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Members Name : - Ris Suliandari (E1D017100)

- Sabrina Oktarini (E1D017103)

- Savitri Dwilestari (E1D017105)

Class : V D (Morning Class)

ASSIGNMENTS FOR LANGUAGE TESTING

There is a difference between grammar test for native speakers and foreign Learners,

although the tests given are the same between the two. But for native speaker the test is very easy

because native speakers have mastered the grammar system in general, and is their own

language. However, if there are native speakers who cannot answer the test, it happens because

they themselves are careless who cannot answer the question. But unlike foreign Learners, the

test becomes difficult because it is a foreign language. So it is important to provide a different

level of questions between native speakers and foreign learners. For example, for native speakers

who are masters, they are given tests in the form of oral or spoken tests. Where, as foreign

learners who are still beginners are given a written test.

The preparation of a structure test should always begin with the setting up of a detailed

outline of the proposed test content. The outline should specify not only which structures are to

be tested, but the percentage of items to be written each problem. As a rule, the test should

include the full range of structure that were taught in the course, and each structural type should

receive about the same emphasis in the test that it received in the classroom.
 Elaborate the Types of Grammatical Tests

There are six types of grammatical tests commonly used in the ESL/EFL settings. First is

Completion (Multiple-Choice). The most common type of multiple-choice structure item

presents a context which one or more words are missing, followed by several alternative

completions.

For example:

“Is Mary Baker still in Chicago?” “No___________ in New York since 1960.”

A. She lives C. she’s living

B. She’d lived D. she’s lived

This version of the first type is favored by many language teachers and specialist because

the dialogue from provides more context and therefore may take the problem somewhat clearer.

Second is Sentence Alternative (Multiple-choice). Another item type does away with

the item stem altogether simply presents several sentences from which the examinee chooses the

acceptable version.

For example:

A. Ranti is living in Japan since 1960

B. Ranti lives in Japan since 1960

C. Ranti has lived in Japan since 1960


Third is Sentence Interpretation (multiple-choice). A third type of structure item

presents a stimulus and then asks for an interpretation. This becomes a kind of reading

comprehension task in which the crucial clues are structural.

For example:

“An old friend of john’s family brought him news of his uncle last night.” Him refers

to….

A. An old friend

B. John

C. The uncle

Fourth is Scrambled sentence (multiple-choice). For the testing of word order, test

writers sometimes use the device of the scrambled sentence in which the examinee rearranges a

jumbled series of elements so as to form from an acceptable sentence.

As a classroom exercise or informal test on an elementary level, this device probably

have some merit, younger students in particular being intrigued by its puzzle solving aspects. On

a more advanced level, however, this item type has several drawbacks. First, it is extremely

difficult to compose item of just the right level of difficulty: the problems tend to be very easy

unless the sentences are made rather long and complex, in which event the task may become

more a test of intelligence than of simple structural control. Secondly, with all but the simplest

sentences it’s hard to avoid scrambled word groups that can’t be assembled in a variety of

acceptable ways, making the scoring time-consuming when large numbers of papers are

involved. And in multiple-choice testing there is the problem of devising a clear and simple way

for answers to be recorded on the answer sheet and to be scored but more important than any of
the above, it seems doubtful whether anything is really accomplished by the scrambled-sentence

technique that can’t be more effectively and economically achieved by other methods.

For example:

“How your friend comes with you” The speaker is….

A. Making an observation

B. Asking a question

C. Extending an invitation

Fifth is Completion (supply type). Returning to type 1, we may use the completion item

type as a fill-in exercise. This item type is extremely useful in informal classroom-testing

situations. Such items are much easier to prepare than the multiple-choice type, and they require

a certain amount of composition on the part of the students. Their disadvantages for a large-scale

testing are the same as with all supply types: They are much more time-consuming to score than

multiple-choice items and their may be several possible correct answers to some of the items so

that difference scorers might judge the some response differently.

For example:

Directions—complete the sentence by writing a form of the verb given in parentheses.

Laras_______________(live) in Canada since 1960.

Sixth is Conversation (Supply types). Another popular type of short-answer structure

test requires the examinees to convert or transform a series of sentences in a specified manner by

changing them from present to past tense, from active to passive voice, from singular to plural,
and so forth. The comments given above for items type 5 may be applied to the conversion type

as well.

 If we assigned to write the test items for grammatical structure for EFL students,

we will considerate three characteristics of a good test in our test items. That is validity,

Reliability, and Practicality.

Validity is the one of the characteristic of good test. Validity is the degree to which a test

measures what it intends to measure. A good test item is valid when it does what it is expected.

An example of a teacher teaching the simple present material, and the material to be tested must

be related to the simple present. If we applied the concept of validity in the process of making

grammar test, then students could easily understand both in matters and in answers.

Reliability is meant the stability of test scores. A test cannot measure anything well

unless it measures consistently. For example, a grammatical test was given to the students. One

month later the same test was given to the same student. If the second score produces high

correlation coefficient then the test has a high reliability. And if we apply the concept of

reliability in the process of making grammar tests, then the correlation between the scores on the

first test and so on will be stable and consistent.

 The kind of test format are we going to use is the first type Completion

(Multiple-Choice)

The reason why we choose this type because the multiple-choice tests are more

representative in terms of covering and representing the materials that have been taught to

learners or have been commanded to learners to learn about them. Multiple-choice test make it

more possible for the tester to act more objectively, both in correcting question sheets,
determining the weight of the score and in determining the results of the test scores. Correcting

multiple-choice test is much easier and faster than the other types of tests, it can even be used

using technological advancements such as scanner machines. Different from the others test, the

multiple-choice test gives the possibility for other people to be assigned or asked for help to

correct the test results. The items on the multiple choice test are much easier to analyze, both in

terms of the degree of difficulty, the difference, validity and reliability.