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LUCRARE DE LICENŢĂ
THE SYMBOLISM IN BRAM STOKER’S ”DRACULA”
Coordonator ştiinţific Prodecan Conf. Univ. Elena-Luminiţa Turcu
Argument Introduction Chapter I “Blood is life”: A. Who is Dracula? B. Vampires between myth and reality C. The symbolism of blood Chapter II “Blood as another, more seductive facet of femininity” A. The emerging of New Woman B. The Weird Sisters Chapter III “Dracula’s invasion” A. The association of Dracula with the East B. Dracula’s metamorphoses C. The psychoanalysis of Count Dracula Conclusions
It is a strange experience writing a degree for Bram Stoker’s Dracula. There is something interesting about Dracula, about vampires in general. I took several different approaches in my degree: psychological, folklore, socio-cultural and spiritual/religious. The psychological aspects of the study of the vampire has intrigued me and te numerous connections that vampires have with the world around us. The idea of vampirism associated with immortality is irresistible not only for me, but for almost all Dracula’s critics. I think that Dracula is not a journey of four men trying to destroy the Evil, in fact, it is a journey into the dark and hidden explorating of the self, which is more difficult than everything else.
and a vast corpus of largely uncollected short amd serial fiction. in strengh of one or more discourses may be both fictionally tested and arguably verified. The handbook to gothic literature. In his lifetime Stoker was better known as the Anglo-Irish manager and bigrapher of the London actor Sir Henry Irving2. Of Stoker’s eleven novels only five. The jewel of seven stars (1903). and the theme of obduction. Hampshire and London 2 Sir Irving Henry (1838-1905) born John Henry Brodribb was an English stage actor in Victorian era. William. with much of the uncollected short fiction. most notably gender and race. The mistery of the sea (1902). and whose discourses may be traced throughout his writings. He was the first actor to be awarded a knighthood. Dracula. two of the author’s collections of short stories. and the posthumous Dracula’s guest and other Wierd tales (1914). and have focused attention into Dracula at the expense of the author’s other works. Penguin Edition 4 .draw perceptibly on Gothic motifs.Under the sunset (1882). 1998. Dracula. which at times embody elements of the adventure story and the Gothic Novel. The remaining novels.1993. 3 Stoker. Edited by Marie Mulvey-Roberts. Recent scholarship has associated the distinctive pallor. hairy palms and rank 1 Hughes. However.Introduction The reputation of Bram Stoker1 rests today almost exclusevely upon his authorship of Dracula.is but a small component. The critical studies of Stoker’s writings have been largely psycho-biographical in approach. Macmillan Press LTD. Bram. can be classified essentially as romances. a collectionof moral tales ostensibly for children. Stoker’s recension of the Gothic is thus one in which the apparent preoccupation of a segment of the British middle classes are channelled through conventions such as Gothic Hero and Heroine.Dracula (1897). three volumes of short stories. Haundmills. biography and criticism. Basingstake. the character has become the epicentre of a modern curtural myth of which Dracula3 -the novel. New York. the quest for treasure or for the knowledge.may be regarded as unequivocally Gothic. The lady of the shroud (1909) and The lair of the white worm (1911). than as the author of eleven novels. There is a fairly consistent complex of themes. Dracula provides a clear demonstration of how Gothic yield to contemporany discourses throughout the author’s fiction. which informs the full range of Stoker’s fiction. issues.
diluted.breath of the Vampire with popular signifiers constructing the masturbator in Victorian culture.in particular those that come. The isolation and introspection of the Gothic Hero-Villain have been reworked into the signification of what was termed the ”solitary vice”. from the East. The social script may be seen. although these latter are often exposed in Stoker’s other writings. The consequence of his attack is arguably a debasement not of the individual but of the race. The combination of Western racial bloods in Dracula. depletion and transfer of blood participate in a metonymic complex in which the alleged racial qualities encoded in blood are enhaced. to co-exist with the physiological and symbolic resonances of blood in Dracula. corrupted or transferred. or figuratively (as in the alliance forget around Van Helsing’s leadership). 5 . equally. but blights his descendants also. The popular eugenics of Victorian commentators insist that the masturbator not only destroys himself. The signification of the individual thus begins to embody a whole series of related racial issues concerning not merely the potential decadenceof the race from whithin. but the superiority also of the moral. menacinglys in the theoretical ground between seducer and rapist. like Dracula himself. The text’s representations of the secretion. whether literally (as in the various acts of transfusion). These encondings in turn map over further issues of gender and off class. Dracula. also the eugenic risks apparently posed by other racial groups. thus conveys not just the apparently inevitable triumph of Western Stock over less developed or “degenerate” opposition. These reworking displaces somewhat the nature of the sexual threat traditionally posed by the gothic Hero. intellectual and emotional qualities culturally encoded in the blood signifier.
that we are openly told that Count Dracula is a vampire. Secrecy as Strategy in Dracula. letters. since the protagonists often keep secrets from each other. The reader. Such facts as the tragic events on board the Demeter. is non-plussed. not only in the way the story is told.php? title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies 6 . who let their readers devise their own hypotheses for the sake of suspense. journals. The reader feels as if an important part of the truth was concealed from him and whenever an explanation is given.a 4 Marigny. In Dracula the only linear narrative is Jonathan Harker’s journal at the very beginning. It appears that the narrative framework of Dracula is meant to confuse and puzzle the reader. Dracula is in fact a patchwork of texts including diaries. who has no explanation. it seems to come too late. and wait until the end to disclose the truth. in Dracula there is no omniscient narrator to help us understand what is happening.Chapter I “Blood is life” A. telegrams. Moreover. but in the plot itself. URL: http://blooferland. poses many questions which are left unanswered. Very often the information contained in these documents seems to have no link whatsoever with the main plot. however. Thus we can say that Stoker’s novel is quite modern (and perhaps even postmodern). reports. for instance.com/drc/index. the escape of the wolf Bersicker from London Zoo and Renfield’s medical case seem to have little to do with Harker’s experience in Transylvania. Stoker’s narrative strategy is based on secrecy. His narrative. Harker apparently does not understand what happens and the reader is puzzled when he quotes such enigmatic words uttered by Dracula as “Enter freely and of your own will” (22) . Jean. The reader has to find the truth by himself. Like detective novel writers. Harker tells us of the events he has witnessed in a chronological order. unlike most earlier Gothic novels. It is not known until the middle of the story. Who is Dracula? Secret and secrecy play an important part in Dracula4 and it is obvious that many facts in the plot of the novel are never clearly elucidated and are often willingly left out. Bram Stoker keeps useful information for himself. etc.
