrences without. although alternation. in the insane. as we have 1 seen. despite the stories that were told them. the papers that they read. extreme. in constitutive elements. ordinary. two worlds. but believing in both. There is no longer any alternation. materials employed which. 1 By way of summary we may say The creative imagination consists of the property that images have of gathering in new combinations. the conditions required for its attainment. and that all was only a con trivance of their persecutors. do not reach one in this stage. preferring one and making the best of He is conscious the other. who. in degrees that spontaneity whose nature we have at It always tends to realize itself vary from mere momentary belief to complete objectivity. that the war was only imagined.

concepts shades or degrees). each group itself having every This constructive activity. The former latter arise from an internal efflorescence the from urgent life-needs they appear later and . all bordering upon what we have called the fixed form. generic and sche matic images. It is an invincible need of in the man to reflect and reproduce his first own nature world surrounding him. objective creations. Alongside of these creations. not only as regards their sensuous origin (visual. tactile. with. The application of his mind is thinking by analogy. which vivifies everything after the human model and attempts to know everything according blances. . lective 331 are very unlike one name &quot. symbolic. As for the latter. emotional-abstract images. an irreducible residuum of hypotheses. all applying itself to is thing and radiating in typical directions.) but also as regards their psychologic nature (concrete.representations&quot. another. . esthetic de a fallen. in its early. auditory. however. which is gross or refined. form a mythic creation. impoverished mythol ogy the little by . affec tive.CONCLUSION. fantastic conceptions of the little world that may become scientific conceptions. resem which we have studied in the child and in primitive man. we could not trace them to the same mythic source except by dialectic subtleties which we renounce. etc. to arbitrary Myth-making activity. there are prac tical. is the embryonic form whence arise by a slow evolution religious creations velopment.

but the same The constructive life. IT is in all its forms speculative and practical. imagination penetrates every part of our whether individual or collective. : are a bifurcation of the early trunk sap flows in both branches.332 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . EVERYWHERE.

APPENDICES .

.

and weeping. without the participation of my will. but of which I See Part One. always too slow for my wish. Mystic inspiration. makes my heart beat awfully. wonderful knowledge. I do not even know that which I must write. and keeping myself from crying aloud. . II.I a passive form. OF INSPIRATION 1 of the inspired state the descriptions in various authors. declare before God Jacob Boehme (Aurora) that I do not myself know how the thing arises within me. I select only three. annoys me and makes me Execution. I am delivered of an idea that 1 is intoxicating me. Feverish and painful inspiration in Alfred &quot. chapter III.&quot. : in &quot. it is because the Spirit moves me and com Often great.Invention de Musset: tremble.APPENDIX A THE VARIOUS FORMS Among found I. If I write. do not even know whether I dwell in spirit in this present world and whether it is I myself that have the fortune to possess a certain and solid municates to I me a knowledge. which in are brief and have each a special character.

properly so called. Thanks to this the object emerges out of the average level of 1 George Sand. mortally ashamed and disgusted next morning. a truly physical suffering that I cannot define.. 49. p. find themselves contained within the limits of a single object. touch one another. that I go to all kinds of excess. and that I kill this never-dying worm that people like me modestly term their inspiration. is the concentra and aptitudes on a single for the moment. plainly. 1 III. cit. I It is much better. then. it is it worse. that I should live as have imagined living.336 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Elle et Lui. but which I call. its completing themselves. my 2 weakness. reenforcing. I. of bringing forth. rest of the world less than represent it. am If I change it. The tion of all the faculties strengthening of the state of the soul comes from the fact that its various faculties.&quot. op. It presses and better to forget tortures me. but this so confused and misshapen that other comes to me my poor being cannot contain it. it deserts me it is much and wait for another. 1 In Oelzelt-Newin. it has taken realizable propor the other pain.Inspiration. thus: &quot. isolation. should include the point which. reciprocally upholding. The poet Grillparzer analvzes the condition. instead of being disseminated over the whole world. . until tions. And that is how my life is spent when I let myself be when comes dominated by this artistic monster in me.

APPENDICES. illumined all takes body. moves. lives. sary the concentration of around and put in relief it But to attain this is neces when that all the faculties. . is 337 milieu. It is only the art-work has been a world for the artist it is also a world for others.&quot.

since suffer incessant corrosion and representations (2) Dynamic unconscious. of rest. well. to establish general. It would be just as valid to say that a traveler covers leagues by lying abed. It is a state of preservation. memory. in Insofar as the facts are concerned. and. might give a multitude of proofs of this unconscious rumination. state of latent activity. The author See Part I. very relatively. I think. Chapter III. The well-known fact that We an intellectual work gains by being interrupted. which is a change. have seen that uncon scious there must be recognized a positive part and an hypothetical part theories.APPENDIX B ON THE NATURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS FACTOR in the question of the We facts. changed. was explained by some psychologists prior to Carpenter by &quot.&quot. of elaboration and incuba tion. even accomplished.the resting of the mind. it would be two categories (i) static unconscious. comprising habits. all that is organized knowledge. . that in resuming it one often finds it cleared up.

It is useless them time for reflection or invention. the cause of which is unknown. The men who think the most are not those who have the conscious&quot. shallow minds have a naturally poor unconscious fund. ceases as soon as the unawaited conclusion has entered consciousness.APPENDICES. Book . chapter 13. in its it remains the same when progress and retreats. how only the result of an underlying cerebral working. capable of but slight development . clearest and &quot. On the other hand. just as in consciousness itself. all that they they have no reserve. but those having at their disposal a rich fund of unconscious elaboration. in clear consciousness. they give out immediately and rapidly are able to give .most ideas. They to allow will not do better they may do worse. . at least be recognized This is possible. which. with the exception that a message does not arrive as far as the self. theoretically. One may doubtless maintain. sometimes rising to ever. undefmable uneasi ness. Mental Physiology. that in the inventor every thing goes on in subconsciousness and in uncon sciousness. continues unknown to us. Yet is it must that consciousness 1 rigorously subject to the conII. commercial problem appeared suddenly after hours and days of vague. As to the nature of the unconscious working. for the trouble. mechanical. 1 339 just mentioned has brought together many observa tions in which the solution of a mathematical. that the labor that may be followed. we find disagreement and darkness. is anguish.

