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firstname.lastname@example.org Issue Date: December 2002
he goal of the UMTS (universal mobile telecommunications system) is to deliver multimedia services to the user in the mobile domain. UMTS and multimedia services have a significant impact not only on the RF (radio frequency) network, but also on the core network architecture. Care must be taken to allow current GSM (global system mobile) operators to protect their infrastructure investments when their networks are upgraded to support UMTS. The UMTS network architecture is depicted in Figure 1. The core network handles call control and mobility man-
agement functionalities, while the UTRAN (UMTS terrestrial radio access network) manages the radio packet transmission and resource management. Packet routing and transfer within the core network are supported by definition of new logical network nodes called GGSN (gateway GPRS [general packet radio system] support node) and SGSN (serving GPRS support node). The GGSN is basically a packet router with additional mobility management features, and it connects with various network elements through standardized interfaces. The GGSN acts as a physical interface to the external packet data networks (e.g., the Internet). The SGSN handles packet delivery to and from mobile termi-
C D H
Gi To IP Network
Gs Iu-CS Iur Iu-PS
Gp Other PLMN
AUC: Authentication Center EIR: E quipment I dentity Register
GGSN: Gat eway GPRS Sup port Node HLR: Home Location Register MSC: Mobile Switching Cen ter
PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network SGSN: S ervice GP RS Su ppo rt Node RNC: Radio Network Controller UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network RNS: Radio Network S ubsystem VLR: Visited Loca tion Register
Figure 1. UMTS Network Architecture
December 2002 • Volume 1, Number 1 1
capacity. UMTS uses WCDMA (wideband code division multiple access) as the radio transmission technology. The WCDMA specification has certain key features. because of the interference issues. the link budget) have to be checked and adjusted to be suitable for WCDMA technology. It is claimed that TDMA (time division multiple access) RF planning is much more difficult than CDMA-based systems. UMTS serves users with various demands. solutions are provided for system design. However. coverage is planned separately after the network is dimensioned (based on the market study). but almost all of the detailed planning items concerned (e. the wideband nature of WCDMA technology (5 MHz) compared with GSM (200 kHz) imposes new criteria in modeling the propagation environments. GGSN and SGSN are capable of supporting terminal data rates up to 2 Mbps. Thus. and many aspects of planning are more closely interrelated to each other in UMTS planning than they are in GSM planning. The RNS performs all of the radio resource and air interface management functionalities.g.) 2 Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal . The analysis captures both design processes and engineering calculations. Each SGSN is responsible for delivering packets to the terminals within its service area. Next. In GSM. UMTS RADIO INTERFACE W CDMA has been selected as the radio interface technology of UMTS networks for much of the world. the same carriers can be used in all of the cells. It is totally different from the technology used in GSM or TDMA.. In UMTS. In addition. dB -10 -20 -30 -40 2150 2155 (MHz) Figure 2. in part. Spectrum of Two WCDMA Carriers with 5 MHz Channel Spacing (Unlike GSM and TDMA. because capacity requirements and traffic distribution influence coverage. The major differences in the UMTS radio system planning process occur in coverage and capacity planning. coverage and capacity are planned at the same time. which are listed in Table 1. This paper outlines the challenges and solutions for planning and optimizing UMTS networks with respect to radio interface. The basic radio system planning philosophy used in GSM or TDMA does not change. and frequency planning. On the other hand. The UMTS network architecture inherits most of its structure from the GSM model in the UTRAN. the reuse factor for this system is N = 1. code. 0 Carrier 1 Carrier 2 Normalized Power. and capacity and frequency are planned in tandem. the radio system planning process has to be modified slightly from the traditional model because the traffic can vary from 8 kbps voice to 2 Mbps data and can be either circuit switched or packet switched. WCDMA Air Interface Specifications It is important to understand the basic UMTS air interface features to plan radio interface of the network. A UTRAN consists of one or more RNSs (radio network subsystems). This is true. The critical optimization and monitoring of WCDMA network performance are then discussed. while the GSM reuse factor is typically N = 4. This paper focuses on the differences between GSM radio system planning and UMTS radio system planning. which in turn consist of base stations (Node Bs) and RNCs (radio network controllers). including coverage. WCDMA air interface specifications and their implications on transmission channel behavior and modeling are described first.nals. Finally. the paper concludes by summarizing the results and presenting the future roadmap. Frequency and code can be planned separately.
