193

H46zc

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Croce

What is living and what is dead of the philosophy of Hegel

193

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65-03011

Cioce
What is living and what is dead of the philosophy of Hegel

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AU'S

1965

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A.A. LTD.By BENEDETTO CROCE LINGUISTIC. . /ESTHETIC AS SCIENCE OF EXPRESSION AND GENERAL Translated xos. net.. AINSLIE. net. 8vo. DOUGLAS LONDON: MACMILLAN AND CO. B. ECO Translated by 123. PHILOSOPHY OF THE PRACTICAL NOMIC AND ETHIC. 8vo. by DOUGLAS AINSLIE. B.

WHAT IS LIVING AND WHAT IS DEAD OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL .

TORONTO . LIMITED BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE THE MACMILLAN COMPANY NEW YORK DALLAS BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO THE MACMILLAN CO..MACMILLAN AND LONDON CO. LTD. OF CANADA.

MACMILLAN AND ST. 1915 LONDON .A.). (OxoN. BY 1912 DOUGLAS AINSLIE B.WHAT WHAT LIVING AND IS DEAD OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL IS BY BENEDETTO ROCE TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL TEXT OF THE THIRD ITALIAN EDITION.S. LIMITED MARTIN'S STREET. CO. M..R.A.

COPYRIGHT .

spirit and so forth. but then. When ." I used "gnoseology" in my translation of the Philosophy of the Practical instead of the para phrase "theory of knowledge. term such as Epistemology. to regularly formed from the Greek. seems me worthy a place difficulty in English. and by avoiding their use. spirit such words as idea and are better under stood as immanent rather than as transcendental " things-in-themselves. It is true that they are printed with capitals in all German ." This word.TRANSLATOR'S NOTE READERS of this translation will observe that Italian in discarding I have followed the where the words original does so the use of capitals for the idea. so are other substantives. which has made no about accepting an analogous. but not identical.

and have not hesitated to introduce one or two other words thus employed. seems to I me that they are always legitimate. by abbreviating. rendering yet more difficult by the very common ness of the words used as paraphrase the already sufficiently subtle qualifications of philosophy. . seems to the very purpose which it me to frustrate is intended to serve.vi PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL new thought it neologisms cover a or facilitate. The tendency to avoid neologism at all costs by the adoption of paraphrase. expression. frequent in contem porary English writers.

and to if republish if ever. selected for translation into English. and contained essay on Hegelian bibliography as an appendix. 1 up I propose The Essay on Hegel is the first of a series of essays upon philo in the volume from which this essay has been sophical subjects contained D. any one will give himself the trouble of looking it through. to has seemed me 1 opportune in the present collection to suppress altogether as the bibliographical portion its something extraneous to it. completing and keeping to date for the use of students of Hegel. (Bari. And indeed. was published an 1906 Laterza). correcting. What is living and what is dead of in the Philosophy of Hegel. nature. since been increased in the translations of that This has German and French volume and would now have But it need of not a few additions. vii . separately. A.AUTHOR'S NOTE THE study.

viii PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL him with that first to present study of mine. objective treatment or retreatment of disputed points to polemic properly so called. B. CROCK. with it permission to exercise upon utendi et abutendL critical most fully the jus In this reimpression of the certain study of 1906 will be found instead elucidations of various points of the Hegelian and objec philosophy. which answer to censures tions that have been made to me though . RAIANO (AQUILA). I have as a rule preferred. . September 1912. as more persuasive.

. THE METAMORPHOSIS OF PARTICULAR CONCEPTS INTO PHILOSOPHICAL ERRORS II. INTO PHILOSOPHICAL ERRORS I. INTO PHILOSOPHICAL ERRORS. . . APPLICATION OF THE DIALECTIC FORM V. . VII. . II L . THE NEXUS OF THE DISTINCTS AND THE FALSE . ix . . THE DIALECTIC OR SYNTHESIS OF OPPOSITES . 78 THE METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS INTO PAR TICULAR CONCEPTS AND DEGREES OF TRUTH (STRUCTURE OF THE LOGIC) VI.120 Art and Language (Esthetic). . .150 Nature (Idea of a Philosophy of Nature). EXPLANATIONS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC III. . 134 History (Idea of a Philosophy of History). VIII. THE METAMORPHOSIS OF PARTICULAR CONCEPTS . . 33 THE DIALECTIC AND THE CONCEPTION OF 52 REALITY IV.CONTENTS PAGE I. i II.100 THE METAMORPHOSIS OF PARTICULAR CONCEPTS . .