there is a drastic change in the novel. What music they make!” (25) when the howling of wolves can be heard outside. and the wolf. he is the devil in callous. He appears as the very embodiment of secrecy. ad cannot die by mere passing of the time. and the heart of him is not. and where. When Van Helsing finally tells the truth about vampires. some of have evidence that they exist. and the owl. for his cunning be the growth of ages […] he is brute. we do not know what he really has in mind. As he does not keep any diary or journal.”(283-284) ”The vampire live on.strange way of welcoming a guest .”(287) 7 . At the end of his journal. He never confides in anyone and his attitude is sometimes very strange. within his range. with his head downward.the children of the night. that is vital faculties grow streitous. the most mysterious character in the novel is Van Helsing. He does not give any explanation on Lucy’s “illness” until he has made Arthur Holmwood put a stake into her heart. we have seen amoungst us that he can grow younger. Besides. “Listen to them . the fog. Evan had not the proof of our own unhappy experience[…] This vampire which is amongst us is of himself so strong in person as twenty men. the reader is perplexed about the events which have been related. the thunder. Even more. or insists that garlic flowers be put in his patient’s bedroom as if it was a matter of life and death. “And to superstition must we trust at the first” (284). and the fox. Apart from Dracula himself. Before he goes to Castle Dracula. and he can at times vanish and come unkown. and more than brute. he can appear at will when. Harker does not even know what the word “vampire” conveys. but he cannot account for the fact that Dracula does not cast a reflection in a mirror or that he can climb down a wall. he is of cunning more than mortal. and seem as though they refresh themselves when his special pabulum is plenty[…].or again. after she has become a vampire. he can grow and become small. he can command all the meaner things: the cat. direct the elements: the storm. he can. he can flourish when that he fatten on the blood of the living. The reader cannot understand why this eminent university professor says. and the bat. The reader is now treated as an initiate: he is told everything about what is happening as if Stoker had decided to renounce his narrative strategy: ”There are such beings as vampires. many questions are unanswered: Why does the Count appear only at night? Why is he suddenly mad at the sight of a drop of blood? Why does he refuse mirrors in his presence? Harker is dimly aware that there is something supernatural about his host. and in any of the forms that are to him.
like creatures (by other names) have been identified in the mith and lore of many other cultures. most specifically in central and eastern Europe. and secondly ”fame. Vampire. drenching the body in garlic or holy water. other techniques included decapitation. The form ”vampir” has been found in a fifteenth-century south slavic source. Furthermore. Hampshire and London 8 . Edited by Marie Mulvey-Roberts. Most folklorists agree that the word ”vampire” has slavic roots. ”Motif index of Folk Literature”. The handbook to gothic literature. or on the new moon. But paradoxically. that is likely to last forever”. vampire lore frequently indicates that the vampire can be destroyedthat it’s existence can be brought to an and by outside intervention. they were in life attacked by another vampire or their bodies or not buried in accordance with proper rituals. Haundmills. first appearing as a proper name ”Upir” in a russian manuscript of the eleventh century and as a generic term in a Serbian manuscript two hundred years later. or teeth. the condition of living forever. those born with a defect such as a caul. For immortality are two essentially definitions: first.B. an extra nipple. they died in a state excomunication. they commited suicide. 1998. Basingstake. The vampire has its origins in the folk legends of many countries. Vampires between myth and reality In his ”Motif index of Folk Literature”. anyone who is the seventh son of a seventh son. then immortality for the vampire is a temporary state dependent on it’s 5 Thompson. or never dying”. Others are doomed to return as vampires because of trangressions committed against the acceptable codes of behavior during their lifetime sush as practising sorcery or engaging in acts of violence. ”endless life. But in each case. the vampire is clearly dead. Immortality is often citied as one of the chief characteristics of the vampire. Macmillan Press LTD. Still others return from dead because of the circumstances surrounding their death or burial: they died without baptism. extracting and burning the heart or burning the entire corpse. Stith. Another common element found in much of the folklore is that a person becomes a vampire after death as a result of some condition or set of circumstances present during his lifetime. Stith Thompson5 defines a vampire as a ”corpse which comes from the grave at night and sucks blood” in order to sustain its existence. Some are predisposed at birth: those born on certain holidays. The most wide spread was to drive a wooden stake through it’s heart.
such also in their turn. and who was skilled in vampirism. and burnt the whole body. Thirty days after his death four persons died suddently and in the same manner in which according to the tradition of the country those die who are molested by vampires. but that he had found means to cure himself by eating earth from the grave of the vampire. After taht they performed the same an the copses of the four other persons who died of vampirism. they cut off his head. a precaution which . Stoker coins the 6 About five years ago a certain Heyducq. and the rise of gothic literature. The Giaour (1813) contains the famous vampire course. This were so wide spread. which made him. Southey included a vampire poem. for they believe also that those who have been passive vampires during life become active ones after thier death. a very sharp stake driven into the heart of the defunct Arnald Paul. and his veins were repleted with fluid blood. first in Germany and later in England. They found his corpse all the indications of an arch-vampire. In neither of these is a trait of immortality. The first in English literature to do so were the Romantic poets. fearing that they in their turn might cause the death of others. that those who have been sucked. In 1746. utter a frighful shriek. The Bram Stoker’s novel. thatdone. since. The Gothic movement was part of the broader period of Romanticism. which flowed presence the exhumation tooka place. according to custom. with it’s clallenge to subjectivity emotion. including his account of the famous case of Arnald Paul6. His body was red. on being exhumed forty days after his interment. nails. had. that is to say. as they say. a prominent feature. These reports concided with (and maybe contributed to) a rising interest in Gothic literature. as if he had been alive. his hair. French biblical scholar Dom Augustin Calmet wrote a treatise on the subject. It was inevitable that the vampire would be adopted by Gothic writers. URL:http://books. did not prevent him fromm becoming so after death. that in some contries government officials became directly involved. however. The word ”vampyre” made it’s first appearance in the English language in early 1730’s. and eventually reported in the British press. So did the academic community. intuition and imagination. he had often been tormented by a Turkish vampire. They then remembered that this Arnald Paul had often related that in the environs of Cassovia and on the frontiers of the Turkish Servia.ability to procure an adequate blood suply and it’s deftness in avoinding the instruments of destruction. an inhabitant of Madreiga [in Austrian Serbia] named Arnald Paul was crushed to death by the fall of a wagon-load of hay. and smearing himself with his blood. Dracula which become the template of future representations of the vampire whether though conformity or deviation. The occasion was a rash of vampire sightings documented in severed parts of central and eastern Europe. notably Robert Southey and Lord Byron.ro/books? id=kbpBPFhEVPMC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=arnald+paul&source=bl&ots=Q42e4Tj5Bb&sig=nL1bymy EZlg97e0Lj5kaA1ptjkg&hl=ro&ei=JVwZSr_xF4O9AaOy5zMDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#PPA3. Even though the image of vampire become more romanticiesed and eroticized during the nineteenth century with literary works the issue of immortality is never the central one. and beard had grown again. The folkloric vampire antered western literature as a result ofd the convergence ot two factors: the famous vampire sightings of the eighteench century.google. and which pierced his body throught.M1 9 .