is as conscious and to maintain that less certain testimony than that of the particular instance of for it does not merely very different. Binet. rational opera- 1 This expression is put in quotation marks because in Amer ican and English usage sensation&quot. It has been proven through numerous experiments (Fere.340 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.&quot.) that sensations&quot. theory is the other physiological. This dif mention others. scarcely permits any variations. not to not.unconscious simply cerebral. corrections. i. is defined in terms of &quot. Newbold. The physiological simple is and to it. The psychic factor. is According it unconscious activity &quot. and such an expression as &quot. is dition of time. an cerebration. is not negligible. the unconscious ference. I confess that it is full of difficulties. (Tr. since they produce sensations.unconscious Mosso. suppose the adaptation to an end which the physio logical factor would suffice to explain. Janet.the the same reactions Mosso has been able of consciousness sphygmograph. act. consciousness.&quot. is absent. 1 etc. &quot. and could well arouse other problems. and would lead to futile discussion. which ordinarily accompanies the activity of the nervous centers.) .unconscious sensa tion&quot. it implies a But the invention is series of adaptations. The contemporary principal of the unconscious seem to positions theories regarding the nature me reducible to two one psychological. &quot. Although I incline toward this hypothesis. is paradoxical.

clear consciousness progressively to obscure con sciousness.) would be greatly puzzled to explain its rOle in creative activity. etc. down to its final term. as known by me. to the subconscious. . by contiguity. still remains. &quot. tions. the fluid captivated by an attractive form of revery or of the awaking from syncope).&quot. New York. 121-127. to the unconscious that manifests itself only through its motor reac tions. AppleThe author. the former entirely subjective.brutal. sciousness has one definite mark it is an internal 2. identical in its basis with consciousness. better yet. of 341 which nervous activity alone furnishes us no example. &quot. the first state thus successively impoverished.uncritical.&quot. The Psychology of Suggestion: A research into the subconscious nature of Man and Society. 1 We may admit that this For the detailed criticism of unconscious cerebration. 1898. It is an hypothesis that in nothing justifies.&quot.credulous. the other subwaking.stupid. see Boris Sidis. not by it is itself. and who attributes to the latter all weakness the unconscious is it and vice (according to him incapable of rising above mere association is &quot. but for me and insofar But the psychological theory of the unconscious assumes that if we descend from event existing. &quot. ence of two selves one waking.&quot. No difficulty arises when we bear mind the legitimate distinction between consciousness of self and consciousness in general. pp. the latter in a way objective (the con sciousness of a man scene. who assumes the coexist tons.APPENDICES. 1 The psychological theory is based on an Con equivocal use of the word consciousness.

which allows stages whose obscurity increases in proportion as we move away from clear consciousness. Others sup mediums.). as a special to a general case. ter.field of consciousness&quot. and potential selves constituting the subliminal consciousness.342 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. In others liken the deed. Here some postulate two currents etc. that of Myers. automatic writing. The difficulty commences when we descend into the region of the subconscious. phenomenon to the movement of waves. felt evanescent consciousness. Here it is in substance: self In every one of us there is a conscious adapted to the needs of life. The most systematic. which remain isolated. The lat much broader in scope it than personal conscious life ness. of relations among the internal states. is due to a lack of synthesis. but certainly they all reduce uncon sciousness to consciousness. unable to unite into a whole. is full of a biological mysticism all its own. the authors declare that with these compari sons and metaphors they make no pretense of explaining. whose summit alone is lighted up. has dependent on the entire vegetative . pose a Still &quot. accepted by Delboef and others. is &quot.like a lake in which the action of light always nearing extinction&quot. rather than perceived. (in double coexisting personalities. with a brilliant center and extending indefinitely toward the dim distance. and what is that if not explaining? I do not intend to enumerate all the varieties of the psychological theory. of consciousness existing at the same time in one person without reciprocal connection. affective in nature.

It is needless to to the primitive state. the subliminal consciousness on the second. It has been vehemently who remarks that criticised. In the course of evolution this became organized. trophic changes of a miraculous appearance. case of mental disintegration there occurs a return In this manner they explain burns through suggestion. 343 Ordinarily the con on the highest level. In the higher animals and in primitive man. If. etc.) it is (hypnosis. some lower type had the power of arresting pain. the higher consciousness has delegated to the subliminal consciousness the care But in of silently governing the vegetative life.APPENDICES. circulation. stigmata. Its authors suppose bold part of the hypothesis: that the supremacy of the subliminal consciousness is a reversion. etc. dwell on this conception of the unconscious. divided con Here is the just the reverse. if notably by Bramwell. all trophic actions entered consciousness and were regulated by it. a return to the ancestral. there are nevertheless faculties so essential to the well-being of the individual that we ask ourselves they have been able to escape from the control of the will. little by domain of subliminal conscious little fall into the ness because they were no longer necessary for the certain faculties could struggle for life. how how could it lose it ? At all the foundation of the psychological theory in its forms is the unexpressed hypothesis that . trophic actions. for example. etc. according to them. but in certain extra scious self is ordinary states sciousness. hysteria.

is appears and disappears sud not felt under a determinate &quot. the excitation limit. men I. who are satis with forecasts of the future. To sum up: The two rival theories are equally unable to penetrate into the inner nature of the unconscious factor.threshold We of consciousness&quot. Helene S fied very unlike others. necessary that both have a constant relation differential threshold as is expressed in Weber law. Moreover.&quot. It has even been main tained that consciousness &quot. or know minimum perceptible quantity.has an aversion for con tinuity. disclosures of .344 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. that the &quot. excitation is no longer felt if above a determinate limit. in order that an increase or maximum diminution be it is felt between these two extreme limits.summit Likewise in regard to the or of per perceptible. and others that I omit. would support rather the opposite view. any increase of ception&quot. His medium. denly . The tioned above. are not favorable to the thesis of growing or diminishing continuity of consciousness. without solving the question. consciousness be likened to a quantity that forever decreases without reaching zero. of psychophysicists. Part observations of Flournoy (in his book. chapter III) have a particular interest in relation to our subject. s All these facts. have thus had to limit We ourselves to taking assign it it as a fact of experience and to its place in the complex function that produces invention. This is a may The experiments postulate that nothing justifies.

