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“THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON EMPLOYEE HEALTH: A STUDY OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY”
Submitted to: JIWAJI UNIVERSITY, GWALIOR Towards Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for Master in Business Administration Degree
Submitted To: Richa banerjee BVM
Submitted By: Kapil Dev Faculty MBA IV Sem
It is here by declared that the major research project report entitled “IMPACT OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE ON EMPLOYEE HEALTH: A STUDY OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY” has been prepared as the part for the completion of the degree of Master in Business Administration from BVM College of Management Education and it is based on the original research work and will be used only for academy purpose. It will not be produced in any condition or a source of information to an industry. Date: Place: Gwalior Kapil Dev MBA IVth sem.
It is privilege to express my gratitude and sincere thanks to BVM College of Management Education; Gwalior has given us the opportunity to carry research on the topic. I am thankful to my faculty guide Chetna Pandey for her valuable guidance and support throughout report presentation. I sincerely thank computer laboratory in-charge and library staff for their timely cooperation. I would also like to thank to all people who directly or indirectly helped to complete the report. Date: Place: Gwalior Kapil Dev MBA IV Sem.
This is to certify that Pratibha Pal, Student of MBA IV Sem. Programme has completed her synopsis report entitled “IMPACT OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE ON EMPLOYEE HEALTH : A STUDY OF MANUFATURING INDUSTRY” under my guidance. Date: Place: GWALIOR CHETNA PANDEY (FACULTY GUIDE)
Table of content
Content Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Conceptual framework 1.2 Review of literature 1.3 Rationale of the study 1.4 Objective of the study 1-5 6-15 16-16 17-17
Chapter 2 Research methodology
2.1 The Study 2.2 Sample Design 2.2.1 Population 2.2.2 Sample Size 2.2.3 Sampling Element 2.2.4 Sample Technique 2.3 Tools used for data collection 2.4Tools used for data analysis 18-18 18-18 18-18 18-18
Chapter 3 Result and Discussion Chapter 4 Implication and Suggestion Chapter 5 Summary and Conclusion References Annexture
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .
Climate. hot.e. or overall organizational level. is often defined as the recurring patterns of behavior. as a metaphor is helpful . that measurement of temperature becomes . At an individual level of analysis the concept is called individual psychological climate. From this perspective climate assessments should be conducted at an individual level. Furthermore there are several approaches to the concept of climate. 2007). 1998. or the divisional. Reichers and Schneider (1990) define organisational climate as "the shared perception of the way things are around here" (p.g.1. Organisational climate is about the perceptions of the climate and about absolute measures. The second approach emphasizes the importance of shared perceptions as underpinning the notion of climate (Anderson. proves to be hard to define. but it is not the absolute temperature that matters as much as human perception of it (is it cold.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Organisational Climate According to Prasad L. temperature is a measurable element of geographic climate. The first approach regards the concept of climate as an individual perception and cognitive representation of the work environment. It is important to realize that from these two approaches.(2000) Organisational climate. of which two in particular have received substantial patronage: the cognitive schema approach and the shared perception approach. There are two especially intractable and related difficulties: how to define climate and how to measure it effectively on different levels of analysis.M. Organisational Climate studies have identified a number of behaviours of leaders which have a significant impact on stress and morale. & West. functional. there is no “best” approach and they actually have a great deal of overlap.22). or comfortable?). however. It is only after knowing what temperature means in terms of human comfort. While an organisation and its leaders cannot remove every stressor in the daily life of its employees. attitudes and feelings that characterize life in the organization (Isaksen & Ekvall. Organisational Climate (sometimes known as Corporate Climate) is the process of quantifying the “culture” of an organisation. Mathisen & Einarsen 2004). These individual perceptions are often aggregated or collected for analysis and understanding at the team or group level.
While temperature is an important measure of geographic climate. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE: Organisational climate is essentially about ‘what it’s like to work here’. “What it’s like to work here” or ‘How I feel when I work here”. calm. cooperation. Complicating perception is the probability that what may be too cool for one person may be too warm for another and just right for someone else. respect. and is effected by everything.useful. The absolute climate may suit one person and not another. etc. Similarly for organisations. and trust vs distrust etc. entrepreneurialism. True to the climate metaphor. trust. the nature of work. fear. the nature of the hierarchy. the ‘climate’ may be regarded in absolute terms and measured by instruments. To facilitate measurement and manipulation of organisational climate. • • Climates are also described as political. researchers have dissected it’s characteristics and perceptions into categories such as the nature of interpersonal relationships. For each climate there is an opposite: climate of calm vs crisis. it is not the temperature that is of interest. strong. but our perception of it. openness and so on. creative.it effects everything. For example: • Organisational literature describes climates of crisis. distrust. trust. It is through those characteristics and perceptions that climate has a bi-directional relationship with everything the organisation is and does . What may be too cool for me may be too warm for you. but is ‘felt’ differently by individuals. organisational climate is primarily about the perceptions of the climate rather than its absolute measures. supportive. innovation. • . collective learning. and the focus of support and rewards. Climate relates strongly to performance measures.
mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations by preventing departures from health. climate influences strategic conversation. tensions and anxiety . EMPLOYEE HEALTH: According to Gupta C.B. Unfortunately. Secondly and conversely. the strategic decisions affect feelings and emotions of employees impacted by the decisions and thus influence the perceptual climate. the workers and their representatives in the undertaking. In other words. The climate that is 'felt' by participating executives will influence their behaviour during that conversation. defensive behaviour. so feelings and emotions are an unavoidable (even if denied) and integral part of all group conversations . and people to their jobs. on: • the requirements for establishing and maintaining a safe and healthy working environment which will facilitate optimal physical and mental health in relation to work • the adaptation of work to the capabilities of workers in the light of their state of physical and mental health". acknowledgement of that bi-directional interaction is absent from literature on strategic planning. This is in spite of recognition that much of what really goes on in an organisation takes place below the surface of daily behaviours. controlling risks and the adaptation of work to people. displayed in the form of conflicts. .STRATEGIC CLIMATE PLANNING AND ALLIGNMENT: Although organisational activities are theoretically conducted in an emotionless manner. humans are doing the strategic planning. The term 'occupational health services' means services entrusted with essentially preventive functions and responsible for advising the employer. there are at least two occurrences of 'below the line' interactions that need acknowledgement.(2007) Employee Health is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical. and strategic plans are highly mechanistic in nature. So strategic conversation influences climate. Firstly.
they have less stress. lower costs for job accommodations for injured workers. setting an example and involving employees. increased morale. better use of human resources. fewer faulty products. due to: • • • • • • increased productivity. 2. Worksite Analysis: The worksite is continually analyzed to identify all existing and potential hazards. reduced medical expenditures. by setting policy. smaller expenditures for return-to-work programs. Employees and their families benefit from safety and health because: • • • their incomes are protected. better labor/management relations. BASIC ELEMENTS OF EMPLOYEE HEALTH: There are four basic elements to all good safety and health programs. . Safety and health also make big reductions in indirect costs.IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEE HEALTH AND SAFETY: • • • • • • lower workers' compensation insurance costs. less money spent for overtime benefits. These are as follows: 1. assigning and supporting responsibility. Management Commitment and Employee Involvement: The manager or management team leads the way. reduced turnover. higher quality products. their family lives are not hampered by injury.
supervisors and employees are trained to understand and deal with worksite hazards . Hazard Prevention and Control: Methods to prevent or control existing or potential hazards are put in place and maintained. Training for Employees. 4.3. Supervisors and Managers: Managers.
(2006a) and hence it promotes physical and mental employee health.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Asha S. the issue of employee turnover . Relationship between organizational climate and employee health (physical or mental) is therefore logical to understand. (2006a). Six motives of organizational climate and two employee health dimensions (physical and emotional distress) were measured on 69 employees in private companies. The reverse is true for dysfunctional climate (control. (2006). Health (physical or mental) can influence individual perception and therefore the organizational climate. they are facing tremendous pressure. Today's competition is driving employees to work harder. as reflected in the way an organization deals with its members. In the light of high uncertainty in retention of healthcare workers in Ghana. expert influence and extension) leads to reduction of stress experienced while performing in an organizational role Srivastav. The functional climate (achievement. stated that.1. Maintenance of physical and mental health is essential for consistently delivering higher order performance in the work-place. Stated that organizational climate and turnover in the health sector of Ghana with particular reference to a case study on the country’s premier teaching hospital formally called Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Organizational climate can be defined as the perceived attributes of an organization and its subsystems. Organizational climate depends on the perception of the organizational members about various dimensions of the organization Srivastav. dependency and affiliation). (2008). Susana. Correlational analysis between climate motives and employee health dimensions has revealed that Dependency climate and Emotional Distress are positively correlated. (2005). Adjei-Appiah. Companies' HR departments are therefore required to provide and nurture conducive organizational climate. (2008). groups and issues Pareek. Organizational climate influences the motivation and behavior of the members of the organization Srivastav. the relationship between the organizational climate and employee health. despite the several interventions of government in providing incentives and infrastructure. using MAO-C and Cornel Medical Index Health Questionnaire.
