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The Messier Catalogue

The stunning world of Messier objects

seen with the 200mm-tele-lense

of the Bradford Robotic Telescope

by

Michael Hauss

Liederbach am Taunus / Germany

Version 1.0.0 (Date: 14.11.2010)
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Chapter 1

Introduction

The Messier Catalogue is probably the most famous astronomical catalogue, because it lists 110 of the
most important bright deep sky objects. Every amateur astronomer begins its deep sky activities by
observing Messier objects! Even today I like to look up a bright Messier object at the end of a long
observing night!
It takes a little while to observe all of the 110 Messier objects (I am not talking about a Messier
marathon...). After I managed to initially take pictures of every Messer object, I published the Messier
Catalogue seen with my own 8”-Schmidt-Cassegrain-Telescope in www.doctus.de.
However, by taking pictures only with tele lenses I recognized, that many of the Messier objects are
still looking very interesting! Some of them are so extended (e.g. M 7, M 31), that it is necessary to use
a tele lense to capture it. Some of them are placed in stunning areas of the milky way und some of them
are part of galaxie groups and clusters.
Because of this I decided, to complile a Messier Catalogue composed of pictures taken with a 200mm-
tele-lense. To benefit from very good observing conditions I used the 200mm-tele-lense of the Brad-
ford Robotic Telescope for this project. The current version of this compilation is version 1.0.0 (Date:
14.11.2010).

Please feel free to contact the author of this compilation via the contact formula in the internet on the
homepage of the auther: http://www.michaelhauss.de.tl/Kontakt.htm.

The basic parameters of the Messier objects are taken from ”The NGC/IC Project”, a fantastic
reference to the Messier and NGC objects (see http://www.ngcicproject.org)!
Copyright notes: Images taken with the Bradford Robotic Telescope Project are the property of the
Bradford Robotic Telescope Project. Copyright remains with the Bradford Robotic Telescope Project.
Anyone may re-publish Bradford Robotic Telescope images on other web sites or in print providing that
a reasonable copyright notice attributing the image to the Bradford Robotic Telescope is on the image
or very close to it.
This compliation is dedicated to the great team of the Bradford Robotic Telescope. Without the work
of this team, who kept the telescope working over the long time necessary to get all the picuters, this
Messier Catalogue would not exist! Thank you very much for this great work!

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4 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Chapter 2

Messier Object List

In this chapter the complete Messier-Catalogue with its 110 objects is presented. The properties of each
Messier object are listed and at least one picture taken with a 200mm-tele-lense is shown.

2.1 Supernova Remnant M 1 (Crab Nebula)
The Messier object M 1 is a supernova remnant in the constellation Taurus. The supernova of type II
itself was observed in the year 1054, which makes M 1 the youngest of all Messier objects! With its
surface brightness of only 11 mag it is one of the more difficult objects of the Messier list to observe. The
very bright star near M 1 is Zeta Tau (3.0 mag). With a tele lense M 1 looks pretty much lost in space ...

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Supernova remnant
Diameter 6’ x 4’
Constellation Taurus
Right Ascension (2000) 05h 34m 31.9s
Declination (2000) + 22◦ 00’ 52”
Magnitude 8.4 mag (B)
Central star 16 mag
Distance 6200 LY
Discovered by John Bevis (1731)
Other names NGC 1952, h 357

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6 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.1: Picture of M 1 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.2. M 2 7

Figure 2.2: Monochrome negative picture

2.2 Globular cluster M 2
The second entry of the Messier list is the magnificant globular cluster M 2. It is an easy object to
observe. With a tele lense, M 2 is only surrounded by hundreds of stars of the milky way.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type II
Diameter 13’
Constellation Aquarius
Right Ascension (2000) 21h 33m 29.3s
8 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) - 00◦ 49’ 23”
Magnitude 6.50 mag (V)
Surface brightness 11.8 mag
Stars 150000 stars up to 13.1 mag
Distance 41000 LY
Discovered by Jean-Dominique Maraldi (1746)
Other names NGC 7089, h 2125, GCL 121

Figure 2.3: Picture of M 2 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.3. M 3 9

Figure 2.4: Monochrome negative picture

2.3 Globular cluster M 3
Like M 2, the third entry of the Messier list is a magnificient globular cluster. With the 200mm-tele-lense
it is possible to see the brightest stars in this globular cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type VI
Diameter 18’
Constellation Canes Venatici
Right Ascension (2000) 13h 42m 11.2s
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Declination (2000) + 28◦ 22’ 32”
Magnitude 6.41 mag (V)
Surface brightness 12.5 mag
Stars 500000 stars up to 12.7 mag
Distance 34000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 5272, h 1663, GCL 25

Figure 2.5: Picture of M 3 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.4. M 4 11

Figure 2.6: Monochrome negative picture.

2.4 Globular cluster M 4
The globular cluster M 4 is the nearest object of this class of the Messier catalogue. As a result, M 4
has a large diameter and the brightest stars are as bright as 11 mag! A great object to observe, but
unfortunatly its declination of only −26.5◦ makes it a bit more difficult to observe from the northern
hemisphere. With a 200-mm-tele-lense the globular cluster NGC 6144 is visible, too.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type IX
12 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Diameter 26’
Constellation Scorpius
Right Ascension (2000) 16h 23m 35.4s
Declination (2000) - 26◦ 31’ 31”
Magnitude 5.96 mag (V)
Surface brightness 12.4 mag
Stars 100000 stars; brightest star 10.8 mag
Distance 5600 LY
Discovered by Jean Phillippe Loys de Cheseaux (1745)
Other names NGC 6121, GCL 41

Figure 2.7: Picture of M 4 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.5. M 5 13

Figure 2.8: Monochrome negative picture.

2.5 Globular cluster M 5
The globular cluster M 5 is as bright as its much more famous brother M 13. Since M 5 is located near
the equator, it is an easy object to observe!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type V
Diameter 23’
Constellation Serpens Caput
14 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Right Ascension (2000) 15h 18m 33.7s
Declination (2000) + 02◦ 04’ 58”
Magnitude 6.03 mag (V)
Surface brightness 12.2 mag
Stars Brightest star 12.2 mag
Distance 27000 LY
Discovered by Gottfried Kirch (1702)
Other names NGC 5904, h 1916, GCL 34

Figure 2.9: Picture of M 5 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.6. M 6 (BUTTERFLY CLUSTER) 15

Figure 2.10: Monochrome negative picture.

2.6 Open cluster M 6 (Butterfly cluster)
M 6 is one of the brightest open clusters and should be an easy object to observe. However, with a
declination of only −32◦ 130 it becomes quite difficult to observe M 6 from the northern hemisphere. The
cluster obtains mainly bluish stars. The cluster also obtains the variable star BM Sco. The cluster is
placed in the Milky Way and is surrounded by several other deep sky objects (see picture).

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 r
16 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Diameter 33’
Constellation Scorpius
Right Ascension (2000) 17h 40m 20.7s
Declination (2000) - 32◦ 15’ 15”
Magnitude 4.2 mag (V)
Stars 100 stars up to 5.8 mag
Discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierna (1654)
Other names NGC 6405, h 3699, OCL 1030

Figure 2.11: Picture of M 6 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.7. M 7 (”PTOLEMY’S CLUSTER”) 17

Figure 2.12: Monochrome negative picture.

2.7 Open cluster M 7 (”Ptolemy’s cluster”)
Like M 6, also M 7 is a very bright open cluster. In fact, M 7 is the most southern Messier object of
all! From northern parts of Germany it is not possible to observe M 7 at all! In the field of M 7 three
planetary nebulae were detected. The cluster is placed in a nice part of the Milky Way. Next to M 7 the
open cluster Tr 30 is placed.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3r
Diameter 80’
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Constellation Scorpius
Right Ascension (2000) 17h 53m 51.1s
Declination (2000) - 34◦ 47’ 34”
Magnitude 3.3 mag (V). bzw. 3.5 mag (B)
Stars 750 stars up to 5.6 mag
Distance 100 LY
Discovered by Claudius Ptolemäus (-138)
Other names NGC 6475, h 3710, OCL 1028

Figure 2.13: Picture of M 7 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.8. M 8 (LAGOON NEBULA) 19

Figure 2.14: Monochrome negative picture.

2.8 Open cluster M 8 in the Lagoon Nebula complex
M 8 is an open cluster placed in the famous Lagoon Nebula complex. Placed in the Milky Way it is a
very nice object to observe. With a 200mm-tele-lense also the Trifid Nebula (M 20) is visible.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 2 m n
Diameter 45’ x 30’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 03m 42.0s
20 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) - 24◦ 22’ 48”
Magnitude 5.0 mag (B)
Stars 100 stars up to 7 mag
Distance 4300 LY
Discovered by Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel (1784)
Other names NGC 6530, Lagoon Nebula itself: NGC 6523 or LBN 25

Figure 2.15: Picture of M 8. M 20 and M 21 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.9. M 9 21

Figure 2.16: Monochrome negative picture.