Martian novel. at invented out of whole cloth its revelations in regard to the planet Mars. and we can appreciate the importance of the labor that is going on there. one of least.APPENDICES. counsel. Although the descriptions and pictures of Helene S. there is a is rare among mediums : the creative imagination in its subliminal (uncon scious) form encloses the other in its eclat. are found inhabitants. coun dwellings. is which.. etc. as Flournoy has well shown. terrestrial on comparison to be borrowed from our globe. to richness of invention that say nothing of the others. to pene dark laboratory of romantic invention. We know how much regard to the mediums teach us in unconscious life of the mind. Here the cases of we trate into the are permitted. and transposed and changed. in the proper sense the author of three or four novels. is past events. prognosis. 345 unknown etc. . tries.&quot. as an exceptional case. it is certain that in this &quot. evocation. without creating anything.

Fancy Hartmann tive is etc. For Froschammer. See above. Part One. it invents and realizes by little the objec energy by exercising increasingly more complex of its artistic images that tion raises life attest the progress genius. objec the universal creative power beginning immanent in things. In his philosophical theory it plays ciple the same part as Hegel s Idea.APPENDIX C COSMIC AND HUMAN IMAGINATION 1 is the original prin of things. Step by step. The first organized beings must little have been very simple. it succeeds in becoming conscious of itself in the mind of man it becomes subjective. just as there is contained in s Unconscious. Chapter IT. . It is. but it tive imagination increases its . the myriads of vegetable and animal existences that have been succeeded or that still live on the surface of the Cosmos. at first. in the the kernel the principle that shall give the plant its form and construct its organism it spreads out into . Schopenhauer s Will. So Darwin was right in asserting that a slow evolu up organized beings towards fulness of and beauty of form.

198-220). Philos. 2 that arise and die in the mind. a kind of living forms way. in living beings. instinct in psychophysiology. March. and the creative These three imagination in psychology. of bringing forth internal worlds. 472-498.. want more details. Thus changed. are creations. it is criticise its evident anthropomorphism. since are dealing with hypotheses. may profitably con sult the excellent analysis that SSailles has given (Rev. 3 Those who. I venture to risk a comparison between embryological development in physiology. its hereditary influences. . especially when these beings are very high in the organic scale. 1878. every other. In nature and in man it is the same principle that causes living forms to appear objective images in a and subjective images. This metaphysical theory. pp. being. See also Ambrosi. becomes localized diffused throughout the in the generative organs. e. a disposition of cer phenomena tain materials following a determinate type. pp. i.&quot.. one of the ties many varie of mens a git at molem. In the first case. a superfluous to discuss or like we But.APPENDICES. and becomes established in sex. the ovum after fertilization is subject to a rigorously determined evolution whence arises such and such an individual with its specific and personal characters. not having the courage to read the 575 pages of Froschammer s book. &quot. the generative power has become capable of perceiv ing new relations. Psicologia delV immaginazione nella storia della filotofia. personal conception. at first organism.The brain. may form a pole opposed to the reproductive organs. 347 Generative power.

and the creation does not attain the normal. these changes step by step. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. variations of instinct. of a . of what the ancients called the nisus formativus. the ideal. in the case of a tunnel to be dug. for the bee and the wasp. show that the con ditions of the determinism are less simple. adaptation to various conditions. is the quivalent of the ovum. may arise as a whole and develop regularly in an embryological manner. 1 as we have seen. for the spider. in this evolution pro duces monstrosities. a represen tation Embryology can follow There remains one and that is. Perhaps 1 an identical process. it is creative imagination evident that the plasticity of the is much greater than that of radiate in several The imagination may very different ways.348 etc. creative imagination. Every disturbing factor deviations. In the case of instinct. etc. Part II. of a web to be spun. partial form that be comes complete after a series of attractions. or rather. the nature of the bird the image of a nest to be built. comb to be made. the initial moment is an external or internal sensation. a sketched construction. obscure point in any event. its special kinds. In the third case. for the ant . that the creative activity is endowed with a certain plasticity. This initial state puts into action a mechanism determined by the nature of each species. and ends in creations of However. . and the plan of the invention. chapter IV. or else pre sent itself in a fragmentary. forming three See above. but instinct.

middle. and higher stages But this is only a speculative of all three cases. 349 is at the root a lower. hypothesis.APPENDICES. . foreign to psychology proper.

first the replies of musicians. Does the experiencing of purely musical sounds evoke images.. Symphonic music aroused in me no image of the visual type while I remained the amateur that you knew from 1876 to 1898. The 2 and of what nature and under what conditions? seemed to me to enter a more general field the else affective imagination where in a special which I intend to study work. IV. . I. universally. a . Chapter II. When that amateur began to reflect methodically on the &quot. those of give non-musicians. Lionel Dauriac you ask me is writes that complex. I have infrequent hypnagogic hallucinations. For the time being I limit myself to observations and information that I have gathered. and they are all of the auditory type.The question not a Visual- izer. me I am : &quot. Hid..APPENDIX D 1 EVIDENCE IN REGARD TO MUSICAL IMAGINATION question asked above. then. . M. picking from them several that I give here I for the sake of shedding light on the question. 1 See Part Three.