The chip rate in WCDMA is 3. Also.84 Mchip/s. Coherence bandwidth is the minimum frequency separation of the two carriers that have significantly uncorrelated fading. MHz WCDMA Bandwidth Urban Rural Hilly Microcellular Indoor 0. TDMA. Up to three parallel codes can be used for one user. or rural). This combining method is an advantage of WCDMA compared with GSM and TDMA signals and increases the received signal power.1 3 < 0. In the frequency domain. Comparing the chip duration (0. therefore. In WCDMA/ FDD. gation environments. and spreading factors are in the range of 4 to 512. One frequency domain property of the channel is coherence bandwidth.6 0. The bit rate and. offering very flexible control of the user data rate. In WCDMA/TDD. The delay spread can be calculated from the typical (estimated or measured) power delay profile. so the actual channel separation might be smaller than the nominal 5 MHz. Every time slot has bits reserved for pilot signal. the key channel property is the delay spread. µs ∆fc. the uplink and downlink signals are at different frequency bands.e. Dfc. This spreads the user data signal to a wider frequency band. In a propagation environment where a system is narrowband. The effect of multipath on the radio channel can also be described by the frequency domain properties of the radio channel.1 < 0. When considering the differences among GSM.6 > 16 BW = 5 MHz WB WB WB NB/WB NB GSM BW = 0. urban.2 MHz NB/WB NB WB NB NB UMTS Propagation Environment The radio propagation channel environment is divided into outdoor and indoor classes. down to the specified minimum of 4. the user net bit rates supported by one code channel are in the range of 1 to 936 kbps in the downlink. fading is frequency nonselective or flat.84 Mchip/s FDD and TDD modes 5 MHz with center frequency raster of 200 KHz Multi-rate and multi-service 10 ms frame with 15 time slots WCDMA air interface is based on DS-CDMA (direct sequence CDMA) technology. The outdoor class is further divided into macrocellular and microcellular propa- The coherence bandwidth is related to the correlation of fading over the transmission bandwidth. the uplink and downlink signals are at the same frequency but are separated to different time periods.01 0. The relation between user data rate and chip rate is called a spreading factor (SPF = Rchip/Rbit). transport format indication (TFCI bits). which describes the amount of multipath propagation in the propagation environment of the radio link. because of modulation differences. power control (TPC bits).053 > 1. each of which consists of 15 pieces of 666 ms (2560 chips) time slots. channel coding can be changed in every 10-ms frame. signals at different frequencies have different fading (amplitude and phase).g. WCDMA/FDD will probably be the air interface deployed and used first. Table 2 shows the calculated coherence bandwidths typical for different radio propagation environments. multipath causes frequency selective fading. for example. An example of the spectrum of WCDMA for two carrier frequencies is shown in Figure 2. data rates are half of these figures.5 0. The user data sequence is multiplied with a so-called spreading sequence. closed loop transmit diversity (FBI bits). it can be seen that the delay spread is larger than the chip duration. The WCDMA transmission is split into 10 ms radio frames. fading for signal frequencies is uncorrelated and the fading is called frequency selective. In the wideband environment. The system is NB (narrowband) when the radio signal bandwidth is much smaller than the coherence bandwidth of the radio channel and WB (wideband) when it is much larger. that system property is dependent on the typical propagation environment in which the system is used and could differ in different environments. WCDMA Air Interface Specifications Parameter Modulation Chip Rate Duplexing Channel Bandwidth Service Frame Length Value DS-CDMA with QPSK 3. The WCDMA standard includes two modes of operation: WCDMA/TDD (time division duplexing) and WCDMA/FDD (frequency division duplexing). Characteristics of GSM versus UMTS for Different Radio Propagation Environments Delay. and. Therefore. It can be calculated from the time domain property of delay spread.. Number 1 3 . and UMTS radio interface performances. if necessary. This has to be noted carefully because it might cause interference in the network. i.4 MHz. the dedicated and shared channels have several differences in signal format. A WCDMA receiver achieves optimum performance by using all of the multipath components via a Rake receiver.. The Rake receiver receives and combines different multipath delayed elements of the received signal. The nominal channel bandwidth of the WCDMA signal is 5 MHz.32 1. The macrocellular type of environment can contain different building densities (e. suburban. whose symbol or chip rate is much higher than the user data rate. giving bit rates up to 2. The specification provides the flexibility to define the exact channel center frequency of 200 KHz raster. Table 2.Table 1.26 ms) of WCDMA to the typical urban channel delay spread. December 2002 • Volume 1.3 Mbps. Each of these propagation environments has special radio propagation channel characteristics. In the uplink. which describes the signal power as a function of the delay. The exact signal format and multiplexing are quite different in uplink and downlink signaling.