2.9 Globular cluster M 9
M 9 is a less known globular cluster. With a 200mm-tele-lense it is a nice object, because it is surrounded
by severel deep sky objects. Especially, the dark nebulae B 64 and B 259 can be seen very well.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type VIII
Diameter 9’
Constellation Ophiuchus
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Right Ascension (2000) 17h 19m 11.7s
Declination (2000) - 18◦ 30’ 59”
Magnitude 7.75 mag (V)
Stars Stars up to 13.5 mag
Distance 46000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6333, h 1979, h 3677, GCL 60

Figure 2.17: Picture of M 9 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.10. M 10 23

Figure 2.18: Monochrome negative picture.

2.10 Globular cluster M 10
M 10 is a very nice globular cluster near the equator. The object is surrounded by hundreds of stars of
the Milky Way.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type VII
Diameter 20’
Constellation Ophiuchus
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Right Ascension (2000) 16h 57m 09.0s
Declination (2000) - 04◦ 05’ 58”
Magnitude 6.63 mag (V)
Surface brightness 12.0 mag
Stars Stars up to 13 mag
Distance 25000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6254, h 1972, h3659, GCL 49

Figure 2.19: Picture of M 10 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.11. M 11 (WILD DUCK CLUSTER) 25

Figure 2.20: Monochrome negative picture.

2.11 Open cluster M 11 (Wild Duck Cluster)
M 11 is a very nice open cluster placed in a nice part of the Milky Way.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I2r
Diameter 13’
Constellation Scutum
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 51m 05.9s
Declination (2000) - 06◦ 16’ 12”
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Magnitude 5.8 mag (V)
Stars 2900 stars up to 8.0 mag
500 stars are brighter than 14 mag
Distance 6100 LY
Discovered by Gottfried Kirch (1681)
Other names NGC 6705, h 2079, OCL 76

Figure 2.21: Picture of M 11 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.12. M 12 27

Figure 2.22: Monochrome negative picture.

2.12 Globular cluster M 12
Close to M 10 there is the globular cluster M 12. There are no other bright deep sky objects near M 12.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type IX
Diameter 15’
Constellation Ophiuchus
Right Ascension (2000) 16h 47m 14.4s
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Declination (2000) - 01◦ 56’52”
Magnitude 6.88 mag (V)
Surface brightness 12.1 mag
Stars Stars up to 12.0 mag
Distance 21000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6218, h 1971, GCL 46

Figure 2.23: Picture of M 12 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.13. M 13 (GREAT CLUSTER IN HERCULES) 29

Figure 2.24: Monochrome negative picture.

2.13 Globular cluster M 13 (Great cluster in Hercules)
M 13 is a very nice and very bright globular cluster. With a 200mm-tele-lense it is possible to see the
brightest stars in this globular cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type V
Diameter 17’
Constellation Hercules
Right Ascension (2000) 16h 41m 41.4s
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Declination (2000) + 36◦ 27’ 36”
Magnitude 5.86 mag (V)
Surface brightness 12.6 mag
Stars 1 billion stars up to 11.9 mag
Distance 26000 LY
Discovered by Edmond Halley (1714)
Other names NGC 6205, h 1968, GCL 45

Figure 2.25: Picture of M 13 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.14. M 14 31

Figure 2.26: Monochrome negative picture.

2.14 Globular cluster M 14
M 14 is a quite faint globular cluster, which is not a particular spectecular object with a 200-mm-tele-lense.
M 14 is one of the more distant globular clusters seen from earth.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type VIII
Diameter 12’
Constellation Ophiuchus
Right Ascension (2000) 17h 37m 36.1s
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Declination (2000) - 03◦ 14’ 46”
Magnitude 7.49 mag (V)
Stars Stars up to 14.0 mag
Distance 56000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6402, h 1983, h 3698, GCL 72

Figure 2.27: Picture of M 14 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.15. M 15 33

Figure 2.28: Monochrome negative picture.

2.15 Globular cluster M 15
M 15 is one of the brightest globular clusters of the Messier catalogue.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type IV
Diameter 12’
Constellation Pegasus
Right Ascension (2000) 21h 29m 58.4s
Declination (2000) + 12◦ 10’ 00”
34 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 6.48 mag (V)
Surface brightness 11.6 mag
Stars At least 500.000 stars up to 12.6 mag
Distance 39000 LY
Discovered by Jean-Dominique Maraldi (1746)
Other names NGC 7078, h 2120, OCL 120

Figure 2.29: Picture of M 15 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.16. M 16 (EAGLE NEBULA) 35

Figure 2.30: Monochrome negative picture.

2.16 Open cluster M 16 with Eagle Nebula
M 16 is a quite distant open cluster, which is surrounded by the nebulosity IC 4703, also known as the
”Eagle Nebula”. With a 200mm-tele-lense M 16 looks brilliant, because it is located in a very nice area
of the Milky Way.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 m n
Diameter 8’
Constellation Serpens Cauda
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Right Ascension (2000) 18h 18m 48.1s
Declination (2000) - 13◦ 48’ 26”
Magnitude 6.0 mag (V)
Stars 350 stars up to 8.2 mag
Distance 5600 LY
Discovered by John Phillippe Loys de Cheseaux (1745)
Other names NGC 6611, h 2006, OCL 54

Figure 2.31: Picture of M 16 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.17. M 17 (SWAN NEBULA) 37

Figure 2.32: Monochrome negative picture.

2.17 Galactical Nebula M 17 (Swan Nebula)
M 17 is the famous Swan Nebula also known as Omega Nebula. Together with M 18 and M 24 it is a
beautiful object for a 200mm-tele-lense!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galactical Nebula
Object Type EN
Diameter 20’ x 15’
Constellation Sagittarius
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Right Ascension (2000) 18h 20m 47.1s
Declination (2000) -16◦ 10’ 18”
Magnitude 6.0 mag (B)
Distance 5900 LY
Discovered by Jean Phillippe Loys de Cheseaux (1745)
Other names NGC 6618, h 2008, Omega Nebula

Figure 2.33: Picture of M 17, M 18 and M 24 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.18. M 18 39

Figure 2.34: Monochrome negative picture.

2.18 Open cluster M 18
M 18 is an open cluster with only 40 stars. Although M 18 is not very interestinng, it is beautifully
located between M 17 and M 24!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 p n
Diameter 7’
Constellation Sagittarius
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Right Ascension (2000) 18h 19m 58.4s
Declination (2000) -17◦ 06’ 07”
Magnitude 6.9 mag (V)
Stars 40 stars up to 8.6 mag
Distance 4200 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6613, h 2007, OCL 40

Picture see M 24 and M 17.

2.19 Globular cluster M 19
The globular cluster M 19 is quite far away from earth. With a 200mm-tele-lense it is not a very interesting
object.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type VIII
Diameter 14’
Constellation Ophiuchus
Right Ascension (2000) 17h 02m 37.7s
Declination (2000) - 26◦ 16’ 05”
Magnitude 6.83 mag (V)
Surface brightness 10.4 mag
Stars Stars up to 14.0 mag
Distance 45000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6273, h 1975, h 3663, GCL 52
2.19. M 19 41

Figure 2.35: Picture of M 19 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
42 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.36: Monochrome negative picture.

2.20 Galactic Nebula M 20 (Trifid Nebula)
M 20 is the famous Trifid Nebula, a brilliant object of the Messier catalogue!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaktischer Nebel
Object Type EN
Diameter 20’ x 20’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 02m 42.0s
2.21. M 21 43

Declination (2000) - 22◦ 58’ 18”
Magnitude 6.3 mag (B)
Distance 2700 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6514, h 1991, h 3718

Picture see M 8.

2.21 Open cluster M 21
M 21 is an open cluster, which is located near M 20.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3r
Diameter 15’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 04m 13.4s
Declination (2000) - 22◦ 29’ 24”
Magnitude 5.9 mag (V)
Stars 100 stars up to 7.3 mag
Distance 3900 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6531, h 1993, OCL 26

Picture see M 8.

2.22 Globular cluster M 22
M 22 is a very bright and large globular cluster. It is an interesting object even equiped only with a
200mm-tele-lense. Another globular cluster, M 28, is located close to M 22.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type VII
Diameter 24’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 36m 24.1s
Declination (2000) - 23◦ 54’ 12”
Magnitude 5.07 mag (V)
Surface brightness 11.3 mag
Stars 500000 stars up to 10.7 mag
Distance 10000 LY
Discovered by Johann Abraham Ihle (1665)
Other names NGC 6656, h 2015, h 3753, GCL 99
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Figure 2.37: Picture of M 22 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.23. M 23 45

Figure 2.38: Monochrome negative picture.

