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Under the expert Guidance of

DELHI –110054

Submitted by:
Electronics &Communication Engineering
I would like to express my gratitude to the director LASTEC, Dr. ANIL KUMAR
for allowing me to do this project in this esteemed organization and also tol (HRD),
who actually make the project happen.

I profusely thank Dr. M.N.Reddy, Sc. ‘F’, Project Guide and Head ADAPTIVE
OPTICS GROUP, for his invaluable guidance and advice during this mid of course
of the project and his willingness to help despite his busy schedule. I am greatly
indebted to him for his keen interest and patience..

I wish to thank all the members of Adaptive Optics Group for their kind and
continual support and constructive suggestions given regarding the project.


This is to certify that ITEE MEHROTRA (Reg. No: ) student of SHRI

TECHNOLOGY, BAREILLY has worked on a project titled “AM AUDIO
COMMUNICATION LINK” under the guidance of Dr. M.N Reddy ,
Scientist ‘F’ at the Adaptive Optics Group of Laser Science and
Technology Centre (LASTEC), DRDO. He undertook his project from 15
June to 20 July 2008 and it was completed successfully.

Dr. M.N Reddy Dr. M. Nanda

Scientist ‘F’ Scientist ‘E’
Adaptive Optics Group Joint Director
LASTEC, Delhi-110054 (HRD),LASTEC
1. Defence Research And Development Organization(DRDO)
 DRDO Mission
 DRDO Vision
2. Laser Science And Technology Centre (LASTEC)
 Vision and Mission of Lastec
3. Optical Communication
 Forms of Optical Communication
 Optical Fiber Communication
 Free Space Optical Communication
4. Free Space Optical Communication (FSO)
 Applications
 Advantages and Challenges
 Technology Disadvantages and Behaviour
5. Modulation
 Aim of modulation
 Analog modulation methods
 Amplitude Modulation (AM)
 Frequency Modulation (FM)
 Phase Modulation (PM)
 Fundamental digital modulation methods
 Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM)
 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)
 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
6. Laser
7. Light Emitting Diode (LEDs)
8. Laser Diode
9. Phototransistor And Photodiode
10. 2N2222 NPN Switching Transistor
11. 741 Operational Amplifier
12. LM-386 Low Voltage Audio Amplifier
13. Laser Listener
14. AM Light Wave Voice Transmitter
15. Sensitive Light- Wave Receiver


Fig 1. Hierarchical Position of DRDO

DRDO was formed in 1958 from the amalgamation of the already functioning Technical Development
Establishment (TDE’S) of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development & Production
(DTDP) with the Defence Science Organization (DSO).

DRDO at the time was a small organization with 10 laboratories. Over the years, it has grown multi-directly in
terms of the variety of subject’s disciplines, number of laboratories & achievements. Today, DRDO is a
network of 53 laboratories, which are deeply engaged in developing defence technologies covering various
disciplines, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, combat vehicles, engineering systems, instrumentation,
and missiles.Computing and simulation, special materials, naval systems, life sciences, life sciences, training,
information systems and agriculture.
The diversified activities in the areas such as physics, chemistry, applied mathematics, electronics, ballistics,
explosives, physiology, food technology, and information science coupled with the sound infrastructure created
in these areas has led to the establishment of a lot of independent laboratories establishment including

DRDO – Mission:
• Design, develop and lead to production state-of-the-art sensors, weapon systems, platforms and allied
equipment for our Defence Services.
• Provide technological solutions to the Services to optimize combat effectiveness and to promote well
-being of the troops.

DRDO – Vision:
“Make India prosperous by establishing world class science and technology base and provide our
Defence Services decisive edge by equipping them with internationally competitive systems and solutions”.

Laser Science & Technology Center (LASTEC) is the oldest laboratory in the Defence R&D
Organization. It had it beginnings in 1950 as Defence Science Laboratory (DSL), which was established as a
nucleus laboratory with an objective to conduct research in frontier areas of physics, chemistry and mathematics
with a special focus on lasers and opto-electronics.

