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The definition of our problem lies in manual system and a fully automated system. Manual system: The system is very time consuming and lazy. This system is more prone to errors and sometimes the approach to various problems is unstructured.
Technical system: With the advent of latest technology if we do not update our system then our business result in losses gradually with time. The technical systems contains the tools of latest trend i.e. computers printers, fax, Internet etc. The systems with this technology are very fast, accurate, user-friendly and reliable.
Need of Airlines system A few factors that direct us to develop a new system are given below -: 1) Faster System 2) Accuracy 3) Reliability 4) Informative 5) Reservations and cancellations from anywhere to any place
EXISTING SYSTEM In the existing system there is no provision for senior citizen concession and there is no facility for viewing single passenger record.
PROPOSED SYSTEM The main implementation requirements for this project are The client tier must not be changed, which means that the format of all the communication messages have to be preserved. Some functionality, like check digit validation, time, stamps etc. Are supplied by already existing routines which we are obliged to use. The format of communication in modules are fixed and non changeable. All the technical documentation formats are also fixed and have to be followed. Some customer implementation techniques have to be followed. A facility for viewing the single passenger record is made available. We have made concession in ticket fair for senior citizen
DESIGN CONCEPT The algorithm is developed as flow chart and the data flow diagrams, to describe the step-wise procedure of the application. The basic requirements, which are got from the customer, should all be covered in this algorithm developed. Most components described in the system architecture section will require a more detailed discussion. Other lowerlevel components may need to be described as well. The kind of component, such as a subsystem like delete, insert, module like student detail, class like library, package, function, file etc.The specific purpose and semantic meaning of the component describe this. This may need to refer back to the requirement specification.
The tickets issued should have the details such as plane number, ticket number, seat number, traveler’s name, time of departure. The traveler should be informed about the check-in time.The names of the fields involved in the airline reservation system are FLIGHT DETAILS CHECK AVAILABILITY BOOK TICKET VIEW SINGLE PASSENGER RECORD(by taking the ticket number) EXIT MODULE 1: FLIGHT DETAILS This module is used to view the flight details with ease and it tends the passenger to book tickets without much difficulty. MODULE 2: CHECK AVAILABILITY This module is used to check the availability of the flights and the information of the seats in that flight. MODULE 3: SINGLE PASSENGER RECORD This module is used to view the single passenger details with the help of the ticket number issued after booking with input support information. MODULE 4: BOOK TICKET This module is used to book the ticket after checking the availability of tickets I the flights. A ticket can be booked to a maximum of five just by entering the passenger name, age and their details. MODULE 5: EXIT This module is used to exit from the reservation form.
stationary. the company is still saving Rs 25 Lacks PA.A. electricity. Hence the new system is economically feasible. AC and networking etc. TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY The new system requires only 6 trained person to work with the system and in overall 10 people per office are sufficient. telephone etc.. so we need a one time investment of Rs 4 Laks for the purchase of 7 computers. a laser printer. It can lead to an indefinite strike in the company also. 5 Ticket printers. So the management must take corrective actions prior in advance in order to start the further proceedings. With the above details our system is technically feasible as after investing 24 Lacks in a year. But with the new system this reoccurring cost comes out to be about 20 Lacks P. So we will identify 6 best people from existing system and train them. water. building rent.A. This cost comprises salary of 25 people. but we have conducted three type of feasibilities explained as under. The new system demands the expulsion of at least 15 people from the company. It requires 20 Lacks PA as a operating cost. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY With the manual system the operating cost of the system is about 60 Lacks P. OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY The new solution is feasible in all sence but operationally it is not.FEASIBILITY STUDY Feasibility study is to check the viability of the project under consideration. As our existing system is purely manual. 4 . Theoretically various types of feasibilities are conducted. It creates an environment of joblessness and fear among the employees.
3. 5 . The subsections follow a logical sequence that reflects the real world. This section is split into subsections modeled after the real world activities like reserving tickets. a customer cannot reschedule a ticket unless he has bought one earlier and cannot buy one unless he has checked its availability. It helps us see how the system fits into the existing scheme of things.REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS Background This project deals with the development of a Software Requirements Specification (SRS) document that specifies what an airline reservation system should and should not do. System Objectives This section lists all the goals and objectives of the system categorized based on the viewpoint of the airline company and the customer (passenger). rescheduling tickets etc. A consistent terminology has been followed throughout and the terms are explained in the appendix. The SRS document is divided into five sections namely 1. For example. 2. Functional Requirements This section is the bulk of the document and precisely states the functions of the system – what it should do and what it should not. What the system will do by itself and what it expects other entities to do is clearly delineated. They help in a top-down development of the SRS. Freedom from ambiguity and navigability were kept in mind while documentation. System Context This section clearly depicts the environment and boundaries of the ARS and the entities with which it interacts. These are higher-level goals which are somewhat broad in nature.
flight cancellation due to inclement weather. 5. reserving. 1.4. tradeoffs are necessary among various non-functional requirements. by web. at the information desk and across different physical locations.2. Some of these need advanced technologies and interfaces with other systems. 1.2.g.1 System Objectives The Airline Reservation System (ARS) is a software application to assist an airline with transactions related to making ticket reservations.g. The users should be basically taken through the same steps by the system as they go through in conventional desk-reservation systems. canceling and rescheduling tickets. Future Requirements These are the specifications which are not provided for now in the current version of ARS but which could be incorporated into future versions. e. by phone. The profile can also be used by the 6 . Numerical lower and upper limits set conditions on the response times. The assumptions and limitations of the ARS have been interspersed in the SRS to present the same in their proper context. 1. 1. 1.1 Minimize repetitive work done by the system administrator and reservation clerks. Sometimes. which includes blocking. Non-functional Requirements These are quality requirements that stipulate the performance levels required of the system for various kinds of activities. The ARS could be designed in future to enhance the existing capabilities or add entirely new ones.2 From the viewpoint of the airline 1.3 Maintain customer information in case of emergency.2 Maintain consistency among different access modes.2. e. access times etc of the system.