2.23 Open cluster M 23
M 23 is an open cluster located in a nice part of the Milky Way.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 2 r
Diameter 30’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 17h 57m 04.7s
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Declination (2000) - 18◦ 59’ 07”
Magnitude 5.5 mag (V)
Stars 150 stars up to 9.2 mag
Distance 2000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6494, h 1990, OCL 30

Figure 2.39: Picture of M 23 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.24. M 24 47

Figure 2.40: Monochrome negative picture.

2.24 Bright part of the Milky Way M 24
M 24 is a bright part of the Milky Way.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Bright part of the Milky Way
Diameter 1.5◦ x 0.5◦
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 18m 24.0s
Declination (2000) - 18◦ 24’ 24”
48 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 2.5 mag (V)
Distance 12000 - 16000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)

Figure 2.41: Picture of M 24 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.25. M 25 49

Figure 2.42: Monochrome negative picture.

2.25 Open cluster M 25
M 25 is a bright open cluster in the southern hemisphere. The brightest star of the cluster is the variable
star U Sgr.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3m
Diameter 32’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 31m 36.0s
50 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) - 19◦ 15’ 00”
Magnitude 4.6 mag (V)
Stars 220 stars up to 6.3 mag
Distance 2000 LY
Discovered by Johann Abraham Ihle
Other names IC 4725

Figure 2.43: Picture of M 25 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.26. M 26 51

Figure 2.44: Monochrome negative picture.

2.26 Open cluster M 26
M 26 is a small open cluster. However, it is a very interesting object because it is located in a very nice
area of the Milky Way!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 m
Diameter 14’
Constellation Scutum
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Right Ascension (2000) 18h 45m 18.6s
Declination (2000) - 09◦ 23’ 01”
Magnitude 8.0 mag (V)
Stars 70 stars up to 10.3 mag
Distance 5200 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6694, h 3758, OCL 67

Figure 2.45: Picture of M 26 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.27. M 27 (DUMBBELL NEBULA) 53

Figure 2.46: Monochrome negative picture.

2.27 Planetary Nebula M 27 (Dumbbell Nebula)
The planetary nebula M 27 is one of the most beautiful objects of the Messier catalogue. However, with a
200mm-tele-lense this object is quite small and looks a bit like ”lost in space”. M 27 contails ”Goldilocks”
variable star NSV 24959 (14.3 mag - 15.1 mag).

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Planetary Nebula
Object Type 3(2)
Diameter 8.0’ x 5.7’
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Constellation Vulpecula
Right Ascension (2000) 19h 59m 36.3s
Declination (2000) + 22◦ 43’ 16”
Magnitude 7.4 mag (V); 7.6 mag (B)
Central Star Magnitude 13.9 mag
Distance 1100 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6853, PK60-3.1, h 2060

Figure 2.47: Picture of M 27 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.28. M 28 55

Figure 2.48: Monochrome negative picture.

2.28 Globular cluster M 28
M 28 is a small globular cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type IV
Diameter 11’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 24m 32.8s
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Declination (2000) - 24◦ 52’ 12”
Magnitude 6.99 mag (V)
Stars Stars up to 12.0 mag
Distance 35000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6626, GCL 94, h 2010, h 3743

Picture see M 22.

2.29 Open cluster M 29
M 29 is a very nice open cluster, which looks a bit like the ”Pleiades”. It is located in the Milky Way
quite close to γ Cyg.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 m n
Diameter 10’
Constellation Cygnus
Right Ascension (2000) 20h 23m 57.7s
Declination (2000) + 38◦ 30’ 28”
Magnitude 6.6 mag (V)
Stars 230 stars up to 8.5 mag
Distance 3700 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 6913, OCL 168, h 2078
2.29. M 29 57

Figure 2.49: Picture of M 29 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
58 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.50: Monochrome negative picture.

2.30 Globular cluster M 30
M 30 is a quite small globular cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type V
Diameter 11’
Constellation Capricornus
Right Ascension (2000) 21h 40m 21.9s
Declination (2000) - 23◦ 10’ 45”
2.30. M 30 59

Magnitude 7.56 mag (V)
Stars Stars up to 12 mag
Distance 29000 LY
Discovered by Chales Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 7099, GCL 122, h 2128, h 3878

Figure 2.51: Picture of M 30 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
60 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.52: Monochrome negative picture.

2.31 Galaxy M 31 (Andromeda Nebula)
M 31 is the famous Andromeda nebula. It is a perfect object for a 200mm-tele-lense.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(s)b II
Diameter 190.5’ x 61.7’
Constellation Andromeda
Right Ascension (2000) 00h 42m 44.3s
Declination (2000) +41◦ 16’ 06”
2.31. M 31 (ANDROMEDA NEBULA) 61

Magnitude 3.6 mag (V); 4.37 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.6 mag
Distance 2.6 Mio. LY
Discovered by Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi (903 - 986)
Other names NGC 224, h 50

Figure 2.53: Picture of M 31, M 32 and M 110 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
62 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.54: Monochrome negative picture.

2.32 Galaxy M 32
M 32 is an elliptical galaxy close to the Andromeda Nebula. Like M 31 it is part of the local group of
galaxies.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type cE2
Diameter 8.7’ x 6.5’
Constellation Andromeda
Right Ascension (2000) 00h 42m 41.8s
2.33. M 33 63

Declination (2000) +40◦ 51’ 52”
Magnitude 8.3 mag (V); 9.09 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.6 mag
Distance 2.6 Mio. LY
Discovered by Guillaume Hyazinthe Legentil (1749)
Other names NGC 221, h 51, Arp 168

Picture see M 31.

2.33 Galaxy M 33
Like M 31, also M 33 is a perfect object for a 200mm-tele-lense. There are 16 deep sky objects (HII
regions, globular clusters) brighter than 15 mag part of M 33.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(s)cd II-III
Diameter 70.8’ x 41.7’
Constellation Triangulum
Right Ascension (2000) 01h 33m 50.8s
Declination (2000) + 30◦ 39’ 37”
Magnitude 5.8 mag (V); 6.27 mag (B)
Surface brightness 14.4 mag
Distance 2.7 Mio. LY
Discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierna (1654)
Other names NGC 598, h 131
64 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.55: Picture of M 33 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.34. M 34 65

Figure 2.56: Monochrome negative picture.

2.34 Open cluster M 34
M 34 is a fine open cluster in the constellation Perseus.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 r
Diameter 35’
Constellation Perseus
Right Ascension (2000) 02h 42m 07.4s
66 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 42◦ 44’ 46”
Magnitude 5.2 mag (V)
Stars 100 stars up to 7.3 mag
Distance 1600 LY
Discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierne (1654)
Other names NGC 1039, OCL 382, h 248

Figure 2.57: Picture of M 34 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.35. M 35 67

Figure 2.58: Monochrome negative picture.

2.35 Open cluster M 35
M 35 is a very nice open cluster in Gemini. There are several other deep sky objects near M 35.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type III 3 r
Diameter 28’
Constellation Gemini
Right Ascension (2000) 06h 08m 55.9s
Declination (2000) + 24◦ 21’ 28”
68 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 5.1 mag (V)
Stars 120 stars with brightness 7.5 mag down to 13 mag
Distance 2700 LY
Discovered by Jean Phillippe Loys de Cheseaux (1745)
Other names NGC 2168, OCL 466, h 377

Figure 2.59: Picture of M 35 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.36. M 36 69

Figure 2.60: Monochrome negative picture.

2.36 Open cluster M 36
M 36 is one of the three bright open clusters in Auriga.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3r
Diameter 10’
Constellation Auriga
Right Ascension (2000) 05h 36m 17.7s
Declination (2000) + 34◦ 08’ 27”
70 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 6.0 mag (V)
Stars 180 stars up to 8.8 mag
Distance 4300 LY
Discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierna (1654)
Other names NGC 1960, OCL 445, h 358

Picture see M 38.

2.37 Open cluster M 37
M 37 is one of the three bright open clusters in Auriga. It is a fine object using a 200mm-tele-lense!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I2r
Diameter 23’
Constellation Auriga
Right Ascension (2000) 05h 52m 18.3s
Declination (2000) + 32◦ 33’ 11”
Magnitude 5.6 mag (V)
Stars 2000 stars; brightest star 9.2 mag
Distance 4500 LY
Discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierne. 1654
Other names NGC 2099, OCL 451, h 369
2.37. M 37 71

Figure 2.61: Picture of M 37 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
72 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.62: Monochrome negative picture.