the Dutch professor amends his original declaration. The fluid nature of blood makes both the substance and its meanings peculiary vulnarable. there come with the change the curse of the immortality. prior to publication of the novel. was entitled „Dracula or theUn-Dead”. The vampire cand indeed die. Blood is easily spilled. C. mixed or diluted. Stoker was obviouslyvery fond of the word. as Van helsing demonstrated in the staking of Lucy and later in the pursuit of Dracula. Blood is culturally as well as textually an item of multidiscursive significance a fluid which may signify at various times notions of family. By using the term „UN-DEAD” . race. pointing aut that „The vampire live on. and cannot die by mere passinf of the time”(335).. The word appears several times throughout the novel. on each occasion used either by Van Helsing or in reference to what he has said. Furthermore. but yet not dead. Stoker expressed the existence of the vampire in a sort at „no-man’s alnd” dead. The vampire has long history both as a literary device as a signifier in culture. The vampir appears in an animated body(unlike the ghost). but how immortals is this „un-dead”? In outlining the powers and limitations of the vampire. religion and gender. they cannot die but must go on age after age adding new victims and multiplying the evils of the world”(308). Later. The symbolism of blood William Hughes7 describes very wel the conection between vampires and the blood. Unmingled it is the guvernator of purity and strengh – a strenght which may be desired by others beyond the 7 ibidem 1 10 . his body performs at least some of the function of the living. This is a nonsense. another exemple of the numerous inconsistencies that plague Stoker’s novel. and had even considered it as the title of the novel. van helsing states: „When they become such. not until very late in the process did he select it as the title. Much of the power of the trope is derived from the intimate relantionship between vampires and blood. Even through he had found the name „Dracula” as early as 1890 and had been existing it in notes and outlines. the dramatic reading undertaken on 18 may 1897. The title appearing on the California typescript is „THE UNDEAD by Bram Stoker” with „Copyright 1987”.term ”un-dead” as a synonym for his concept of the vampire.
circle or circulation of one’s „own” blood. In the earlier context . Both fluids have beenhistorically encompassed by religious and cultural taboos restricting their dispersal beyond the internal circulation of the body. and no mistake. represented and mourned at the beginning of the novel by Dracula’s description of his 8 Botting. the seminal fluid is this conflated with an acceptable and associated blodly secretion. Manhood. the vampires itself. blood and bravery culminates in the violance of the hunt that marks the return of the buried warrior tradition. The vampire in this context constitues a node at which significations both meet and are modified following thei contact with their place of conjunction. Gothic. religion and education. Unmentionable in normal communication beyond restricted cultural aven as such as medicine. The appeal to male strength. Van helsing says to Quinley „ a brave man’s blood is the best thing on this earth when a women is in trouble.Victorian Britain in particular linked the two reciprocally in the so called „spermatic economy”. but God sends us man when we want them”(194). Medicine in mid-to late. where the excessive unnecessary „Spending” of semen brought in consequence a decline in the vitality of the Sanguine fluid. 1996. or moral decline and degeneration. You’re a man. London. it may either revive or prostate. 11 . familial. blood and bravery form the cornerstones of the Van Helsing’s fatherly notion of cultural and spiritual renewal. In his oppinion Van helsing appeals to this spirit (the bonding produced by exclusively male adventures forms and idylic bay-scout past that is seconstituled and sanctfied in the pursuit of the vampire) when he describes how the vampire may be beaten by the „power of combination” and the letting of blood. The jolly fortitude of this statement is tested later when Quincey loses more than the amount of blood required in a transfusion. Fred. The subscript of these encondings is the cultural equation of blood and semen – thefigurative and literal carriers of racial and individual qualities. an opportunity to effectively eroticise the text. Fred Botting8 has an interesting theory about the symbolism o blood in Dracula in his book „Gothic”. This conflation is for both writers and critics of vampire fiction. Transferred or transfused by medial occult or sexual means(where the shedding of hymenal blood initiates a sexual encounter). Well the devil may work against us for all he’ worth. The individual may thus function as a synecdoce of greater community united by encondings invested within a common blood. Diluted or depleted it may signify simultaneously personal lassitude alongside racial. Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane.
heritage: the warlike days are over:”Blood is to precious thing in these days of dishonourable peace and the glories of the great races are as a tale that is told”(43). Lucy’s mother and Arthur’s father die while other prental and maternal figures are only surrogates:hawkin bequeather his property to Harker and Mina in a fatherly gesture. for a culture disintegrating without it. The only biological parents. myths linked to Gothic notion of freedom and strength are invoked. Also are vitally monumentalised the self sacrificing death of Quincey and his subsequent and nominal immortalisation in the Christian name of the Harker’s son. To combat the racial myths of northen tribes. It is also a return to myths and fictions within a gothic fiction has an uncanny effect on the values of domesticy and patriarchy whose superiority. The appeal to past history and romance is not merely invocative of a fictional tradition it alludes to the belligerent pursuit of a religion cause. In the context of gothic fiction this seems like a nostalgic appeal to a lond dead world. The horror embodied by Dracula reawakens the primitive and powerful emotions of his apparents. in the Crusades against the non-Christian peoples of the East. van helsings is a good father for everyone as Mina is their mother. a disappeared past imagined as nobl strong and purposeful. In God’s name they „go out as the old kinght of the Cross”. A warlike pagonism is combined with Christianity. Engaging in battle with dracula. Dracula represents the bad father. The abssence of family udnerlines the nostalgia for the family that is literalised by the novel in the paternal and maternal duplicates. stability and naturalness are finally affirmed at the close of the novel. Van helsing’s vampire – killers reawaken racial memories and myths of Blood and nonour: Quincey is described as a „moral Kicking” and Arthur is compared to Thor as he impales Lucy. Indead throughout the novel there are not examples of model families. a sacralisation of racial myths whose function within an embatled and aggressive cultural and imperialist imgination is starkly emphasised when Van helsing invokes divine sanction for their project. Civilisation and domesticy needs to retain and channel its buried natural even barbaric energies signified in hunter and warrior 12 . the myth is only realised in the closure of the fiction. blood expulsion and sacrifice: family values are restored by the ritual destruction of Dracula and the sacrifice of female sexualety embodied by Lucy. emotions of attractions and repulsion in which his intimate doubleness is expelled and repeated in another terible expenditure of energy.These start to seem like myths themselfs. The making real of this mythical model of the family demands.
unity.myths:it’s spirit . 13 . strength and immortality are nourished by the undead myths of its own duplicitious self-image.