2.6 Protect customers’ privacy concerns.4 Check the validity of input data and give a feedback to the user in case of errors or inconsistency. the customer buys the ticket.2.4. 1. 1. 1.3 Reduce redundancy in the information required from the customers in order for them to buy tickets.3.3 A survey conducted by airline companies shows that users of an existing reservation system would respond favorably to an ARS that satisfied or helped them satisfy the following objectives: 1.3. 1. 1. create user accounts etc.3.3 Maintain the capability to adopt a flexible pricing policy.4 Maximize the revenue of the airline company by various means: 1. PDA. plan routes. 7 .3.3. 1. telephone.1 Increase awareness among frequent travelers about various special offers and discounts.4.3. 1.7 Make it easy for travelers to check the ticket status or make changes to their trip. The price of the tickets should be dynamically determined based on how early. 1.2. before the date of departure. for better marketing and efficient scheduling of flights.3.airline company to track user preferences and travel patterns to serve them better.4.2. 1.2 Show all possible combinations and itineraries available for a pair of origin-destination cities.2 Minimize the number of vacant seats on a flight and maximize flight capacity utilization.1 Reduce effort and frustration for travelers in scheduling a trip.5 Provide flexible access modes to users – internet. especially by reducing the search effort for the flight they need to take. 1.
The functionality available through this telephonic interface is limited because of security constraints.1. check flight schedule and check ticket status including any change in the flight timings. and reschedule tickets.2 The ARS will also provide an interactive GUI.2 The system and its environment and the interactions between them are depicted in the diagram below. availability of seats.1 System Context The ARS will provide the following types of easy-to-use.access to the ARS to check the flight schedule.2. The closed boundary above clearly delineates the system and the environment.4 The ARS will also provide an easy-to-use. simple telephonic user interface.1. and intuitive graphical and telephonic interfaces. 2. intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) as part of the Clerk/Administrator’s working desktop environment.1 The ARS will provide an easy-to-use. namely. which can be accessed by the customers through telephone or cell phone from anywhere. 2. cancel. ticket price and to block. This can be updated by the user by logging in to the system. 2. reserve. only to the following functionalities. 2. 2. The diagram shows the interactions between the ARS software and the databases inside the system. This interface shall provide access. 2. DB-user is the database containing all the personal information of the registered users of the ARS. 8 . There are three databases internal to the system and which the system maintains.3 The above two ARS interfaces shall help provide the following functionalities to the users . interactive.1.1. on the World Wide Web for the general customers.
9 . if a flight has been added to the schedule between two cities on Tuesdays.Information from this database is used during transactions like charging the credit card etc. Customer Via Web I N T E R DB-User DB-Reservations DB-Schedule Flight Schedul e ARS software DB-Geography INTERFACE ‘Cp’ INTERFACE ‘A’ Customer Via Phone Administrator DB-schedule is updated with the latest status of the flight schedule database whenever there is any change in the latter. It is external to the system and is out of the scope of this SRS. DB-schedule is a copy of the flight schedule database. For example. DB-schedule also contains the base prices of tickets for various flight numbers. The latter exists independently and is updated by a flight scheduler system which is out of scope of the ARS. DB-reservations are a database containing information regarding the number of seats available on each class on different flights. DB-schedule gets updated with this change through a process with which we are not concerned. It has provision for marking how many of the reserved seats have been blocked but not yet bought.
as the first step in the interaction between them. one for the customer via web and another for the customer via phone.1. The terms ‘registered user’ and ‘guest’ are described below. He would have his personal information stored in the database referred to earlier in section 2 as ‘DB-user’. which contains information about the cities and towns serviced by the airline.1 A user who has traveled by the airline earlier would have been given a user id and a password. The system uses a pricing algorithm and dynamically determines the actual price from this base price depending on the date of reservation vis-à-vis date of departure. This ‘personal information’ would be henceforth referred to as ‘profile’. who will henceforth be called the ‘user’.2 A new user. 3. The distance between all cities and towns is contained in a matrix form. A registered user will be able to check the availability of tickets as well as block/buy a ticket by logging into the system. DB-geography is a database. A user can choose one of these and his choice would be governed by whether he is a guest or a registered user and whether he wants to check the availability of tickets or also block/buy them. would either have to 10 . There are three interfaces.1. The administrator can update DB-schedule with any changes in the base prices of flight tickets. 3. for example.DB-reservations should update itself using DB-schedule. will be presented with 3 choices by the reservation system. if a new flight is added. Such a user with a profile in DB-user shall be called a ‘registered user’. 3. on the other hand. one for the administrator. 3.1. The customer interfaces (web and phone) enable multiple functions which are described in the following section – section 3.1.1 Functional Requirements User Accounts 3.1.1 The passenger.
phone number. sex. last name. The system shall present the user with an option to exit from the system at any time during the following processes.2 The system shall now refer to the flight schedule database. In case of ‘b’.3. the system shall request him to enter the following details – origin city and destination city. 3. the price of tickets and any discount offers. email address. age. ‘Availability of tickets’ always refers to viewing the flight schedule for given days. the new user would remain a guest.1 After logging in a user (either a registered user or a guest). The origin and destination cities would be entered as text. the new user becomes a registered user. But a registered user can also act as a guest if he only wants to check the availability of tickets. and check if there is any ambiguity with the names of the cities.3 Checking Availability 3.2 Registration and creation of user profile The system shall require a user to register. a password. 3. referred to as ‘DB-geography’ in section 2. 3. in order to carry out any transactions with it except for checking the availability of tickets. “City’ is a generic term and refers to a city or town as the case may be.3. In case there are more than two cities with same name as 11 . It will ask the user for the following information at the least – a user id. preferred credit card number. A guest can only check the availability of tickets and cannot block or buy tickets.a) register himself with the system by providing personal information or b) log into the system as a guest. first name. In case of ‘a’. address. The system will automatically create a ‘sky miles’ field and initialize it to zero in the user’s profile.
