Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.

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Summary

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The Big Debate summary
Today’s world, from the local scale outside our front door to the global scale, is faced with a number of fundamental and critical issues. These issues affect people irrespective of gender, ethnicity, nationality or wealth. The issues include crime, inequality, health and global warming. However, though many of the issues are genuinely global, their origins and potential can be traced down to local-scale activity. That is where this project begins.
School students are entitled to learn about these issues: how they were caused, their effects and the possible ways of dealing successfully with them. In addition, students should be encouraged to become part of the solutions to these issues – participating creatively to offer ideas and act on them. In this project, the students will look in detail at the issue of car use as this is an issue that ranges from the local scale to the global scale and has implications for the entire world. The students will be able to:
• •

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Identify different car uses Discuss the reasons for car use and its effects, including the effects on a personal level Suggest and explain alternatives to car use, with a focus on a sustainable solution – cycling Evaluate the different perspectives and values within the debate, including the political and economic aspects.

The project consists of three lessons: Lesson 1 – No more cars, anymore? Lesson 2 – Decisions, decisions Lesson 3 – Cycling versus cars: viewpoints and opinions The project is structured so that teachers may choose a number of strategies. The Big Debate might be part of a week of cross-curricular project work, or it could be used as part of a scheme of work to deliver a number of successive lessons, or as stand-alone lessons to support other topics.

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Teaching delivery map

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The Big Debate teaching delivery map
Areas within the Key Stage 3 (KS3) Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) scheme of work Unit no. 1.1 1.3 Subject Place Scale Unit summary
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places. Appreciating different scales at the personal and local to national scales. Making links between scales to develop understanding of geographical ideas.

1.4 1.2

Interdependence Space

Exploring the social, economic, environmental and political connections between places. Understanding the interactions between places and the networks created by flows of information, people and goods. Understanding how sequences of events and activities in the physical and human worlds lead to change in places, landscapes and societies. Understanding that the physical and human dimensions of the environment are interrelated and together influence environmental change. Exploring sustainable development and its impact on environmental interaction and climate change.

1.5

Physical and human processes

1.6

Environmental interaction and sustainable development

1.7

Cultural understanding and diversity

Appreciating how people’s values and attitudes differ and may influence social, environmental, economic and political issues, and developing their own values and attitudes about such issues.

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Areas within the KS3 QCA scheme of work (continued) Unit no. 2.1
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Subject Geographical enquiry

Unit summary Students should be able to: a) ask geographical questions, thinking critically, constructively and creatively b) display information c) analyse and evaluate evidence, presenting findings to draw and justify conclusions d) find creative ways of using and applying geographical skills and understanding to create new interpretations of place and space e) solve problems and make decisions to develop analytical skills and creative thinking about geographical issues

2.3 and 2.4

Graphicacy and visual literacy and Students should be able to: geographical communication a) use photographs and other geographical data b) communicate their knowledge and understanding using geographical vocabulary and conventions in both speech and writing The study of geography should include: a) a variety of scales, from personal, local, regional, national, international and continental, to global b) a range of investigations, focusing on places, themes or issues c) key aspects of the UK, including its changing human geography, current issues and its place in the world today d) human geography, built and managed environments and human processes

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Areas within the KS3 QCA scheme of work (continued) Unit no. Subject Unit summary
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

e) interactions between people and their environments, including causes and consequences of these interactions, and how to plan for and manage their future impact During the key stage students should be offered the following opportunities that are integral to their learning and enhance their engagement with the concepts, processes and content of the subject. The curriculum should provide opportunities for students to: a) build on and expand their personal experiences of geography b) explore real and relevant contemporary contexts c) use varied resources, including maps, visual media and geographical information systems d) examine geographical issues in the news e) make links between geography and other subjects, including citizenship and ICT, and areas of the curriculum including sustainability and the global dimension

Source: www.qca.org.uk

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The Big Debate teaching delivery map
Areas within a School Travel Plan (STP) Section of the STP Part 1 – Tell us about your school
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

How does the project link to the STP criteria?

The school is the starting point of a number of the activities within The Big Debate and will offer ample opportunity for this to be covered, for example in Lessons 2 and 3 A brief description of the travel/transport problems faced by the school/cluster of schools, including students’ travel needs: – journeys to and from school at normal start/ finish times – journeys to attend pre- and after-school events, and – journeys made during the school day to attend activities at other locations. The Big Debate will discuss personal travel journeys and the issues that students see and experience, including specific focus on transport issues within the school’s catchment area

Part 2 – What are the issues at your school?

