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# CBSE Papers : Five Easy Tips to Learn Mathematics

1: Before any students can learn maths, which is a combination of numbers, symbols and mathematical expressions, he has to relate the facts together in order to find meaning to them. Relationship between the facts can cover real-life applications also. This create a sense of purpose to drive learning motivation. This step is useful for later part in learning maths. 2: Here the students have to identify the mathematical facts and concepts that he has to retain and memorize in order to solve maths questions. This step is crucial in that remembering all the mathematical facts and concepts within the topic taught will only confuse and weaken the learning process. 3: In this step, the ability to solve maths questions is the focus and objective. There are two phases in this step. The first step is for him to practice, by himself, maths questions with the reference materials laid out in front of him for initial trying. This is to build confidence and understanding of the mathematical concepts and relationship between facts. The second part, which is very important, is to keep all reference materials and practice again without any external help. This will expose any wrong understanding or obstacles not known in the initial practice phase. 4:Learning maths at this step involves more practice (alone without help) but now with wider scope of coverage. This is to enable learners to experience all possible situations related to the topics learned. Practice more will generate more confidence and better selfesteem. 5: This step is to clarify any doubts encountered in previous steps or to align back any misunderstood mathematical concepts or procedural steps in solving the maths questions. Here the process of alignment is iterative in that the final outcome has to tally with facts and concepts to determine true understanding and learning. Practice again with the same level of questioning to ensure learning takes place. Motivation will be greatly enhance if the outcome is positive.

**CBSE Papers : Learn the Formulas of Geometry
**

Like many other science subjects, Geometry has developed to its present form with the help of contributions from many renowned mathematicians who devoted all their life understanding and developing this science. Pythagoras is among the first few names that come to our mind with the mention of this particular subject. Geometry was initially considered a body of practical knowledge relating to lengths, areas, and volumes. But it was in the third century B.C. when geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment set a standard for many centuries to follow. One of the most crucial areas in geometry is the formulas. The geometry formulas allow students to identify and subsequently make functional use of geometrical concepts such as its definitions, postulates, geometrical statements in if-then form and its converses among others. This is why, much of the importance is given to these formulas and if you are intending to master this particular subject, then you should develop a liking as well as understanding for the geometric formulas. There are several formulas in

geometry like formulas for perimeter, area, volume etc. With the help of these formulas the students can solve problems or equations pertaining to particular geometric areas. Then there is the much talked about formula which we get through the Pythagoras theorem. This Pythagoras theorem states that the two sides a and b of a right triangle and the hypotenuse c are related by a 2 + b 2 = c 2. Then for the beginners, there are several different geometric formulas which they can include in their study. Some of these formulas are Area and Perimeter of a Triangle Area and Perimeter of a Rectangle Area of a Parallelogram Area of a Trapezoid Circumference of a Circle and Area of a Circular Region Arclength and area of a Circular Sector Volume and Surface Area of a Rectangular Solid Volume and Surface Area of a Sphere Volume and Surface Area of a Right Circular Cylinder Volume and Surface Area of a Right Circular Cone Resource Box.

**CBSE Papers : Learn Basic Formulas of Algebra for Math Preparation
**

By contributor | November 14, 2007 Factors and expansions (a, b real; n positive integer) (a ± b)² = a² ± 2ab + b² (a ± b)³ = a³ ± 3a²b + 3ab² ± b³ (a ± b)4 = a4 ± 4a³b + 6a²b² ± 4ab³ + b4 a² - b² = (a - b)(a + b) a² + b² = (a - bi)(a + bi) a³ - b³ = (a - b)(a² + ab + b²) a³ + b³ = (a + b)(a² - ab + b²) a4 + b4 = (a² + 2½ab + b²)(a² - 2½ab + b²) an - bn = (a - b)(an-1 + an-2b + … + bn-1), for n even an + bn = (a + b)(an-1 - an-2b - … - bn-1), for n odd