either the origin or destination cities are not listed in DB-geography as being directly serviced by the airline.4.3.2 Having taken all the above input from the user. 3. If not. the trip is a round trip. This choice shall be made by the user through a drop down menu indicating all the possible combinations of choices.entered by the user. the system shall also ask the user to enter the departure date on the return trip.3. departure date and the number of adult passengers. entered through a calendar-like menu. the system checks for any false entries like the departure date on the return trip 12 . The user shall now be presented with a choice of either selecting one of the routes. This menu shall not show dates in the past or those dates that are too ahead in the future(as determined by the airline policy). the system shall list all of them (with more qualifications) and ask the user to select one of them. the system shall now access the flight schedule database.4 The system shall now ask the user to enter the following details . 3. ‘Departure date’ refers to either a single date or a range of dates. including the distance of the destination city from this nearest city. In case.3 After the origin and destination cities are ascertained. children and senior citizens. the system shall suggest the nearest city to which service is available.4. 3. oneway or round trip. the system shall fill in the intermediate stop over points and create a multiple trip itinerary for the user. ‘Class’ refers to business class/first class/club class/smoking/non smoking. In case.3. 3.class. In case he selects a route. and checks if there is a direct operational service between the two cities.3. referred to as ‘DB-schedule’ in section 2.1 One-way/round trip shall be either a drop down menu or a check box selection. the system shall suggest possible routes and transfer points using a ‘route selection algorithm’.
being earlier than the departure date on the onward trip. 3.5 Having taken all of the information as laid out above in 3.1 The system shall also list any rules regarding the cancellation of tickets – what percentage of the price will be refunded within what date ranges. In case. 126.96.36.199. the system shall display a suitable error message and prompt the user to enter the information correctly.3.7.3 The user is now asked to check one of the boxes reflecting a choice of a flight number and time.3.1 There can be several flights between two cities and all of them will be listed for the particular date that the user wants to depart from the Origin City. the system shall display all the flights for all those dates in the range.6. the system shall now access the flight schedule database ‘DB-schedule’ and queries it using the input provided by the user.3. There will be a check box in front of each line in the table representing a flight with available seats. In case of a round trip. The system displays the results in a suitable form (a tabular form) with the following information depicted – for each flight number – the flight number. 3. the user is asked to check one box each in the two tables.2 If the user has requested a round trip. This will be the sum of the prices for all the members of the travel party being represented by the user.3.3. This will be displayed as a table. 13 . 3.one for the onward trip and one for the return trip.1 and 3.7 The system shall now display the price of the ticket for the trip. the user has entered a range of dates. the system shall display two tables . the duration of the flight (taking into account the possibility of a change of time zone) and the number of seats available on that flight. 3.4. departure time in origin city.6. 3. In case of incompatibility.6 The system queries the reservation database ‘DB-reservations’ to check which of the flights on the schedule have seats available.3.6. 3. arrival time in destination city.
4. 3. the system informs the user that he has no option to block the ticket and asks him if he would like to buy it.2 Having ensured that the user is logged on validly according to 3. Checking Availability. he will have to first register and become a registered user and then log onto the system. b) If the user is already a registered user. It generates a blocking number and displays it for the user to note down.3 Having taken the input from the user in 3. the system compares the departure date with the system date.4. The system informs the user that he can block the ticket at no cost now. It also informs him that if he chooses to block the ticket. 3. the system makes a note of it in the database .2. the system asks the user if he would like to block or buy the ticket. 14 .2. and if he has logged on already.1 If the difference between the departure date and system date is more than 2 weeks. he should make a final decision before 2 weeks of the departure date. in case he decides to block the ticket now.3.4.to be used if the user doesn’t turn up before 2 weeks of the departure date.1 After having taken the user through the step 3. he can block/buy the ticket. If the departure date falls within 2 weeks of the system date. It will decrement the number of available seats on the particular flight for the particular class by the number of travelers being represented by the user. 3.3.4. The system will now ask the user if he wishes to block/buy the ticket. the system shall now proceed to update the reservation database DB-reservation. The system shall send an email to the user.4.1. he will have to log on.4 Making Reservations/Blocking/Confirmation 3. 3. If yes. 3 weeks before the departure date as a reminder.4. and a) if the user has been a guest.1 In case of a blocking.4.3. but if he has been acting as a guest.
3. the system first logs on the user and requests his confirmation number. 3.2 The system shall now ask the user to select new dates from the calendarmenu. The seat is now confirmed and reserved for the user.5.5.2 In case the user buys the ticket. The ticket has been reserved.5. The ticket has been reserved. including but not limited to origin city. It will not allow a user to reschedule a blocked ticket but only a confirmed ticket.3 The system accesses DB-user and charges the price of the ticket to the credit card number of the user. 3.4. It simultaneously generates a confirmation number and displays it for the user to note down. is required to either confirm the ticket before two weeks of the departure date or the ticket stands cancelled. 3.3. 3.2 To let the user confirm a ticket. Using this.4. 3. destination city.6 Reschedule Ticket 3.1 A user who has earlier blocked a ticket after going through the steps 3. In order to do this. 3. which so far represented a blocked seat. it queries DB-reservation and presents the details of the trip to the user.6. the system accesses his profile and charges the price of the ticket to his credit card number.2 through 3. Then it accesses DB-reservation and removes the check mark.3.3 It adds the mileage of the trip (accounting for the number of travelers) to the skymiles in his profile. 3.6. the system shall first log him on and ask for his blocking number. date of departure and date of arrival (in case the trip is a round trip). It simultaneously generates a confirmation number and displays it to the user for him to note down. It now goes through step 3.4 It adds the mileage of the trip (accounting for the number of travelers) to the skymiles in his profile.3. 15 .4.5.1 The system shall present the user with an option to re-schedule his travel party’s trip.5 Confirm Ticket 3.
1 In case. 3. The system generates a new confirmation number and displays it to the user. for a confirmed ticket.2. 3. it displays a suitable message informing him that rescheduling to that date is not possible. Then it accesses DB-reservation and updates it by incrementing the number of available seats by the number of people in the user’s travel party.2 In the former case.1. the system asks the user to select the flight number for the trip (another for the return trip if the trip is a round trip) and proceeds to update the database.6.7. 16 .3. 3..1 The latter case is simpler and will be dealt with first – the system shall first log on the user and request the blocking number.4 The system now checks if there is any difference in the prices of the tickets.e.6.6. 3.7. 3. i.2 In case there are tickets available.1 The system shall also give the user an option to cancel a confirmed ticket or a blocked ticket.2 It then lists the applicable rules for cancellation of tickets and depending on the system date and the departure date. there are no available tickets for the dates entered.6. it displays the % of the amount that would be refunded if the user cancels the ticket.188.8.131.52 Cancellation 3.6. It then increments the entry for the previous flight by the same number to reflect an increase in the available seats on it as a result of the rescheduling.1. If so.1. it accesses DB-user and charges or credits the credit card as the case may be.3 The system accesses DB-reservation and decrements the number of available seats on the flight(s) by the number of members in the user’s travel party. 3. it asks for the confirmation number and accesses DB-reservation and presents the details of the trip as in step 3. 3.