2.38 Open cluster M 38
M 38 is one of the three bright open clusters in Auriga. There are several other deep sky objects near M
38!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 2 r
Diameter 21’
Constellation Auriga
Right Ascension (2000) 05h 28m 42.5s
2.38. M 38 73

Declination (2000) + 35◦ 51’ 18”
Magnitude 6.4 mag (V)
Stars 100 stars up to 14 mag
Distance 3500 LY
Discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierna (1654)
Other names NGC 1912, OCL 433

Figure 2.63: Picture of M 36 and M 38 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
74 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.64: Monochrome negative picture.

2.39 Open cluster M 39
M 39 is a very nice open cluster containing only 30 stars up to 6.8 mag. It is the nearest open cluster in
the Messier catalogue.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type III 2 m
Diameter 31’
Constellation Cygnus
Right Ascension (2000) 21h 31m 48.3s
2.39. M 39 75

Declination (2000) + 48◦ 26’ 55”
Magnitude 4.6 mag (V)
Stars 30 stars up to 6.8 mag
Distance 1000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1764)
Other names NGC 7092, OCL 211, h 2126

Figure 2.65: Picture of M 39 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
76 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.66: Monochrome negative picture.

2.40 Association M 40 (Winnecke 4)
M 40 is a kind of ”error” in the Messier catalogue. This is not a deep sky object, but M 40 consists only
of 2 stars. This object is quite uninteresting.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Stars
Object Type Association
Diameter 53”
Constellation Ursa Major
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 22m 16.1s
2.40. M 40 (WINNECKE 4) 77

Declination (2000) + 58◦ 05’ 04”
Magnitude 9.0 / 9.3 mag (V)
Distance 1900 LY and 500 LY
Discovered by Messier (1764)

Figure 2.67: Picture of M 40 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
78 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.68: Monochrome negative picture.

2.41 Open cluster M 41
M 41 is quite close to Sirius and is a very good object for a 200mm-tele-lense!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3r
Diameter 38’
Constellation Canis Maior
Right Ascension (2000) 06h 46m 00.0s
2.41. M 41 79

Declination (2000) - 20◦ 45’ 15”
Magnitude 4.5 mag (V)
Stars Brightest star 8 mag
Distance 2300 LY
Discovered by Aristoteles (- 325)
Other names NGC 2287, h 411

Figure 2.69: Picture of M 41 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
80 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.70: Monochrome negative picture.

2.42 Galactic Nebula M 42 (Great Nebula in Orion)
M 42 is the most stunning object of the Messier Catalogue. Using a 200mm-tele-lense, the whole area of
great nebula in Orion can be seen!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galactic Nebula
Diameter 90’ x 60’
Constellation Orion
Right Ascension (2000) 05h 35m 17.2s
Declination (2000) - 05◦ 23’ 27”
2.42. M 42 (GREAT NEBULA IN ORION) 81

Magnitude 3.7 mag
Surface brightness 11 mag
Distance 1300 LY
Discovered by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peires (1610)
Other names NGC 1976, LBN 974, h 360

Figure 2.71: Picture of M 42 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
82 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.72: Monochrome negative picture.

2.43 Galactic Nebula M 43
M 43 is located next to M 42 and is also part of the galactic nebula in Orion.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galactic Nebula
Object Type Galactic Nebula (EN)
Diameter 20’ x 15’
Constellation Orion
Right Ascension (2000) 05h 35m 31.3s
Declination (2000) - 05◦ 16’ 03”
2.44. M 44 (PRAESEPE) 83

Magnitude 6.8 mag (V)
Surface brightness 13 mag
Distance 1300 LY
Discovered by Jean-Jacques Dortous de Mairan (1731)
Other names NGC 1982

Picture see M 42.

2.44 Open cluster M 44 (Praesepe)
The open cluster M 44 is the second brightest and second nearest open cluster of the Messier catalogue.
It is a perfect object for a 200mm-tele-lense.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 m
Diameter 95’
Constellation Cancer
Right Ascension (2000) 08h 40m 22.2s
Declination (2000) + 19◦ 40’ 19”
Magnitude 3.1 mag (V)
Stars 200 stars; brightest star 6.3 mag
Distance 600 LY
Discovered by Aratos von Soli (-260)
Other names NGC 2632, OCL 507, h 517
84 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.73: Picture of M 44 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.45. M 45 (PLEIADS) 85

Figure 2.74: Monochrome negative picture.

2.45 Open cluster M 45 (Pleiads)
M 45 is the brightest and nearest open cluster of the Messier catalogue. It is a perfect object for a
200mm-tele-lense.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3rn
Diameter 120’
Constellation Taurus
Right Ascension (2000) 03h 47m 00.0s
86 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 24◦ 07’ 00”
Magnitude 1.5 mag (V)
Stars 200 stars; brightest star 2.9 mag
Distance 425 LY
Other names OCL 421

Figure 2.75: Picture of M 45 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.46. M 46 87

Figure 2.76: Monochrome negative picture.

2.46 Open cluster M 46
M 46 is a very nice open cluster in the constellation Puppis. M 46 is quite interesting, since the planetary
nebula NGC 2438 (10.8 mag) is part of M 46.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 2 r
Diameter 27’
Constellation Puppis
Right Ascension (2000) 07h 41m 46.8s
88 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) - 14◦ 48’ 36”
Magnitude 6.1 mag (V)
Stars 500 stars; brightest star 8.7 mag
Distance 4500 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1771)
Other names NGC 2437, OCL 601, h 463

Picture see M 47.

2.47 Open cluster M 47
M 46 is a very nice open cluster in the constellation Puppis. With a 200mm-tele-lense both open clusters,
M 46 and M 47, can be seen in one picture.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3m
Diameter 25’
Constellation Puppis
Right Ascension (2000) 07h 36m 35.0s
Declination (2000) - 14◦ 28’ 47”
Magnitude 4.4 mag (V)
Stars 50 stars up to 5.7 mag
Distance 1600 LY
Discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierna (1654)
Other names NGC 2422, OCL 596, h 489, h 3088
2.47. M 47 89

Figure 2.77: Picture of M 46 and M 47 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
90 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.78: Monochrome negative picture.

2.48 Open cluster M 48
M 48 is a fine open cluster containing abou 80 stars.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3r
Diameter 54’
Constellation Hydra
Right Ascension (2000) 08h 13m 43.1s
Declination (2000) - 05◦ 45’ 02”
2.48. M 48 91

Magnitude 5.8 mag (V)
Stars 80 stars up to 8.2 mag
Distance 2500 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1771)
Other names NGC 2548, OCL 584, h 496

Figure 2.79: Picture of M 48 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
92 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.80: Monochrome negative picture.

2.49 Elliptical Galaxy M 49
M 49 is the second brightest galaxy of the Virgo cluster. There are several galaxies of the Virgo cluster
in the field of the picture taken with the 200mm-tele-lense!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type E2
Diameter 10.2’ x 8.3’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 29m 46.7s
2.49. M 49 93

Declination (2000) + 08◦ 00’ 00”
Magnitude 8.4 mag (V); 9.3 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.2 mag
Distance 53 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 49 SN 1969Q (13.0 mag)
Discovered by Chales Messier (1771)
Other names NGC 4472, h 1294, Arp 134

Figure 2.81: Picture of M 49 and M 61 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
94 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.82: Monochrome negative picture.

2.50 Open cluster M 50
M 50 is a very nice open cluster in the constellation Monoceros.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 r
Diameter 16’
Constellation Monoceros
Right Ascension (2000) 07h 02m 42.3s
Declination (2000) - 08◦ 23’ 26”
2.50. M 50 95

Magnitude 5.9 mag (V)
Stars 100 stars; brightest star 7.8 mag
Distance 2900 LY
Discovered by Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1711)
Other names NGC 2323, OCL 559, h 425

Figure 2.83: Picture of M 50 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
96 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.84: Monochrome negative picture.

2.51 Galaxy M 51 (Whirlpool Galaxy)
M 51 is the spectecular Whirlpool Galaxy. However, it looks pretty small when using a 200mm-tele-lense.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(s)bcp
Diameter 11’ x 8’
Constellation Canes Venatici
Right Ascension (2000) 13h 29m 52.1s
Declination (2000) + 47◦ 11’ 43”
2.51. M 51 (WHIRLPOOL GALAXY) 97

Magnitude 8.5 mag (V); 9.00 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.1 mag
Distance 27 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 51 SN 1994I (13.5 mag; Object Type Ic)
SN 2005cs (13.7 mag; Object Type II)
Discovered by Charles Messier (1773)
Other names NGC 5194, h 1622, Arp 85

Figure 2.85: Picture of M 51 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
98 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.86: Monochrome negative picture.

2.52 Open cluster M 52
M 52 is a nice open cluster in a nice field of the Milky Way.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 2 r
Diameter 16’
Constellation Cassiopeia
Right Ascension (2000) 23h 24m 50.4s
Declination (2000) + 61◦ 36’ 24”
2.52. M 52 99

Magnitude 6.9 mag (V)
Stars 130 stars up to 11.0 mag
Distance 4600 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1774)
Other names NGC 7654, OCL 260, h 2238

Figure 2.87: Picture of M 52 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
100 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.88: Monochrome negative picture.