I see Symphony in C minor it is dramatic. The Heroic Symphony (aside from the funeral march. ment. Psychic images suggestion of a mental anger. me to see anything. in a symphonic work.2. produced? In the event of a break in the melodic web Psychologic dans I Opera. &quot. which military. is the visual image. 119Here are given. the overture of William Tell. Example. Sonorous. some of the ideas that have come to me: (see my &quot. Visual images. Symphony in B flat major nothing there this may be said without qualifica tion.Beethoven s symphony it in C major appears to to me purely musical is of a sonorous design. : clock. by associa The finale of this symphony.i.APPENDICES. first portion is based on notes harmony trumpet-notes and. non-musical images thunder. pp. al- . art of his taste.3. ever since the time that I noticed that the funda mental theme of the of perfect tion. love. without orderly arrange 120).Under what condition. religious feeling. he recognized in music a 351 power of suggesting &quot. The symphony in D major (the second) suggests me visual-motor images I set a ballet to the first part and keep track altogether of the ballet that I picture. the meaning of which is indicated in the title) suggests to me images of a military character. does not cause I consider superior to other parts. state programme. whether following upon the psychic image or through the intermediation of a &quot. &quot. introduced by the psychic image.

fantastic designs. not of Fate knocking at the gate.&quot. figures springing in the air. a musician.dancing see an orchestra. of a musician that had some trouble to make him understand the term never goes to concerts. accompanied by a hope of Visual images do not come except as victory. as Beethoven said. In Bach s Passion he beholds the scene of the mystic lamb. I I listen to composition I behold . fifteen years ago. and there re ever. This communication also men I tions three other musicians 2. How he went once. always sees that is the rule.352 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION.&quot.symphonic music. The first part suggests the image. L has been kind enough to question in my behalf sixteen non-musical persons. notably in the Pastoral. see anything.When I compose or play music of figures. : Here are the results of his inquiry Eight see curved lines. so little who see nothing. Two see the waves of the ocean. G. but of a soul overcome with the crises of revolt. Three do not . O. composer writes A me: &quot. brought by psychic images. D . When or play music by another composer I my own do not see anything. an audience. and in the Heroic Sym phony. mains in his memory very clearly the principal &quot. he cannot recall phrase of a minuet (he hums it) it without seeing people dancing a minuet.. is though the melodic web never broken. etc. F. M.&quot. Three see images.

and has not passed through these countries on the run. as will be seen from the following observation. North America. forty-six years of age. &quot. well known to me as such. imagination. and have chosen preferably those who. but. Oceania. because of his duties. without professional care. resided there some time. Here are two examples. let their fancy wander as it wills. fanciful personage fact is an argument in favor of the very personal character of the creative imagination. differing scarcely more than temperament and degree of culture. very lively in 1 See Conclusion...APPENDIX E THE IMAGINATIVE TYPE AND IDEAS 1 ASSOCIATION OF I have questioned a very great number of imagi native persons. Hindoostan. above. that the remem brance of such various countries does not have first which place in this brilliant.. In all the mechanism is the same. It is worthy of remark. and North Indo-China. . is acquainted with a large part of Europe.. B... II. Africa.In a general way. not making a profes sion of creating.

is not an architect. happens that I think aloud the things start from a reflex. . . 1 subject under consideration. As we stopped in the convent- B . Half-past two/ I said. mechanically to in the course of erection the rises it That ought to be fixed. : I should see therein an atavistic accumulation of religious feeling fixed in side my family. I make up infinite Sometimes variations upon it. B touches on the unconscious factor) &quot.354 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. . and of religiousness these touch. looking at 1 my watch.Another example illustrating the role of asso ciation of ideas in the same matter. . on the female in ecclesiastical no doubt. functions by association of ideas. I left Noumea in the carriage of F who was going to visit a leagues from At the moment of our arrival the doctor asked what time it was. Memory or On this data there is imaginative work not always. . .But when I meet a construction matters little whether ancient or formula. is one that my mind in such a case. &quot.Were I to explain or attempt to explain how the Middle Ages have such an attraction for my mind. although from the architectural When going away alone. without end. the outer world furnishes me some data. nunnery five One Sunday Dr. proper. often and say it. After having noted his preference for the archi adds (here he tecture of the Middle Ages. and then things remain it as they are. one after another. me. architecture &quot. night there. though there should be.&quot.

I remarked to the doctor. but of sight It was at L that on Good Friday they rang at the cathedral with all their might. mystic literature. is ex plained to children by telling them that during these two days the bells have flown to Rome.APPENDICES. little tale. It is much more operative in relation to &quot. the chapel the doctor that vespers had was vacant. and it is known that this silence. the doctor remarked. for I travels. &quot. I opened the chapel half-past two/ What door in order to : show just been held there. It was the very moment before the bells remain silent for three days. Cerebral automatism. Naturally I was treated to this it. in all the The incident made a great impression on more as ever since the age of eight my testifies to memory place of hearing. me. The doctor had seen through me. transforming power of my imagination not present in me to the same extent as regards all things. He commenced to laugh. to architecture. They are singing vespers. ordained in the liturgy. and had with fine insight perceived why I had heard the end of the psalm. and in knowledge my memories of than in relation.I may add here. As I stood somewhat non-plussed. time are vespers sung in your town? At I answered. a like hallucination. 355 court in front of the chapel I heard the lusty conclu sion of a psalm. and as they finished telling I saw a bell flying at an angle that I could still describe.But this is Romano-Gothic sociological stance. When see . by association of ideas.

like Wagner s music. on the other hand. like Chateaubriand himself. outwards Classic literature has only few paths for me Tacitus. Lucretius. desert The pey s wind that scorched me at the foot of PomColumn I hear the sea breaking into foam on . Juvenal. famished lords in their feudal With Cha teaubriand I return in the twinkling of an eye to the Niagara that we have both seen.When. In the fall of the waters I find the deep and melancholy note that he himself found. canto-fermo. the family of great castle. and Saint-Simon excepted. other authors of this class partly for themselves. St. Jerome s compact verses on the Hebrew.In literature. But the image does not lead to evocation of related or parallel ideas. Tahiti. I d Outre-tomb c besiege me see. Cer- . the mind s eye. and after that I think of that dark cathedral of Dol that evidently suggested to the author his Genie du Christianisme. objects live again in all their I feel the Khamsinn. &quot. the recollections of the Memoires like living pictures.356 again. I take a walk over the its Comburg moor. in THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. the Pyramids and the Sphinx. Shakespeare. Melbourne. without making a comparison. and Beethoven. the external surroundings. the castle weighs upon me in all massiveness . is intel Niagara. the graphic representation lectually perfect. the barrier reef of Tahiti. the reading of Dante. and Middle Age prose excites within me a whole world of ideas. &quot. I read the Homer. things are very unequally sugges tive to me. Calcutta. On the other hand. the Isle of Bourbon.