3.7.3 After the user cancels the ticket, the system generates a cancellation number and displays it for the user to note down. It accesses DB-reservation and updates it by incrementing the number of available seats on that flight by the number of travelers in the user’s party. It accesses DB-user and credits the refund amount to his credit card number. The system then deducts the mileage of the trip (taking into account the number of travelers in his party) from the sky miles in his profile. 3.8 Update Profile The system shall enable the user to update his profile at any time. Changes can be made in fields including but not limited to address, phone number and preferred credit card number. 3.9 View Ticket Status The system shall allow a user to view all information about his trip. After logging him on, it asks for his blocking number or his confirmation number. It accesses DB-reservation and retrieves the details of the trip and presents them to the user in a convenient format, including any last minute changes to the flight timings etc. Such changes will be highlighted. 3.10 Query Flight Details The system shall allow any user (registered or non registered) to access the details about the arrival and departure times of a flight by requesting the user to input the flight number and date. The system accesses DB-schedule and presents the time of arrival and departure. 3.11 Telephone access The system shall be accessible through a touch-tone telephone. The telephonic interface shall, at the least, provide the customer with the facility to check availability of tickets and query flight details. The system shall walk the customer exactly through steps 3.3 and 3.9 respectively but through a telephonic interface. 17
Performance 4.1.1 Response time of the Airline Reservation System should be less than 2 second most of the time. Response time refers to the waiting time while the system accesses, queries and retrieves the information from the databases (DB-user, DB-schedule etc) (A local copy of flight schedule database is maintained as DB-schedule to reduce this access time) 4.1.2 ARS shall be able to handle at least 1000 transactions/inquiries per second. 4.1.3 ARS shall show no visible deterioration in response time as the number of users or flight schedule data increases
4.2.1 ARS shall be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week 4.2.2 ARS shall always provide real time information about flight availability information. 4.2.3 ARS shall be robust enough to have a high degree of fault tolerance. For example, if the user enters a negative number of passengers or a value too large, the system should not crash and shall identify the invalid input and produce a suitable error message. 4.2.4 ARS shall be able to recover from hardware failures, power failures and other natural catastrophes and rollback the databases to their most recent valid state. 4.3 Usability
4.3.1 ARS shall provide a easy-to-use graphical interface similar to other existing reservation system so that the users do not have to learn a new style of interaction.
4.3.2 The web interface should be intuitive and easily navigable Users should be able to understand the menu and options provided by ARS. 4.3.3 Any notification or error messages generated by ARS shall be clear, succinct, polite and free of jargon. 4.4 Integrity
4.4.1 Only system administer has the right to change system parameters, such as pricing policy etc. The system should be secure and must use encryption to protect the databases. 4.4.2 Users need to be authenticated before having access to any personal data. 4.5 Interoperability
4.5.1 ARS shall minimize the effort required to couple it to another system, such as flight schedule database system.
5 Future Requirements 5.1 Support for waiting list functionality 5.1.1. ARS shall be made more flexible in ticket reservation handling, and shall accept waiting list for reservation. 5.1.2 The waiting list handling capability of ARS shall be made more advanced, by enabling it to send requests to the Flight Scheduler to schedule extra flights, depending on the demand in a particular corridor, and providing the wait listed passengers with a new flight. 5.2 The telephonic interface of the ARS shall be improved to support more functionality like allowing the customers to cancel a ticket etc., by incorporating security measures. 5.3 ARS shall be made more dynamic and helpful to the users by enabling it to send instant messages to the passengers, of a cancelled or rescheduled flight,
and providing them with other feasible alternatives. phone..8 Choices like aisle or window seats shall be provided to the users. 20 .through email. fax etc. 5. The ARS shall be able to handle the situation where flight services are available to multiple airports in a single city.7 5. 5. informing them about the change.6 Provide service integration with auto rental agencies and hotel chains. 5.4 Information about the kind of meals served in a flight and the type of entertainment offered on a flight should be incorporated into the system. Interface for the travel agents shall be provided in the future versions with additional features like informing them of any availability of seats on a flight which was earlier booked to capacity.5 5.
The block diagram given bellow depict various fact which were understood by one during the analysis phase. BLOCK DIAGRAM 21 . It had connected my maximum time .SYSTEM ANALYSIS This was the most important phase of my project life cycle.
Lotus Airline agencies.In the next phase I had various quiries in my mind . Tick marks the total time required for the implementation of the project? • • • • 3 months 6 months 9 months Others specify Q4. The above block diagram is an implementation of this observation . Pardes Airline agencies.1 Tick mark the features to be included in the new system? • • • • • • Enquiry Reservation Cancellation Report Edit Other specify Q2. Tick mark the reports to be Incorporated? • • • • • List of all passenger List of all flights List of passenger(date wise) List of passenger(flight wise) Any other 22 .In that phase initially I had observed the system by visiting to Indiragandhi Airport(domestic terminal) and a few airline reservation agency. Q. Tick mark that the system should be ? • • Multi-user Single user Q3.Which I tried to ask from appropriate authorities.