Fig 2. Metcalfe House

Fig 3. LASTEC Building

Vision and Mission of LASTEC:

“Be a Center of Excellence in the field of Lasers & Opto-electronics. Make India prosperous by establishment
world class science and technology base and provide our Defence Services decisive edge by equipping them
with internationally competitive systems and solutions.”

Optical communication:
Optical communication is any form of telecommunication that uses light as the transmission medium.

An optical communication system consists of

1. transmitter, which encodes a message into an optical signal,

2. channel, which carries the signal to its destination,
3. receiver, which reproduces the message from the received optical signal.

Forms of optical communication:

 Non-technological optical communication, including body language and sign language.

 Techniques such as semaphore lines, ship flags, smoke signals, and beacon fires were the earliest form of
technological optical communication.
 The heliograph uses a mirror to reflect sunlight to a distant observer.
 Distress flares are used by mariners in emergencies, while lighthouses and navigation lights are used to
communicate navigation hazards.
 Optical fiber is the most common medium for modern digital optical communication.
 Free-space optical communication is also used today in a variety of applications.

Optical fiber communication

Optical fiber is the most common type of channel for optical communications.

 The transmitters in optical fiber links are generally light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes. Infrared
light, rather than visible light is used more commonly, because optical fibers transmit infrared
wavelengths with less attenuation and dispersion.
 The signal encoding is typically simple intensity modulation, although historically optical phase and
frequency modulation have been demonstrated in the lab.

Free-space optical communication

 IrDA is an example of low-data-rate, short distance free-space optical communications using LEDs.
 RONJA is an example of 10Mbit/s 1.4 km full-duplex optical point-to-point link.

Free space optical communication:

Concept of Free Space Optical Communications.

Free Space Optics (FSO) is a telecommunication technology that uses light propagating in free space to transmit
data between two points.

Free space optical communications is a line-of-sight (LOS) technology that transmits a modulated beam of
visible or infrared light through the atmosphere for broadband communications. Free space optics uses a light
emitting diode (LED) or laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) point source for data
transmission. However, in free space optics, an energy beam is collimated and transmitted through space rather
than being guided through an optical cable.

 Free Space Optics is used to communicate between space-craft, since outside of the atmosphere there is
little to distort the signal.
 The optical links usually use infrared laser light, although low-data-rate communication over short
distances is possible using LEDs. IrDA is a very simple form of free-space optical communications.
 Distances up to the order of 10 km are possible, but the distance and data rate of connection is highly
dependent on atmospheric conditions.


 LAN-to-LAN connections on campuses at Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet speeds.

 LAN-to-LAN connections in a city. example, Metropolitan area network.
 To cross a public road or other barriers which the sender and receiver do not own.
 Speedy service delivery of high bandwidth access to fiber networks.
 Converged Voice-Data-Connection.
 Two solar-powered satellites communicating optically in space via lasers.
 Temporary network installation (for events or other purposes).
 Reestablish high-speed connection quickly (disaster recovery).
 As an alternative or upgrade add-on to existing wireless technologies.
 As a safety add-on for important fiber connections (redundancy).
 For communications between spacecraft, including elements of a satellite constellation.

Advantages and challenges:

Main advantages are:

 Quick link setup
 License-free operation
 High transmission security
 High bit rates
 Low bit error rate
 No Fresnel zone necessary
 Low snow and rain impact
 Full duplex transmission
 Protocol transparency
 No interference
 Lower dispersion (compared to microwave link).
 Great EMI behavior
 In some devices, the beam can be visible, facilitating aiming and detection of failures.