the seen to the unknown.. artistic tempera life. Michaelangelo and Rembrandt and Balzac. in the form of fragmentary notes made day by day. one produced. In the S. tain things 357 ideas to another. association of ideas will perform the work. and a dislike for numbers. Puvis de Cha- vannes and the Merovingian narratives. &quot. Many are moral remarks on the subject of his imagination I leave them out. &quot.APPENDICES.confession&quot. g.From my dream. e. form a link for me from one order of For example. I this connection I have to mistrust myself: and in shall surprise people say that in the class of ideas above indicated the subject exciting the most I when ideas in me . Because of the necessities of he has followed a profession entirely opposite to his bent. I note especially the unconquer able tendency to details in make up little romances and some regard to visual representation. rare that an imaginative network does not occur. G.&quot. the Pan theon. When I give myself up to serious work. the Bible. The photograph mars &quot. When it is any if cir cumstance brings is me into one of them. sixty years of age.To sum up: There are in me certain milieux especially favorable to imagination. . M ment. and.It happens that I see the photograph of a experience sharp regret when I monument. is sociology. the proportions of which I have constructed according to the descriptions of the monument and the idea that I had of the life of the Greeks. He has given me his &quot.

the imagination goes afield.In to her family. What business has this pencil affectation this ing. and it is quite I want to get an address the same library. he turns the leaves with the sage leisure of a scholar looking for a commentary. are near him. &quot. in a morning in a classic and dull build of poor workmen? She is not a servant-maid. common environment woman a task. &quot. Now I follow the for the solution of the unknown.There may be an imagination devoted to arith- . From the empty dictionary he often draws out a letter.If make numerical of concrete factors. A slender young woman. It is a question of money and employment. harken- ing to an inner voice that arranges them in order to get the sense. has borrowed the ridiculous volume. calculations. from the Almanack Bottin. provincial ignorance said. his hands in his hair. A young man. in the absence &quot.When I feel myself drawn to anyone. and not a teacher. perhaps a student.358 library. Bent over it. He must locate the letter this advises people who. and the figures group themselves mechanically. &quot. smartly dressed between her fingers a small spotless black gloves and a tiny note-book. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. into her home. I prefer seeing images or portraits rather than the reality. That is how I avoid making unforeseen discoveries that would I spoil my model. His family him to apply to so-and-so. He must have received this morning from the country. And so goes the wandering imagination.

metical 359 calculations forms. and then the addition or any other calculation is ruined. even the outline of the figure 3. &quot. beings intrude. so he never gets 1 We see that the speaker is a visualizer. intoxicates him. tired. THE END .I tion revert to the impossibility of making an addi without a swerve of imagination. are always ready before the calcu The man of imagination is always construct 1 Life possesses ing by means of plastic images. because plastic figures lator.APPENDICES. him.&quot. for example.

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.INDEX.

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129. tive Associational systems. Claude. worthy in science. Affective states. 305. Association. 299. Americans. 353. 250. Boehme. not trust Automatisms. Animals. Apperception. 70. Bipartite division of the brain. 56. of. 250. ii. 86. 143. 34. 55. Activity. Indefiniteness Realistic. Absent images. of. Roger. theories of. of primitives. 245. of ideas. Animal fancy. Arago. Usefulness 107. 69. 23. Baudelaire. 71. Astral influences. Apprehensio figment. Bacon. Animism. or Dis Barter. Thinking by. Eras of. Importance of. of 203. 65. of ideas. 286. Beethoven. 46. 117- Azam. 340. normal end of imagina ii. 16. 325. imagination. 145. Association Abstraction. Aristotle. 257- 150. based blance. coveries of.. 8. 94. d 87. Laws of. 134. of later inventions. 138. Bach. Adventure. Binet. 142. Anger. on 26. of. Advance plans in commerce. Criticism of the term. 146. fibers Baldwin. 303 n. 214. . 283. in primitive life. 23. Importance 50. vi. 148. Late appearance no. 123. tion. Forms of. of. 98. Analogy. centers. 275. Bismarck. to man. Use development. 100. Association lacking in. 27. 67. Art.94. 196. Artificial 250. 261. modern. qualitative resem essential to crea Attention. 288. a logical 15. Alfieri. Asyllogistic deduction. Dr. 274. 264. Anatomical conditions. 93. 22. motors. 216. 39. idee directrice of. Jacob. race. . 189. 285. Australians. Role of. 125. Abulics. Apollo. 59.INDEX. 52. 23. Discovery depends suggests cause. Bernard. Anticipations 277. 287. 25. 67. 97. 52. Imagination in. Blood circulation. of ideas. Allen. 74. simplex. 71. of. Abuse of. 141. on. Role of. Alexander. 104. Baillarger. 324. change occupations. Aryan Alembert. 261. Various a late Adaptation of means to end. 271. 335. Alcoholic liquors. 218.