Enquiry: Ticket no. Cancel amount. cash. sex. In this connection I had come to know about various master files as In passenger list: Passenger name.gau to del 12. ticket no.After getting solution my queries I started studying database structure used in the existing system .IC548. f_code. seat number.class. Fare. tel_no . Address.cheque.IC7896. pnr. Basic amount. economic capacity. Class. profession father name. Departure time.credit.33 pm In this process further I had visited the air port again in order to INTER VIEW people to know more about the system The main purpose was To analyses the method of calculating daily income reservation cost generation methods. Date of paid. air length. t_economic seat no. Fleet info: No aircraft.33 pm to2. v_o_t. flight code. number of passenger. departure time arrival time. Age. c_code. Cancellation: Pnr. d_o_b.Flight code. Concession: concession name. Days left. destination place.Fare. Duty schedule. Current date. engine type. baggage allowance. discount. seat. Move of payment: Passenger code. fare. destination place. source place. Fare: route. Flight info: f_name. concession code. PNR. source place. Debit. class. Reservation: Ticket report.IC567. Arrival time. and few concern things. Various categories of flight code are display here CD455. cruisespeed.CD445 Flight schedule .t_exeseat no. 23 . club_pre_capacity.
attributers. in order to identify various entities and relationship set. The tables motivated in data dictionaries enclosed as annex II is an outcome of this step. After this step we had tried design the data base for the new system and normalized it.SYSTEM DESIGN In this phase initially I had designed E-R diagram of the processes. The symbols of entities are shown below. 24 . entity set. link attributes The Diagram of this process as under.
E-R DIAGRAM FOR BOOKING DEPARTMENT 25 .
E-R DIAGRAM FOR CANCELLATION 26 .
LEVEL 0 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 27 .DATA FLOW DIAGRAM In order to design a better solution. I had designed the DFD for system including all technical processing details is given bellow.
LEVEL 1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM OF GENERAL ENQUIRY SYSTEM 28 .
LEVEL 2 DFD OF BOOKING 29 .
LEVEL 2 DFD OF CANCELLATION 30 .
not an instance of a user. Actors represent users and other systems that interact with the system. They are drawn as ellipses. Use Cases are used to model how a system or business currently works. it is really a form of process modeling. or how the users wish it to work.USE CASE DIAGRAM Use Case Modeling Use Case modeling is the simplest and most effective technique for modeling system requirements from a user’s perspective. Use cases are generally the starting point of object-oriented analysis with UML. They are drawn as stick figures. Use Case Modeling 31 . however. It is. It is not really an objectoriented approach. They actually represent a type of user. an excellent way to lead into object-oriented analysis of systems. Use cases represent the behavior of the system. The Use Case model consists of actors and use cases. scenarios that the system goes through in response to stimuli from an actor.
with no 'or' conditions. or testing requirements. The goal of capturing and verifying user requirements is to ensure that all requirements are fulfilled by the design.Each Use Case is documented by a description of the scenario. Each scenario shows a different sequence of interactions between actors and the system. These are described in a later section of this document. Oftentimes system requirements exist already in the form of requirements documents. and build packages to represent the various business domains of the system. Each Use Case can also be defined by other properties. You may decompose each package with a Use Case diagram that contains the Use Cases of the domain. If the requirements do not exist. product requirements. Activity Diagrams provide a graphical tool to model the process of a Use Case. and that the design conforms to the defined requirements. The description can be written in textual form or in a step-by-step format. and conditions that exist after the scenario completes. Use Cases are used tocorrelate every scenario to the requirements it fulfills. These requirements can be software requirements. with actor interactions. such as the pre. 32 . modeling the system through Use Cases enables discovery of requirements. A Use Case for Every Scenario The goal is to build a Use Case diagram for each significantly different kind of scenario in the system. Organization of Use Case Diagrams During business analysis of the system. Capture and/or Verify Requirements The final objective of any software design is to satisfy the user requirements for the system.and postconditions of the scenario – conditions that exist before the scenario begins. you can develop one Use Case model for the system.
Model Alternate Sequences through "Extends" Relationship Typically. the chunk of behavior can be modeled in a separate Use Case that is related to the other Use Cases by the Uses relationship. one models each Use Case with a normal sequence of actions. which are related to the original Use Case by an "Extends" relationship. and develops Use Cases based on these alternate sequences of events. The Uses relationship can be thought of as a Use Case equivalent of aggregation Use Case Extends Versus Uses Relationships 33 . The Extends relationship can be thought of as a Use Case equivalent to inheritance. The user then considers "what if" conditions for each step. The alternate sequences are modeled in separate Use Cases. in that the Extending Use Case inherits and overrides behavior of the original Use Case. Eliminate Redundant Modeling through "Uses" Relationship To eliminate redundant modeling of a chunk of behavior that appears in multiple Use Cases.
With the Sequence and Collaboration diagrams.Use Cases Aid in Testing System against Requirements Use Cases are also used to build test scripts that are used to verify that the application satisfies the business and system requirements. you may create a Sequence diagram for the Use Case. you can model the implementation of the scenario.When you have arrived at the lowest Use Case level. 34 .
then you can ‘walk through’ the steps to discover what objects are necessary for the steps to occur. If you have modeled the description of the Use Case as a sequence of steps. 35 . Whereas the Use Case diagram enables modeling of a business view of the scenario. A Sequence diagram shows objects involved in the scenario by vertical dashed lines. the modeler typically places the business name of a message on the message line. during design. Later. The method called. or invoked. A Sequence diagram is modeled for every Use Case. and messages passed between the objects.SEQUECNCE DIAGRAM FOR AIRLINE BOOKING SYSTEM The Sequence diagram is one of the most effective diagrams to model object interactions in a system. including the objects and classes that are used to implement the scenario. and messages passed between the objects as horizontal vectors. the horizontal spacing of objects is arbitrary. the business name is replaced with the name of the method being called by one object on the other. The messages are drawn chronologically from the top of thediagram to the bottom. Typically one examines the description of the Use Case to determine what objects are necessary to implement the scenario. belongs to the definition of the class instantiated by the object on the receiving end of the message. the Sequence diagram contains implementation details of the scenario. During initial analysis.
SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR AIRLINE BOOKING SYSTEM Sequence Diagram for a Scenario 36 .
simple. each link representing an instance of an association between the respective classes involved. and the visibility of objects to each other. Objects are connected by links. Collaboration Diagram for a Group of Objects 37 .COLLABORATION DIAGRAM FOR AIRLINE BOOKING SYSTEM The Collaboration Diagram presents an alternate to the Sequence Diagram for modeling interactions between objects in the system. asynchronous. the type of message passed (synchronous. balking. Whereas in the Sequence Diagram the focus is on the chronological sequence of the scenario being modeled. in the Collaboration Diagram the focus is on understanding all of the effects on a given object during a scenario. and time-out). The link shows messages sent between the objects.