Part 3 – How has everyone been involved?

Involves whole classes across KS3 and can be the basis of displays and assemblies to raise awareness across all ages of students • Discussions cover how students currently travel to/from school and how they would like to travel to/from school • All interested parties have been consulted: student participation is key to much of the content of The Big Debate
• • • •

Part 4 – What exactly do you want the plan to achieve?

Raises awareness of traffic issues Develops sustainable and practical solutions influences behaviour at individual, collective and organisational levels

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Areas within a School Travel Plan (STP) (continued) Section of the STP Part 5 – How are you going to achieve it? How does the project link to the STP criteria?
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Makes proposals to develop sustainable transport integral to The Big Debate • Uses The Big Debate as the starting point for a whole-school approach to healthier and sustainable travel

Part 6 – Monitoring, reviewing and progress reporting

The themes of The Big Debate can be revisited and reviewed throughout KS3 and KS4 • One of the activities is specifically aimed at contacting Transport for London (TfL) with the students’ ideas and plans for transport solutions

Source: Transport for London

Areas within Every Child Matters (ECM) Objective Be healthy Stay safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution How does the project link to the ECM objective? Promotes healthy form of travel and discusses pollution and the health issues of using motorised transport. Considers the hazards of cycling on the public road, and also the hazard of pedestrians in urban areas. Innovative, active and practical learning which will form the basis of a competitive and sustainable learning. Contributes to the debate about local transport issues, sustainability and congestion and will increase the capacity of young people to engage in debate within their communities. Raises the issue of how local issues and transport issues impact on the well-being of everyone.

Achieve economic well-being

Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families

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The Big Debate teaching delivery map
Areas within Healthy Schools (HS) Core themes Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE)
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

In what way does the project link to the HS core theme? PSHE and The Big Debate contribute significantly to all five national outcomes for children/young people: being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and economic well-being. PSHE provides children/young people with the knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes to make informed decisions about their lives, which includes The Big Debate project containing decision making, community awareness, healthy living and unhealthy living awareness, progression and achievement, team skills and confidence building, among others. Its raising of the context of government priorities is a bridge to the wider decision-making environment.

Healthy eating

By inference a healthier lifestyle will include healthy diets and this can form part of the evaluation and discussions within The Big Debate. The Big Debate encourages and promotes cycling Physical activity contributes significantly to the ‘being healthy’ national outcome for children • Students are provided with a range of opportunities to be physically active • They understand how physical activity can help them to be more healthy, and how physical activity can improve and be a part of their everyday life, which is emphasised by the raising of awareness of the cycling routes and support available in London
• •

Physical activity

The Big Debate is a fully consultative and participatory project.

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The Big Debate teaching delivery map
Areas within Healthy Schools (HS) (continued) Core themes Emotional health and well-being In what way does the project link to the HS core theme? Emotional health and well-being contributes significantly to all five national outcomes for children/young people: being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and economic well-being • The promotion of positive emotional health and well-being helps children/young people to understand and express their feelings, build their confidence and emotional resilience, and therefore their capacity to learn • The Big Debate’s emphases on team work, respect for the views of others, the need for cooperation and mutual support in learning, the fusion of different skill and talent bases, and the emphasis on achievement and relevance all contribute to a positive project for emotional well-being that will develop confidence and enjoyment of learning

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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The Big Debate teaching delivery map
Areas within Sustainable Schools (SS) By 2020 the Government would like all schools to be models of sustainable travel, where vehicles are used only when absolutely necessary and where there are exemplary facilities for healthier, less polluting or less dangerous modes of transport. The rising number of vehicles on the roads leads to congestion, increased road accidents and pollution. During term time cars on the school run account for 16 per cent of early morning traffic and a measurable increase in pollutants such as carbon monoxide near schools. It also decreases students’ independent mobility, reduces their amount of daily exercise and detracts from their awareness of road safety. Walking and cycling offers a sustainable alternative, providing a valuable boost to students’ fitness levels, increasing students’ concentration and instilling positive habits for life.1 The Big Debate is an effective and active contributor to the delivery of the sustainability agenda. The Travel and Traffic doorway Curriculum In what way does the project link to the SS doorway? The Big Debate cultivates the knowledge, values and skills needed to address travel and traffic issues, and reinforces this through positive activities in the school and in the local area. The Big Debate raises the issue of the impact of students’ travel behaviour and promotes individual responsibility and policies and facilities for promoting safe cycling; and reduced motorised transport journeys to lessen their environmental impact and promote healthier lifestyles. The Big Debate can be seen in its community context to encourage students, staff and families to promote awareness of travel decisions among their stakeholders. The raised awareness of the issues among students will allow them to participate more in the decisions and actions within their own communities.