Creation hindered redintegration. 115. Comte. 24. Defiant. Search for. De. Conscious case. of. Charlemagne. 298 n. Colored hearing. 59. 48. 343. 40. Counter-world. 104. 303. Charcot. 300. 350. 269. by writers on psychology. 304. Condillac. 309. Complementary scientists. Common factor in comparison. Lucretia. Process of. Boulogne. Contrapuntists. 234. 140. 104. 150. 18. 43. 66. Combative element 295- Daedalus. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 76. 138. Copernicus. 301. Brain. Brown-Sequard. 272. Cid. Cabalists. of intellect and feeling. 131- Cuvier.i39. Dauriac. Stages of. Development Confusion of impressions. Contrast. weights. 346. 186. Cumulative inventions. 285. to Condi imagination. Classification. Deities. Composite character of. Coalescence 200. 246. either of Reasons for. Multiplicity Roman. 42. 16. tion of belief and doubt in the. 245- 67. Christopher. 9. Cooperation. Motor basis and im Causality. mentary. a special Constellation. 58. regions. 214. Creative imagination. his Oscilla intelligence. 173. The. the. 78.development tion. 22. 105. 339. Carthage. of. 58. 283. . imagination Exaggeration in esthetic or practical. of. in. Categories of images. Chateaubriand. implies feeling. 183. 145. Bramwell. 45. Conjecture. Commerce. vii. Cherubini. Borgia. Bossuet. 277. Neglect of. complete physio logical inhibition. 73. Association by. Chatterton. 313. Cabanis. 38. increasing 287. Buffon. L. Deduction. beginning of science. 282. 252. Constitutions by philosophers. Adult misinterpretation Creative 103 ff. Life Byron. 77. of primitive man. 117. 309. 99. Stages of development. Bourdeau.3 64 Bonnal. du. Chopin. 260. 52. Difficulties of. 145. 258. Campanella. 225. Darwin. 89. of. Dante. 283. 145. 144. 40. aginative. 272. 126. 284. imagination. 249. Critical of stage investigation. and abstrac 100. 226. Columbus. 12. development due substitution. 52. 281. non-existent. 16. Child-study. Classes of discoverers. 5- versus repetition. Cromwell. 32. Curiosity. 44. Creative instinct. by in Carpenter. 125. 6. 181. 246. Crisis. of. 243. 6. Cabalistic mysticism. Coleridge. . 101. Confucius. Breguet. Physiological 76. 146. Contiguity and resemblance. Carlyle. Mo of development. Madame 199. Buddha. 37. Chorea. Commercial tions of. 215. con ditioned by knowledge. not essential. a growth.. Complete images impossible. 113. 205. Child.

Experience requisite for invention. 70. Fresnel. 149. 135. 325. Hamilton. Faith. Dialectic. Delboef. Greek republics. 151. 34. 344. fac common measure Geniuses. 244. Grillparzer. 73. Egyptian conception of causality. 264. 99. 325. 80. 67. 17. Handel. 88. tion. 303. contrasted to mechanical. Drugs. and matter. Goethe. 187. n. of Emotional tor. Harrington. 142. 7. 73. Evolution of commerce. 145. 287. 269. 68. 196. 289. Gavarni. Exact knowledge requisite in com merce. and brain structure. Fiduciary money. 190. 29. pre 32. Double personality. 286. Fourier. Fixity of. in Fancy. 324. 252. 193. Source of. Groos. 55. . Gnostics. -cure. 85. Essenes. Goncourt. 247. DeQuincy. 254. 365 animals. 142. 268. Curative powers of. unsatisfied of. 15. French. not strong in imagination. 39. 302. Habits. Emotional Dreams. Ethics. of inven n. 112. mate rial 57. 21. Determinism. and sensation. 247. 38. 58. 261. 138. 89. Froschammer. 219 Empedocles. 18. Durer. Neglect ists. 38. 145. 282. 132 Fixed ideas. as Fuegians. in 254. Hanseatic League. No for imagination. Revolution.INDEX. judgment. Diffluent imagination. Disinterestedness of the artist. 260. 31 ff. Dii minores. Effect of. Gauss. 245. exceptional. Epic. 227. persist Fromentin. Gilman. excitants. of. of art. 100. 314. Goya. 149. 33. Expansion of self. 151. 264. Moment of. 22. 346. 303. Theophile. Fere. 302. Genius. 234. 60. Rise of the. 143. Dissociation. of series. of. 342. Hegelian. Facts and general ideas. 145. semi-science. 183. 307. 145. 38. 96. 75. Emotion. 136. Descartes. Use of. 206. 336. 278. of mastery over men. 47. 346. 103. abstraction. Esthetic imagination. supposes Realization needs. Hartmann. Fouillee. 35. 294. 193. Dewey. Euclid. Haiiy. 146. highest of. Forel. 304. 346. Fenelon. 276. 306. 264. 21. Egypt. depends on subliminal imagina tion. 150. 19. literary External factors. by concom itant variations. 35. Eureka. Guericke. 19. 303. 6. Gautier. 260. Gold. 55. Flournoy. 97. 216. by ideal Fear. Greece. ence of. 55. John. 74. Dualism of Fourier. Generic image. Gretry. ff. Otto de. 241. Role Haydn. 294. 340. 69. Living and dead. Law s statement of. 285. 68. 189. 196 Flechsig.