we understand that the impending battle between good and evil will hinge upon female sexuality. which is to practice her shortland and typewriting skills in order to be useful to her 9 Mewald. been coded as female. during his business in Transylvania. Jonathan. much as anything else. marriage is a frequent topic and seems to be everything they dream of. the ”angel of the house”. suggesting her preoccupation with marriage and household. But Dracula threatens to turn the two women into their voluptuousness and open sexual desire. innocent of the world’s evils. or else she was a mother and wife. in connection with cooking recipes and the like. The emantipation of Mina? The portrayal of Mina in Stoker’s Dracula and Coppolo’s Bram Stoker’s Dracula .a model of purity and innocence. When she is writing about her marriage she mentions about the ”grave and sweet responsibilities [she has] taken upon [herself](139). By the time Dracula lands in England and begins to work his evil magic on Lucy Westerna. URL: http://blooferland. and devoted to their men. a novel that indulges the Victorian male imagination. Both Lucy and Mina are less like real people than two-dimensional embodiments of virtues that have.The threat of female sexual expression Most critics afirm that Dracula is. Almost her whole existence is devoted to her future husband and she wants to become a good wife and mother. If she was neither of these. Katharina. over the ages.Chapter II „Blood as another. A Victorian woman effectevely had only two options: she was either a virgin . Katharina Mewald 9 says that in Stoker’s novel Mina is presented as the prototype of the Victorian woman. particularly regarding the topic of female sexuality.php?title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies 14 . This sense of duty can be observed in her motivation of writing her diary . she writes in her diary that she is ”happiest woman in the wide world” and her life will consist of ”love and duty for all the days of [her] life” (140). more seductive facet of feminity” A. Both women are chaste. In the correspondence between Mina and Lucy. In Victorian England women’s sexual behavior was dictated by society’s extremely rigid expectations.com/drc/index. most of all. refers to her only sporadically. Jonathan. When Mina is finally married to Jonathan. she was considered a whore and thus of no consequence to society. pure. This focus on marriage is linked to her strong sense of duty towards others and.
and then she dobs her own feet in mud so that passers by will not notice her being barefoot. Futhermore. Lucy is also influenced by these norms. Also the fact that Mina deduces that Lucy cannot be sleepwalking outside the house because she is only wearing a nightdress comically underlines this characteristic trait. she considers it her duty to support her husband emotionally: ”i do believe that if he had not had me to learn on the support him he would have sunk down”(223). In generally Mina and Lucy are the women of Dracula ”upon whom the men project the ideals of Victoria womanhood”. She also learns the train timetable by heart ”so that [she] may help Jonathan in case he is in a hurry ” (241). Her sense of duty also entails the keeping up of appearences. Contrary to Lucy with her polyganist tendencies (desiring to marry three men) Mina is decidedly innocent and morally adequate. she is eager to dressed adequately and behave properly at all times. 15 . serves as an example of the prevailing gender roles at the time. The writters in that period mention that the New Woman was characterizad 10 9 The connection of decorum and etiquette and the notion of bitting in this utterance is noteworthy. Also Mina is never envious of Lucy’s beaty and popularity with men. However. but also excessively strict Victorian norms ”bite” women. he even admires her friend. Further characteristics of Stoker’s Mina befitting her image as the prototypical Victorian woman are presented in Katharina’s Mewald paper. She doesn’t exhibit any kind of pshysical attraction towards Jonathan. and a very interesting thing is the fact that she has the knowledge of Cesare Lombroso’s theories about criminals (to be discused later).husband. as the ideal Victorian woman. She knows shortland and typewriting. Mina’s intelligence and practical skills contribute to the usefulness that is expected of Victorian women. Mina obviously sense that these norms are somewhat too strict an she writes that ”you can’t go on for some years teaching etiquette and decorum to other girls without the pedantry of it biting into yourself (emphasis mine)”10 and decides to allow Jonathan to take her arm in the street. as she is disappointed not to have received a proposal at ”almost twenty”. Mina. At the time Dracula was written. the emergence of the ”New Woman” was challenging traditional gender roles. Her chastity is only once questioned when she writes about Dracula’s seduction and mentions that she ”did not to hinder him” (370). since it implies that not only Dracula bites his victims. Mina is modest and chastic. Women were supposed to marry. have children and support their husbands. An example of this is when she gives her own shoes to Lucy during her sleepwalking in Whitby. As an assistant school mistres who teaches etiquette to young girls.
Although Lucy chooses which of her loves will become her husband. represented by Dracula. if we take in consideration the important part of Mina’s hunting of Dracula and Lucy’s flirtations bahavior into account. Yet. After becoming vampire. but symbolicaly (through blood transfusions) had sexual relations with each man. Despite Lucy’s angagement to Arthur Holmwood. she refuses both Seward’s and Quincey Morris’s marriage proposals. Each of Stoker’s women fins her own way of breaking up with Victorian gender roles. The woman in Dracula. Dracula like Arthur. but still struggles with hurting each man. Before Lucy become an Un-dead 11 Lancaster . Dr. Van Helsing and Quincey has shared blood with Lucy. we might establish the argument that both women exhibit tendencies that hint at social (Mina) and sexual (Lucy) autonomy. Mina is a schoolmistress and her goal is to follow the traditional Victorian model. she seems unwilling to relinquish her right to love each man. Lucy arouses an greater sense of immortality through her sexuality and also through her cruelty to the children. In her first letter to Mina. as society expects her to do. a more moderate way of emanticipation that the radical feminism of the New Woman. Craig Ashley. thay have a behaviour that seems conditioned by the male character’s opinion. Jack Seward. [http://blooferland.bt her ”demands for both social and sexual autonomy”.php?title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies] 16 . Later. Lucy declares her ”love” for Dr. Lucy once again professes rather flagrantly her ”love” for another man.com/drc/index. Demonizing the Emerging Woman: Misrepresented morality in Dracula and God’s little acre. Seward. however. as a result Lucy has become a tainted victim married by her inconclusive love and her literal and metaphoric sexuality. making them seem responsable for the immortality not only of themselves. which includes sexual independence and taking up male professions. in her letters is revealed the fact that she is unable to love one man. Lucy Westerna exhibits the most controversial traits of both groups because she exudes a high amount of sexual energy even before she becomes a vampire. Ashley Craig Lancaster 11 thinks that Stoker presents his female characters negatively. ridicule the New Woman. Van Helsing. Lucy is not only ”married” to the ”good” men of the novel . However. but of the others. but also to the ”Evil”. Even after her chooses to marry Arthur. On the contrary. an even kisses Quincey before she leaves. Stoker has presented Lucy as a woman who not only loves multiple men. regardless of how shollow ar deep those feelings may seem.