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Campus

Community

1

Source: Sustainable Schools National Framework, www.teachernet.gov.uk

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The Big Debate teaching delivery map
Areas within other central government initiatives/programmes Initiative/programme Extended Schools Explain the project’s link to this initiative/programme
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

The Big Debate can be the foundation, or an integrated part, of an extended school activity on transport, travel and local community where students become more actively involved in setting the agenda and offering real solutions to issues. The Big Debate develops a wide range of PLTS and can be used as a platform for further development or as a means of appraising current levels of PLTS. PLTS in The Big Debate includes: verbal, visual and written communication; team work; decision making; numeracy; independent enquiry; self-management; reflective learning and evaluation; effective participation and creative thinking. The economic and social context of The Big Debate helps schools deliver enterprise awareness. Enterprise education includes the capability to handle uncertainty and respond positively to change, to create and implement new ideas and ways of doing things, to make reasonable risk/reward assessments and act upon them in one’s personal and working life; innovation; riskmanagement; a ‘can-do’ attitude and the drive to make ideas happen – all of which are features of various aspects of the decision making and judgements that are part of The Big Debate. The Big Debate develops the qualities and skills that help promote positive behaviour and effective learning. It will develop and promote self-awareness, managing feelings, motivation, empathy and social skills.

Personal Learning and Thinking Skills (PLTS)

Enterprise Education

Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL)

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson plans
There are three lessons in this project, based on the following themes: Lesson 1 No more cars, anymore
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Lesson 2 Decisions, decisions Lesson 3 Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.12

Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 1 – introduction
No more cars, anymore?
This lesson considers the arguments for and against the banning of cars in London, and the likely impact of this action. There have been a number of attempts to deal with the urban traffic problem of congestion in cities across the world, from London’s congestion charge to Oxford’s park and ride scheme, to the integrated transport networks in Curitiba, Brazil and Lille, France and Birmingham’s experiment of having designated car-share lanes on the A47. However, the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) has raised the prominence of another solution – car use restriction – by the following announcement, published in October 2007: ‘London 2012 has made a commitment to be a truly sustainable Games… sustainability principles were incorporated into the transport strategy for the Games from the start of the planning process. The following [is an] example of these principles: at the heart of the Olympic Transport Plan is the goal of encouraging 100 per cent of ticketed spectators to travel to the Games by public transport, walking and cycling.’ Lesson 1 of The Big Debate takes as its focus the scenario that the car restriction scheme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games could be made city-wide in London. This will encourage students to reflect on car use, alternatives to car use and the sustainability of cities. Pedestrianisation of urban areas has occurred in UK cities on a small scale, but this idea would allow public transport access, but not private cars. The lesson will evolve through three stages: i) ii) Individual student reflection and ideas Small group discussion

iii) Whole-class active debate The latter stage might lend itself to student-led videoing of the discussion, which might be shown in an assembly.

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 1 – introduction
No more cars, anymore? (continued)
Teachers might like to start the lesson by referring back to Project 2 (Local Community, Local Discovery), Lesson 3, which covers the idea of students cycling to the Olympic Stadium, ODA’s statement on non-car transport modes and related issues. Students will be asked to consider a proposal that emerges from the above quote from the ODA: ‘As the ODA wishes to encourage access to the 2012 Games by non-car modes of transport, it might be logical to extend this policy city-wide between the hours of 07:00 and 19:00, Monday to Friday.’ What are your views of this idea, which in effect bans the use of private cars between these times? The students would then be asked initially to research their own ideas on the internet, by searching for information on the policies and actions of cities such as Amsterdam, Curibita, Lille, Zurich, Birmingham, Oxford, Los Angeles, Singapore and Rio de Janeiro, as well as existing policies in London.