( Powers and roots a > 0, b > 0, x, y real) axay = ax+y

ax / ay = ax-y axbx = (ab)x ax / bx = (a / b)x a-x = 1 / ax

**Class X Science and Technology : Syllabus and specifications
**

CLASS X (THEORY) One Paper Time : 2½ hours. Marks : 60 UNIT I. Chemical Substances II. World of living III. Effects of Current IV. Light V. Natural Resources Total Theme : Materials (55 Periods) Unit 1 : Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour Acids, bases and salts : General properties, examples and uses. Chemical reactions : Types of chemical reactions : combination, decomposition, displacement, double, displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction in terms of gain and loss of oxygen and hydrogen. Metals and non metals : Brief discussion of basic metallurgical processes. Properties of common metals. Elementary idea about bonding. Carbon Compounds : Carbon compounds, elementary idea about bonding. Saturated hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids (no preparation, only properties). Some Important chemical compounds : Soap-cleansing action of soap. Periodic classification of elements : Gradations in properties : Mendeleev periodic table. Theme : The world of the living (50 Periods) Unit 2 : Our environment Our environment : Environmental problems, their solutions. Biodegradable, non biodegradable, ozone depletion. Life Processes : “living” things; Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals. Control and Co-ordination in plants and animals : Tropic movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and co-ordination in animals : voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, nervous system; chemical co-ordination : animal hormones. Reproduction : Reproduction in plants and animals. Need for and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/ MARKS 18 16 10 08 08 60

AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health. Heridity and evolution : Heridity; Origin of life : brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution. Theme : How things work. (35 Periods) Unit 3 : Effects of Current Potential, Potential difference, Ohm’s law; Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors; Power dissipation due to current; Inter relation between P, V, I and R. Magnets : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying wire, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s left hand rule. Electro magnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Direct current. Alternating current; frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits. Theme : Natural Phenomena (20 Periods) Unit 4 : Convergence and divergence of light. Images formed by a concave mirror; related concepts; centre of curvature; principal axis. Optic centre, focus, focal length. Refraction; laws of refraction. Image formed by a convex lens; functioning of a lens in human eye; problems of vision and remedies. Applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Appreciations of concept of refraction; velocity of light; refractive index; twinkling of stars; dispersion of light. Scattering of light. Theme : Natural Resources (20 Periods) Unit 5 : Conservation of natural resources : Management of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life, coal and petroleum conservation. People’s participation. Chipko movement. Legal perspectives in conservation and international scenario. The Regional environment : Big dams : advantages and limitations; alternatives if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources. Sources of energy : Different forms of energy, leading to different sources for human use : fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear energy. Renewable versus non - renewable sources.

PRACTICALS LIST OF EXPERIMENTS Marks : 40 (20 + 20 ) 1. To find the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator. i) Dilute Hydrochloric acid ii) Dilute NaOH solution iii) Dilute Ethanoic acid solution iv) Lemon juice v) Water vi) Dilute Sodium Bicarbonate Solution. 2. To study the properties of acids and bases HCl & NaOH by their reaction with i) Litmus solution (Blue/Red) ii) Zinc metal iii) Solid Sodium Carbonate 3. To determine the focal length of a) Concave mirror b) Convex lens by obtaining the image of a distant object. 4. To trace the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result. 5. To study the dependence of current (I) on the potential difference (V) across a resistor and determine its resistance. Also plot a graph between V and I. 6. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series. 7. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in parallel. 8. To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata. 9. To show experimentally that light is necessary for photosynthesis. 10. To show experimentally that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration. 11. To study (a) binary fission in Amoeba and (b) budding in yeast with the help of prepared slides. 12. To determine the percentage of water absorbed by raisins. 13. To prepare SO2 gas, observe its following properties and draw inferences in respect of i) odour ii) solubility in water iii) effect on litmus paper iv) action on acidified potassium dichromate solution. 14. a) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions. i) ZnSO4 (aq.) ii) FeSO4 (aq.) iii) CuSO4 (aq.) iv) Al2 (SO4)3 (aq.) b) Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result. 15. To study the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) :

i) odour ii) solubility in water iii) effect on litmus iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate SCHEME OF EVALUATION : External Examination (to be conducted by the Board through multiple choice type written test) 20 Marks School-based hands-on practical examination. 20 Marks