Technology disadvantages and behavior:

When used in a vacuum, for example for inter-space craft communication, FSO may provide similar
performance to that of fibre-optic systems. However, for terrestrial applications, the principal limiting
factors are:

 Beam dispersion
 Atmospheric absorption
 Rain (lower attenuation)
 Fog (10..~100 dB/km attenuation) -can modify light characteristics or completely hinder the passage
of light through a combination of absorption, scattering, and reflection. This can lead to a decrease in
the power density of the transmitted beam, decreasing the effective distance of a free space optical
 Snow (lower attenuation)
 Scintillation (lower attenuation) although to a lesser degree in LED Systems. Scintillation is the
temporaland spatial variation in light intensity caused by atmospheric turbulence. Such turbulence is
caused by wind and temperature gradients that create pockets of air with rapidly varying densities
and, therefore, fast-changing indices of optical reflection. These air pockets act like lenses with time-
varying properties and can lead to sharp increases in the bit-error-rates of free space optical
communication systems, particularly in the presence of direct sunlight.
 Background light
 Shadowing
 Pointing stability in wind
 Pollution / smog
 If the sun goes exactly behind the transmitter, it can swamp the signal.

Modulation is the technique where the value of each sample (i.e., the modulating signal) systematically changes the
characteristics of a carrier signal (e.g., amplitude (height) or frequency (timing)). The resulting modulated wave "carries"
the data.

The aim of modulation:

 The aim of digital modulation is to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog bandpass channel,or a
limited radio frequency band.
 The aim of analog modulation is to transfer an analog lowpass signal over an analog bandpass channel.
 Analog and digital modulation facilitate frequency division multiplexing (FDM).,
 The aim of digital baseband modulation methods, also known as line coding.
 The aim of pulse modulation methods is to transfer a narrowband analog signal.

Analog modulation methods:

In analog modulation, the modulation is applied continuously in response to the analog information signal.
A low-frequency message signal (top) may be carried by an AM or FM radio wave.

1. AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) :(here the amplitude of the modulated signal is varied) : The carrier
frequency change above and below that of the unmodulated condition is proportional to sign and amplitude of
the modulating signal
2. FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM):With frequency modulation, the modulating signal and the carrier
are combined in such a way that causes the carrier FREQUENCY(fc) to vary above and below its
normal(idling) frequency. The amplitude of the carrier remains constant .
3.PHASE MODULATION: Phase modulation is a type of frequency modulation. Here, the amount of the
carrier frequency shift is proportional to both the amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal. The phase
of the carrier is changed by the change in amplitude of the modulating signal

Fundamental digital modulation methods:

Three other modulation forms are also used:
1. Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM)
2. Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)
3. Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM).
4. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
The PAM data stream signal is transmitted from the multiplexer in a uniformly spaced sequence of constant-width pulses.
The intensity of each pulse is modulated by amplitude. This is similar to AM radio broadcast, except the carrier is a pulse
rather than a sine wave.

PDM carries the information in the pulse width, which varies directly to the amplitude of the signal.

PPM results if the PDM waveform is differentiated, then rectified. The distance between the two pulses represents the
sampled amplitude of the sine wave, with the first pulse as the zero time reference.

Average system power for PPM is much lower than that required for PDM, but at the expense of greater bandwidth.

Both PDM and PPM use constant-amplitude pulses, but are still analog representations of an analog signal. In a PCM
system, each pulse is encoded into its binary equivalent before transmission.

Lasers :
The word Laser is an acronym of Light Amplification of Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The Laser makes
use of processes that increase or amplify light signals after those signals have been generated by other means.

These processes include:-

(1) Stimulated emission, a natural effect that was deduced by consideration relating to thermodynamics
(2) Optical feedback (present in most lasers) that is usually provided by mirrors.
The stimulated emission of light is the crucial quantum process necessary for the operation of a laser.

Population Inversion:
 The achievement of a significant
population inversion in atomic or
molecular energy states is a
precondition for laser action.
 Electrons will normally reside in the
lowest available energy state.

 They can be elevated to excited states

by absorption, but no significant
collection of electrons can be
accumulated by absorption alone since
both spontaneous emission and
stimulated emission will bring them
back down.

Characteristics of Laser Light :

1. Coherent.

Different parts of the laser beam are related to each other in phase. These phase relationships are
maintained over long enough time so that interference effects may be seen or recorded photographically.
This coherence property is what makes holograms possible.