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 1 – worksheet 1
No more cars, anymore?
Read the following two quotes:
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

‘London 2012 has made a commitment to be a truly sustainable Games… sustainability principles were incorporated into the transport strategy for the Games from the start of the planning process. The following [is an] example of these principles: at the heart of the Olympic Transport Plan is the goal of encouraging 100 per cent of ticketed spectators to travel to the Games by public transport, walking and cycling.’
The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), published in October 2007

‘As the ODA wishes to encourage access to the 2012 Games by non-car modes of transport, it might be logical to extend this policy city-wide between the hours of 07:00 and 19:00, Monday to Friday.’ What are your views of an idea which might in effect ban the use of private cars between these times? 1. Using websites, textbooks, other resources and your own ideas, write down three advantages of the idea of car restriction across the whole of London, 07:00 to 19:00 five days a week, and three disadvantages: Advantage1: Advantage 2: Advantage 3: Disadvantage 1: Disadvantage 2: Disadvantage 3:

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The Big Debate lesson 1 – worksheet 1
No more cars, anymore? (continued)
Advantages might include: reduced air pollution; reduced noise pollution; reduced visual pollution; increased health due to more cycling and walking; greater safety for pedestrians; more jobs for TfL as more demand for buses and Underground services; reduced emissions that contribute to global climate change; reduced stress from traffic jams. Disadvantages might include: strain on bus and Underground services leading to overcrowding; need for more investment in TfL services – who pays?; impact on shops as ‘passing trade’ decreases; impact on business as companies move out of London to where car transport is allowed, thus leading to a fall in income for London; there would need to be provision for the disabled, elderly and young; politically unpopular in the short term. 2. On balance, do you think that this scheme is a good idea or not? Ask the students to weigh up the arguments here and think what is best for London as a whole, not just for them as individuals. 3. Do you think that the scheme would be better if it was less extreme? For example, if only parts of London were affected or if the times of the car restriction were shorter? The principle of car restriction as stated by ODA might be sound, but is the proposal on the worksheet too extreme? Would the idea still have an effect if it was for certain parts of London only, or only at peak times?

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 1 – worksheet 1
No more cars, anymore? (continued)
4. From your research and your own ideas, can you briefly describe three other ways that have been used in named cities to try to reduce the impact of traffic congestion? 1.

2.

3.

There are many examples of innovative and successful practice, and some schemes which have been less successful, or are in their early stages. These are some of them: Amsterdam’s cycling advocacy www.velomondial.net/velomondiall2000/PDF/LANGENBE.PDF www.mobility-consultant.com/brm/indu/trafdept/id_tra1.htm http://asp01.amsterdam.nl/fiets/pdf/Amsterdam_bicycle_policy.pdf • Cycling more generally www.camcycle.org.uk/newsletters/65/article15.html • Birmingham’s car share lanes www.birmingham.gov.uk/carsharelane.bcc • Curitiba’s sustainable transport system www.sustainabletimes.ca/articles/curitibaecocity.htm www.dismantle.org/curitiba.htm

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 1 – worksheet 1
No more cars, anymore? (continued)

Lille’s integrated transport system see David Waugh’s The New Wider World, Second Edition, Nelson Thornes, 2003, ISBN 0 7487 7376 2 UK government’s policies www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/cycling/cyclingpolicyoverview London’s cycling promotion tfl.gov.uk/cycling Singapore’s management of transport urbantransportasia.blogspot.com/2006/01/challenges-for-singaporespublic.html www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/drivers_urb_change/urb_infrastructure/ pdf_transport/HABITAT_BestPractice_Yuan_Transportation.pdf http://cars.st701.com/articles/view/345

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

There are a host of other schemes in cities across the world. The key ideas from these cities are: car sharing; car pricing; encouraging cycling and walking; efficient, clean and safe public transport; and integrated approaches. ‘Car banning’ as such is relatively rare, but restrictions on car use, both for specific areas and during certain times of the day, do exist. Next, students should form into small groups of about four students per group and discuss the issues, mainly by listening to each other’s ideas about the ‘ban’ on cars and alternatives to the car that students have discovered through their research. 5. Now, join up with two or three other people in your class and listen to each other’s ideas and opinions. Note down the key points that each person makes in the box below:

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The Big Debate lesson 1 – worksheet 1
No more cars, anymore? (continued)
Finally, the whole class should join up in a debate which starts with a consideration of four viewpoints similar to these:
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