Traffic .UMTS RADIO SYSTEM PLANNING T he implementation strategy must be planned carefully because UMTS is a totally new system.Traffic .Coverage verification . Some cells may have a load very close to the maximum acceptable load. because it will give more realistic results. Coverage targets must also be checked during this planning phase. Figure 3 shows the UMTS planning process. placing base stations on traffic hot spots significantly reduces power levels in the radio network. It is. The decision to reuse the base station sites depends heavily on the implementation strategy and on the traffic forecasts. impossible to know the mobile user locations exactly. UMTS Radio System Planning Process The UMTS radio system planning process is similar to the GSM planning process. a fixed load is assumed for all base stations within the targeted area. UMTS System Planning Process 4 Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal .Area . the dimensioning is done according to the worst-case scenario. Although reusing the old base station sites would be very cost-effective. As shown in Figure 4. which is much higher than the 900 MHz and 1900 MHz typically used in GSM and TDMA systems. Also.Coverage threshold • Detailed Planning . As the users move away from the base station. however. they are not necessarily the most optimum locations for UMTS coverage. namely that the traffic level has to be considered continuously in UMTS radio planning. the better the radio network can be designed. This may lead to situations in which the load between the cells can vary remarkably. As a result. In particular. UMTS operates in the frequency band of 2100 MHz. mean that the radio propagation will not be equivalent. plus the higher data rates. These operating frequency differences. If the highest acceptable load is used. since this offers the best link budget for the mobile users served by those base stations. which may lead to an unnecessarily high number of sites. the higher data rates for UMTS require better signal strength. • Dimensioning . Another key issue in WCDMA radio coverage and capacity planning is the regional traffic distribution.Traffic . the location of the different mobile users (or actually the link budget of each mobile user) should be known as exactly as possible. The distribution of the traffic levels between voice and different data calls at each base station coverage area should be determined as accurately as possible. the traffic distribution is used to allocate the predicted traffic to the planned cells. The value for the load can be the maximum acceptable load for the cells or it can be the predicted load during the busy hour. The phases of the planning process are: • • • • • • Dimensioning Configuration planning Coverage and capacity planning Code and frequency planning Parameter planning Optimization and monitoring The overall planning goal in any wireless system is to maximize coverage and capacity while meeting the KPIs (key performance indicators) and QoS (quality of service). It is better to use the predicted load. the old base station coverage areas are not necessarily valid in UMTS. Base station locations should be selected so that they are always placed on the traffic hot spots. of course. which reduces interference and increases capacity.Coverage thresholds & • Optimization and capacity requirements Monitoring . the figure shows the one key issue in UMTS coverage and capacity planning.Capacity availability Figure 3. Also. Eb/No.Site configuration . In the detailed planning phase. In the initial dimensioning phase. and some cells may have a fairly low load. WCDMA throughput decreases. the more accurately they can be forecast. or the existence of traffic hot spots in the radio network coverage area.