.: PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL PAGE IX. DUALISM NOT OVERCOME CRITICISM XL THE AND CONTINUATION OF THE 203 THOUGHT OF HEGEL Conclusion. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE FALSE SCIENCES AND THE APPLICATION OF THE DIALECTIC TO THE INDIVIDUAL AND TO THE EMPIRICAL . 174 192 X.

TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION THE break of war. so long in vogue. both here and in Germany. in the thinker who has already the Spirit. madness and immoralism of twentieth century Germany has nothing in common with her great writers of a hundred years ago and more. There has been a great decline of German thought coincident with material prosperity and aspiration for universal dominion. will probably be surprised at the profound yet pellucid clarity of Croce's thought. Hegel has at last found a critic and interpreter equal to the task. xi . given us complete the Philosophy of Croce has passed beyond and therefore been able 1 Some of these thoughts are taken from other essays of Croce. Readers of the following pages. accustomed to Hegel's Himalayan severity and ruggedness of style and to the arid and difficult treatment of the Hegelian philosophy. but I 1 following lines were written before the out see no reason to qualify The any of the statements therein contained.

We should see in the mighty effort of the philosopher against Eleaticism and all forms of Nihilism. then. schools is thus to be avoided and when with Croce's help we have scraped the lichen of his . paying undue attention to the pedantries and formulae with which such a writer as Hegel is (historically) overlaid. to unravel the gorgeous and supply to all yet tangled skein of his system. full attention to its poetic In reading a philosopher. the historical accident of what he says. Who but Croce would have thought of recom mending that Hegel should be read like a poet ? Were it not for his own work upon aesthetic. but in the light of the two degrees of theoretic knowledge and of the formation of logic from aesthetic intuitions. triads the The cut-and-dried Hegel of the . such a statement would seem absurd . such as that presented first triad of the Logic. and his attempt to create a new and superior form of Hegelian Heracliticism. Rather. future students the clue of Ariadne. but truth. such a remark assumes dwell its full significance.xii PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL to look back upon Hegel. than for ever upon some by the technical difficulty. he recommends us to read is Hegel "like a poet/' that without paying undue attention to the verbal form. we should seek without his inspiration in the mazes of his text.

that never of the ideal that is not real. and of its far-reaching evil consequences for a great part of the Hegelian system. One of the most important deduc tions from this error is that of the death of art. Croce points out how it was owing to the application of the dialectic of opposites to the category of distincts that Hegel conceived so great a contempt for the practical as compared with the . but errs grandly in a vital part of his system. would suffice to lay all students of Hegel beneath an obligation of en lightened gratitude to the philosopher of Naples. xiii we find all beneath that is it the true philosopher. who not guilty of any mere inadvertence or blunder. this Croce's of fallacy and of the application of the dialectic to the empirical world. in philosophy. were they his sole contribution to philosophic criticism and research. according refutation to Hegel. to be merged. in That itself is this error should appear the is Logic characteristic of Hegel.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION formulae from the thought of Hegel. its The title of this book sufficiently explains scope and object. the confusion of distincts and opposites. The magnificent critique and is explanation of the dialectic followed by the ex position of one of Hegel's two great errors. the hater of abstract and motionless. of the should-be is.

the sage would naturally no longer desire any sort of intercourse with the There would thus be cessation of the throng. but only the empirical in dividual. a construction of the abstract intellect . monadized. and once he had attained to the contemplative life. ideal and real be Outside ideal becoming coming. arithmetical time. but only temporal becoming. that is to say. is not real becoming. the eternal. it is the intelligence as the universal of real becoming. are the same. atomicized.X iv PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL He was led as theoretic world. But becoming cannot negate is itself. The is true becoming ideal . of the particular particular. a progressus ad finitum. because the eternal is in is in every instant and every instant . upon the former freed himself by his theory to look one from which the thinker by the power of his thought. dialectic. in the same way not divergent or indifferent in respect to the . He conceived the dialectic as a temporal becoming. isolated. but is the intelligence so that universal and particular. and him to . and real Eternity time coincide. In look down from Hegel. Hegel's led identification of the real and the rational support energetically the action of the State and of all great men. just as the real individual is not outside the universal. the poet and the sage their tower of ivory upon the throng below.