fashioned by Litwin and Stringer. Evan. A model for this reaction and its variables. Nicholas . none has been able to neither explain nor investigate the influence of potent psychological features of the workplace on turnover. Climate surveys uncovered the precise issues. Jonathan. development potential and viability.H. Dyrenforth. Murphy. Most researches on turnover related issues in the healthcare sector of Ghana have focused on the influence of employees’ overall job satisfaction. perception and goals. Warren. (April 2007). Correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data obtained with a Likert scale designed questionnaire.M. Stated that. S. and concentrates on the disparate frames of reference and evaluation criteria of hospital personnel. Michael . explored the association between health care employees' perceptions of their organizations and objective measures of system performance. and defined the necessary focus to improve health care delivery and management. The study was guided by the hypothesis that climate factors will emerge as a significant predictor of employees’ turnover intentions. Results: Employee perceptions of organizational climate (indicators of the organizational culture) were strongly related to overall satisfaction and measures of . Frances. Craig. A sample size of 80 employees was used for the study. This study undertook a comprehensive review of the current state of employees’ turnover intentions in relation to the organizational climate and other working conditions prevalent at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. and to protect employees from job loss intimidation. Thomas . The problems and limitations of the sample questionnaire. Information feedback and data collection enables the health care system to obtain a handle on health climate. The results of the study indicate that stress and organizational pride are the most proximal factors to employees’ intentions to quit. Further analysis identified influences on stress and organizational pride and pointed to management priorities for reducing employee turnover. However. with knowledge acquired for hospital evaluation. Perlin. Organizational climate is recognized as an attitudinal ascription relating to how an individual interfaces with other company employees in terms of behavior. Hodgson. Appelbaum. (1984). serve to depict changing values and commitment objectives. was conceived by W.has attracted academic interest among several researchers globally and locally.
While some of these domains appeared in prior models. and test aspects of the model.g. and patient centeredness -. communication processes and information technology). Eric S. Williams(1998).. identify similarities and setting-specific dimensions. These factors affect health care worker outcomes (e. new subconstructs. quality emphasis (e. Penny Feldman.quality emphasis.g.. Douglas Roblin. Patricia W. The model's core climate domains included leadership (e. new domains -.. Michael I.g.are emerging. satisfaction and intention to leave) and patient outcomes. The authors discussed subconstructs. home health care. develop a model of climate domains that are hypothesized to affect outcomes across settings. proposed additional constructs. The model invites dialogue among researchers and informs agenda- . two investigators had studied primary care. policies. group behavior (e. and independently tested selected aspects of the model.g. patient centeredness). and multiple settings. long-term care. change in perceptions of organizational climate by 1 standard deviation (SD) was potentially associated with changes of 2% to 35% in selected outcomes. information technology. Investigators who had surveyed health care workers' perceptions of organizational climate in six studies funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) were invited to participate. Survey items from each study were classified using four climate domains found in a prior literature review. the impact of which was mediated by four process variables: supervision. Overall. Interventions directed toward improving care quality and safety should address these factors. Jill Scott-Cawiezell. developed an integrative model. Stone. and resultant working conditions in health care institutions appear to be strong drivers of system performance. but was not as effective at predicting intention to leave.g.system performance. Mark Linzer. Overall. Harrison. More than 80.000 workers were surveyed. values) and organizational structural characteristics (e. Nicholas Warren.. collaboration). staffing).Conclusions: Organizational climate. The investigators who participated had studied acute care. compared measures of organizational climate in ongoing patient safety studies. g.. Timothy Peng. and work design (e.. the full model explained 24 to 65 percent of the variance in employee satisfaction.
reveal a threshold relationship with each other. Rogga.rapidly changing organizational environments. existence of work force diversity.setting for future research into organizational climate and the safety of patients and health care employees. M. general organizational climate exerted a significant impact on safety climate. The current study examined the effects of general organizational climate on safety climate and safety performance. David B. nature of group dynamics and a host of allied factors affect organizational functioning. The analysis of the whole correlated matrix indicates that some dimensions of the organization climate. Schmidt. and safety climate in turn was related to self-reports of compliance with safety regulations and procedures as well as participation in safety-related activities within the workplace. It highlights the relevance of personal and organizational components in determining the anxiety and behavioral aspects of employees in organizations. Hart. Carla Shull. Results indicated support for the hypothesized mediated relationship. Griffin and P. emotional competence and anxiety of employees may also transform the climate. Neal. anxiety and emotional competency. K. investigated the meechanisms by which safety climate affects safety behavior. In organizations. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. M. Similarly. stated that the degree to which organizational climate mediates the relationship between human resource practices and customer satisfaction is investigated for 351 small businesses in the same industry. Sandeep Singh. Punia. The indirect effects of HR practices on customer satisfaction were significant and relatively large while the direct effect was nonsignificant and near zero. (2000). This study has been carried out to find out the interrelationship between organizational health and employees' mental health. the prevailing climate acts as a catalyst in revolutionizing the emotional competence and anxiety among employees. . Kirk L. The effect of general organizational climate on safety performance was mediated by safety climate. (2006). The results were supportive of a social context model of the impact of human resource practices on organizational outcomes. (2001). The paper proposes the cultivation of an emotional quotient and the desired organizational climate to enhance the employees' mental health vis-à-vis the organizational effectiveness. Rakesh Kumar Behmani. stated that. A. B. As expected. Neal Schmitt. A.