WCDMA Coverage and Capacity Planning Coverage and capacity planning in WCDMA are interrelated. respectively. isotropic path loss is defined Hot Spot Hot Spot a) Lower coverage and capacity (inefficient design) Hot Spot Hot Spot b) Higher coverage and capacity (optimum design) Figure 4. When the prediction model is tuned. and Channel Parameters WCDMA coverage planning begins from the link budget calculation. • 1 W output power at the BTS is reserved for a connection. coverage predictions can be quite different among the cells due to propagation environment and traffic distribution. there is no clear split between coverage. the traffic is assumed to be evenly distributed across a particular area. each area may have a different traffic density. the base station configuration and the link budget have to be defined. interference. • Predicted load in uplink is 30 percent and in downlink. the coverage threshold has to be well defined to exceed the required quality criteria but avoid unnecessary additional investments for the radio network elements. WCDMA planning is quite similar to GSM planning. The WCDMA link budget also contains some new parameters that are not used in the GSM link budget. In low traffic areas. unlike for GSM. The link budget in WCDMA. as in GSM. Typically. A typical link budget for WCDMA is presented in Table 3. Coverage Planning The propagation predictions for WCDMA require the same planning phases as in GSM. coverage threshold. 50 percent. Moreover. The link budget in Table 3 is divided into five parts.Although. Number 1 5 . Optimized base station parameters can be evaluated when the planning criteria are defined. Also. temperature and Boltzman's constant are given. in reality. First. many details differ between the systems. In service information. and capacity requirements are defined and the base station configuration is clarified in the link budget calculations. In high traffic areas. chip rate. in dimensioning. but the main principles can be applied to both. as the maximum expected path loss between the receiver and transmitter. Of course. The link budget is calculated based on the following assumptions: • Uplink bit rate is 64 kbps and downlink bit rate is 144 kbps. the final base station parameters can be used to make the propagation predictions. the frequency band. During detailed planning. the bit rates and loads for uplink and downlink are defined. because the load does not have a great impact on coverage. the actual propagation predictions process can start. This planning threshold means that agreement must be reached on the reasonable QoS level required for the different geograph- WCDMA Transmitter. Finally. Receiver. propagation is assumed to be similar for all cells and all cells are assumed to be identical. Receiving end and transmitting end define the radio links in the uplink and downlink directions. and capacity planning of WCDMA. in dimensioning. Monte-Carlo distribution of the mobile stations is used to predict instant traffic demand in the area of interest. Correct UMTS Base Station Placement Impacts System Capacity December 2002 • Volume 1. Also. When the base station antenna height. In general information. the capacity targets and forecasts have to be well known at this phase because they have a strong effect on the base station coverage area. Propagation measurements can be performed to finetune the propagation prediction model. takes into account the base station equipment configuration and the base station antenna line configuration.
00 3. SPF.93 -105.34 31. the main objective in capacity planning is to limit interference from the other cells to an acceptable level. etc. only one type of service (64/144 kbps data transmission) was introduced.34 ical locations.00 -112.93 -102.54 17. as obstacles to block the interfering cells.26 4. In the link budget in Table 3.) Basically.00 0. and the base station coverage was fixed for this service.00 44.00 0.8 dB) connections. In the uplink direction.00 0.38E-23 Units % Kbps Units dBm/Hz dB dBm/Hz dBm dB dBm dBm dB dB dBm dBi dB dB dB dB dB dBm dBµV/m Uplink 30 64.00 0.93 6. (See Figure 5. This can be achieved by using buildings.93 3. Also.55 -108.00 0. The planning threshold is defined in GSM by starting from the mobile station sensitivity (for the forward link) and by adding the required clutter planning margins to the sensitivity value in each particular planning terrain bin. The threshold also depends on whether the service has to be extended inside vehicles and buildings in different areas. Capacity Planning WCDMA capacity planning is directly related to the link budget and.34 0. Typical Link Budget for WCDMA Cell General Information Frequency Chip rate Temperature Boltzman's constant Service Information Load Bit rate Receiving End Thermal noise density Receiver noise figure Receiver noise density Noise power Interference margin Receiver interference power Total noise (thermal + interference) Processing gain Required Eb/No Receiver sensitivity RX antenna gain Cable loss LNA gain Antenna diversity gain Soft handover diversity gain Power control headroom Required signal power Field strength Z = 77. which varies significantly when comparing the 12.78 5.00 0. Network planning can increase the uplink load by reducing other cell interference.00 4. the question is about the spreading factor.00 154.00 -167.32 Urban Downlink 50 144.09 3.32 Downlink 1.09 1.08 14. This means that the base station coverage area is different for different users.00 0.84 293 1.00 0. It is 6 possible to have any type of service between the voice calls and 2 Mbps data traffic in the WCDMA base station.2 kbps voice call (SPF = 25 dB) and 2 Mbps data transmission (PG = 2.2 + 20*log(freq[MHz]) Transmitting End TX power per connection TX power Cable loss TX antenna gain Peak EIRP Isotropic path loss Units MHz Mcps K J/K Value 2100 3.Table 3.00 -109.00 4.00 21. thus.32 10.00 30. hills.. down-tilting is a very useBechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal .00 156.31 Units W dBm dB dBi dBm dB Uplink 0.00 -170.0 Uplink -173.77 -103.09 -99.0 Downlink -173.01 -102. to the base station coverage area.00 3.126 21.32 18.00 -116.00 0.00 -133.00 18.