2. Monochromatic.
Laser light consists of essentially one wavelength, having its origin in stimulated emission from one set of
atomic energy levels. So the laser light has a single spectral color and is almost the purest monochromatic
light available.

3. Collimated.

Because of bouncing back between mirrored ends of a laser cavity, those paths which sustain
amplification must pass between the mirrors many times and be very nearly perpendicular to the mirrors.
As a result, laser beams are very narrow and do not spread very much.

Light-emitting diode:

 A light-emitting diode, usually called a LED is a semiconductor diode that emits incoherent narrow-
spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction of the p-n junction, as in the common
LED circuit.
 This effect is a form of electroluminescence.
LED Device Structure :

One way to constuct an LED is to deposit three semiconductor layers on a substrate. Between p-type and n-type
semiconductor layers, an active region emits light when an electron and hole recombine. Considering the p-n
combination to be a diode,then when the diode is forward biased, holes from the p-type material and electrons
from the n-type material are both driven into the active region. The light is produced by a solid state process
called electroluminescence.

LED Characteristics :

 When an LED is forward biased to the threshold of conduction, its current increases rapidly and must be
controlled to prevent destruction of the device.
 The light output is quite linearly proportional to the current within its active region, so the light output
can be precisely modulated to send an undistorted signal through a fiber optic cable.

There are three main types of LEDs:

Miniature: These are mostly single-die LEDs used as indicators, and they come in various-size packages.
1. Alphanumeric: LED displays are available in seven-segment and starburst format. Seven-segment
displays handle all numbers and a limited set of letters.
2. Illumination: LED lamps (also called LED bars or Illuminators) are usually clusters of LEDs in a
suitable housing. They come in different shapes.

Advantages of using LEDs:

 LEDs produce more light per watt than incandescent bulbs.

 LEDs can emit light of an intended color without the use of color filters.
 The solid package of the LED can be designed to focus its light..
 LEDs are ideal for use in applications that are subject to frequent on-off cycling.
 LEDs, being solid state components, are difficult to damage with external shock.
 LEDs can have a relatively long useful life.
 LEDs mostly fail by dimming over time, rather than the abrupt burn-out .
 LEDs light up very quickly.
 LEDs can be very small and are easily populated onto printed circuit boards.

Disadvantages of using LEDs:

 LEDs are more expensive, price per lumen, on an initial capital cost basis, than conventional lighting
 LED performance largely depends on the ambient temperature of the operating environment.
 LEDs must be supplied with the correct current & require current-regulated power supplies.
 The spectrum of some white LEDs differs significantly from a black body radiator, such as the sun
or an incandescent light.
 LEDs do not approximate a “point source” of light, so cannot be used in applications needing a
highly collimated beam.
 There is increasing concern that blue LEDs and white LEDs are now capable of exceeding safe
limits of the so-called blue-light hazard as defined in eye safety specifications.


> Remote controls, such as for TVs and VCRs, often use infrared LEDs.
> LED destination displays on buses, including one with a colored route number.
> Movement sensors, for example in optical computer mice
> In optical fiber and Free Space Optics communications.

Laser Diodes:

 Laser action (with the resultant monochromatic and coherent light output) can be achieved in a p-n junction
formed by two doped gallium arsenide layers.
 The two ends of the structure need to be optically flat and parallel with one end mirrored and one partially
 The length of the junction must be precisely related to the wavelength of the light to be emitted.
 The junction is forward biased and the recombination process produces light as in the LED (incoherent).
 Above a certain current threshold the photons moving parallel to the junction can stimulate emission and
initiate laser action.

The basic circuit for powering a laser diode

Most common Laser Heads have inside two semiconductors: a LD (laser diode) and a PD (photodiode).

 The laser diode will be forward biased and its cathode (LDC) will connect to a driver transistor &/or
network to regulate the LD current based on the photodiode current (feedback network).
 The photodiode will be reverse biased, its anode (PDA) will feed a driver regulator and thus the control
will give a feedback signal for the LD driver.