Sequence diagrams. the diagram is developed with an eye for an ideal solution. the same diagram is used. the class structure of the system is specified. During design. Class Diagram During Analysis Stage 38 . with relationships between classes and inheritance structures. Development of Class Diagram during Analysis Use Case Driven Approach In a Use Case-driven approach to OO analysis. and Collaboration diagrams. the Class diagram is developed through information garnered in the Use Cases. The objects found during analysis are modeled in terms of the classes they instantiate. and modified to conform to implementation details. During analysis of the system. and the object interactions are mapped to relationships between the instantiated classes.CLASS DIAGRAM Analysis and Design with the Class Diagram The class diagram is the main static analysis and design diagram for a system. In it.
and who they need to collaborate with to fulfill their responsibilities. collaborations translateto associations between classes. responsibilities correspond to class methods. Each class is represented on an index card. Informal UML Extension -. This information translates directly into a class diagram.Responsibility-Driven Extension The CRC card technique is sometimes used as an extension to UML for responsibilitydriven analysis.CRC Cards for Responsibility Driven Analysis 39 . Class definitions are refined based on the class's responsibilities and other classes it collaborates with to fulfill responsibilities. and designers play-act the roles of classes in the system to determine their job.
Design of System with Class Diagram During design. 40 . the user interface design. the class diagram is elaborated to take into account the concrete details of implementing thesystem. each potentially running on different platforms.One approach to managing the class diagram for a complex system is to separate the diagram into sections that show the application logic. Multi-Tiered Architectures One concern during design is to establish the architecture of the system. a two-tiered system consisting of a client and a server. This includes establishing whether it will be a simple system designed to run on a single machine. or simply by adding a property to each class that tracks which tier it belongs to. This can be physically done by segmenting the class diagram. or a multi-tiered system with userinterface objects separate from business application objects separate from the database. and the classes involved with the storage of data. using separate diagrams for each section.
A component is similar to a black box. with the name of the interface by the circle. The alternate. the Passenger class also provides a save(store at) operation through its Persistent interface. through its Displayable interface. Both UML interface notations are shown in the figure. without providing knowledge of the component's internal design and implementation. A database connectivity class or component might use this interface. There are two notations to show an interface – one is to show the interface as a regular class symbol with the stereotype <<interface>>. y coord) operation for its appearance on a GUI.COMPONENT DIAGRAM Component Design A component is a group of interacting objects or smaller components that combine to provide a service. In addition. with a list of operations supported by the interface listed in the operation department. The example in shows that the class Passenger provides a move(x coord. 41 . shortcut notation is to display the interface as a small circle attached to the class by a solid line. Component-based development is the process of assembling the right combination of components in the right configuration to achieve desired functionality for a system. in which the services of the component are specified by its interface or interfaces. Components are represented in the UML class diagram by specifying the interface of a class or package.
This process is often referred to as ‘round-trip engineering’. to begin the cycle again. design. through a repeated cycle of analysis. Modeling tools such as System Architect 2001 can facilitate this process by enabling you to implement the design in a language such as C++ or Java. automatically updating the information stored on the diagram and in the underlying repository. and then reverse the code back into the existing class diagram.INTERACTION DIAGRAM Iterative Analysis and Design The class diagram can be developed in an iterative fashion. and then back to analysis. and implementation. Iterative Analysis and Design and Documentation with Class Diagram 42 .
you model the sequence of states that an object of the class goes through during its life in response to received stimuli. an object’s behavior is modeled in terms of what state it is in initially. States represent the conditions of objects at certain points in time. or class of objects. A state diagram is modeled for all classes deemed to have significant dynamic behavior. For example. In it. Actions occur when an object arrives in a state.Each transition line is labeled with the event that causes the transition. the state diagram is used to model the dynamic behavior of a particular object. together with its own responses and actions. and what state it transitions to when a particular event is received. You also model what actions an object performs while in a certain state. Transition lines depict the movement from one state to another.STATE CHART DIAGRAM Modeling Class Behavior with State Diagram While interaction and collaboration diagrams model dynamic sequences of action between groups of objects in a system. Modeling Dynamic Behavior of Flight Object with State Diagram 43 . Events represent incidents that cause objects to move from one state to another.
a UML State Diagram is normally used to model situations where asynchronous events occur. code. Using Activity Diagrams to Model Classes When modeling the behavior of a class. A textual description.ACTIVITY DIAGRAM The Activity Diagram is a multi-purpose process flow diagram that is used to model behavior of the system. 44 . They can be used in addition to. or a complicated method. some of which can be performed in parallel. This is important when using activity diagrams to model business processes. Using Activity Diagrams to Model Use Cases Activity Diagrams provide a graphical tool to model the process of a Use Case. or a class. or in place of. a textual description of the Use Case. You should assign activities to classes before you are done with the activity diagram. An Activity Diagram is similar to a flow chart. The Activity Diagram is used when all or most of the events represent the completion of internally generated actions. or another activity diagram can detail the activity further. Activity diagrams can be used to model a Use Case. or a listing of the steps of the Use Case. and for modeling multiple threads in concurrent programs. the one key difference is that activity diagrams can show parallel processing.
OBJECT DIAGRAM FOR AIRLINE BOOKING SYSTEM Activity Diagram 45 .
binary code components. Modeling Components with Component Diagram 46 . In the component diagram you model system components. sometimes grouped by package.Modeling Software Components The component diagram is used to model the structure of the software. including dependencies among software components. and executable components. and the dependencies that exist between components (and packages of components).
IF THE CONDITION IS NOT APPLIED THEN IT CHEQUE NEXT SEAT AND JUSTIFIED IT . IF IT IS NOT ALSO EMPTY THEN IT CHEQUE NEXT BY NEXT.ALGORITHM In this phase further I had designed algorithms for various technical sub problem a few than are enclosed here with. END. THE TICKET IS CONFIRMED. RESERVATION • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A PERSON COME TO RESERVED A TICKET. IF THE PASSENGER WANT TO ECONOMIC CLASS AND WINDOW SIDE SEAT THEN SYSTEM CHEQUE IF THERE ANY SEAT IN ECONOMIC CLASS WHICH IS INSIDE THE WINDOW IF SEAT IS EMPTY THEN SYSTEM RESERVED THE SEAT . THEN COMPUTER CHEQUE THE DATE WHAT DATE THE PERSON RESER VED DATE WISE IT CHEQUE THE FLIGHTS IF THE FLIGHT IS FLING THAT DAY THEN SYSTEM JUSTIFY THE SPECIFIC FLIGHT ID IT CHEQUE ITS SEAT CLASS. 47 . THEN TICKET IS GENERATED. IF THERE IS NO SEAT THEN SYSTEM TAKE TICKET WHICH IS NOT CONFIRMED THEN IT GIVE WAITING LIST. THEN HE GIVES HIS FULL DETAILS IN CUSTOMER FORM THOSE DETAILS WERE WRITTEN.