Many commentators have pointed aut the sexual nature of Lucy’s vampirism. Now. While asleep Lucy possesse the same beauty she has always had. Lucy does not just want to love each man.(230) The men reveal Lucy as the child stalker when fiind her holding a child ”strenuously to her breast. Both of these conclusions neglect the fact does choose one specific man for her husband. ”Unconscious cerebration” and the Happy ending of Dracula. she posesses a beaty that three man fail to withstand. and i could not believe that she was dead”(254). she also emerges as a trecherous mother figure because of her choise of victims. John. but she kows that Arthur longs for her and the marriage thay never get to have. (81) It is possible that this passage has usually been read as indicating a dangerous (masculine)sexual independence.vampire. Just as Lucy becomes more like New Woman through her dangerous sexualety. her beaty grows more outstanding than before: ”She was. Lucy has become more powerful. once againaligning herself with the immoral New Woman. Lucy utilises his atraction to her saying ”Leave these others and come to me. she does not have to deny the reality that she has had feelings for each man at some point. making the complete change into a vampire. When Arthur witnesses her trnsformation into a vampire for the first time. but John Greenway12 affirms that her vampirism is more complex than that. She’s not as ”sweet” as other characters think she is. My arm are hungry for you my husband. leaving her child victims ”weak [and] emaciated”. however is possible to be interpreteded as Lucy’s passivity. come!”(272). Stoker creates through Lucy the imagine of a sexually deviant woman who seems unwilling or unable to commit completely to one man. if possible. [http://blooferland. but after she enters in the world of the Un-dead. especially whean she says: ”Why can’t they let a girl marry three men. However. growling over it as a day growles aver a bone”(271). and.com/drc/index. Lucy personifies the worst possible characteristic of the New Woman. she wants to manipulate them to submit as her next victims. more radiantly beautiful than ever. but as with Seward. By attacking children.php?title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies] 17 . or as many as want her. as a result. Lucy wants to feed off his blood rather than love him. and save all this trouble?”. she has lost the weakness and the emotional trappings that have plagued her lost few days as a human. After Lucy’s ”death” reports from children suggestthat a woman they refer as ”The Bloofer Lady” has begun to attack children. the destructive abandonment of the nurturing role. she has cause for repressed 12 Greenway. more dangerous.
as if affected with hydrophobia. they would know that: “When piety and maternal sentiments are wanting. “curious psychological study” that she is. and sometime the most refined coquetry. New Yourk: Philosophical Library.” (Lombroso 296) One wonders if Lucy is (to use Van Helsing’s term) as “predestinate to crime” as the Count.anger as well. but not to Lucy’s. [http://blooferland. She often suffers from intense thirst. displaying sometime violence. as Lombroso looked at The female offender14 in 1895. it is clear that the innocuous semi-criminal present in the normal woman must be transformed into a born criminal more terrible than any man .. She won’t. are willing to apply Cesare Lombroso’s13 then-current theories of criminal behavior to understand the Count’s vampirism. through Mina. a dry mouth. In the contxt. Stoker gives us reason to infer that the Count does not cause anything Lucy was not predisposed to do. Douglas Morrison.. a fetid breath. Fontana has pointed out the similarities between the description between the descrition of the Count and that of the ”born criminal” in Lombrosan details apply to Lucy as well. it is interesting that the characters.and supported his conjectures with cranial measurements. and a tendency to bite everybody she meets. who brings Lombroso into the analysis in the first place. Caesareand William Ferrero. In “normals” (Female offender) ibid 13 18 . for the conception and execution of evil.. Trans W.com/drc/index..php? title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies] 14 15 Lombroso also notes “Anormalous teeth” in 78% of prostitutes. We know that Lucy..” (151) Mina. and in their place are strong passions and intensely erotic tendencies . alone knows of Lucy’s desire to marry three men. Lombroso asserted that criminal behavior expressed evolutionar regression-atavism. Had they looked at the ”Bloofer Lady” through the same lens as they do the Count. vs.. She tries to attract every man she sees. The FemaleOffender [La donna delinquentz. had a history of sleepwalking before the Count entered the story: twice we are told 13 Lombroso. however. the criminal woman is consequently a monster.1983]. Here vampirism angages the idea of negative evolution: atavism.15 After all. go farther and realize that: “Nymphomania transforms the most timid girl into a shameless bacchante.
19 . 147). While Carpenter discusses insanity as a fixation on a “dominant idea. So Lucy got what she wanted. does serve to hint at the motives the characters repress16.” Her mother leaves her vulnerable to the Count by removing the garlic flowers from her room. too” (166). the doctors’ view of transfusion is obsolete. In other words. To complete the thought. however. Lucy has a self-imposed prohibition against expressing atavistic ideas. she 16 With all Stoker’s injections of up-to-date technology in the norrative. Seward “could see Van Helsing’s face grow white and purple by turns” (217). and I must not say it” (78). The mother of Lucy makes her. Van Helsing. and save all this trouble?” she breaks off the thought by saying “But this is heresy. It would at once frighten him and enjealous him. Quincey continues this chain of thought. By the time of the novel. Predictably. but he is a bigamist (219). but not Stoker’s doctors. “laid a finger on my lips” in response to Lucy’s tacit imploring. later from Lucy’s neck. the active male donor to passive female recipient. or as many as want her. no word to him. they vow to remain silent. qualitative view as well: Lucy “turns crimson” when her mother says Seward needs a wife and a nurse (167). doctors in general had ceased to view transfusions in qualitative terms. when he says that not only was Lucy a polyandrist. and dies of a stroke in her arms.she inherited the trait from her father (96. as before. others had hints of Lucy’s metaphoric polyandry (78). Seward.” Seward notes about Lucy that “there is an odd concentration about her” (98) As did Seward. But the other characters share this traditional. economically vulnerable by leaving all her property to Arthur. Van Helsing predictably cautions silence. Though all the characters blither about Lucy. will complete the idea for her by realizing the erotic implications of the transfusions in his hysterical “King Laugh” speech. Seward’s transfusion to his would-be fiancée leaves him feeling “faint and a little sick” (166). The by-then obsolete technique used for the transfusions. knowing that this act “might leave her daughter either penniless or not so free as she should be to act regarding a matrimonial alliance. realizing the transfusion’s erotic import. he “whispers” the question none have dared ask: “What took it out?” (193). saying that he felt since then as if they had been really married and that she was his wife in the sight of God. When she writes to Mina that “Why can't they let a girl marry three men. first. lest Arthur feel fear and anger: “if our young lover should turn up unexpected. When Arthur talks about transfusion after Lucy’s death. When he realizes that Lucy has the blood of “four strong men” in her. would involve the same psychological danger that Renfield’s experiment posed for Seward. however.