2.53 Globular cluster M 53
M 53 is a nice globular cluster in the constellation Coma Berenices. There are only two globular clusters
in the Messier catalogue, which are more distant than M 53. For this reason, with a 200mm-tele-lense M
53 is quite small.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type V
Diameter 13’
Constellation Coma Berenices
2.53. M 53 101

Right Ascension (2000) 13h 12m 55.2s
Declination (2000) + 18◦ 10’ 08”
Magnitude 7.71 mag (V)
Stars Stars up to 13.8 mag
Distance 61000 LY
Discovered by Johann Elert Bode (1775)
Other names NGC 5024, GCL 22, h 1558

Figure 2.89: Picture of M 53 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
102 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.90: Monochrome negative picture.

2.54 Globular cluster M 54
M 54 is the faintest globular cluster of the Messier catalogue. M 54 does not belong to our own galaxy,
but to the dwarf galaxy SagDEG, which is our nearest neighbour galaxy. With a 200mm-tele-lense this
object is not very interesting.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type III
Diameter 9.1’
Constellation Sagittarius
2.55. M 55 103

Right Ascension (2000) 18h 55m 03.3s
Declination (2000) - 30◦ 28’ 40”
Magnitude 7.61 mag (V)
Stars Stars only up to 15.5 mag
Distance 85000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1778)
Other names NGC 6715, GCL 104, h 3763

Picture see M 70.

2.55 Globular cluster M 55
The globular cluster M 55 looks quite nice even with a 200mm-tele-lense, since it is quite large and
consists of stars up to 11.2 magnitude.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type XI
Diameter 19’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 19h 39m 59.4s
Declination (2000) - 30◦ 57’ 44”
Magnitude 6.33 mag (V)
Surface brightness 12.7 mag
Stars Stars up to 11.2 mag
Distance 19000 LY
Discovered by Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille (1751)
Other names NGC 6809, GCL 113, h 3798
104 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.91: Picture of M 55 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.56. M 56 105

Figure 2.92: Monochrome negative picture.

2.56 Globular cluster M 56
M 56 and M 57 are the reasen for Lyra being an interesting constellation. M 56 is a very small globular
cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type X
Diameter 8’
Constellation Lyra
106 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Right Ascension (2000) 19h 16m 35.4s
Declination (2000) + 30◦ 11’ 05”
Magnitude 8.21 mag (V)
Surface brightness 13.0 mag
Stars Stars up to 13.0 mag
Distance 28000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1779)
Other names NGC 6779, GCL 110, h 2036

Figure 2.93: Picture of M 56 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.57. M 57 (RING NEBULA) 107

Figure 2.94: Monochrome negative picture.

2.57 Planetary Nebula M 57 (Ring Nebula)
M 56 and M 57 are the reasen for Lyra being an interesting constellation. M 57 probably is the most
famous planetary nebula. However, with a 200mm-tele-lense it is a very small object.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Planetary nebula
Diameter 86” x 62”
Constellation Lyra
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 53m 35.1s
108 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 33◦ 01’ 45”
Magnitude 8.8 mag (V) bzw. 9.7 mag (B)
Central star Magnitude 15.3 mag
Distance 2300 LY
Discovered by Antoine Darquier de Pellepoix (1779)
Other names NGC 6720, PK63+13.1, h 2023

Figure 2.95: Picture of M 57 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.58. M 58 109

Figure 2.96: Monochrome negative picture.

2.58 Galaxy M 58
M 58 is a barred spiral galaxy in the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(rs)b
Diameter 5.9’ x 4.7’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 37m 43.7s
Declination (2000) + 11◦ 49’ 05”
110 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 10.1 mag (V); 10.56 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.5 mag
Distance 63 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 58 SN 1988A (13.5 mag; Object Type II)
SN 1989M (12.2 mag; Object Type Ia)
Discovered by Chales Messier (1779)
Other names NGC 4579, h 1368

Picture see M 60.

2.59 Elliptical Galaxy M 59
M 59 is very close to M 60 and belongs to the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type E5
Diameter 5.4’ x 3.7’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 42m 02.4s
Declination (2000) + 11◦ 38’ 48”
Magnitude 9.8 mag (V); 10.80 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.0 mag
Distance 48 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 58 SN 1939B (11.9 mag)
Discovered by Johann Gottfried Koehler (1779)
Other names NGC 4621, h 1386

Picture see M 60.

2.60 Elliptical Galaxy M 60
M 60 is part of the Virgo cluster. The picture taken with the 200mm-tele-lense shows many further
galaxies in the field of M 60.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type E2
Diameter 7.4’ x 6.0’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 43m 39.7s
Declination (2000) + 11◦ 33’ 07”
Magnitude 8.8 mag (V); 9.82 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.9 mag
Distance 53 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 60 SN 2004W (18.8 mag; Object Type Ia-p)
Discovered by Johann Gottfried Koehler (1779)
Other names NGC 4649, h 1408, Arp 116
2.60. M 60 111

Figure 2.97: Picture of M 58, M 59, M 60, M 89 and M 90 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
112 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.98: Monochrome negative picture.

2.61 Galaxy M 61
M 61 is a small galaxy in the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(rs)bc I-II
Diameter 6.5’ x 5.8’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 21m 54.9s
Declination (2000) + 04◦ 28’ 22”
2.62. M 62 113

Magnitude 9.6 mag (V); 10.17 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.4 mag
Distance 50 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 61 SN 1926A (12.8 mag)
SN 1961I (13.0 mag; Object Type II)
SN 1964F (12 mag; Object Type II)
SN 1999gn (13.4 mag; Object Type II)
SN 2006ov (14.8 mag; Object Type II)
Discovered by Barnaba Oriani (1779)
Other names NGC 4303, h 1202

Picture see M 49.

2.62 Globular cluster M 62
M 62 is a distant globular cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type IV
Diameter 14’
Constellation Ophiuchus
Right Ascension (2000) 17h 01m 12.5s
Declination (2000) - 30◦ 06’ 44”
Magnitude 6.53 mag (V)
Distance 35000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1771)
Other names NGC 6266, GCL 51, h 3661
114 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.99: Picture of M 62 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.63. M 63 (SUNFLOWER GALAXY) 115

Figure 2.100: Monochrome negative picture.

2.63 Galaxy M 63 (Sunflower Galaxy)
M 63 is a galaxy of the M51-Galaxy-Group.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(rs)cd
Diameter 12.6’ x 7.2’
Constellation Canes Venatici
Right Ascension (2000) 13h 15m 49.1s
116 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 42◦ 01’ 50”
Magnitude 9.0 mag (V); 9.36 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.8 mag
Distance 27 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 63 SN 1971I (11.5 mag)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1779)
Other names NGC 5055, h1570

Figure 2.101: Picture of M 63 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.64. M 64 (BLACK EYE GALAXY) 117

Figure 2.102: Monochrome negative picture.

2.64 Galaxy M 64 (Black Eye Galaxy)
M 64 is a bright galaxy with a dark structure and looks like a black eye. Using a 200mm-tele-lense, the
galaxy is quite small.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type (R)SA(rs)ab
Diameter 10.0’ x 5.4’
Constellation Coma Berenices
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 56m 43.8s
118 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 21◦ 40’ 59”
Magnitude 8.4 mag (V); 9.37 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.6 mag
Distance 18 Mio. LY
Discovered by Edward Pigott (1779)
Other names NGC 4826, h 1486

Figure 2.103: Picture of M 64 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.65. M 65 119

Figure 2.104: Monochrome negative picture.

2.65 Galaxy M 65
M 65 and M 66 are two galaxies of the Messier catalogue very close to each other. They are located in
the constellation Leo. Together with NGC 3628 and NGC 3593 they build up the Leo-Galaxy-Group.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(s)b
Diameter 9.8’ x 2.9’
Constellation Leo
Right Ascension (2000) 11h 18m 55.9s
120 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 13◦ 05’ 37”
Magnitude 9.3 mag (V); 9.74 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.7 mag
Distance 33 Mio. LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1780)
Other names NGC 3623, h 854

Figure 2.105: Picture of M 65 and M 66 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.66. M 66 121

Figure 2.106: Monochrome negative picture.