1. ‘I think that there should be a ‘no car policy’ for all of London from 07:00 to 19:00, Monday to Saturday.’ 2. ‘I think that there should be a ‘no car policy’ for the City of London and Inner London, but not the suburbs, from 07:00 to 19:00, Monday to Saturday.’ 3. ‘I think that there should be a ‘no car policy’ for the City of London and Inner London for just the morning and evening rush hours, Monday to Friday, but not for any other times or areas of London.’ 4. ‘I think that there should not be a ‘no car policy’ at all and we should look at other solutions.’ Divide the classroom up into four zones, perhaps guided by four corners of the room, so that each zone represents one of the four viewpoints above. Ask each student to stand in one of the zones according to what they believe is the best solution. If you think it is appropriate, there can be a neutral zone in the middle of the room, although this might get overcrowded if students ‘hedge their bets’. Once all the students are in one of the four zones, ask each zone to speak and debate the issue and viewpoints. At regular intervals, offer students the chance to swap zone if they have been influenced by the arguments they’ve heard during the debate. Remember to head count at the beginning and end of the debate to see if and by how much opinion has changed. Encourage concise and evidenced contributions.

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 2 – introduction
Decisions, decisions
This lesson builds naturally from Project 2, Lesson 3 and Project 3, Lesson 1, and adds a layer of decision making and a political dimension to the issue of urban transport. This lesson is based on a decision-making exercise for methods of solving transport issues local to a London school. Teachers are encouraged to adapt the generic structure offered here to their own local context and circumstances. There are financial levels placed on each possible solution to urban transport problems, but these are for illustrative purposes only and thus can fit into local contexts, or indeed be adapted. Students will be offered a number of possible schemes and programmes that could help solve local transport issues. However, a total spending budget has also been included so that students have to discuss and agree which of the methods offered is the best solution for their local area. There are no ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ answers in most cases, but the most appropriate solutions will reflect local circumstances and the other work already underway or completed by local councils, TfL or other agencies. Once teachers have set the scene, as above and in the context of the previous relevant lessons, then Worksheet 1, Lesson 2 should be issued to students to work through. This project lends itself to display work and/or to a class presentation in an assembly.

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 2 – worksheet 1
Decisions, decisions
Read the information in the box below and then answer the questions underneath: As you will probably know, the British Government needs to make important decisions about transport issues that will affect everyone’s lives. They may affect your journey to school, people’s travelling to work and national-scale travelling. The Mayor of London and the London Assembly are also concerned to adopt solutions that will work and support local communities in the long term and be in harmony with the physical and built environment, while also encouraging economic growth – that is, they are looking for sustainable solutions. This balance between being environmentally friendly, economically responsible, creating jobs and being fair to all local people is very hard! Therefore, you are now asked to think about your local transport issues, consider the possible solutions and then write a letter to your local authority School Travel Advisor proposing some solutions. 1. Think of your local area, where you live and go to school. i) Where is your school located?
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Ask the students to be specific – road, area and postcode ideally. You might want them to locate the school on an Ordnance Survey (OS) map or on aerial photographs, or to draw a sketch map of the location as other activities. These sketch maps could be part of display work for the project.

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The Big Debate lesson 2 – worksheet 1
Decisions, decisions (continued)
ii)
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What are the main transport problems that affect your local area? Be as specific as you can.

These will depend upon where in London the school is located. However, look for issues that impact on the local area. These might include: gridlock on the roads; overcrowded public transport; unreliable public transport; slow-moving traffic and long journey times; the conflict between motor traffic and cyclists and pedestrians; and the dangers to cyclists and pedestrians. Encourage the students to be specific, for example by writing about a traffic jam on a specific road at a specific time, accident points and areas of particularly high pollution (air, noise, visual). This might be an opportunity for students to take photographs and create a display of the problems in addition to this worksheet. iii) Why are these problems causing difficulties to the local area and people? In this answer, encourage students to think of impacts on local people and the physical and built environments. For example, the blackening of buildings, high noise impact, dangers for pedestrians and cyclists, difficulties for local shopkeepers and the modern frenetic but stressful lifestyle. iv) Study the list of possible solutions to the transport issues facing your local area given in Figure 1. If you could advise TfL about the best solutions for your area, which of the ideas in Figure 1 would you choose and why? Please note that each possible solution has a cost, and that you may only recommend up to £300 million of expenditure.