. LAST . A PERSON COMES TO KNOW THE TIMMINGS FOR THE FLIGHT WHICH IS GOFROM DELHI TO GAU. WE CREATE COMMAN BOX.CANCELLATION • • • • • • • • • A PASSENGER COME TO CANCEL THE TICKET THEN THE SYSTEM OPEN THE DELET FORM THEN CLICK SHOE COMMAND IT DISPLAY ALL THE PASSENGER LIST THEN SELECT THE PNR NUMBER AND CLICK DELET OPTION THE SYSTEM SHOW RECORD IS DELETED.UPDATE. THEN WE MAKE ALL TEXT BOX.FIRST.NEXT. DELETE.NEW. FIRST COMMAND BUTTON THEN IT SHOW VARIOUS THING SERIALLY. IN THIS FORM WE ARE USE VARIOUS COMMAND BOX THOSE ARE PREVIOUS. PREVIOUS. WHEN PASSENGER COME TO RESERVED A TICKET THEN SYSTEM FIND OUT THE FLIGHT DETAILS. SYSTEM CLICK FLIGHT DETAILS OPTION THEN THE FLIGHT DETAILS FORM OPEN THOSE SYSTEM ARE FOLLOWED . WHEN WE CLICK NEXT . FLIGHT DETAILS • • • • • • • • • • IN FLIGHT DEAILS WE FIRST CREATE A FORM. THEN WE CLICK SHOW COMMAND BUTTON. 48 . SAVE IN THIS FORM WE ADD NEW FLIGHT RECORD AND UPDATE IT THEN THE VALUE IS GO TO THE DATABASE. ADD.
THEN IT IS CALCULATE. CONCESSION BOX OPEN IT SELCT THE CETEGORI. THEN FINAL FARE IS GENERATE IN TICKET. 49 . AND THE FARE IS CALCULATE.CONCESSION • • • • • • FIRST IT CLICK THE CONCESSION BOX.
End user efficiency-1 8. Complex processing-3 10. Facilitate change-3 Function point = count total*[0. Reusability-4 11. 1. Multiple sites-0 14.01*f(i)] Where the f(i) [1. Installation ease-3 12. Data communications-2 2.14] are complexity adjustment values based on the responses to 14 statements. Operational ease-3 13.4. Transaction rate-3 6.65+ (0.5. Distributed data processing-2 3. Heavily used configuration-2 5. Scales ranges from 1.3. 2. 50 . Online update-0 9.…. Function point analysis is a unique measure for software. It is a method to break system into small components so that they can be better understood and analyzed. 2.FUNCTION POINT ANALYSIS (COCOMO MODEL) Function point analysis is a structural technique of problem solving. Online data entry-0 7. Performance-3 4.
Then.5.02*29=899.000. b=1.38 Time = (Effort) d * c = (2.65+ (0.Type of component External inputs External outputs External inquiries Internal logic files External interface Files Complexity of the components Count Low 9 3 9 4 3 3 1 7 1 5 Count total Function point 15 16 9 7 6 33 Formula FP = count total*[0. 51 .8)1.02 Lines of code=31.02 Function point count for Airline reservation system= 31. 33.2*(0. d=0.5= 3.3 *10000 = Rs.5) 0.05 =2.01*ΣFi)] =33*[0. c=2.65+ (0.8KLOC Code developed in ‘C++’ Estimation of effort using Cocomo Model: a=3.5 person-month Estimation of time using Cocomo Model: Type of Project = Organic.05 Effort =a*(KLOC) b =3.2.5=0.01*29)] = 31.38 * 2.3 months Estimation of Cost using Cocomo Model: Cost = 3.
CUST_DETAIL FIELD TYPE T _DATE CUST_NAME FATHER _NAME GENDER D_O_B ADDRESS TEL_NO PROFESSION SECURITY CONCESSION TYPE TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT DATE/TIME TEXT NUMBER TEXT TEXT TEXT DESCRIPTION TRAVEL DAT CUSTOMER NAME CUSTOMER FATHER NAME GENDER OF CUSTOMER DATE OF BIRTHOFCUCTOMER ADDRESS OF CUSTOMER CUSTOMER TELPHONE NUMBER PROFESSION OF CUSTOMER SECURITY OF CUSTOMER CONCESSION OF SECURITY FLIGHT INFORMATION F_NAME F_CODE C_CODE T_EXE SEATNO T_ECO SEATNO TEXT NUMBER TEXT NUMBER NUMBER FLIGHT NAME FLIGHT CODE CLASS CODE TOTAL EXECUTIVE SEATNUM.TABLES THE LIST OF TABLE IS WRITTEN HERE WHICH ARE USED IN DATABASE.BER TOTAL ECONOMIC SEAT NUMBER 52 .
FLEET INFORMATION FIELD NAME NO_AIRCRAFT CLUB_PRE_CAPACITY ECO_CAPACITY ENGINE_TYPE CRUISESPEED AIR_LENGTH WING_SPAM DATATYPE TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF AIRCRAFT CLUB PRE CAPACITY ECONOMIC CAPACITY ENGINE TYPE CRUISESPEED LENGTH OF AIR WING_SPAM CONCESSION CONCE_NAME CONCE_CODE CLASS DISCOUNT V_O_T BAG_ALLOW FARE_BASIC TEXT NUMBER TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT CONCESSION NAME CODE OF CONCESSION CLASS OF CONCESSION DISCOUNT CONCESSION BASIS VALIDITY OF TICKET BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE FARE BASIC FIXED 53 .