188. Initial moment of discovery. 95.. 254. of mystic. Inductive reasoning. beginning of son. Symbolic. Mystic. Imitative music. 95. 236 ff. Herodotus. untrustworthy.. 202. 23 1 . Es 281. 265. 57. 60 Huber. and legend. 222. same in many lives. 82. through pleasure. Idealistic conceptions. 232. 75. Hume. Categories of. 300. Howe. Hyperaemia. 206. basis of the cosmic process. 39. Progressive. Plastic. 282. 228. in animals. 42. Instinct. 320. Quality of. 189. Periods of. Hesiod. 20. 276.. sketched type. Individual variations. Illusions. 74. 144. 130. Varieties of. 276. present in all activities. differ not op ent from religious. sketched form. answer to specific Image. morphic. 263. Motives of different sorts of. 257. and Interest. Introspectors. 251- resembles somnambulism. ff. thetic. 18. in. tions 167 complete condensed in Condi objects. Creative. 273. 291. 59. 350. 70. 260. 180. Hypothesis. 184 Poetical. 120. Hypermnesia. Victor. 29. of im Imagination. of. Periods of de velopment of. Intentional combination ages. 107. 179. imagination. Idealization. 15. Icarus. 80. Imitation. 56. 41. 87. 137. Helmholtz. 316. 321. 216. . 10 . semblance of invention Intellectual factor. 221 ff. Hugo. 269. 35. Hodgson. provoked by music. fixed form. . Visual. Illusion. Temporary. Imaginative type. 285. Nu merical. Diffluent. anthropocentric. Re 48. Hindoo 202. a factor in creation. primitive man. 96. Modification of. Equivalence 80. 214. Inspiration. 98. Images. 346. 278. Hindoos. posed to the useful. Homonomy. defined. Ideal modified in practice. Homo duplex. Practical. 222. characterized impersonality. Hephsstos. substitute for rea ff. Characteristic of. 81. 6. Mechanical and technical. 189. abbreviations of real ity. Hyperesthesia. abulia. symbolic. 313.. and 284. 270. Hoffding. Interesting. Heine. 318. Hoffman. 86. 128. 18.. Musical. in 118. force. Process of. Hellenic imagination. 212 ff. 85. 217. 55. needs. . 306. 188. 149.. 196 ff. Impersonality. Hercules. Scientific. inven tion. 251. 264. foresight. Commercial. 207 ff. Concrete. Development of. 267. viii. provoked. Individuality of genius. 139- 75. 137. anthropo in common 142. animals. Henry IV. of. Huyghens. Incubation. Subjective feeling of. 306. Intuition. Hegel. 256 ff. Idea and emotion. 43. Animism Human in. 52. 138. 50. Infantile insanity. in experimentation. Mystical. 132.366 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 101. Incomplete images. Conscious. 16. n. Inhibition by representation. 244. and intoxica tion. 248. valuable to scientist. Hero. to. 251. by suddenness and 51. 44. 269. 270. 93. 36. n. 54. 229.

301. Janet. 300. 73. Localization. 263. 150. 269. Kepler. 258. Lang. 114. 284. 72. 216. 252 ff. 120. 186. 146. 145. tions of. William. 58. 59. 244. 129. 250. 269. 82. Inventions. Moravian brotherhood. Memory. Monadology. Klopstock. 252. 226. Lazarus. Machiavelli. Michelet. Me chanical. of. 279.. Misunderstanding of the new. 25. 320. 129. Methods of invention. stimulates Men. 6 Mechanic and n. 270. Amplifiers of. 277. 273. subjected to tradition. deified. 246. Locke. 71. 213 n. 73. Inventors of. 251. Meynert. 253. 112. 300. A. 34- Mental chemistry. 294. 296. 34- imagination. Specific quality Man of. 73. 261. Manu. 28. untrustworthy. 282. poet. Invention as an end. 21. 279. Mission. 246. 215. 272. Leurechon. Origin Laplace. Kuhn. Stages of. Materials of imagination. Moses. 307. 150. deities. 17. 297. Mobility of inventors. Larvated epilepsy. 134. of. Middle Military Mill. 82. Language. Mind. Condi Law. human Moral geniuses. Spontaneity of. James. Great. Loch Lomond. 148. Higher forms of. 296 n. 51. Stratification of. Ages. 145. as makers of history. Consciousness of. Oddities Mediate association. 237. counterfeits of beings. 141. of Metamorphosis. Love. Predominant tendencies in. 99. Pain of. predominantly 295. Leibniz. Invention arises to satisfy a need. Michelangelo. 183. 145. 149. Machines. in morals. Literal mysticism. 367 and animals. of. Lelut. Merchant sailors.. Lagrange. 247. invention. 47. 98. Metaphysics. 248. 151. largely Maury. im aginative. Mechanical imagination. Linnaeus. 34. 243. Jealousy. 51. Monoideism. Mendelssohn. Jordaens. 142. of monopolies. Mormons. Lloyd. 74. 307. and hate. 171. 148. 303. 128. Montgolfier. 275. 289. 141. Lavoisier. John Stuart. Louis XIV. 309. Money. Mechanical aptitude. Mimicry. Spirit of. 100. 215. 174. 87. . 340. 253. More. 83. 141. Joy. 271. 37. . Milton. 65. Lammennais. 145. Liebig. 73. sought Monge. 286. 277. 306. Lombroso. in successive parts. Love-plays. Varieties of. 61. 282. neglected by psycholo gists. 140 ff. anonymous. 99. 299. Ideal 268. Regressive. 300. Metaphysical speculation. Morgan. Kant.INDEX. 309. Mastery. thought.

120. manifestation basis of creation. 248. Persistence of ideas ing. for man. 120. 233.. 270. Physiology and pathology. Plastic art and mythology. Phalanges. 77. 41. science. 267. 60. 142. Neglect of details in Plato. Pascal. ff. 242. Pasteur. 268. Robert. law. Uses of. Nomina Nutnina. Alfred de. Personification. 206. special characters. age. 72. 70. 146. 33. Larnak. representa 207. 142. 224. by. 245. Movements. Vari ations in. Napoleon. 145. 134. 71. 74. of. 114. Philippe. Nerval.. 275. 335. sensation. Myths. Need 20. 81. Stages of. 106. Role of. Platonic ideas. Musset. tion. Pathology and physiology. Metaphorical . 191. tion. 95. 71. mo Use of. denned. 39. Mummy powder. 229. 9- Objective study of inventors. practice. Mystics. Numerical imagination. 184 f. 7. New Plotinus. 251. 123. 227. Miiller. Old 129. Muses. in due to feel 134. imagination. series unlimited. 212. posed tors. Polyideism. 226. Precocity in. 309. 309. Mysticism by suggestion. style of. 15. 303. 314. imagination. Nietzsche. Effect of. 309. Naville. 79- 133. Abuse of allegory. and imagination. 97.. Poetical invention. Newton. Max. Pathological view of genius. 262. op Physiological states. Gerard de. Newcomen. his war Philosophy. Nordau. 305. indi Per Owen. to Uniformity dissociation. elements. 120. of aborigines and children. Music an emotional language. 17 n. 146. and human phenomena. 270. 335. 234.3 68 Mosso. J. Importance 3. 340. 342. 48. 270. 27. 186. 74. 261. Natural. Perez. 127. a workman. in Oelzelt-Newin. 115. 73. of knowing. 221 244. 220. characteristic Myth-making activity. Newbold. Phlogiston. Significance of. 184. on imagina Mozart. 324. Myth. general char acters.22S Belief of. Poet. Oddities of inventors. 190. 87. 266. 134. 143. 122. 66. Paralysis by ideas. Musical imagination. Motor elements 4. Inspiration in. and conception. 142. Paradox of belief. 299. 71. Organic conditions. 10. 2 1 . 50. Orientation conditioned by vidual organization. 71. 150. 58.. 331. in Plato. Play. 350. sonal. B. a transformation of 298. . 130. 119. source of myth. 324. Myers. THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. Poetical imagination. Nervous overflow. 253. 229. 65. Poe. viii. Mystic imagination. 340. Polynomy. mystic ideas. 144. Perception. Munsterberg. 6. 207 ff. 87. 28. in all mysticism. 47. Depersonification of. Subjective and ob jective factors in. of. Organization of soci ety into.