2.66 Galaxy M 66
M 65 and M 66 are two galaxies of the Messier catalogue very close to each other. They are located in
the constellation Leo. Together with NGC 3628 and NGC 3593 they build up the Leo-Galaxy-Group.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(s)b
Diameter 9.1’ x 4.2’
Constellation Leo
Right Ascension (2000) 11h 20m 15.1s
122 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 12◦ 59’ 28”
Magnitude 9.0 mag (V); 9.74 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.8 mag
Distance 33 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 66 SN 1973R (14.5 mag; Object Type II)
SN 1989B (13 mag; Object Type Ia)
SN 1997bs (17.0; with Object Type IIn)
Discovered by Charles Messier (1780)
Other names NGC 3627, h 857, h 875, Arp 16

Picture see M 65.

2.67 Open cluster M 67
M 67 is a very nice open cluster, which is quite large. M 67 is the oldest open cluster in the Messier
catalogue.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type II 3 r
Diameter 29’
Constellation Cancer
Right Ascension (2000) 08h 51m 20.1s
Declination (2000) + 11◦ 48’ 43”
Magnitude 6.9 mag (V)
Stars 500 stars; brightest star 9.7 mag
Distance 3000 LY
Discovered by Johann Gottfried Koehler (1779)
Other names NGC 2682, OCL 549, h 531
2.67. M 67 123

Figure 2.107: Picture of M 67 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
124 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.108: Monochrome negative picture.

2.68 Globular cluster M 68
M 68 is a southern globular cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type X
Diameter 12’
Constellation Hydra
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 39m 28.0s
Declination (2000) - 26◦ 44’ 34”
2.68. M 68 125

Magnitude 8.25 mag (V)
Stars 100.000 stars; brightest star 12.6 mag
Distance 37000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1780)
Other names NGC 4590, GCL 20, h 3404

Figure 2.109: Picture of M 68 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
126 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.110: Monochrome negative picture.

2.69 Globular cluster M 69
M 70 is a small globular cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type V
Diameter 7.1’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 31m 23.2s
Declination (2000) - 32◦ 20’ 53”
2.69. M 69 127

Magnitude 7.79 mag (V); 7.6 mag (B)
Stars Brightest star 13.2 mag
Distance 37000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1780)
Other names NGC 6637, GCL 69

Figure 2.111: picture mit Picture of M 69 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
128 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.112: Monochrome negative picture.

2.70 Open cluster M 70
M 70 is a very small and very faint open cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type V
Diameter 7.8’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 18h 43m 12.5s
2.70. M 70 129

Declination (2000) - 32◦ 17’ 31”
Magnitude 7.8 mag (V)
Stars Brightest star 14.0 mag
Distance 35000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1780)
Other names NGC 6681, GCL 101, h 3756

Figure 2.113: Picture of M 70 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
130 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.114: Monochrome negative picture.

2.71 Globular cluster M 71
M 71 is a fine globular cluster in the constellation Sagitta. It is surrounded by hundreds of stars which
makes it an interestng object even with a 200mm-tele-lense.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type XI
Diameter 7.2’
Constellation Sagitta
2.71. M 71 131

Right Ascension (2000) 19h 53m 46.1s
Declination (2000) + 18◦ 46’ 42”
Magnitude 8.28 mag (V)
Stars 300 stars; brightest star 12.1 mag
Distance 18000 LY
Discovered by Jean Phillippe Loys de Cheseaux (1745)
Other names NGC 6838, GCL 115, h 2054

Figure 2.115: Picture of M 71 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
132 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.116: Monochrome negative picture.

2.72 Globular cluster M 72
M 72 is a very distant globular cluster. The Messier object M 73 is located next to M 72.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type IX
Diameter 5.9’
Constellation Aquarius
Right Ascension (2000) 20h 53m 27.9s
2.72. M 72 133

Declination (2000) - 12◦ 32’ 13”
Magnitude 9.35 mag (V)
Stars Brightest star 14.2 mag
Distance 59000 LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1780)
Other names NGC 6981, GCL 118, h 2090

Figure 2.117: Picture of M 72 and M 73 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
134 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.118: Monochrome negative picture.

2.73 Asterism M 73
M 73 consists of 4 stars. It is a quite uninteresting object of the Messier catalogue.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Asterism
Object Type IV 1 p
Diameter 2.8’
Constellation Aquarius
Right Ascension (2000) 20h 58m 55.9s
Declination (2000) - 12◦ 38’ 08”
2.74. M 74 135

Magnitude 8.9 mag (V)
Stars 4 stars magnitude 10.5 mag - 11.9 mag
Distance 900 - 2600 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1780)
Other names NGC 6994, OCL 89

Picture see M 72.

2.74 Galaxy M 74
M 74 is a nice galaxy in the constellation Pisces.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(s)c
Diameter 10.5’ x 9.5’
Constellation Pisces
Right Ascension (2000) 01h 36m 41.6s
Declination (2000) + 15◦ 47’ 03”
Magnitude 9.5 mag (V). bzw. 9.77 mag (B)
Surface brightness 14.3 mag
Distance 25 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 74 SN 2002ap (Object Type Ib/c-pec 12.0 mag Hypernova)
SN 2003gd (Object Type II 13.6 mag after maximum)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1780)
Other names NGC 628, h 142
136 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.119: Picture of M 74 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.75. M 75 137

Figure 2.120: Monochrome negative picture.

2.75 Globular cluster M 75
M 75 is a southern globular cluster, which is very small and quite faint.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type I
Diameter 6.0’
Constellation Sagittarius
Right Ascension (2000) 20h 06m 04.7s
Declination (2000) - 21◦ 55’ 17”
138 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 8.52 mag (V)
Stars Stars only up to 14.6 mag
Distance 78000 LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1780)
Other names NGC 6864, GCL 116, h 2064

Figure 2.121: Picture of M 75 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.76. M 76 (LITTLE DUMBBELL NEBULA) 139

Figure 2.122: Monochrome negative picture.

2.76 Planetary Nebula M 76 (Little Dumbbell Nebula)
The planetary nebula M 76 is a very small version of M 27. It is very small and very faint

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Planetary Nebula
Object Type III + VI
Diameter 67”
Constellation Perseus
Right Ascension (2000) 01h 42m 18s
140 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 51◦ 34 16”
Magnitude 10.1 mag (V); 12.2 mag (B)
Central star Magnitude 16.3 mag
Distance 2600 LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1780)
Other names NGC 650 (SW-part) and NGC 651 (NO-part), PK130-10.1

Figure 2.123: Picture of M 76 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.77. M 77 141

Figure 2.124: Monochrome negative picture.

2.77 Galaxy M 77
M 77 is a bright galaxy in the constellation Cetus. M 77 is an active galaxy classified as Seyfert-2-Galaxy.
In the field there are further galaxies, which makes it an interesting object even with a 200mm-tele-lense.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type (R)SA(rs)b
Diameter 7.1’ x 6.0’
Constellation Cetus
Right Ascension (2000) 02h 42m 40.7s
142 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) - 00◦ 00’ 47”
Magnitude 8.9 mag (V); 9.55 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.0 mag
Distance 47 Mio. LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1780)
Other names NGC 1068, h 262, Arp 37

Figure 2.125: Picture of M 77 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT
2.78. M 78 143

Figure 2.126: Monochrome negative picture.

2.78 Galactical Nebula M 78
The galactical nebula M 78 is part of the Orion-Nebula-Complex. M 78 is quite smal, but is surrounded
by othr nebulae, making it a very interesting object for a 200mm-tele-lense.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galactical Nebula
Object Type Reflection nebula
Diameter 8’ x 6’
Constellation Orion
Right Ascension (2000) 05h 46m 45.8s
144 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) + 00◦ 04’ 45”
Magnitude 8.0 mag (B)
Distance 1300 LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1780)
Other names NGC 2068, h 368

Figure 2.127: Picture of M 78 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.79. M 79 145

Figure 2.128: Monochrome negative picture.

2.79 Globular cluster M 79
M 79 is a small globular cluster in the constellation Lepus.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type V
Diameter 8.7’
Constellation Lepus
Right Ascension (2000) 05h 24m 10.6s
Declination (2000) - 24◦ 31’ 27”
146 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 7.84 mag (V)
Stars 90000 stars up to 13 mag
Distance 45000 LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1780)
Other names NGC 1904, GCL 10

Figure 2.129: Picture of M 79 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.80. M 80 147

Figure 2.130: Monochrome negative picture.

2.80 Globular cluster M 80
Like M 79, also M 80 is a small globular cluster. However, it is an interesting object for a 200mm-tele-
lense, because of the nebulae IC 4604 and IC 4603 next to it.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type II
Diameter 8.9’
Constellation Scorpius
Right Ascension (2000) 16h 17m 03.1s
148 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Declination (2000) - 22◦ 58’ 30”
Magnitude 7.31 mag (V)
Surface brightness 10.8 mag
Stars 100000 stars; brightest star 13.4 mag
Distance 48000 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 6093, GCL 39, h 3624

Figure 2.131: Picture of M 80 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.81. M 81 (BODE’S NEBULA) 149

Figure 2.132: Monochrome negative picture.