given the Count’s seduction of his wife who “did not want to hinder him”. it is rather a berserk assault. as the narrative shows us through her friend Mina’s revelations about her. while Arthur for some reason has the key to the tomb. her unconscious governs her actions: “As I came close. she manipulates Seward into leaving her alone. She preys upon children and attempts to seduce an all-too-willing Arthur not out of love. he fears madness as his world erodes. he says that “I must do something or go mad. as with Lucy’s “scream.” (162). Mina “shrieked” when Harker whacks at him with his Kukri knife.” which then becomes a “dread thought. but for power. something the men have been 17 Ibid 6 20 . If Lombroso’s observations on the atavistic nature of criminal behavior apply to Lucy as well as the Count. opting to work rather than think about the implications of what is happening. Lucy enjoys vampirism as a kind of liberation. Harker becomes a double of Dracula in his competition for Mina. All the men break social and professional norms to deal with the Count (36): Seward falsifies death certificates. Lucy does feel a “vague fear. Unlike Mina. aristocrat and adventurer they form an emblem of the Victorian male establishment) Seward.” one could read this reaction on several levels. Arthur and Quincey all deal with Dracula by becoming like him. privacy or personal effects. Even when asleep. However noble the motives of the men (as doctor.” but avoids realization by rationalizing that what is happening to her is a dream (“this weakness comes to me in sleep.has no authority over her own life. But nobody comments upon this. Arthur uses his nobility to mask a daylight breaking-and-entering on Piccadilly Circus. After the incident with Mina and the Count. John Greenway 17 says that Mina does not get the erotically suspect transfusions from men. Harker. sentiment dictates she’ll be buried next to her mother. The dispatch of Dracula does not even follow the rules Van Helsing has elucidated. except perhaps Mina with her shriek. Still. One could also see Lucy’s metamorphosis into the “bloofer lady” as a rebellion against wife/mother role she’s destined for. As with Seward. as Van Helsing fears.” Harker’s motive is for revenge rather than the official one of duty. Harker suggests the break-in and becomes angry at Dracula’s agent when he will not divulge confidential information. As an ironic note. lawyer. she put up her hand in her sleep and pulled the collar of her nightdress close around her throat” (123). whose anger will take a different route. but vampirism expresses itself differently in her than in Lucy: her intelligence increases to the point of being able to outwit Dracula. in a certain sense they apply to the men as well.
but her emerging intelligence controls the men in a less lurid manner than Lucy’s sexuality. Though Mina’s vampirism expresses itself in intelligence. intellectually flirtatious relationship with Van Helsing. I know.” Before she reads Harker’s journal she says to Lucy that “I felt a thrill of joy through me when I knew that no other woman was a cause of trouble” (138). “Let us go to meet my husband who is. She does not follow that thought out. more subtle form. and officially repudiates the brazen qualities of the “New Woman” . But her vampiric power takes a different. Van Helsing speaks of her “man’s brain. On the surface Mina only wants to be “useful” to. much as Arthur had regarded the morally ambiguous transfusion with Lucy. her husband then to the male collective. Mina bonds more subtly. Mina gets all their names in her son. If Lucy gets the men’s blood. First. one could read some ambiguity when she says. she notices that she does not have Lucy’s latent sensuality. Yet she has some repressed resentments as well. but she then “bustles off to get tea” for the men. We have conjectured that Harker’s motives here might be less noble than the narrators announce. and has a curious. If Lucy got her atavistic wish for Lombrosan polyandry. One could wonder which “husband” she anticipates. first. she also becomes a receiver of men’s emotions. but also creates the text we read through synthesizing the various media of communication. beginning with her teasing him about Harker’s journal being in shorthand. one could understand Mina’s physical involvement with the Count as revenge for Harker’s infidelity with the Wierd Sisters. Her idea of using hypnotism comes through “unconscious cerebration”: “I suppose it must have come in the night and matured without my knowing it” (369). coming towards us” (438). While her intellect lets her control the plot and the sources for the narrative.unable to do.” which speaks to her evolution if we remember that contemporary medical manuals saw women as unevolved males (Lansbury 417). 21 . although it still could express anger. who call her “sister. Mina writes that the Whitby men paid no notice to her but “did not lose any time in coming up and sitting near her [Lucy] when we sat down” (87). Let us return to our speculations on “unconscious cerebration” by recalling her “shriek” when Harker’s enormous knife shears through Dracula’s throat. for Dracula saw the lurid scene in her room as a consummated marriage. She mothers Arthur and Quincey in their grief. When she is with Van Helsing at the circle. Without any overt resentment. She not only takes over through her intellect. not as an object of desire.
B. and Quincey’s prudish reluctance to break in on Mina’s fellatio with the Count .“May it not frighten her terribly? It is unusual to break into a lady's room!” (336) . He is at his most threatening when he declares of Jonathan: “This man belongs to me!” (43). hellish rage” (364). there is also an undercurrent of fear that Dracula may penetrate the men as well. or frightening Mina (who is not of “fainting disposition” anyway). The characters all profess “love” in the sentimental terms that assume “chaste” and “pure” as natural states. But love in the novel’s vampiric catalyst craves power or revenge. This exclamation does have homoerotic overtones. All the males violate professional and social conventions. Arthur. Seward and Mina all have cause for repressed anger. We have seen that Harker. and is important in its implication of power and control.my creature.must have struck even contemporary readers as comic. and through them you and others shall yet be mine . not affection. provoking Jonathan. under the circumstances. to do my bidding and to be my jackals when I want to feed” (367) This power in turn comes from anger: recall that “fury. But the plot evolves through inhibition.” “rage” and “anger” appear more often than does “voluptuous. anger. In addition to attacking the women.Looking to one level. as well as its reflection of the gender controversy of the nineteenth century. fear of hurting Lucy. as Dracula makes clear: “Your girls that you all love are mine already. while the Count embodies “malignity.” and we have an index to the subcurrent interplay of sexuality and anger in the novel. Lucy. embarrassing Arthur. technology and the group’s crusading moral solidarity. we are led to believe that the crew saves the sentimental Victorian world through typewriting. The Weird Sisters 22 .
dominated sociey by compromising men’s ability to reason and maintain control. The sisters represnt what the Victorian ideal stipulates women should not be.voluptuous and sexually aggressive/thus making their beaty both a promise of sexual fulfillment and a curse. the sexually aggressive women in the novel must be destroyed. this sexual proficienty threates to undermine the foundations of a male. The three beatiful vampires are both his dream and his nightmare.The Weird sisters (Dracula’s daughters) encounter’s Jonathan in Dracula’s castle. For this reason. Chapter Three “Vampirism as invasion” A. The association of Dracula with the East 23 . However. These women often offer Jonathan more sexual gratification in two paragraphs than his fiancée Mina does during the course of the entire novel.