imagination. 249. in limited by the past. Number 322. 56. 45. 94. in Practice. . 239Scientific imagination. Interchange of. 291. 143. Sorrow. 143. 141. Precocity. 34. 73. Renaissance. Social aims and practical discoveries. Reason. Puberty. To 36. Riidinger. Prometheus. Revery. Rossini. Rational Metaphysics. 253. Schopenhauer. Representations. Socialism. Three movements in growth of. 254. Conjecture beginning of. 125. Schumann. Reymond. Roland. Societies for special ends. Saint-Simonism. 118 ff. 145. Reni. Rontgen. 269. 215. 175. Psychological regressions. 72. 35. 51. Schiller. 240. 240. 5. of. Powers of nature. Special Specific. 248. 6. 131. 369 Republic.INDEX. Universality of. wants. 76. Du Bois. Redintegration. 151. 253. jects. Science. 47. Pseudo-science. Regis. Principle of unity. Utopian and 310. Practical of. 84. 54. not general imagination. 296. essential 86. 186. Ubiquity 254. Repetition versus creation. Pre-Raphaelites. 323. 101. 60. 294. 73. Influence of. 237. 47. tal. Schelling. 95. 142. mathematicians. no. prescribes conditions and limits to imagination. Spencer. Roman Romans. Seneca. 115. in finance. Psychic atoms. 23. Romanes. 307. 18. 308. ff. 204. tion. Reynolds. 117. Schematic images. Pythagoras. 314. 246. Attribution of. 226. 236. 128. scientific. 150. 97. Raphael. 149. in poetry. 37. 96. 151. 45. 179. Qualities. 309. 145. 138. 236 Scripture. Shakers. on imagi nation. 52. Shakespeare. Objectivity of. of Rousseau. 94. Reciprocal working of scientific Sensation changed in memory. paralysis. Spontaneity. 150. 316. . 52. Spinoza. Sand. Sensorial insanity. Provoked Schubert. Satanic literature. 134. 69. 318. Sexual instinct. able. 245. 215. Spirits. 254. George. revival. Pythagoreans. and myth. 143. 17. 124. Progressive stages of imagination. Primitive man. Guido. 6. 307. to ob Self-feeling. 19. Belief in. Positive minds. 145. Law of. 309. ining. Rubens. 325. 147. 206. Shelly. 1 motor crea 145. 144. 314. Semi-science. Representation and belief insepar Religion. Poncelet. 19. Romantic invention. vention. 346. Exploitation of 271. 198. 73. 10. Preyer. modes of scientific imag no. 145. Recuperative theory of play. 38. 250.

Spontaneous revival. Tylor. Tours. 129. 18. Utopian imagination. factor. 10. 292. Will. 6. 79. u. 64. 94. 96. Tyre. 5. Evolution of the. Van Dyck. in. Moreau de. 174. 140. 21. fac 50 ff. Vis a frente and a tergo. 99. 57. Utopias. 145. in. 270. 254. 24. 151. in Vaucanson. Utopians. 139. James. desired from artistic tives. 282. Dugald. Units of exchange. 202. 20. Subliminal imagination. Von Hartmann. 340. Summary. F.. Nature of the. 259. 61. 73.. Law s system of. 40. physiological theory. Leonardo da. 7. Choice of. Teleological character of will imagination. Stewart. 75. Vocation. Subjective factors. Wiertz. Zoroaster. Sully. and Von Baer. Superstition and religion. E. 66. Vinci. on physiological 5. Spontaneous variations. 39. Vignoli. 134. 339. Tyndall. Summa. . 58. 300. mo Tycho-Brahe. 341. 96. Unity. 286. Titchener. Wallaschek. 172.370 THE CREATIVE IMAGINATION. 182. 290. Unconscious. 269. Voluntary activity analogous 9. 226. 270. Change of. not a distinct element in invention. Watt. Stages of passage from percept concept. 150. etc. 100. 144. 99. 148. Principle of. Symbolism of Hindoos. 149. 270. 246. 5. 150. Tolstoi. to creative imagination. 117. 99. to tion. Vico. func tioning. Voltaire. 145. 125. 112. 315. 141. Stallo. indifferent to realiza 309. Watch. 53. Tropisms. Wahle. 78. 299. Vesication. 7. Unconscious cerebration. based on author s lieu. 131. 216. a coordinating function. Wagner. 129. 62. 200. 62. 294. Zeller. mi Ziehen. 9. Stigmata. tor. Weismann. 303. 274. Wallace. Universale post rem. Weber. 145. 244. Stigmatized individuals. Wundt. 84. 269. Thales. 238. 123. 55. Taine. 83. 206. Vicavakarma. 128. Wernicke. 224. 210. Wealth. State credit. Role of. Tools. unprecedented individual s experience. Vedic epoch. Triptolemus. Ef fect of. 330. Words. 134.. The broad meaning of. 48.

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