2.81 Galaxy M 81 (Bode’s Nebula)
M 81 is a very nice galaxy in the constellation Ursa Maior.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(s)ab
Diameter 26.9’ x 14.1’
Constellation Ursa Maior
Right Ascension (2000) 09h 55m 32.9s
Declination (2000) + 69◦ 03’ 55”
150 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 7.3 mag (V); 7.86 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.6 mag
Distance 12 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 81 SN 1993J (10.2 mag; Object Type IIb)
Discovered by Johann Elert Bode (1774)
Other names NGC 3031, h 649

Figure 2.133: Picture of M 81 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.82. M 82 151

Figure 2.134: Monochrome negative picture.

2.82 Galaxy M 82
M 82 is a wunderful example for an aktive galaxy. It is located next to M 82.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type I0sp
Diameter 11.2’ x 4.3’
Constellation Ursa Maior
Right Ascension (2000) 09h 55m 50.7s
Declination (2000) + 69◦ 40’ 43”
152 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 8.9 mag (V); 9.28 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.9 mag
Distance 11 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 82 SN 2004am (17.0 mag; Object Type II)
SN 1986D
Discovered by Johann Elert Bode (1774)
Other names NGC 3034, Arp 337

Picture see M 81.

2.83 Galaxy M 83
M 83 ist a wunderful galaxy. It is big enough to show details even with a 200mm-tele-lende!

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(s)c I-II
Diameter 12.9’ x 11.5’
Constellation Hydra
Right Ascension (2000) 13h 37m 00.2s
Declination (2000) - 29◦ 52’ 04”
Magnitude 7.8 mag (V); 8.21 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.0 mag
Distance 15 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 83 SN 1923A (14.0 mag)
SN 1945B (14.2 mag)
SN 1950B (14.5 mag)
SN 1957D (15.0 mag)
SN 1968L (11.9 mag)
SN 1983N (12.5 mag; Object Type Ia)
Discovered by Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille (1751)
Other names NGC 5236, h 3523
2.83. M 83 153

Figure 2.135: Picture of M 83 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
154 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.136: Monochrome negative picture.

2.84 Elliptical Galaxy M 84
M 84 is an elliptical galaxy in the Virgo cluster. It is located next to M 86 and M 87.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical galaxy
Object Type E1
Diameter 6.5’ x 5.6’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 25m 04.7s
Declination (2000) + 12◦ 53’ 13”
2.85. M 85 155

Magnitude 9.4 mag (V); 10.26 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.3 mag
Distance 58 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 84 SN 1957B (12.5 mag; Object Type Ia)
SN 1980I (14.0 mag)
SN 1991bg (14 mag; Object Type Ia-p)
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 4374, h 1237

Picture see M 88.

2.85 Galaxy M 85
M 85 is a bright galaxy in the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type LA(s)0+ P
Diameter 7.1’ x 5.5’
Constellation Coma Berenices
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 25m 24.2s
Declination (2000) + 18◦ 11’ 27”
Magnitude 9.2 mag (V); 10.09 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.1 mag
Distance 48 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 85 SN 1960R (12.0 mag; Object Type Ia)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 4382, h 1242
156 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.137: Picture of M 85 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.86. M 86 157

Figure 2.138: Monochrome negative picture.

2.86 Elliptical Galaxy M 86
M 86 is a galaxy of the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type E3
Diameter 8.9’ x 5.8’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 26m 11.9s
Declination (2000) + 12◦ 56’ 47”
158 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 9.0 mag (V); 10.07 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.2 mag
Distance 57 Mio. LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 4406, h 1253

Picture see M 88.

2.87 Elliptical Galaxy M 87
M 87 probably is the most famous elliptical galaxy. It is part of the Virgo cluster and surrounded by
plenty of other galaxies.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type E + 0-1p
Diameter 8.3’ x 6.6’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 30m 49.3s
Declination (2000) + 12◦ 23’ 26”
Magnitude 8.8 mag (V); 9.58 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.1 mag
Distance 55 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 87 SN 1919A (12.3 mag)
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 4486, h 1301, Jet in M 87 = Arp 152
2.87. M 87 159

Figure 2.139: Picture of M 58, M 84, M 86, M 87, M 88 and M90 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the
BRT.
160 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.140: Monochrome negative picture.

2.88 Galaxy M 88
M 88 is a bright galaxy of the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(rs)b
Diameter 6.8’ x 3.7’
Constellation Coma Berenices
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 31m 59.1s
Declination (2000) + 14◦ 25’ 15”
2.88. M 88 161

Magnitude 9.7 mag (V); 10.27 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.1 mag
Distance 57 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 88 SN 1999cl (13.6 mag)
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 4501, h 1312

Figure 2.141: Picture of M 84, M 86, M 87, M 88, M 89, M90, M 91 and M 100 taken with the 200-mm-
lense of the BRT.
162 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.142: Monochrome negative picture.

2.89 Elliptical Galaxy M 89
M 89 is an elliptical galaxy of the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type E0
Diameter 5.1’ x 4.7’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 35m 39.9s
Declination (2000) + 12◦ 33’ 23”
2.90. M 90 163

Magnitude 9.8 mag (V); 10.7 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.2 mag
Distance 50 Mio. LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 4552, h 1348
Picture see M 60.

2.90 Galaxy M 90
M 90 is a galaxy in the constellation Virgo. It is not yet clear, if or if not M 90 belongs to the Virgo
cluster.
Properties of this deep sky object:
Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(rs)ab
Diameter 9.5’ x 4.4’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 36m 49.9s
Declination (2000) + 13◦ 09’ 45”
Magnitude 9.6 mag (V); 10.25 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.5 mag
Distance 31 Mio. LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 4569, Arp 76
Picture see M 87.

2.91 Galaxy M 91
M 91 is a barred spiral galaxy in the Virgo cluster.
Properties of this deep sky object:
Object Galaxy
Object Type SB(rs)b
Diameter 5.4’ x 4.3’
Constellation Coma Berenices
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 35m 27.2s
Declination (2000) + 14◦ 29’ 48”
Magnitude 10.4 mag (V); 10.98 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.6 mag
Distance 53 Mio. LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 4548, h 1345
Picture see M 88.

2.92 Globular cluster M 92
M 92 is a fine globular cluster in the constellation Hercules.
Properties of this deep sky object:
164 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Object Globular cluster
Object Type IV
Diameter 14’
Constellation Hercules
Right Ascension (2000) 17h 17m 07.3s
Declination (2000) + 43◦ 08’ 13”
Magnitude 6.50 mag (V)
Surface brightness 11.8 mag
Stars Stars up to 12.0 mag
Distance 27000 LY
Discovered by Johann Elert Bode (1777)
Other names NGC 6341, GCL 59

Figure 2.143: Picture of M 92 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.93. M 93 165

Figure 2.144: Monochrome negative picture.

2.93 Open cluster M 93
M 93 is a very nice open cluster in the constellation Puppis.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type I3r
Diameter 22’
Constellation Puppis
Right Ascension (2000) 07h 44m 29.2s
Declination (2000) - 23◦ 51’ 11”
166 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 6.2 mag (V)
Stars Stars up to 8.1 mag
Distance 3400 LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 2447, OCL 649, h 3098

Figure 2.145: Picture of M 93 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.94. M 94 167

Figure 2.146: Monochrome negative picture.

2.94 Galaxy M 94
M 94 is a galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici and belongs - like M 106 - to the Canes Venatici-I-
Cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type (R)SA(r)ab
Diameter 11.2’ x 9.1’
Constellation Canes Venatici
168 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Right Ascension (2000) 12h 50m 53.0s
Declination (2000) + 41◦ 07’ 12”
Magnitude 8.0 mag (V); 8.90 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.9 mag
Distance 17 Mio. LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 4736, h 1456

Figure 2.147: Picture of M 94 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.95. M 95 169

Figure 2.148: Monochrome negative picture.

2.95 Galaxy M 95
M 95 is a barred spiral galaxy in the Leo-I-Cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SB(r)b
Diameter 7.4’ x 5.0’
Constellation Leo
Right Ascension (2000) 10h 43m 57.7s
Declination (2000) + 11◦ 42’ 13”
170 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 10.0 mag (V); 10.54 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.8 mag
Distance 33 Mio. LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 3351, h 743

Picture see M 96.

2.96 Galaxy M 96
M 96 is a galaxy of the Leo-I-Cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(rs)ab
Diameter 7.6’ x 5.2’
Constellation Leo
Right Ascension (2000) 10h 46m 45.9s
Declination (2000) + 11◦ 49’ 25”
Magnitude 9.3 mag (V); 10.11 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.1 mag
Distance 34 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 96 SN 1998bu (11.7 mag; Object Type Ia)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 3368, h 749
2.96. M 96 171

Figure 2.149: Picture of M 95, M 96 and M 105 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
172 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.150: Monochrome negative picture.