 Of course the feedback is an optical one, part of the laser beam goes backwards to reach the photodiode
junction, as shown in fig 2.




Phototransistors are transistors with the base terminal exposed. Instead of applying a voltage to the base, the
photons from striking light activate the transistor. Other than that, the phototransistor behaves just like a normal
Two common configurations are shown on the right.

1. Common-Emitter Amplifier - goes from "high" to "low" with light.

2. Common-Collector Amplifier - goes from "low" to "high" with light.

Modes of operation:

The phototransistor can be used in two different modes:

1. Switch Mode - when operating as a switch, the transistor can be switched between the cut-off ("off")
and saturated ("on") states. This means that when light strikes the phototransistor, it will conduct.
Otherwise, it will insulate.
2. Active Mode - In active mode, the output of the transistor is proportional to the intensity of the light.

These modes are controlled by changing the value of the resistor.

Photodiodes are semiconductors that produce current flow when they absorb light.

In application, there are two types of photodiodes: 1) photovoltaics and 2) photoconductors.

• Photovoltaics :Photovoltaics work like solar cells (in fact they are the same). When light shines on the
photodiode, a voltage is created across it, causing current to flow.

• Photoconductors: Photoconductors are reverse-biased photodiodes. When light shines on the

photodiode, the resistance to the reverse-bias decreases. By measuring the current through the
photodiode, you can detect the intensity of light.

• Frequency Response

Photodiodes are much faster than phototransistors (nanoseconds vs. microseconds)

• Gain

Phototransistors have a higher gain. Photodiodes require an amplifier to use.

• Temperature Response

Photodiodes vary less with temperature

Applications :

• Optocoupler

Optocouplers are used in electronics-sensitive applications. For example, you may use this in a mobile
robot application to separate the microcontroller circuitry (low voltage/power) from the motor driver
circuitry (high voltage/power).


2N2222A with Emitter, Base and Collector identified as "e" "b" "c"

 The 2N2222, also known as the PN2222 and commonly referred to as the 'quad two' transistor.
 It is a small, common NPN BJT transistor .
 It’s used for:
> general purpose low-power amplifying
> switching applications.
 It is designed for
> low to medium current,
> low power
> medium voltage
 Can operate at moderately high speeds.


 It is a 1 amp, 50 volt, 300 milliwatt transistor capable of operating up to 100 MHz, with a beta of at
least 100. It's used in a variety of analog amplification and switching applications.
 It is available in a variety of small through-hole and surface mount packages including TO-92, SOT-
23, and SOT-223.
 2N2907 is a complementary (PNP) transistor for the 2N2222.
 The 2N3904 is an NPN transistor that can only switch one tenth the current of the 2N2222 but has
otherwise similar characteristics.

Negative resistance:
 When biased backwards, and with no connection to the base, 2N2222A are rumored to have negative
resistance avalanche properties.
 Similar to a tunnel or lambda diode, perhaps useful for simple oscillator circuits.

Diode reference:

If you are really short of a reference diode, the base-emitter breakdown voltage may be used to give a fairly
stable low-current reference voltage (slightly better than a standard zener and a lot cheaper than a designed-for-
purpose part). The 2N2222A gives a slightly higher zener breakdown voltage than a 2N2222 - see data sheet.
WARNING - use of a transistor in this way is guaranteed to damage it! The hfe value will rapidly degrade, until
the device is useless as a transistor! There were several discussions about this effect in 'Wireless World' in the
1970s. The use suggested in the previous paragraph is likely to have the same result.
741 Operational Amplifier:
Internal circuitry of 741 type op-amp:

All op-amps have basically the same internal structure, which consists of three stages:

1. Differential amplifier
o Input stage — provides low noise amplification, high input impedance, usually a differential
2. Voltage amplifier
o Provides high voltage gain, a single-pole frequency roll-off, usually single-ended output
3. Output amplifier
o Output stage — provides high current driving capability, low output impedance, current limiting
and short circuit protection circuitry