Mary Anne Lahey. it is argued that. “Safety culture” is a more complex and enduring trait reflecting fundamental values. Karl W. Closer examination of the correlations among the subscales of the measures of health and perceived job security revealed different patterns of subscale relationships in two organizations. Recent studies in public sector services have examined the impact of organizational culture and climate on work attitudes (i. can be seen through safety management practices which are reflected in the safety climate. Basically. norms. productivity. and Angelina C. stated that. Kuhnert. Sawitzky(1998). stated that the concepts of safety culture and safety climate in an attempt to determine which is the more useful for describing an organization's “state of safety. job satisfaction and organizational . Gregory A. These results suggest that job security is an important determinant of employee health. attitudes. A significant relationship was found between health and job security using global measures of both constructs. typically measured by questionnaire surveys and providing a “snapshot” of the current state of safety. Ronald R. Aarons. they are actually distinct but related concepts and should be treated accordingly. Sims. (1989).. perhaps.” From a review of the literature purporting to measure safety culture or safety climate. Kathryn J. The expression of these “cultural” elements. stated that staff turnover in mental health service organizations is an ongoing problem with implications for staff morale. which to some extent reside in societal culture. (1999). measurement of safety culture requires in-depth investigation including an analysis of how organizational members interact to form a shared view of safety.e. and implementation of innovation. The term “safety climate” best describes employees' perceptions. organizational effectiveness. Mearns and Rhona Flin. and beliefs about risk and safety. and that inclusion of this construct in general models of stress and well-being may help to improve our understanding of work performance. although the two terms are often interchangeable.while the effect of safety climate on safety performance was partially mediated by safety knowledge and motivation. assumptions and expectations. the relationship between perceived job security and employee health was examined in two manufacturing organizations.
They found that the interactive effects of distributive and procedural justice climates significantly influence individual feelings of both anxiety and depression. The health climate scale was correlated more highly with organizational measures that were indicative of a supportive health climate than those indicating supportive safety climate. This effect goes beyond the main effects of justice at the individual level.commitment) and. Chester S. ultimately. mediational models of the impact of culture and climate on work attitudes have not been examined. respectively) and concurrent validity. Environmental influences on health and health behavior have an important place in research on worksite health promotion.42. We tested the validity and internal consistency of a new measure of organizational health and safety climate that was used in a large randomized trial of a worksite cancer prevention program (the Working Well Trial)...74 and 0. The scales . Arnold (1999). stated that this study uses a sample of 483 employees to investigate how fairness assessments and organizational structure relate to employee mental health. A factor analysis of this self-report instrument produced a two-factor solution. Changes in health climate were associated with the number of smoking and smokeless tobacco programs offered at the worksites at the time of the 3-year follow-up (r = 0.82. These findings support the contention that both culture and climate impact work attitudes and subsequent staff turnover. Results. The resulting scales then were applied to assess intervention effects. Chamberlain R. Basen-Engquist K.46 and 0. The authors explain these effects using a social contagion framework. (January 1998). Spell. staff turnover. Work attitudes significantly predicted one-year staff turnover rates. stated that background. Multilevel structural equation models supported a partial mediation model in which organizational culture had both direct influence on work attitudes and indirect influence through organizational climate. respectively). while the reverse was true of the safety climate scale. However.S. Todd J. The present study examined full and partial mediation models of the effects of culture and climate on work attitudes and the subsequent impact of work attitudes on staff turnover. which describes the creation of group effects that would occur in addition to individual-level influences. Hudmon K. Tripp M. The resulting health and safety climate scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.