2.97 Planetary Nebula M 97 (Owl Nebula)
M 97 is the most distant planetary nebula of the Messier catalogue. Also, M 97 is the youngest of the 4
planetary nebulae of the Messier catalogue. M 108 is a galaxy located next to M 97.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Planetary Nebula
Object Type 3a
Diameter 2.83’
Constellation Ursa Maior
Right Ascension (2000) 11h 14m 47.7s
2.97. M 97 (OWL NEBULA) 173

Declination (2000) + 55◦ 01’ 08”
Magnitude 9.9 mag (V); 12.0 mag (B)
Central Star Magnitude 15.9 mag
Distance 4100 LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 3587, PK148+57.1, h 838

Figure 2.151: Picture of M 97 and M 108 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
174 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.152: Monochrome negative picture.

2.98 Galaxy M 98
M 98 is a galaxy of the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(s)ab II
Diameter 9.8’ x 2.8’
Constellation Coma Berenices
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 13m 48.2s
Declination (2000) + 14◦ 54’ 00”
2.99. M 99 175

Magnitude 10.0 mag (V); 10.91 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.4 mag
Distance 44 Mio. LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 4192, h 1132

Picture see M 99.

2.99 Galaxy M 99
M 99 is a nice galaxy of the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(s)c I
Diameter 5.4’ x 4.7’
Constellation Coma Berenices
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 18m 49.6s
Declination (2000) + 14◦ 25’ 01”
Magnitude 9.7 mag (V); 10.43 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.0 mag
Distance 53 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 99 SN 1967H (14.6 mag)
SN 1972Q (15.8 mag)
SN 1986I (14 mag; Object Type II)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 4254, h 1173
176 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.153: Picture of M 99 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.100. M 100 177

Figure 2.154: Monochrome negative picture.

2.100 Galaxy M 100
The galaxy M 100 is part of the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(s)bc I
Diameter 7.5’ x 6.1’
Constellation Coma Berenices
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 22m 54.9s
Declination (2000) + 15◦ 49’ 21”
178 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 9.7 mag (V); 10.11 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.8 mag
Distance 50 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 100 SN 1901B (15.6 mag)
SN 1914A (15.7 mag)
SN 1959E (17.5 mag)
SN 1979C (11.6 mag; Object Type II-L)
SN 2006X (13.8 mag; Object Type Ia)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 4321, h 1211

Picture see M 99.

2.101 Galaxy M 101
M 101 is a fine galaxy in the constellation Ursa Maior. Details are even visible using a 200mm-tele-lense.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(rs)cd
Diameter 28.8’ x 26.9’
Constellation Ursa Maior
Right Ascension (2000) 14h 03m 12.4s
Declination (2000) + 54◦ 20’ 55”
Magnitude 7.5 mag (V); 8.16 mag (B)
Surface brightness 14.6 mag
Distance 22 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 101 SN 1909A (12.2 mag)
SN 1951H (17.5 mag)
SN 1970G (11.5 mag; Object Type II)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 5457, h 1744
2.101. M 101 179

Figure 2.155: Picture of M 101 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
180 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.156: Monochrome negative picture.

2.102 Galaxy M 102
M 102 is a small galaxy, which belongs to the M 102 - Galaxy Cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type LA0+ sp
Diameter 4.7’ x 1.9’
Constellation Draco
Right Ascension (2000) 15h 06m 29.3s
Declination (2000) + 55◦ 45’ 47”
2.102. M 102 181

Magnitude 10.2 mag (V); 10.96 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.5 mag
Distance 41 Mio. LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 5866, h 1909

Figure 2.157: Picture of M 102 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
182 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.158: Monochrome negative picture.

2.103 Open cluster M 103
M 103 ist a very nice open cluster in th constellation Cassiopeia. Although it is very small, it is an
interesting object for a 200mm-tele-lense, since there are several other deep sky objects in the field.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Open cluster
Object Type III 2 p
Diameter 6’
Constellation Cassiopeia
2.103. M 103 183

Right Ascension (2000) 01h 33m 23.0s
Declination (2000) + 60◦ 39’ 00”
Magnitude 7.4 mag (V)
Stars 100 stars up to 7.2 mag
Distance 7200 LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 581, OCL 326. h 126

Figure 2.159: Picture of M 103 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
184 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.160: Monochrome negative picture.

2.104 Galaxy M 104 (Sombrero Galaxy)
M 104 is the very famous Sombrero Galaxy, which belongs to the Virgo cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SA(s)a sp
Diameter 8.7’ x 3.5’
Constellation Virgo
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 39m 59.4s
Declination (2000) - 11◦ 37’ 23”
2.104. M 104 (SOMBRERO GALAXY) 185

Magnitude 7.9 mag (V); 9.29 mag (B)
Surface brightness 11.4 mag
Distance 45 Mio. LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1781)
Other names NGC 4594, h 1376

Figure 2.161: Picture of M 104 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
186 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.162: Monochrome negative picture.

2.105 Elliptical Galaxy M 105
M 105 is an elliptical galaxy very close to M 95 and M 96 in the constellation Leo. M 105 is part of the
Leo-I-Galaxy-Cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type E1
Diameter 5.4’ x 4.8’
Constellation Leo
Right Ascension (2000) 10h 47m 49.7s
2.106. M 106 187

Declination (2000) + 12◦ 34’ 53”
Magnitude 9.4 mag (V); 10.20 mag (B)
Surface brightness 12.9 mag
Distance 38 Mio. LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 3379, h 757

Picture see M 96.

2.106 Galaxy M 106
M 106 is a galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici and belongs - like M 94 - to the Canes Venatici-I-
Cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SAB(s)bc II
Diameter 18.6’ x 7.2’
Constellation Canes Venatici
Right Ascension (2000) 12h 18m 57.5s
Declination (2000) + 47◦ 18’ 15”
Magnitude 8.7 mag (V); 9.01 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.9 mag
Distance 26 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 106 SN 1981K (16 mag; Object Type II)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 4258, h 1175
188 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.163: Picture of M 106 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.107. M 107 189

Figure 2.164: Monochrome negative picture.

2.107 Globular cluster M 107
M 107 is a small globular cluster in the constellation Ophiuchus.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Globular cluster
Object Type X
Diameter 10’
Constellation Ophiuchus
Right Ascension (2000) 16h 32m 31.9s
Declination (2000) - 13◦ 03’ 10”
190 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 7.8 mag (V)
Stars Stars up to 13 mag
Distance 27000 LY
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1782)
Other names NGC 6171, GCL 44, h 3637

Figure 2.165: Picture of M 107 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
2.108. M 108 191

Figure 2.166: Monochrome negative picture.

2.108 Galaxy M 108
M 108 is a galaxy of the Ursa-Maior-Galaxy-Cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SB(s)cd sp
Diameter 8.7’ x 2.2’
Constellation Ursa Maior
Right Ascension (2000) 11h 11m 31.2s
Declination (2000) + 55◦ 40’ 24”
192 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Magnitude 10.2 mag (V); 10.71 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.3 mag
Distance 46 Mio. LY
Supernovae in M 108 SN 1969B (16 mag)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 3556, h 831

Picture see M 97.

2.109 Galaxy M 109
M 109 is a galaxy of the Ursa-Maior-Galaxy-Cluster.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Galaxy
Object Type SB(rs)bc
Diameter 7.6’ x 4.7’
Constellation Ursa Maior
Right Ascension (2000) 11h 57m 36.0s
Declination (2000) + 53◦ 23’ 28”
Magnitude 9.9 mag (V); 10.64 mag (B)
Surface brightness 13.7 mag
Distance 68 Mio. LY
Radialgeschwindigkeit 1.059 km/s
Supernovae in M 109 SN 1956A (12.3 mag; Object Type Ia)
Discovered by Pierre Francois Andre Mechain (1781)
Other names NGC 3992, h 1030
2.109. M 109 193

Figure 2.167: Picture of M 109 taken with the 200-mm-lense of the BRT.
194 CHAPTER 2. MESSIER OBJECT LIST

Figure 2.168: Monochrome negative picture.

2.110 Elliptical Galaxy M 110
M 110 is a member of the local group of galaxies and next to M 31.

Properties of this deep sky object:

Object Elliptical Galaxy
Object Type E5 p
Diameter 21.9’ x 11.0’
Constellation Andromeda
Right Ascension (2000) 00h 40m 21.9s
Declination (2000) +41◦ 41’ 26”
2.110. M 110 195

Magnitude 8.2 mag (V); 8.83 mag (B)
Surface brightness 14.1 mag
Distance 2.6 Mio. LY
Discovered by Charles Messier (1773)
Other names NGC 205, h 44

Picture see M 31.