Class X Social Science 3 Hours Marks 80 (Theory) + Marks 20(for internal assessment) Unit Marks Periods Unit 1 :India and the contemporary World - II 20 45 Unit 2 :India - Resources and their Development 18 40 Unit 3 :Democratic Politics II 18 40 Unit 4 :Understanding Economics - II 16 40 Unit 5 :Disaster Management 8 25 Internal Assessment 1. Tests (formative and summative) 10 2. Assignments (School & Home assignments) 05 3. Project work 05 Unit 1 : India and the Contemporary world - II (45 Periods) Theme 3 is compulsory. Students to choose anyone from the first two themes. Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes : 1. Nationalism in Europe : (a) The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. (b) The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini etc. (c) General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece. 2. Nationalist Movement in Indo China : Factors leading to growth of rationalism in India (a) French colonialism in Indochina. (b) Phases of struggle against the French. (c) The ideas of Phan Dinh Phung, Phan Boi Chau, Nguyen Ac Quoc (d) The second world war and the liberation struggle. (e) America and the second Indochina war. 3. Nationalism in India : Civil Disobedience Movement (a) First world war, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation. (b) Salt Satyagraha. (c) Movements of peasants, workers, tribals. (d) Activities of different political groups. Sub-unit 1.2 : Economies and livelihoods : 4. Industrialization 1850s - 1950s : (a) Contrast between the form of industrialization in Britain and India. (b) Relationship between handicrafts and industrial production, formal and informal sectors. (c) Livelihood of workers. Case studies : Britain and India. 5. Urbanization and urban lives : (a) Patterns of urbanization (b) Migration and the growth of towns. (c) Social change and urban life. (d) Merchants, middle classes, workers and urban poor. Case studies : London and Bombay in the nineteenth and twentieth century. 6. Trade and Globalization : (a) Expansion and integration of the world market in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. (b) Trade and economy between the two Wars. (c) Shifts after the 1950s. (d) Implications of globalization for livelihood patterns. Case study : The post War International Economic order, 1945 to 1960s.

Sub-unit 1.3 : Culture, Identity and Society 7. Print culture and nationalism. (a) The history of print in Europe. (b) The growth of press in nineteenth century India. (c) Relationship between print culture, public debate and politics. 8. History of the novel: (a) Emergence of the novel as a genre in the west. (b) The relationship between the novel and changes in modern society. (c) Early novels in nineteenth century India. (d) A study of two or three major writers. Sub-unit 1.4 : Map Work (2 Marks) Unit 2 : India - Resources and their Development (40 Periods) 1. Resources : Types - natural and human; Need for resource planning. 2. Natural Resources : land as a resource, soil types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures. 3. Agriculture : types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; contribution of Agriculture to national economy employment and output. 4. Water resources : sources, distribution, utilisation, multi-purpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting. (One case study to be introduced) 5. Mineral Resources : types of minerals, distribution, use and economic importance of minerals, conservation. 6. Power Resources : types of power resources conventional and non-conventional, distribution and utilization, and conservation. 7. Manufacturing Industries : Types, spatial distribution, contribution of industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures to control degradation. (One case study to be introduced) 8. Transport, communication and trade 9. Map Work (3 marks) Unit 3 : Democratic Politics II (40 Periods) 1. Working of Democracy Are divisions inherent to the working of democracy? What has been the effect of caste on politics and of politics on caste? How has the gender division shaped politics? How do communal divisions affect democracy? 2. Power sharing mechanisms in democracy Why and how is power shared in democracies? How has federal division of power in India helped national unity? To what extent has decentralisation achieved this objective? How does democracy accommodate different social groups? 3. Competition and contestations in democracy How do struggles shape democracy in favour of ordinary people? What role do political parties play in competition and contestation? Which are the major national and regional parties in India? Why have social movements come to occupy large role in politics? 4. Outcomes of democracy Can or should democracy be judged by its outcomes? What outcomes can one reasonably expect of democracies? Does democracy in India