Gregory A. . Philip Green (December 2005): stated that. role overload. Correlation analyses and multilevel hierarchical regressions.Results: Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) analyses indicate that the ARC organizational intervention reduced the probability of caseworker turnover by two-thirds and improved organizational climate by reducing role conflict. Responsiveness. Participants were 301 public sector mental health service providers from 49 programs providing mental health services for youths and families. and there is evidence that high staff turnover and poor organizational climates negatively affect service quality and outcomes in these systems. The Working Well Intervention resulted in a significant improvement in worksite health climate. Angelina C.Conclusions. This is important because child welfare and juvenile justice systems in the U. Denzel Dukes. P = 0. and culture in a child welfare and juvenile justice system. Organizational culture and climate are contextual factors that can affect staff acceptance of innovation. showed that constructive culture was associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption of EBP and poor organizational climates with perceived divergence of usual practice and EBP. The health and safety climate scales developed for this study provide useful instruments for measuring organizational change related to worksite health promotion activities.were not correlated with most employee health behaviors.009).S.36] = 7. and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention strategy on caseworker turnover. controlling for effects of provider characteristics.57. are plagued by high turnover rates. compared with scores at control worksites (F[1. stated that mental health provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) are associated with organizational context and provider individual differences. Aarons. Behavioral health organizations may benefit from consideration of how culture and climate affect staff attitudes toward change in practice. climate. This study examines the effects of the Availability. emotional exhaustion. and depersonalization in both urban and rural case management teams. Sawitzky (2006). The health climate scores increased at intervention worksites. This study examined the association of organizational culture and climate with attitudes toward adopting EBP.A. Charles Glisson.Organizational intervention strategies can be used to reduce staff turnover and improve organizational climates in urban and rural child welfare and juvenile justice systems.
Schaffer. The effect of the intervention on organizational climate and wellbeing was significantly different by race (p= . Dejoy. Shannon. and involvement with supervisor (p< . Schaffer.2003). CHES. This study conducted a healthy work organization intervention in 22 southeastern stores of a retail industry. stated that this study examined ethnic group differences in the effectiveness of a healthy work organization intervention on organizational climate and worker health and well-being. Bryan S.. This result implies that the healthy work organization intervention is useful to create a healthy work climate for all employees in the organization. Our sample consisted of employees from 21 stores of a large national retail chain.207 and 1.05). intervention. Teams were charged with developing and implementing action plans tailored to the needs of their specific site.001). The intervention involved establishing and facilitating employee problem-solving teams in 11 of the stores. The healthy work organization intervention was conducted with an employee problem-solving program building employee involvement and decision-making for six months. Park. David M. Pre. and Mark G. the problem-solving intervention of this study improved the involvement and social relationship at work of minority workforce usually being short of these in organizations more than these of White workforce.and postcomparisons of the treatment and control . Wilson (November 18..463 each. and race indicated that the intervention was more effective to Black and Hispanic workers than White workers in organizational support. Bryan S. David M. Mark G. C..05) in the multivariate analysis of covariance. Griffin-Blake. Wilson. Shannon Griffin-Blake. coworker support. DeJoy. The three-way interaction effect of time. Overall effect of the intervention program was significant both in organizational climate and well-being (p = .Kyoung-Ok Park. (2004). Kyoung-Ok. C. Organizational survey was conducted six months before and after the intervention. stated that few worksite health promotion interventions consider different organizational situations over racial diversity although minority workers involve more and more in the United States industry. Vandenberg. In conclusion.. The numbers of employees participated in the baseline and the follow-up survey were 2. This study examined how the intervention effectiveness was different by race on organizational climate and employee well-being. Robert J.
Job-induced tension also mediated the effects of service climate on psychological dysfunction and job satisfaction. these effects varied significantly by ethnic group. The findings of two national studies and one controlled clinical trial are summarized to (a) link organizational social context to service outcomes. Martin. Callan (2005) said that the current research tested a theoretical model of employee adjustment during organizational change . Jones. however. and (c) demonstrate how social context can be changed with planned organizational intervention strategies. To address this gap.groups showed that the intervention produced positive effects on both the climate and health and well-being outcomes. (b) describe a new profiling system for assessing organizational social context. Implications for management of university stakeholder relationships and directions for future research are discussed. These results are interpreted in terms of social identification and self-categorization theories and are contrasted with traditional participatory and diversity training approaches Charles Glisson (2007). Questionnaire data was analysed using structural equation modelling showed that a positive service climate was negatively related to jobinduced tension and positively related to job satisfaction. Elizabeth S. Angela J. stated that the lecture begins by describing the gap between what is known about efficacious treatments and other evidence-based practices on the one hand and the services that are provided in actual community-based practice settings on the other. Victor J. Particularly in terms of organizational climate. black and Hispanic employees were the primary beneficiaries of the participatory intervention process. This study investigated the relationship between service climate and psychological well being in a sample of 340 university staff. Angela Martin (2008) stated that a growing emphasis on the discourse of ‘student as customer’ has increased the salience of the concept of service climate in universities and anecdotal evidence suggests that this may have placed increased pressure on staff. the lecture calls for the development of a science of implementation effectiveness and describes the author's research on assessing and changing the social context of mental health and social service organizations as contributing to that effort.