in the shapes he assumes and symbolically in terms of distinctious he upsests. the latter bound up with cultural degenation and the parasitic nature of capitalist social organization. through women he will contaminate and colonise the teeming metropolis of London. Dracula’s invasion represents also a threat to the progress of modernity. By way of women Dracula attacks men. reason and irrationality. Dracula’s fluid shifting amorphous shape is threats because it has no singular or stable nature or identity.In the scene where he is interrupted in the act of pressing Mina’s mouth to his beeding breast he appears as an inversion of Chist as Pelican. 18 ibedem 7 24 . Dracula threat is his polymorphousness. powers of their own which mere modernity cannot kill”(51). agency and authority. both literally. Through and over women their bonds. In the name of women the good men respond to the threat. in part embodied in its superstition with deterministic knowledge. For all his sovereignty and vidence Dracula is in respect of his polymorphousness strangely feminised and Lucy condensed into an abjectification of total excess “a Thing” as inhuman “hellish” and inorgothic. the ritualized killing of vampires reconstitutes properly patriarchal order and fixes cultural and symbolic meanings. the complete antithesis of subjectivity. Restoring the boundaries between life and death. Quincey and Seward. home and abroad. In crossing the borders between East and West he undoes cultural distinctions between civilization and barbarity. and have. for instance. Meanings identities and proper family boundaries are utterly transgressed in the movements of vampiric desire and energy. As Harker observes “ unless my senses deceive me the old centuries had . The vampire is constructed as absolute object. being courted by Arthur. rousishing his subjects with his blood in an unholy communion and a mother suckling Mina with the milk of his blood. Irrepressible forces from the past continue to threaten the present’s idea of itself.In Fred Botting18 opinion Dracula’s Crossing boundaries is relentless: returning from the past he tyrannises the present. eath and heaven. The ritul killing also restores sytems of communication in which women remain objects for male exchange. relations and identities are established. In respons to the deficiencies of contemporany culture and society. Lucy. body and soul. uncannily straddling the borders between life and death and thereby undoing a fundamental human fact.
On a symbolic level he is the mirror and shadow of Victorian masculinity. Dracula is the dark double of the brave and unselfish men whose identity is forged in their struggle. his pale. The malevolence of the count. Van Helsing is more than a scientist. Dracula recuperates the Gothic romance in making men the primary subjects of terror and horror. This has the effect. Their decadence. in its movement between figures of the past and present. thereby addressing and attempting to redress. like venereal disease. a monstrous figure of male desire that distinguishes what men are becoming from what they should become. science offers grander visions of a mysterious and sacred universe. Harker’s meeting with Dracula on the street gives the prove og his duplicity. demonic 25 . The doctor does not discount superstition and is the first to use sacred objects like the crucifix and the Hast. Dracula forms a mirror that must be destroyed since its represents narcissism.The threat of wanton and corrupt sexuality is horrifically displayed in vampirism shape. nocturnal existence and indiscriminate desire distinguish vampires as a particularly modern sexual threat to cultural moves and taboos. gaunt features. pervers egoism and duplicity of appearance that threatens all cultural values and distinctions. Dispensing with its inadequate materialism.s clothes. Dracula is the regressive in human otherness lifted from the realm of individual psychopathology into a cultural field as its absolute antithesis. Science involves mysteries and opnes on to a more than rational place in line with Victorian attitudes towards spiritualism and psychic values is made possible by the demonic threat of Dracula: his diabolical power and primitive energy leading to a “baptism of blood” for his victims mark the utter profanity that demands a more than rational response. They are modern visions of epidemis contagions from the past . he is foreigner trying to pass as English. On a symbolic level he passes for Christ. visited on the present in a form that . he is also a metaphysician who deals with “spiritual pathology” as well as physical disease. the uncanny mobility of normal natural and sexual boundaries in the 1890’s. as in the case of his interception of Harker’s true letter and ordering him to write brief notes. Beast and various identities within the family. Harker “donned” his clother when he escapes from the castle. Without mirror image or shadow Dracula is a pure invention. On the street Dracula was wearing Harker. Against the threats of contagion and disintegration a sacred order is reconstituted. enters the home only after (sexual) invitation. of a dissimulative disruption of proper systems of communication.
demanding. but reawakening of spiritual energies and sacred one. more than a mercernary and mundane bandit. romances. The letter and journal entries telling different but connected parts of the same story compose a whole whose 26 . The Carpathians formed the crossroads where these tradition met. flight and immortality. its secret terros and isolation in a wild and mountainous region form a sublime prison as any building in witch a Gothic heroine was incarcerated. superstitious imagination. wolves and bats – were associated with disease. according to different versions. since the Middle Ages. superstitions and customs of Eastern peoples was recorded and assessed. began among the nomadic warlike tribes of northen Europe or peoples migrating from the East. Dracula’s principal companions and altenative forms-rats. graveyards and vaults – all the macabre and gloomy objects of morbid fascination and melancholy – signat the presence of the gothic past.eyes an calbous libertinism and bolstered by supernatural powers of metamorphosis. not a return to reason and morality. through. In the setting of Dracula stack features of the Gothic novel make a magnificent reappearance: the castle is mysterious and forbidding. The origins of the vampire were explained as fears of the Plague. Dracula serves to eleicit rather than dispel superstitious beliefs . B. a militaristic warrior past characterized by values for blood and honour. Dracula’s metamorphoses Dracula heritage extends deeper into the Gothic post: the account of his family history is full of tribal migrations and conquests. he is both villain and ghostly diabolical agent whose magic and power cannot be reduced to mere tricks or effects of overindulgent. to have emanated from the East. Throughout the novel ruins. As the sublime synthesis of the human and supernatural terrors of Gothic writing. The form of the novel testifies to the excessive. The vampire is not only associated with dissemination of the romance. In traveller’s accounts from the eighteenth century onwards the significance of the vampire in the folklore. unpresentable nature of this demand. This history is that of the romance as traced by eighteenth century antiquarias: stories of uncertain origin. The place of heroine is taken by the young lawyer Harker. Dracula is more than a Gothic villain.