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The Big Debate lesson 2 – worksheet 1
Decisions, decisions (continued)
Figure 1: Some possible solutions to local transport problems, with costs in millions of pounds. Proposed solution to transport problem Road widening to allow cars to travel more quickly Road widening to allow more bus lanes New cycle routes, with lighting, maps and safety features Park and ride scheme New traffic lights and roundabouts Pedestrianisation of local shopping street(s) Extension of London Underground to meet local needs More bus routes and new buses Greater subsidies for bus and Underground fares Taxi and bus only roads Road widening for better cycle lanes Road narrowing and pavement widening to encourage walking Car-sharing only lanes Free lunches for school pupils and employed people who cycle or walk to school or work More security staff on buses, Underground and Overground services Education on the value of cycling and walking Subsidised bicycles available to all schoolchildren and low-income adults More safe areas to leave bicycles during the day Remember that you have a maximum of £300 million to spend. Cost in £ millions 175 190 95 230 160 205 300 230 160/year 115 175 120 60 125/year 120/year 65 110 65
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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 2 – worksheet 1
Decisions, decisions (continued)
In the box below, write down what you as an individual would choose to help solve the transport issues in your area:
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

There will be few right or wrong answers, but clearly some will be more appropriate for the local conditions and transport geography. Encourage discussion in pairs or small groups after students have had some time for individual thoughts, as this will encourage all students to start to formulate ideas by themselves. Consider advising the students which ones are sustainable solutions, which will benefit the environment, and how the different ideas can fit together.

Now, discuss your ideas with another student(s) in your class. Do you agree about the possible solutions? How do you differ? Why? Put some ideas down in the box below: This discussion should be simply an exchange of views rather than a fullblown debate. An emphasis on listening and learning is encouraged.

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 2 – worksheet 1
Decisions, decisions (continued)
2. Write a formal letter to your local authority School Travel Advisor outlining the following: i) ii) the local transport issues for where you live and go to school your ideas for solving the problems, based on the list above or other ideas you might have
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

In this activity, encourage a formal letter to be written. It is advisable that a check is made with the school’s English department about their approach to teaching letter-writing skills so that there is a consistent whole-school approach. The letters should be addressed to your local School Travel Advisor. This letter summarises the lesson’s content but with a focus that is relevant and credible and could form part of a display based on this lesson. Students might also wish to consider producing a video of their ideas, and use the video as additional evidence, as well as for use within the school.

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 3 – introduction
Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions
This is a role play-based lesson that asks students to consider the values, attitudes, judgements and perceptions of different stakeholders within the urban transport debate. The theme of this role play is centred on the potential for promoting cycling as an alternative to motorised car transport in the local area. Introduce the lesson by explaining that London is seeking sustainable solutions to issues such as congestion, air pollution, noise pollution, the economic cost of congestion and the social aspects of mass urban transport. Then explain the role play basis of the lesson and give out Worksheet 1, Lesson 3. Students should work in small groups of five, with each person in the group acting out one of the role play parts. Encourage the students to plan their role play characters’ speech and then ask each group to act out a debate where students each take the role of one of the characters. It might be interesting to video the role play, and use this as the basis for an evaluation lesson or as a presentation to an assembly.

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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The Big Debate lesson 3 – worksheet 1
Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions
Governments the world over are searching for sustainable solutions to traffic problems in cities. London is no exception to this. Many cities are proposing to: i) ii) reduce car use in cities increase cycling in cities

iii) increase walking and pedestrian areas in cities Amsterdam is a good example of a city that is increasing cycling. Firstly, read what the five characters below think about increasing cycling and reducing car use in London. Each person in the group should then choose to be one of the characters. Prepare a speech which reflects the ideas of the character and then all five of you should debate whether:

‘Cycling is a better form of urban transport than private cars’
d‘I support more cycle lanes and cycle paths, and fewer cars and car lanes. Cycle lanes need to have good lighting and be safe, but cycling is so environmentally friendly (there are no pollutants) and sustainable, as well as being fun, it helps keep me fit and I get to see so much more of my surroundings.’
Environmentalist

a‘I am supporting more cycle paths and routes – they are really important as an alternative to cars. Cars worry me – they emit gases such as carbon monoxide, are noisy and there are just too many of them on the roads. So many drivers seem to use our area as a route to work, and don’t even stop to use our local shops.’
Councillor 1