allowing the relative risk ranking of sites based upon organizational climate metrics.Dodsworth K.The resultant models are shown to be able to accurately model the site significant injury .Ellett (2007).This paper summarizes research that successfully produced a statistical model of organizational climate and its relationship to site significant injury frequency rates. psychological climate) were more positive.To ensure that considered risk management decisions are made it is essential that organizations have the ability to rank the risk profiles of their assets and operations.The responses to an industrial organizational survey are examined for a pharmaceutical company's sites in the United Kingdom.organizational climate metrics have not yet been exploited as a proactive safety. M.E.Sweden and the United States.Despite the evidence suggesting their potential usefulness.health and environmental performance indicator or as an aid to relative risk ranking. Two variations of this model were tested using survey data from two different organizational samples: 779 public hospital employees and 877 public sector employees.Connelly C. were more likely to appraise change favourably and report better adjustment in terms of higher job satisfaction.Recent research has associated lagging safety performance indicators with metrics of organizational safety climate.based on Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) cognitivephenomenological framework.Projection to Latent Structures Analysis is performed on the survey responses. Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation analyses were conducted in order to evaluate the models. said that The chemical.Results showed that employees whose perceptions of the organization and environment in which they were working (that is. psychological well-being.for example.Methodologies used to assess these risks tend to be engineering-based and include.hazard identification and event rate estimation techniques. and organizational commitment. The model hypothesized that psychological climate variables would act as coping resources and predict improved adjustment during change.Current industry risk ranking techniques are biased toward the assessment of the risk potential of the asset or operation.pharmaceutical and other related process industries are characterized by inherently hazardous processes and activities. and lower absenteeism and turnover intentions.J.
management.The organizational climate metrics that discriminate between the safety performance levels of different sites are identified. work and all the functions that are being performed in an organization. In this research we will find out how employee health affect organizational climate and what should be done to improve all these.frequency rates. This research will focus on all the important aspect of employee health and organizational climate and will help the managers of the organization to take effective step for maintaining organizational climate and ensuring employees safety and ensuring better health to the employees. their attitudes.2 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY: We know that organizational climate is the integral part of the organization and it starts from the very beginning of the organization and it includes the behaviour of the employees. And employee health is one of the important facts that every organization must consider because a healthy employee can make a healthy organization and thus create a healthy climate. . Till now various researchers had given their contribution in this field. 1.
To study the factor affecting of employee health.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUIDY • • • • To standardize and measure the impact of organizational climate on employee health. . To open new vistas for further researches.1. To study the factor affecting organizational climate.
CHAPTER – 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .
2.3 Element: Individual response of manufacturing industry.4 Sampling Techniques: Non probability random sampling was used. The responses being collected on the LIKERT SCALE of 1 to 7. 2.1 Population: Manufacturing industries of Gwalior region. 2.2 Sample Size: 150 respondents from manufacturing region. Factor analysis was applied to identify the factors affecting organizational climate.4 TOOLS USED FOR DATA ANALYSIS 1.2. Item to total correlation was used to check the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Regression analysis was used for finding the importance of organization. 2.2.3 TOOLS USED FOR DATA COLLECTION Self designed questionnaire was used. 2.1 THE STUDY The study is exploratory in nature. 3.2. 2.2. 2. .2 SAMPLE DESIGN 2. Where 1 stands for minimum satisfaction and 7 stands for maximum satisfaction.2.
3 RESULT AND DISCUSSION .CHAPTER .
3.305106 0. Under this co-relation of every item with total was measured and the computed value is compared with standard value (0.397836 0.1942).no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Items Working environment Sitting arrangement Resources for effective job Stressful work environment Support of team members Work appreciation Team work Innovation.1942).202136 0.512248 0.441085 Consistency Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Inconsistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Accepted/dropped Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Dropped Accepted Accepted Accepted .506925 0. Therefore no factor/statement is dropped and will be termed as consistent.374359 0.1 Consistency Measure Firstly consistency of all the factors in the questionnaires was checked through item to total co-relation. S.410336 0.35896 0.31408 0.136176 0. Effective management Work together Communication Good understanding Computed correlation value 0.465681 0.1.1 Organizational climate 3. As all the items of questionnaire of organizational climate are more than the standard value (0. Result and Discussion 3. then whole factor/statement is dropped and was termed as inconsistent. If the computed value is found less.