Lord Byron to Count Dracula. Queen Square London. Vampyres. with all that sucking and bitting. remains obscure. For the East. in Kippling’s stories about India and similarly . provide a more popular that and exciting alternative to domestic realism. that in vampirism become visible. at the hight point of Victorian imperialism provided many wonderful adventures and strange tales. Maurice. In Dracula Stoker makes use of all the traditional mythical propertics and blends them with a family type of situation of his own contriving that turn out to be a quite 19 Richardson. that attaches to the vampire. These is an obvious fixation on oral level. Guilt is everywhere and deep. Frightful cruelty.immensity like the unrepresentable horror of Dracula’s unreflecting image. compost of channel house and cloaca. In vampirism the dead first visits the living and then drags him into death being himself reanimated in the process The starting point from witch to investigate the hidden content of the superstition is once agains Freud’s dictum that morbid dread always signifies repressed sexual wishes. We are left in no doubt about the origin of the frightful smell. Here is a twilight borderland where religious and psychopatological motives intermingle. 1991. Dracula’s adeventurous romance also alludes to the tales of adventure that. which. both natural and unnatural. in Rider Haggard’s narratives of Africa. The vampire superstition embodies a particulary complex form of the interest. projected the darkness of Gothic fears and desires on to other cultures peoples and places. “The psychoanalysis of Count Dracula”. aggression and greed is accompanied by a madly possessive kind of love. edited by Christon Frayling. C. Death exist side by side with desire for immortality. Dracula provides realy striking confirmation of the Freudian interpretation.The psychoanalysis of Count Dracula In Maurice Richardson19 opinion. The Keynote is ambivalence. 27 . also a generous allowance of anality. from Scott’s romances onwards. Behavior smacks of unconscious world of infantile sexuality with what Freud called its polymorph perverse tendencies. The associations of Dracula with East are important in this aspect. which the living take in the dead.
” This attempt to add “mine” has a perverse bisexual timeless orgy. as dear if not dearer to her as any sister. Apart from Van Helsing. Mina is naved and Lucy avenged by a noble brother by hand led by Van Helsing. Maurice Richardson20 doubts whether Stoker had nay inkling of the erotic content of the vampire superstition. belove by a psychiatrist. He is up to all the vampires tricks.blatant demonstration of the Oedipus complex. Jonathan Harker cuts himself. Mina Harker. Dracula’s first English victim is Miss Lucy. Later in the story Dracula lands in England and the endogamous motiv linking all the characters tighter as members of one family becomes apparent. There are several more passages in witch the symbolism and the underlying incestuous complex stick out a mile. was President of the Philosophical Society also athletic champion of the university. He was certantly a born hero worshipper. Vampires are not very particular about their choise of object. Dr. There is some evidence in Stoker ‘s life of an unusually strong father fixation. the directly sexual nature of the phantasy underlying the superstition is revealed. When he is realy traped in the house of “Cartox” he screams: “you shall be sorry yet. Seward. he took a degree in math. When on his first morning as a guest in castle Dracula. each one of you […] your girls that you all love are mine already…. And this is what gives the story its force. From a Freudian standpoint and from no other does the story really make any sense . She is the wife of Jonathan Harker. Stoker shows insight into the infantile nature of the vampire’s personality during some of Van Helsing lectures to Seward on the Count psychology.it is seen as a kind of incestuous . oral. He had met the great tragedian when he was playing in Dublin. Dracula is planly an athlete’s phantasy. who represents the good father figure. centuries old is a father figure of huge patency. The second victim is Lucy ‘s bosom friend. where 20 Ibidem 2 28 . That night when Dracula’s daughters who are themselves vampires crow into Harker’s bed-room. the count’s eyes brake with oral sadism.sadistic all in wrestling mach. the set up reminds one rather of the primal horde with the brothers banding together against the father who has tried to keep all the females to himself. The Vampire Count . Abraham Stoker was a formidable allrounder at Trinity College. necrophilous. He is planning from his ancestral lair in the Carpathians a roind on England to set up a contemporary vampire empire. Dracula seems almost conscious of this. He makes a sudden garb but just manages to restrain himself. through until the very end he is always a step or two behind. In 1878 he threw ups his Irish cover to become Irvings’s manager.
mouvies. His reputation was spread through medieval Europe in a German pamphlet printed in Bambarg in 1491.Stoker was among other things dramatic critics for an evening paper might encourage a model for Dracula in Irving. In 1909 twelve years after the publication of Dracula. with justice. Conclusions Bram Stoker’s Dracula has been one of the masterpiece of all times. where Stoker located Dracula’s ancestral scat. Dracula is a tale of immortal love. The novel went on the nudge the thoughts of readers. But Stoker indicates an authentic model for Dracula. Stoker must have seen the pamphlet or a reproduction of it on his travels. The name represents the nickname of the Rumanian Prince Vlad Tsepesh (born in 1456) who was also know because of his atrocious cruelty as “The Impaler”. directors across the world. burned down the local landowner’s castle because they said he was carrying of their children. viewing it as a perveted extension: he straves us an sucks our children ‘s blood. Widely accepted as a horror story. This carried a portrait of him in witch the features correspond exactly with Bram Stoker’s description of Dracula’s baleful aristocratic countenance in the novel. some peasants in Transylvania. mare more of this aspect. A marxist interpretation of the vampire myth might . writers. 29 . artists. The book talks about issues pertaining to mortality and how Count Dracula takes himself to stand up against God so to speak.
but the clear picture he paints of his targets is one that deserves parise in its own merits.Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula brings forward the Victorian era culture. ”Unconscious cerebration” and the Happy ending of Dracula. the voluptuonsness of Lucy. Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane. John.php?title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies] 30 . Fred. [http://blooferland.com/drc/index. the women. the methods and modes of living – everything in essence is deeply rooted into Victorian ethics and asthetics. Gothic. the brave of four man – everything is Victorian to the truest detail. 1996. London Greenway. References Botting. the calm motherliness of Mina. Transylvania and Vlad Dracula may or may not have been a motivation for Stoker. Van Helsing’s personality. The man.
New York. Stith. Hampshire and London Lancaster . 1998.php?title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies Mewald. Basingstake. The handbook to gothic literature. 1998. Trans W. [http://blooferland. Basingstake. edited by Christon Frayling.com/drc/index. [http://blooferland.com/drc/index. Penguin Edition Thompson. “The psychoanalysis of Count Dracula”. Lord Byron to Count Dracula. Dracula. Bram. Secrecy as Strategy in Dracula.1993.php?title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies Richardson. New Yourk: Philosophical Library. Hampshire and London 31 . Haundmills. ”Motif index of Folk Literature”. Macmillan Press LTD. Jean. The handbook to gothic literature. Douglas Morrison. Haundmills. William. Macmillan Press LTD. Katharina. Edited by Marie MulveyRoberts. 1991. Stoker. Queen Square London. URL: http://blooferland. Caesareand William Ferrero.php? title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies] Lombroso.php?title=Journal_of_Dracula_Studies] Marigny. Vampyres. Craig Ashley. Demonizing the Emerging Woman: Misrepresented morality in Dracula and God’s little acre.Hughes. Edited by Marie Mulvey-Roberts. Maurice. The FemaleOffender [La donna delinquentz.com/drc/index.1983]. The emantipation of Mina? The portrayal of Mina in Stoker’s Dracula and Coppolo’s Bram Stoker’s Dracula .com/drc/index. URL: http://blooferland.