meet these expectations? Has democracy led to development, security and dignity for the people? What sustains democracy in India? 5. Challenges to democracy Is the idea of democracy shrinking? What are the major challenges to democracy in India? How can democracy be reformed and deepened? What role can an ordinary citizen play in deepening democracy? Unit 4 : Understanding Economics II (40 Periods) 1. The Story of Development : The traditional notion of development; National Income and Per-capita Income. Growth of NI - critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development; Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development. The approach to this theme : Use case study of three states (Kerala, Punjab and Bihar) or take a few countries (India, China, Sri Lanka and one developed country) 2. Money and Financial System : Role of money in an economy : Historical origin; Formal and Informal financial institutions for Savings and Credit - General Introduction; Select one formal institution such as a nationalized commercial bank and a few informal institutions; Local money lenders, landlords, self help groups, chit funds and private finance companies. 3. The Role of Service Sector in Indian Economy : What is service sector (through examples) : Importance of Service Sector in generating employment and income to the nation (with the help of a few case studies); Growth of Service Sector in India; India as a major service provider to the world; The need for public investment ; The role of important infrastructure, education and health 4. Globalisation : What is Globalisation (through some simple examples); How India is being globalised and why ; Development Strategy prior to 1991. State Control of Industries : Textile goods as an example for elaboration; Economic Reforms 1991; Strategies adoped in Reform measures (easing of capital flows; migration, investment flows); Different perspectiives on globalisation and its impact on different sectors; Political Impact of globalisation 5. Consumer Awareness : How consumer is exploited (one or two simple case studies) factors causing exploitation of consumers; Rise of consumer awareness; how a consumer should be in a market; role of government in consumer protection Unit 5 : Disaster Management (25 Periods) 1. Tsunami 2. Safer Construction Practices. 3. Survival Skills. 4. Alternate Communication systems during disasters. 5. Sharing Responsibility

Physics

01. What are the different parts ofhuman eye? 02. What rype of image is formed on the retina of human eye? 03. Write a short note on cornea, crystalline lens, iris, ciliary muscleand retina of human eye. 04. Which part of human eye controls the amount of light that enter the human eye? 05. What will be average radius of human eyeball when the ciliary muscles are completely relaxed? 06. How does the focal length of the human eyeball change? 07. What are the two type of light sensitive cells that are present on the human retina and how does they work? 08. Define power of accomodation of normal human eye and how will you calculate it? 09. How does the human retina change with that of the retina of bee and chick? 10. What is the reason for a blurred , strained vision of human eye whenyou try to read a book very close to the eyes? 11. What is the near point and far point ofhuman eye.? Write their value for a normal human eye 12. Why does the power of accomodation of human eye decrease due to aging? 13. How many images are rolled per second in? a motion picture ? Why? 14. What is meant by colour blindness? 15. Why colour blind persons are not given driving license? 16. What is the effect of more number of rods than cones on the retina of a chick? 17. If the number of cones and rods of a chicks retina become equal what behavioural changes one can notice in it. 18. How can bees see in U V? light also? 19. What is cataract and how can it be rectified?

20. List out the different defects of human eye. 21. what are the causes of Myopia, Hypermetropia, astigmatism and presbyopia? How can they be corrected 22. What do you mean by the resolution of an optical instrument and how is it important in the construction of an opticalinstrument? 23. What is the essential component of an optical instrument in its construction with respect to viewing the objects? 24. What are the uses of microscopes? 25. What is power of the lens used in the simplemicroscope that gives the maximum magnification? 26. Draw the diagram of defective and corrective myopic and hepermetropic eye 27. Draw the ray diagram of a simple microscope for normal adjustment and for nearpoint 28. A lens , which produces a magnification of 10 for a real image for an object distance of 10 cm.? If it is used as a simple microscope will be giving the same magnification for normal adjustment position? 29. A person finds that his near point has moved out to 50cm from him What is his problem ?Calculate the power of corrective lens that he should be prescribed to correct his defect? 30. A person finds that his near point has come to 500cm infront of him.What is his problem? Calculate the power of corrective lens that he should be prescribed to correct his defect? 31. A person finds that the objects image placed at his normal near point converges at a distance of 0.5cm? behind his retina?? What is his defect? And prescribe him a correct lens of correct power? 32. A person finds that a stars image fall at a distance of 0.5cm infront of his retina? What is his defect and prescribe him a correct lens of correct power? 33. A persons vision range is 60cm to 300cm.? What is his problem and prescribe him a correct lens of correct power and will you arrange the lenses? 34. A person is not able to read a book kept at his normal near point and also not able to see a star since the images of these objects converge 0.2cm either side of his retina.? What is his defect and prescribe him a correct lens and how will you arrange them?

