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Brian Alspach If you ask poker players how many starting hold’em hands there are, you will ﬁnd that a majority of the players say there are 169. Not only is this the correct number, but you would discover that most of them can tell you how to derive the number. The typical argument goes something like this. Any two pairs of the same rank are really the same hand as far as analyzing their values, and there are 13 possible ranks. This gives us 13 starting hands that are pairs. There are 78 ways to choose two distinct ranks from 13. Two cards of diﬀerent ranks come in two ﬂavours: suited and oﬀsuit. Other than this distinction, they really are the same hand. Thus, there are 78 + 78 + 13 = 169 diﬀerent starting hold’em hands. The preceding veriﬁcation is perfectly correct and easily understood, but it has one weakness. It is what is known as an ad hoc argument. That is, if you were to ask the same poker players how many starting Omaha hands there are, they would quickly realize the limitations in trying to extend the argument for starting hold’em hands to starting Omaha hands. They would soon ﬁnd themselves bogged down in messy cases and subcases. This suggests an obvious question. Is there a universal method for counting the number of starting hands for diﬀerent poker games? The answer is a resounding “yes”. There are several aspects of this general method that appeal to me a great deal. First, the method works for all situations. Second, the method is eﬃcient and fast. Third, the method arises in a beautiful subject of mathematics called group theory, and this is the only application of group theory to poker that I have seen. I now am going to describe the method followed by applications to hold’em (the method better produce 169 as its answer), pineapple, seven-card stud, and Omaha. The method depends on a careful analysis of what it means for two hands to be equivalent. Let’s look at the hold’em situation. There actually are 1,326 ways of forming two-card hands. (There are 52 choices for the ﬁrst card, 51 choices for the second card, and then we divide by two because any given hand can come in either of two orders.) However, we agree that many of those hands are equivalent to each other because we ignore suits. For example, the seven of clubs and eight of diamonds behave similarly to the seven of hearts and eight of clubs. To be speciﬁc, we agree that two hands are equivalent if you can tranform one hand into the other by performing some permutation of the suits. In total, there are 24 possible permutations of the four suits. The complete collection of all 24 possible permutations is called a permutation group. (For those who wish to show oﬀ, it is called the symmetric group of degree 4.) We are going to use a nifty way to describe all the permutations. I believe an example will make it clear. Look at the notation (C H S)(D). This is

1

we change the ﬁrst to the second.028 two-card hands (see the entry in the table below). An entry in the table gives the number of hands ﬁxed by all the permutations of a given cyclic structure for the game indicated at the head of the column. the permutation (C H)(D S) changes the hand 3♣ − 6♦ to 3♥ − 6♠. The reason the computation is fast is that two permutations with the same cyclic structure have the same number of ﬁxed points. The permutation then ﬁxes 338 hands. there are 1. There is then a famous counting theorem for permutation groups that tells us that the number of diﬀerent starting hands is obtained by counting all the ﬁxed points over the 24 permutations and then dividing by 24. If the hand has a club of rank x and it is ﬁxed. and leaves diamonds alone. There are six permutations of Type 1 so that altogether they ﬁx 2. Note that the identity permutation ﬁxes all hands because it changes no suits. So there are 13 hands like this. This description is called the cyclic structure of the permutation. How many two-card hands does it ﬁx? If both cards are chosen from hearts and spades. Finally. There are eight permutations with cyclic structure (x y z)(w) and we call them Type 3. then it must have a diamond of rank x. You should see that the permutation can ﬁx no three-card hands. Here are the distinct types of cyclic structures. So for an expression inside parentheses. The permutation leaving all suits unchanged is called the identity permutation. The last line is obtained by dividing the preceding line by 24. There are three permutations with cyclic structure (x y)(z w) and we call them Type 2.the permutation that changes clubs to hearts. and counting the number of ﬁxed points is easy. Even though there are 24 permutations. The permutation (C D)(H)(S) is a typical Type 1 permutation. There are six permutations with cyclic structure (x y)(z)(w) and we call them Type 1. and so on until reaching the last element which gets changed into the ﬁrst. spades back to clubs. We illustrate the remaining ingredients we need by considering hold’em. If there is just one symbol in the parentheses. there are six permutations with cyclic structure (x y z w) and we call them Type 4. 2 . and vice versa. it is left unchanged. Each of the 24 permutations of the four suits induces a permutation of the 1. As mentioned above. Consider a Type 2 permutation with a three-card hand. many of them have similar cyclic structure and that is all we need to do the counting. hearts to spades. the second to the third. The same permutation changes the hand 4♣ − 4♥ to itself.326 two-card hands. The latter is called a ﬁxed point. That gives us C(26. 2) = 325 ﬁxed hands. The table below contains the information for the four games (so that you can see if you get the same answers for each case). For example. We look at two examples to show you how easy it is to count ﬁxed points.326 two-card hands. then the permutation ﬁxes it because those two suits are left unchanged.

326 2.628 0 2.725 115.Cyclic Types Identity Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Number Fixed Starting Hands Hold’Em 1.518 975 7.028 78 624 0 4.828 0 6.100 17.120 1.432 3 .300 48.072 78 394.755 Seven-Card Stud 66.368 16.392 0 42.992 5.083 Omaha 270.056 169 Pineapple 22.864 0 121.

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