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.27

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

The Big Debate lesson 3 – worksheet 1
Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions (continued)
d‘I am worried about trying to reduce cars – cars are essential to our economy and our own independence and freedom. Cars mean that people can get to shops easily and it is very difficult to carry large numbers of shopping bags on a bus. Also, for the elderly, young and young families cycling is not really an option and buses tend to be overcrowded already.’
Councillor 2
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

a‘My concern is that people like to drive to the shops, such as mine, and load up their shopping into the cars. Cars make these journeys easy, especially in bad weather and at night. Can people really do this sort of journey on a bicycle? I fear that I might go out of business and lay off my staff of six people if there are any more anticar policies.’
Shopkeeper

d‘I have lived here for 10 years and am fed up with all the traffic. So many people just jump in their cars to go a few metres down the road to the video shop or takeaway – why don’t they walk or cycle? Bicycles are fine, as you just put a bag over your shoulder or have a bag or basket on the bicycle itself. Our area is noisy, smelly and dangerous because there are too many cars…’
Local resident

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.28

Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

The Big Debate lesson 3 – worksheet 1
Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions (continued)
What character were you in the role play?
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

1. What were the main points that your character made about cycling and cars? Encourage students to reflect on their character’s views and summarise the ideas. 2. Out of the five characters, whose view do you think is the most important, and why? This is a good opportunity for students to consider all of the arguments and draw a conclusion. Look here for comments which show an understanding of how different viewpoints can carry weight at the local level. 3. Overall, do you think that cycling is an effective solution to your local area’s transport problems? Explain your answer. Here, students can show that they understand the different issues at work locally and that they can relate cycling to them.

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate

The Big Debate...
Handouts and worksheets for photocopying
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.31

Lesson 1 Worksheet 1 Page 1 of 3

Name Class

Date

No more cars, anymore?
Read the following two quotes: ‘London 2012 has made a commitment to be a truly sustainable Games… sustainability principles were incorporated into the transport strategy for the Games from the start of the planning process. The following [is an] example of these principles: at the heart of the Olympic Transport Plan is the goal of encouraging 100 per cent of ticketed spectators to travel to the Games by public transport, walking and cycling.’
The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), published in October 2007

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

‘As the ODA wishes to encourage access to the 2012 Games by non-car modes of transport, it might be logical to extend this policy city-wide between the hours of 07:00 and 19:00, Monday to Friday.’ What are your views of an idea which might in effect ban the use of private cars between these times? 1. Using websites, textbooks, other resources and your own ideas, write down three advantages of the idea of car restriction across the whole of London, 07:00 to 19:00 five days a week, and three disadvantages: Advantage1: Advantage 2: Advantage 3: Disadvantage 1: Disadvantage 2: Disadvantage 3:

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.32

Lesson 1 Worksheet 1 Page 2 of 3

Name Class

Date

No more cars, anymore?
2. On balance, do you think that this scheme is a good idea or not?

3. Do you think that the scheme would be better if it was less extreme? For example, if only parts of London were affected or if the times of the car restriction were shorter?

4. From your research and your own ideas, can you briefly describe three other ways that have been used in named cities to try to reduce the impact of traffic congestion? 1.

2.

3.

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.33

Lesson 1 Worksheet 1 Page 3 of 3

Name Class

Date

No more cars, anymore?
5. Now, join up with two or three other people in your class and listen to each other’s ideas and opinions. Note down the key points that each person makes in the box below:

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.34

Lesson 2 Worksheet 1 Page 1 of 3

Name Class

Date

Decisions, decisions
Read the information in the box below and then answer the questions underneath: As you will probably know, the British Government needs to make important decisions about transport issues that will affect everyone’s lives. They may affect your journey to school, people’s travelling to work and national-scale travelling. The Mayor of London and the London Assembly are also concerned to adopt solutions that will work and support local communities in the long term and be in harmony with the physical and built environment, while also encouraging economic growth – that is, they are looking for sustainable solutions. This balance between being environmentally friendly, economically responsible, creating jobs and being fair to all local people is very hard! Therefore, you are now asked to think about your local transport issues, consider the possible solutions and then write a letter to your local authority School Travel Advisor proposing some solutions. 1. Think of your local area, where you live and go to school. i) Where is your school located?

ii)

What are the main transport problems that affect your local area? Be as specific as you can.

iii) Why are these problems causing difficulties to the local area and people?