Carrier selection may affect intra-operator and inter-operator interference. because the base station is transmitting to all the mobiles with very accurate timing of the spreading codes. However. It is recommended that the allocation be done with the help of a planning system to avoid the possibility for an error in the manual allocation. for example: • • • • • • • Traffic Traffic deviation Traffic mixture Soft handover percentage Average TX power Average RX power Drop calls 100 90 Relative Cell Range/Area (percent) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Relativ e Cell Range Relativ e Cell Area Bit Rate [Kbps] Figure 5. This means that code allocation is a relatively simple task. The system takes care of most of the code allocation. With more bandwidth user requests. The number of codes used in the early stages should be limited to allow for easier expansion of the network. Orthogonality is a measure of how much the users in the same cell do not interfere with each other. because the traffic demand can vary widely and this variation directly influences the radio network quality. The indicators that should be optimized and monitored are. The better and more accurately the traffic amount and locations can be modeled. and one of the techniques for solving these problems is to properly select the frequencies. needs continuous optimization and monitoring because the mobile users' locations and traffic behavior vary constantly. 4). the operators have to make a few decisions: WCDMA OPTIMIZATION AND MONITORING T he WCDMA system. The load equation for the downlink is similar to the equation for the uplink. Relative Cell Range and Cell Area versus User Bit Rate Using WCDMA (Cell ranges calculated by using Okumura-Hata propagation formula [Ref. a higher-level scrambling code is needed from the hierarchy of codes. UMTS operators have two or three carriers. like the GSM system. Number 1 7 . • Which carrier(s) is used for macro cells? • Which carrier(s) is used for micro cells? • Is any carrier(s) reserved for indoor solutions? When making these decisions. even though code capacity does differ for every user demand type. For example. and more code resources are drawn on. two aspects should be considered: the interference from other cells and the power of the base station. In the downlink direction. Many potential problems can be solved by proper network planning. as in all CDMA systems. Frequency planning has minor importance compared with GSM. etc. This monitoring requirement is emphasized in WCDMA. In the downlink. so the code reuse for downlink is 512.ful tool in limiting interference. so there is not much to plan. in the downlink there is a new parameter called orthogonality. users are much more orthogonal compared with uplink. However. The main task for network planning is the allocation of scrambling codes for the downlink (Ref. quality. code and frequency planning are simple tasks from a network planning point of view. the better and more efficiently (cost. 3] and antenna height of 25 meters) December 2002 • Volume 1. WCDMA Code and Frequency Planning In WCDMA.) the radio network can be designed and implemented. micro cells can cause high local interference for the operator's macro cells or another operator's macro or micro cells. There are 512 sets of scrambling codes available. At most. the interference aspects should be considered.
However. One way of achieving load balancing is to modify the antenna orientation and angular beamwidth of each sector to unify the traffic. three particularly important optimization challenges for WCDMA cell sites are examined: traffic load balancing. This is possible using smart array antennas. One of the biggest interference problems in WCDMA networks is pilot pollution. In fact. Another aspect of WCDMA optimization that directly affects cell site capacity is the management of handoff overhead. even within cells traffic tends to be distributed unevenly among the sectors. a targeted traffic load-balancing strategy allows more traffic growth and more efficient use of infrastructure and spectrum across the entire network. and interference control. handoff overhead management. However. After measuring the pilot strength in the area. Balancing the traffic load among the sectors of a cell alleviates the blocking and creates headroom for traffic growth. A detailed discussion of the WCDMA system is out of the scope of this paper. introducing downtilt. or reducing the transmitted power. And by creating headroom at network hot spots. as in areas A and B in Figure 7. Where a Large Area is Covered by Soft/Softer Handoff Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal . the size of handoff zones within the cell footprint should be decreased. soft/softer handoff implies a significant cost in capacity. as shown in Figure 6. Balancing Traffic Load and Boosting Capacity Using Smart Antenna • • • • • Interference Handovers per cell Inter-system handovers Throughput Bit error rate and frame error rate with two or more cells or sectors at any given time. The soft/softer handoff feature of the CDMA air interface improves the quality and reliability of CDMA calls.Sector C Sector A Sector C Sector A Sector B Sector B a) Unbalanced load b) Balanced load using smart antenna Figure 6. The fundamental problem of traffic loading is that cellular traffic is distributed unevenly among different geographical areas of the network. because a given mobile may be in contact 8 A B Figure 7. because the data may give hints on how to optimize the parameters to enhance the performance of the network. The solution is to reduce the size of the coverage footprint. Pilot pollution is often caused due to high-elevation sites with RF coverage footprints much larger than normal. Example of Inefficient Design. Interference directly limits capacity of CDMA cell sites. This can be accomplished by reducing the elevation of offending antennas. Such imbalance has the effect of locking up network capacity in underutilized sectors while causing blocking problems in the most heavily used sectors. Handoff zones should be shifted from high-traffic areas to low-traffic areas. Many of the listed indicators should be collected on a cell and service basis.