286213 0.504245 Consistent Accepted 14 15 16 0.589934 0.438268 .207956 Consistent Consistent Consistent Accepted Accepted Accepted 17 18 19 20 Effective utilization of skills Training requirement Acknowledgement Employee health 0.5977 0.13 Treatment management Social system Grievances and Complain Employees suggestions by 0.520952 0.353474 Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted 0.
Enrichment 2.520 0.Management Attitude 3.690 12.3. After factor analysis 6 factors were identified.1.Acknowledgement 0.870 2.690 19.Treatment by management 11. Effective utilization of skills 0.784 Variable convergence Factor name Loading 1.195 11. Training requirement 1.765 0.783 0.2 Factor Analysis The raw scores of 20 items were subjected to factor analysis to find out the factors that contribute towards ‘job performance’.554 18.459 . Eigen values Total % Variance 0. Communication 0.Good understanding 13.551 18. Working environment 17.
478 7.656 0.841 0. Stress 1. Support of team 0.Employee participation 1. Innovation.632 0.013 5.781 16. Work together 7.789 0. Cohesiveness 1.697 0.Working environment 9. Work appreciation 3.668 members 8.948 0. Grievances and Complain 0.284 6.766 0.797 0.586 4. Social system 10.336 2.757 14.584 8.Team effectiveness 1. Resources for effective job 8. Stressful work environment . Effective management 1. Sitting arrangement 0.Versatility 1.6.329 4.807 5.881 6.094 5. Employees suggestions 15.700 8. Team work 7. 0.756 3.744 5.
innovation. working environment. Susan G. self-leadership. support of work teams. Major elements consisting this factor include acknowledgement. and participative management for team effectiveness. Gerald E. sociotechnical. Christopher Orpen. Major elements consisting this factor include good understanding. Ledford. Team effectiveness: This factor has emerged as the most important determinant of organizational climate with a total variance of 8. in his experiment found that several specific attitudes to be positively related to use of a computer based information system. Employees in the enriched condition perceived their jobs as more enriched than before.690. job involvement. . but (4) enrichment had little impact on performance. in his study found that (1)good understanding. (3) enrichment led to significant decreases in absenteeism and turnover. treatment by management and communication.3 Discussion of factors 1. Management attitude: This factor has emerged as the most important determinant of organizational climate with a total variance of 18. (2) enrichment caused significant increases in employee job satisfaction.3. training requirement.(1979). Cohen. Major elements consisting this factor include work appreciation. 2. Enrichment: This factor has emerged as the most important determinant of organizational climate with a total variance of 11. Spreitzer (1996) in their study they find different theoretical perspectives including work design. Jr Gretchen M. Daniel Robey (1979).554. treatment by management and communication. 3.1. effective utilization of skills. and internal motivation.948.
sitting arrangement. Parkes. and nations need to change their ineffective habits and adopt new ones which will increase their versatility. 7. Versatility: This factor has emerged as the most important determinant of organizational climate with a total variance of 7. William N. Employee participation: This factor has emerged as the most important determinant of organizational climate with a total variance of 6. Daniel C. technicians.781. grievances and complain. Major elements consisting this factor include stressful work environment. Carless and Caroline De Paola in their study said that task cohesion compared to social cohesion and individual attraction to the group was the strongest correlate of all the variables examined. work together. perceived work demand and support. teams. and union representation helps improving employee health and organizational effectiveness. profit and gain sharing. 8. John Schaubroeck (1991) said in their research that job stressors cause health effects. Ganster.756. Stress: This factor has emerged as the most important determinant of organizational climate with a total variance of 5. Derry.4. 5. salespeople. Sally A.329. (1996) in his study he stated that leaders of organizations. the indirect evidence is strongly suggestive of a work stress effect. Cooke (1994) in his study said that the independent and interaction effects of participation. Major elements consisting this factor include effective management. (1990) in their study they find factors responsible for bad working environment they are Coping. Major elements consisting this factor include team work.757. Christopher J.336. 6. resources for effective job. negative affectivity. Cohesiveness: This factor has emerged as the most important determinant of organizational climate with a total variance of 5. Major elements consisting this factor include Employee suggestions. This evidence comes from occupational studies that . Major elements consisting this factor include social system. Katharine R. Working environment: This factor has emerged as the most important determinant of organizational climate with a total variance of 8.