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.35

Lesson 2 Worksheet 1 Page 2 of 3

Name Class

Date

Decisions, decisions
iv) Study the list of possible solutions to the transport issues facing your local area given in Figure 1. If you could advise TfL about the best solutions for your area, which of the ideas in Figure 1 would you choose and why? Please note that each possible solution has a cost, and that you may only recommend up to £300 million of expenditure. Figure 1: Some possible solutions to local transport problems, with costs in millions of pounds. Proposed solution to transport problem Road widening to allow cars to travel more quickly Road widening to allow more bus lanes New cycle routes, with lighting, maps and safety features Park and ride scheme New traffic lights and roundabouts Pedestrianisation of local shopping street(s) Extension of London Underground to meet local needs More bus routes and new buses Greater subsidies for bus and Underground fares Taxi and bus only roads Road widening for better cycle lanes Road narrowing and pavement widening to encourage walking Car-sharing only lanes Free lunches for school pupils and employed people who cycle or walk to school or work More security staff on buses, Underground and Overground services Education on the value of cycling and walking Subsidised bicycles available to all schoolchildren and low-income adults More safe areas to leave bicycles during the day Remember that you have a maximum of £300 million to spend. Cost in £ millions 175 190 95 230 160 205 300 230 160/year 115 175 120 60 125/year 120/year 65 110 65

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.36

Lesson 2 Worksheet 1 Page 3 of 3

Name Class

Date

Decisions, decisions
In the box below, write down what you as an individual would choose to help solve the transport issues in your area:

Now, discuss your ideas with another student(s) in your class. Do you agree about the possible solutions? How do you differ? Why? Put some ideas down in the box below:

2. Write a formal letter to your local authority School Travel Advisor outlining the following: i) ii) the local transport issues for where you live and go to school your ideas for solving the problems, based on the list above or other ideas you might have

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.37

Lesson 3 Worksheet 1 Page 1 of 3

Name Class

Date

Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions
Governments the world over are searching for sustainable solutions to traffic problems in cities. London is no exception to this. Many cities are proposing to: i) ii)
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

reduce car use in cities increase cycling in cities

iii) increase walking and pedestrian areas in cities Amsterdam is a good example of a city that is increasing cycling. Firstly, read what the five characters below think about increasing cycling and reducing car use in London. Each person in the group should then choose to be one of the characters. Prepare a speech which reflects the ideas of the character and then all five of you should debate whether:

‘Cycling is a better form of urban transport than private cars’
d‘I support more cycle lanes and cycle paths, and fewer cars and car lanes. Cycle lanes need to have good lighting and be safe, but cycling is so environmentally friendly (there are no pollutants) and sustainable, as well as being fun, it helps keep me fit and I get to see so much more of my surroundings.’
Environmentalist

a‘I am supporting more cycle paths and routes – they are really important as an alternative to cars. Cars worry me – they emit gases such as carbon monoxide, are noisy and there are just too many of them on the roads. So many drivers seem to use our area as a route to work, and don’t even stop to use our local shops.’
Councillor 1

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.38

Lesson 3 Worksheet 1 Page 2 of 3

Name Class

Date

Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions
d‘I am worried about trying to reduce cars – cars are essential to our economy and our own independence and freedom. Cars mean that people can get to shops easily and it is very difficult to carry large numbers of shopping bags on a bus. Also, for the elderly, young and young families cycling is not really an option and buses tend to be overcrowded already.’
Councillor 2

a‘My concern is that people like to drive to the shops, such as mine, and load up their shopping into the cars. Cars make these journeys easy, especially in bad weather and at night. Can people really do this sort of journey on a bicycle? I fear that I might go out of business and lay off my staff of six people if there are any more anticar policies.’
Shopkeeper

d‘I have lived here for 10 years and am fed up with all the traffic. So many people just jump in their cars to go a few metres down the road to the video shop or takeaway – why don’t they walk or cycle? Bicycles are fine, as you just put a bag over your shoulder or have a bag or basket on the bicycle itself. Our area is noisy, smelly and dangerous because there are too many cars…’
Local resident

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Geography KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project three – The Big Debate Page 3.39

Lesson 3 Worksheet 1 Page 3 of 3

Name Class

Date

Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions
What character were you in the role play?

1. What were the main points that your character made about cycling and cars?

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

2. Out of the five characters, whose view do you think is the most important, and why?

3. Overall, do you think that cycling is an effective solution to your local area’s transport problems? Explain your answer.

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

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