Prasad. Dinan and B. He has authored more than 20 conference papers and journal articles and has filed a patent on a novel signaling mechanism developed for 3G cellular networks. T he UMTS radio interface system planning has the same basic philosophy as GSM but varies in the detail mainly because of two reasons: the change of radio propagation channel that is a wideband type. UMTS Radio Interface System Planning and Optimization Subject WCDMA radio propagation channel Finding • Channel delay spread is larger than chip duration. WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet. Esmael was product manager for GMPLS control plane of the RAYStar DWDM optical switch at Movaz Networks. "Spreading Codes in Direct Sequence CDMA and Wideband CDMA. • A simple process: The same frequency can be used for all the cells.Table 4. and lead network architect at Worldcom. VA. Prasad. GPRS." IEEE Communications Magazine. therefore.htm). and Dupont Cryogenic TMA performance verification and testing. September 1998. Ojanpera and R. Ojanpera and R. Hata. September 1998. in Electrical Engineering from George Mason University. and UMTS Standard Documents. GSM. The WCDMA link budget depends on changes in bit rate and spreading factor. 3. channel is wideband (frequency selective fading). T. December 2002 • Volume 1. development of the Liberty project RF engineering processes and procedures. pp 82-95. T.D.org/getastandard/home. 4. Artech House Publishers. WCDMA link budget • Planning covers the same basics as GSM. Fairfax. Before joining Bechtel. Star21 Network auditing. No. Jabbari. E." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. The major subjects and findings are again gathered in Table 4 to summarize the major challenges concerning radio interface system planning in UMTS. Esmael has conducted research on access methods and performance modeling of 3G wireless communications and high-speed optical networks. while channel planning is unique to GSM. • Traffic information and forecasting are necessary in coverage planning. Esmael Dinan has been instrumental in many aspects of the AWS Liberty RF engineering project and Bechtel GBU (Global Business Unit) research activities. WCDMA coverage and capacity planning process • Coverage and capacity planning are related. EDGE. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. • Service depends on the distance from base station. • Rake receiver takes into account multipath. Esmael received his Ph. 2000." IEEE Communications Magazine. pp 48-54. • Allocation of scrambling codes is required for downlink. and the change of modulation and transmission mechanism that is DS-CDMA. Capacity planning Frequency planning Code planning Optimization and monitoring CONCLUSIONS BIOGRAPHY As a senior RF engineer with Bechtel Telecommunications. 3. M. 2. • Code planning is unique to WCDMA systems. His activities include design of the RF engineering data management sysEsmael Dinan tem.etsi. but uses different parameters. "An Overview of Air Interface Multiple Access for IMT-2000/UMTS. • These factors are of greater importance than with GSM. Vol VT-29. REFERENCES 1. 5. pp 317-325. August 1980. (http://www. Number 1 9 . "Empirical Formula for Propagation Loss in Land Mobile Radio Services.
Between engineering and marketing Aleksey Kurochkin positions. Aleksey is an electrical engineer. where he built an efficient multi-product team focused on RF planning and system engineering. Sam has a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering in Telecommunications from George Mason University. In previous positions. Wireless Planning. Aleksey came to Bechtel from Hughes Network Systems. in the Bechtel Telecommunications Technology group. 10 Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal . with an MSEE/CS degree from Moscow Technology University. a group that he originated. Sam Kettani is a senior RF engineer at Bechtel Telecommunications. Sam Kettani microwave design. Aleksey has experience in international te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s business management and network implementation. he was responsible for network planning and integration of various systems. he is responsible for network design of mobile and fixed wireless networks. coordinating and managing numerous projects. He has hands-on experience with wireless technologies and applications such as PCS and TDMA/CDMA and network performance analysis. he has both theoretical and hands-on experience with most wireless technologies. Sam was also responsible for guidelines and processes. and engineering of fixed wireless networks using PTP (pointto-point) and PMP (point-to-multipoint) technologies.Aleksey Kurochkin is currently director. specializing in telecommunications and information systems. Currently.
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