FARE FIELD NAME ROUTE_CODE S_PLACE VIA D_PLACE D_TIME A_TIME F_CODE C_CODE FARE DATATYPE TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT DATE/TIME DATE/TIME TEXT TEXT TEXT DESCRIPTION CODE NUMBER OF ROUTE SOURCE PLACE VIA DESTINATION PLACE DEPARTUE TIME ARRIVAL TIME FLIGHT CODE CLASS CODE FARE OF CLASS TICKET REPORT TICKET NO PNR F_ID S_PLACE D_PLACE T_DATE D_TIME A_TIME FARE 1 FARE 2 FARE 3 NUMBER NUMBER TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT DATE/TIME DATE/TIME NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER TICKET NUMBER PASSENGER NUMBER FLIGHT ID SOURCE PLACE DESTINATION PLACE TRAVEL DATE DEPARTURE TIME ARIVAL TIME FARE OF FIRSTPASSENGER FARE OF SECOND PASSENGER FARE OF HIRDPASSENGER 54 .
FARE 4 FARE 5 FARE 6 SEAT_NO 1 SEAT_NO 2 SEAT_NO 3 SEAT_NO 4 SEAT_NO 5 SEAT_NO 6 AGE 1 AGE 2 AGE 3 AGE 4 AGE 5 AGE 6 CLASS PASSENGER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER TEXT NUMBER FARE OF FOURTH PASSENGER FARE OF FIFTHPASSENGER FARE OF SIXTHPASSENGER SEAT NUMBER OF 1ST PASSENGER SEAT NUMBER OF 2ND PASSENGER SEAT NUMBER OF 3RD PASSENGER SEAT NUMBER OF 4TH PASSENGER SEAT NUMBER OF 5TH PASSENGER SEAT NUMBER OF 6TH PASSENGER AGE OF 1ST PASSENGER AGE OF2ND PASSENGER AGE OF 3RD PASSENGER AGE OF 4TH PASSENGER AGE OF 5TH PASSENGER AGE OF 6TH PASSENGER CLASS TOTAL PASSENGER 55 .
ENQUIRY T_NO F_NAME F_CODE C_SEATNO C_FARE CUST_CODE T_DATE T_TIME TEXT TEXT NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER TEXT DATE/TIME TICKET NUMBER FLIGHT NAME FLIGHT CODE CLASS SEAT NUMBER CLASS FARE CUSTOMER CODE TRAVEL DATE TRAVEL TIME CANCELLATION CUST_CODE CLASS S_NO DAYS LEFT HOURS LEFT BASIC AMMOUNT CANCELAMMOUNE TEXT TEXT NUMBER DATE/TIME DATE/TIME TEXT NUMBER CUSTOMER CODE CLASS SEAT NUMBER DAYS LEFT HOURS LEFT BASIC AMMOUNT CANCEL AMMOUNT RULES DATE FROM DEP PERCENTAGE REFUND TEXT TEXT NUMBER DATE FROM DEPARTURE PERCENTAGE OF CANCEL REFUND AMMOUNT 56 .
TERMS AGE SEX FARE TEXT TEXT NUMBER AGE OF PASSENGER SEX OF PASSENGER FARE OF PASSENGER RESERVED SEAT F_CODE T_RES_ECO_SEAT T_RES_EXE_SEAT T_DATE WAITING_NO TEXT NUMBER TEXT TEXT NUMBER FLIGHT CODE TOTAL RESERVED ECONOMIC SEAT TOTAL RESERVED EXECUTIVE SEAT TRAVEL DATE WAITING LIST 57 .
When we enter 12.33am.33 then it automatically show 11.Customer information Field name –Customer name Data type -Text.number When we put any other value or character then it ask validity check.TESTING DEBUGGING AND VALIDATION In these phases I had tried to check all the modules separately for their proper formatting. 3) Table name –Flight information Field name. 58 .33pm.Date/Time.33 then it automatically show 12. When we enter 11. 2) Table name _Customer information Field name.Departure time.Because it is not number type It is a character. When we enter number in the form then it show wrong . Further I had come to know to add certain validation in project as given bellow 1) Table name. After this step I had performed a unit test to check the functionality of the whole system. So it show wrong value. Arrival time Data type.Flight-code Data type.
In this s/w The airlines Reservation system is stored. external data and information. logic paths. etc IMPLEMENTATION For the implementation of my project the mirror H/W & S/W requirements as under HARDWARE Pentium II to IV Attempt 200 MHz Ram –32MB H. data flows. First load VB in system 2. loops.space-4xGB SOFTWARE Window-9x.TESTING ANALYSIS BLACKBOX TESTING: The black box testing is used to demonstrate that the software functions are operational. WHITEBOX TESTING: In white box testing the procedural details are closely examined. The major focus o block box testing is on functions. conditions. operations. Make a software .2000.D . In this testing the internals of software are tested to make sure that they operate according to specifications and designs. internal data structures. Thus major focus of white box testing is on internal structures. control flows. 59 . As the name suggests in black box testing it is tested whether the input is accepted properly and output is correctly produced. external interfaces.2000server MS-Access MS-Excel MS-Word Steps implementation Steps of implementation are: 1.
The software maintenance phase involves changes to the software in order to correct defects and deficiencies found during the field usage as well as the addition of new functionality to improve the software usability and applicability. Business depending on natural resources is no longer in a safe position. 8. Nowadays. and there is an increasing demand relative to new technology applications at a time when our natural resources are dwindling” now that’s where engineering jumps in. telecommunication and etc… 60 .3. MAINTENANCE In software engineering the software maintenance is the process of enhancing and optimizing deployed software as well as remedying defects. Make Main menu. 6. CONCLUSION When looking for solid AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM software. After put various value we click save bottom. 9. both now and in the future. Now choose what form will be open then click. 5. you want to find a solution that gives you the easy way of booking ticket. First make all form. 4. 7. Join every form with Main menu .” most products and systems are becoming more complex in nature. Engineering and engineers are not only useful for the technologies and machineries in the business world.It show all forms heading. you first want to find the software that meets your needs. Engineering is based on designing different projects. If Reservation form is open then it show new pnr and ticket number. It automatically go to report. Naturally. but it is also constructive in different components of business such as entertainment. Software maintenance is one of the phases in the software development process and follows deployment of the software into the field. Main menu open .
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