35. Define persistance of vision

**Light Reflection and Refraction
**

Q. 1. Write any four uses of concave mirrors. Q. 2. Define (a) Power of accommodation (b) Least Distance of Distinct Vision Q. 3. Why does the sky appear dark instead of blue to an astronaut? Q. 4. What is hypermetropia? How can it be corrected? How is it different from presbyopia? Q 5. The magnification produced by a concave lens is always positive / negative. Q. 6. The focal length of a lens of power + 1.25 D is _____ and it’s a converging / diverging lens. Q. 7. A concave lens of focal length 15 cm forms an image 10 cm from the lens? How far is the object placed from the lens? Q. 8. The stars seem to be slightly higher that they actually are. Why? Q. 9. Define power of a lens. Why the power of a convex is positive while that of a concave lens is negative? Q. 10. An object of size 3 cm is placed at a distance of 15 cm from a convex lens of focal length 10 cm. Calculate the distance and the size of the image so formed. What will be the nature of image formed?

Linear Equations

Q. 1. Solve graphically: x + y = 4, 3x - 2y = -3 Shade the region bounded by the lines and x- axis. Write the vertices of and find its area. Q. 2. A certain number of students planned a picnic. The budget for food was Rs 3600. But 15 of these students failed to go and thus the cost of food for each student increased by Rs 8. How many students attended the picnic? Q. 3. An express train takes 4 hours less for a journey of 1200 km if its speed is increased by 15 km/hr from its usual speed. Find its usual speed. Q. 4. Solve for x and y (by cross multiplication method): 5mx + 6ny = 28 3mx + 4ny = 18. Q. 5. Solve the equation by quadratic formula: 5x2 – 16x + 3 = 0. Q. 6. A man can row 40 km upstream and 24 km downstream in 7 hours. He can also row 32 km upstream and 36 km downstream in 7 hours. Find his speed of rowing in still water and the speed of the stream. Q. 7. For what value of k, the quadratic equation 16x2 – 9kx + 1 = 0 has real and equal roots. Q. 8. For what values of ‘p’ and ‘q’, the following system of linear equations will have infinite number of solutions? 2x – (p – 4)y = 2q + 1 4x – (p – 1)y = 5q – 1. Q. 9. If twice the father’s age is added to the son’s age, the sum is 77. Five years ago, the father was 15 times the age of his son, then. Find their present ages. Q. 10. Solve the following system of equations: 3 ( 2u + v) = 7 u v 3 ( u + 3 v) = 11 u v Q. 11. Solve the following equations (i) x + 20 = 29 (ii) 2x + 5 = 20 (iii) 3x + 10 = 32 (iv) 5a + 16 = 3a+ 24 (v) (½)x + 8 = 24½ (vI) (¾)a + 16 = (¼)a+ 24 (vii) (¾)q + 17 = 32(i) x + 20 = 29 Q. 12. Solve graphically 5x+2y=16, 7.5x+3y=24

Q. 13. Determine graphically the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle, the equations of whose sides are: y = x, 3y = x, x + y = 8 Q. 14. Solve graphically x – y = 10, 2x – 5y = 5 Q. 15. For what value of k will the equations x + 2y + 7 = 0, 2x + ky + 14 = 0 have one solution. Q. 16. Solve 4x + 6y = 3xy, 8x + 9y = 5xy given (x ¹ y, x ¹ 0) given (x ¹ y, x ¹ 0)

Q. 17. Solve

Q. 18. Solve each of the following system of equations by using the method of Cross Multiplication (a - b) x + (a + b) y = a2 - 2ab - b2, (a + b) (x + y) = a2 + b2 Q. 19. Solve 23x – 29y = 98, 29x – 23y = 110