2. Therefore no factor/statement is dropped and will be termed as consistent.180398 Consistent Inconsistent Inconsistent Inconsistent Inconsistent Inconsistent Accepted Dropped Dropped Dropped Dropped Dropped .no 1 2 3 Items Productivity and quality of work.116483 0.show differences in health and mortality that are not easily explained by other factors and within-subject studies that demonstrate a causal effect of work experiences on physiological and emotional responses.1 Consistency Measure As the value of the correlation coefficient was same because the number of questions were same (0. Medical benefit Health programs Routine Consistency Inconsistent Inconsistent Consistent Accepted/dropped Dropped Dropped Accepted 4 5 6 7 8 9 0. 3.04085 0.545971 S.2 Employee health 3.1942).54308 0.009778 0. indiscipline and accidents Employee motivation and morale Physical and mental health Cost of operation.16615 0. 0. After applying item to total correlation the following values were found. Computed correlation value .151021 -0.070916 0. All the items of questionnaire of employee health are more than the standard value. Absenteeism Industrial unrest.
697429 0.374903 0. Cleanliness and 0.575189 0.450623 0.722209 0.408224 0.510973 health program.420999 0.418127 Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Consistent Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted Accepted .737659 hygiene Ambulance facility Organizational concern health policies Health insurance Emergency facility Sick leave Organizational support Working environment Health assessment program 0.10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 checkup Conducive 0.607516 0.
Error 12.631 -. regression is calculated by taking dependent and independent variable.432 -.119 -.599 Sig.381 . .551 a) Dependent Variable: VAR00002 Y = a + bx Y= 79.060x) X = Organizational climate (independent variable) Y = Employee health (dependent variable) .071 Std.060 Coefficients Beta t 6.0.3 Regression Analysis The regression is calculated by taking the total of organizational climate and employee health by using SPSS software.3.000 .631 + (. Therefore. For regression two hypotheses were formed: • • Null Hypothesis (Ho): It states that there is no significant impact of organizational climate on employee health Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): It states that there is a significant impact of organizational climate on employee health In this the organizational climate is independent variable and employee health is the dependent variable. Coefficientsa Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) VAR00001 B 79.
so we accept the null hypothesis that there is no significant impact of organizational climate on employee health. . Also the T value is significant.. As the value of T is -0.which is acceptable at 0.551level of significance.060. Employee health (dependent variable).The linear regression was applied between Organizational climates (independent variable). The result of regression indicates the independent variable organizational climate has no impact on the dependent variable employee health signified by the coefficient beta factor of -0.599.
4 IMPLICATION AND SUGGESTION .CHAPTER .
2 Suggestions Following suggestions are: • • • Increasing the sample size of data so the study can be made more generic. 4. They can also know about the status of the organizational climate and the benefit they can get from them that are statuary for the employer to provide in the organization. . Employee participation. Stress.1 Implications of The Study This study is intended to be a useful contribution to the manufacturing organizations to understand that whether the organizational climate has an effect on employee health or not. Team effectiveness. Cohesiveness. Versatility. • For Researchers: This study will help the researchers pursuing further studies in organizational climate and their impact on the employee health. • For Workers: The study will help the workers to get awareness about the health policies and about their implementation.4. The study will also help in analyzing the factors affecting employee health. Working environment. Workers were not co-operating due pressure of work so the study should be conducted at the time where there is no pressure of work on the workers. The factors are Management attitude. Data collection should be done from more cities including different states so that comparative study between the states can be done. • The study can be done by comparing between the organizations. Enrichment. Once the factors are known then employer can focus on increasing the performance. Following implications were drawn: • For Employers: The study will help the employer to improve the performance of the workers by providing them with better organizational climate the study will focus on the factors that are affecting the health of the workers at job.
CHAPTER .5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION .
1 Summary The study has been divided into five parts which include introduction and its sub parts are conceptual framework. rationale and objective. . The objective of the study was to study the impact of organizational climate on employee health through primary valuable data.5. fifth is summary and conclusion and in the end references and annexure. then tools for data analysis shows that which type of test has been applied in this like item to total correlation. second part is research methodology. review if literature. which includes study. reliability and factor analysis to identify the important factors affecting the job performance collected data was tested. At last regression have been applied and the null hypothesis was accepted which states that organizational climate has no significant impact on employee health. By using statistical method total correlation. In conceptual frame work all definitions and introduction about the topic is their. 5. why we are doing this research. In study we have to specify which type of study is their like this one is exploratory in study and methodology used in there is through questionnaire segment is sample which includes what types of sampling techniques have been adopted like in this research is non purposing and it also includes the sample size of the organization then its tools for data collection through questionnaire and it contain 20 questions respectively of organizational climate and employee health. analytical tool. But still there is very less awareness among them about the implementation of health measures.2 Conclusion The research has concluded with lot learning on my part. the objectives includes all the objectives if this research. in literature review all researchers has been written which has been done previously rational is the need of the study i. Third is result and discussion it includes result of the research and discussions means that whether review of literature match with our results or not and fourth is implications and suggestions. So it is important for the employers to keep good organizational climate for improving employee health.e. factor analysis and regression. reliability test. sample and tools for data collection.
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