Definition of 741 pin functions:

1. Pin 1 (Offset Null): Offset nulling. Since the op-amp is the differential type,input offset voltage must
be controlled so as to minimize the offset.
2. Pin 2 (Inverted Input): All input signals at this pin will be inverted at ouput pin 6.Pins 2 and 3 are
very important to get the correct input signals or the op-amp can not do its work.
3. Pin 3 (Non Inverted Input): All input signals at this pin will be possessed normally without
inversion. The rest is same as Pin 2.
4. Pin 4 (-V): The –V pin (also referred to as Vss ) is the negatively supply voltage terminal. Supply-
voltage operating range for the 741 is -4.5 volts (minimum) to -18 volts (maximum), and it is specified
for operation between -5 and -15 Vdc. The device will operate essentially the same over this range of
voltages without change in timing period. Sensitivity of time interval to supply voltage change is low,
typically 0.1% per volt. (Note: Do not confuse the –V with ground.)
5. Pin 5 (Offset Null) :See pin 1
6. Pin 6 (Output) : Output signal’s polarity will be opposite of the input’s when this signal is applied to
the opamp’s inverting input will output a square wave in the case of an inverting comparator circuit.
7. Pin7 ( +V) : The +V pin (also referred to as Vss ) is the positive supply voltage terminal. Supply-
voltage operating range for the 741 is +4.5 volts (minimum) to +18 volts (maximum), and it is
specified for operation between +5 and +15 Vdc. The device will operate essentially the same over
this range of voltages without change in timing period. The most significant difference is the output
drive capability, which increases for both current and voltage range as suplly voltage is increased.
Sensitivity of time interval to supply voltage change is low, typically 0.1% per volt.
8. Pin 8 (N/C): Not connected. It is just there to make it standard 8 pin.

LM386 Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier:

General Description:
 The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications.
 The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor
and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the gain to any value from 20 to 200.
 The inputs are ground referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half the supply voltage.
 The quiescent power drain is only 24 milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt supply, making the
LM386 ideal for battery operation.
Op Amp IC

 Battery operation
 Minimum external parts
 Wide supply voltage range: 4V–12V or 5V–18V
 Low quiescent current drain: 4mA
 Voltage gains from 20 to 200
 Ground referenced input
 Self-centering output quiescent voltage
 Low distortion: 0.2% (AV = 20, VS = 6V, RL = 8 , PO =
 25mW, f = 1kHz)
 Available in 8 pin MSOP package
 AM-FM radio amplifiers

 Portable tape player amplifiers

 Intercoms
 TV sound systems
 Line drivers
 Ultrasonic drivers
 Small servo drivers
 Power converters
Laser Listener

 Sound waves from conversations within a room cause the glass in the window panes to vibrate slightly.

 A laser beam can be bounced off a window of a targeted room, the vibrating window panes modulating

the laser beam, which returns to a distant receiver.

 The laser receiver then demodulates the laser beam and the distant room sounds can be heard remotely

in other location.

 It is difficult to align and set up the laser beam and laser receiver.

 Commercially available laser listeners use infrared laser beams with an output of up to 35 mill watts for

long-range listening.

 These power levels can cover very long distances but can also cause serious eye damage.

 Short to medium range laser listeners can be constructed eith visible or infrared laser diodes, while

longer- range listeners can be made with helium-neon lasers.

 Basically, any laser can achieve the desired results ,the range depending on the power of the laser.

The light wave receiver shown in figure can be readily combined with the light-wave transmitter in the fig to
form a medium range light wave communications link.
Am light wave transmitter parts list
R1,R6 50kΩ potentiometer
R2 1 ΜΩ ,1/4 watt resistor
R3,R4 5.6 kΩ ,1/4 watt resistor
R5,R7 1 kΩ ,1/4 watt resistor
R8 220Ω ,1/4 watt resistor
C1 0.1 µ f, 25 volt disc capacitor
C4 10 mf, 25 V electrolytic capacitor
U1 LM741CN op-amp
Q1 2N2222 transistor
LED bright LED
MIC electret microphone
B 9V battery
Misc enclosure, battery clip, and collimator

The light-wave transmitter consists of

 an electret microphone coupled to an LM741C op-amp,

 LM741C op-amp modulates the LED via transistor Q1.

 The overall gain is controlled by resistors R1 and R2,

 R6 is adjusted for the best sound quality in the receiver unit.

 The op-amp is coupled ton the LED driver via C2.The LED shown can be conventional, super bright

LED, or IR LED. Using a very bright IR LED with lenses at both ends of the link will allow

communications up to hundreds of feet.

You will obtain the best results by placing a lens and collimator at the receiver input and using tripods to
stabilize both the transmitter and receiver.

A very sensitive light-wave receiver, light-wave receiver is shown in figure.

This light-wave receiver consists of two high gain stages of amplification.
The light wave listener can transform pulsating or modulated light that eye cannot discern into sounds that your
eye can readily hear. The light wave listener can be used indoors as well as outdoors to “listen in” to both
natural and man made sounds. The light wave listener can detect lightening flashes and produce pops and clicks
in response; it can even detect some lightening missed by the human eye.
Sensitive light wave receiver
R1, R6, R3 100 kilo ohm, ¼ watt resistor
C1, C2, C3 0.1 µ f, 25 volt disc capacitor
C4 100 µ f, 25 V electrolytic capacitor
U1 LM741CN op-amp
U2 LM386 audio amplifier
Q1 Phototransistor (Motorola MRD-300)
Speaker 8Ω speaker or headphone
B 9V battery
Misc enclosure, battery clip, and collimator

The sensitive light wave listener consists of -

 Phototransistor Q1 which is the heart of this sensitive light-wave receiver.

 Restor R1 is used to bias the phototransistor.

 The output of the phototransistor is coupled to the input of U1 via capacitor C1.

 The 100 kΩ resistor R2 is used to set up the overall gain of the op-amp at U1.

 The capacitor at C3 couples the op-amp to the audio amplifier at U2,an LM386.

 Potentiometer R3 controls the level of signal reaching U2.

 Capacitor C2 is a bypass capacitor that prevents oscillation in the circuit.

 The output of U2 is fed to an 8Ω speaker or the headphone via C4.

 The light wave listener is powered by a 9-volt transistor radio battery.

The light wave receiver can be used with the AM light-wave transmitter.
A simplex light-wave link consists of a sending unit or transmitter and a receiver unit, as shown---------.A two
way (duplex communication system consists a transmit and recieve unit, or transceiver, at each end of the
system, as shown in fig----------.A typical light-wave sending unit would contain a microphone and a modulator
that drives an LED or laser diode light source. The microphone is used with the modulator to vary the
brightness of the transmitter’s light source in response to the audio signal at the microphone.

A free space light-wave receiving link typically consists of a detector such as a photodiode, phototransistor, or
solar cell, which is coupled to an electronics circuit that amplifies and demodulates the incoming light-wave
signals, translating them back to an amplified audio signal to drive a speaker.The reconstructed audio are
representative of the original audio going into the transmitter unit. Light-wave communication systems can use
incandescent light bulbs, LEDs, infrared LEDs, laser diodes, or helium –neon lasers to link a sending unit to a
receiver unit. The best results are obtained
In order to increase the range of a free-space communication link from 10n feet to long range communication
system, you need a pair of lenses, one in front of the light-wave sending unit and another ahead of the detector.
Often filters are used in conjunction with lenses for long range infrared light wave links. Lenses can range from
plastic surplus lenses to gun bore-sight telescopes, depending on your application.
For optimum long-range results, consider using a collimator or external light-shield tube ahead of the detector.
A collimator consists of a hollow tube line d with black paper or painted inside with black paint. The collimator
reduces unwanted light and reflections from reaching the detector assembly.

The range of the free space link is determined by following formulae.

DsΦ 2