identical.water be a mile or an inch from his The lips. and the perpetuity of the dialectic with the constancy of the true. and the static oriental idea of the perpetual return. Christ. is also void of content. Who the eternal in the temporal temporal the is eternal. for an eternal approximation and never attaining is not progress : it does not matter to Tantalus if the sweet spring. Another way of stating the same thing to com bine the western idea of a perpetual breathless pursuit of truth. if he is never to touch it with them. until it has been enriched by the dialectic with the idea of infinite progress.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION his confusion of the ethical with the xv economic led to the creation of Nietzsche's Superman. a being above the morality of the throng. because neither complete without the others. and therefore . This latter. The rationality of the real should. be closely connected with the most rigid condemnation of error and of evil. however. The idea of finite progress must therefore be looked upon as in complete. by the instant act of thinking. symbol of humanity and the is neither is God in nor man. We possess the truth at every moment. taken by itself. as The in their and history are turn are philosophy and spirit is history. but the God-man. and this truth is at every changed into will and nature.

from the attempts so often made by excellent natural scientists to solve problems outside their com petency. A man may be an entomo logist. unless he be also a philosopher. but his views upon the problem of know ledge will be devoid of interest. Croce has more than a good word to say of the study of Hegel in Great Britain. A but he can never sacrifice morality. if it is into a constantly added to remain truth. the science its Philosophy assigns sphere to each of the empirical sciences. is philosophy.xvi PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL new problem. which should do much to correct the widespread con fusion of the data of empirical or natural science with true science. which must be to. man may even his own soul. and indeed he recently contradiction that this observed to the present writer that his own thought remained far more itself in the English than in the German of the away. and in their sphere philo is not Confusion has arisen sophy competent. versions of his ^Esthetic and Philosophy it Practical-. The domination of empiricism in this country has led to suspicion of is thought which simply thought as yet untranslated into volitional . sacrifice all he has for the truth. in the latter seemed to melt But the study of Hegel should receive a new and vigorous impetus from this work. which of sciences. owing to the would imply.

days were settled more easily than those of the modern world because without the modern theoretic basis. He its disinclined to admit that socialism in first mind of Hegel and then filtered down through Feuerbach and Marx. if it and as a nation the of action in English have the genius of practical action to respect Hegel as one of the greatest practical forces the world has ever seen. They are not . have been achieved by the publication men English of this book. like a spark from tinder. Reality is looked upon by many as the physical. have existed without theoretic basis. there could have been no "social question" as it presents itself to-day. There existed in the seems to exist the belief that thought can arise from psychical friction. in my opinion. The Roman some however rudimentary. he remarked to me that socialism was the result of modern seemed theoretic economic conditions. form factories. They labour troubles of could not. to Sorel and the syndicalists of our day. Much lead our will. mind as an epiphenomenon. The French first Revolution broke out in the brain of Jean- Jacques Rousseau. xvii Discussing recently in London the origins of socialism with a leading statesman. Without the philo sophers above mentioned. etc. however.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION act.

" but there is one thing that is never in a hurry. . here likely to for we run no risk of underrating those elements of empirical thought represented by aeroplanes and other automobiles. is the idea. DOUGLAS THE ATHENAEUM. Matter changes place with far greater rapidity than heretofore. as readers of Hegel know.xviii PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL become mere dreamers by so doing. and that. PALL MALL." yet supremely worthy of attention. AINSLIE. LONDON.

It was there that he found or brought to perfection and full value. Strange is logic of philosophy (for is really very simple and should be accepted as irresistibly evident). and which may the aversion to this conception of a it therefore be considered as his true discoveries. or insufficiently marked by them. that the logic of philosophy (with the consequences ensuing from it for the solution of life) particular problems and for the conception of was the goal to which the main effort of his mind was directed. therefore. principles of high importance which had been unknown to or hardly mentioned by previous philosophers.I THE DIALECTIC OR SYNTHESIS OF OPPOSITES HEGEL made itself | is one of those philosophers who have not only immediate reality but philosophy the object of their thought. thus contributI ing to elaborate a logic of philosophy. . believe.

: a method of its own. which afterwards reflected in economic science.2 It is PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL the idea. that it. that in economic activity is inherent is a method. and that therefore there a historical logic of the art in general i. very few are surprised at the fact that treatises on logic. from the moment of its inception. very many recoil from this conclusion too. must have called). the natural arises sciences have their method. which is studied in the logic of mathematics that . one doubts that mathematics has a method of its own. mathematical and natural a rule give no special attention to the discipline of philosophy. give us the logic of poetry and art. activity has its and that finally is the moral in method. observation. that poetry and aesthetic .e. and often pass silence. of abstraction that historiography is has its method. Conversely. method . which it reflected ethic (or logic of the will. the theory proceeds by a method peculiar No of which should be sought and formulated. from which the logic of . as has sometimes been But when we come to philosophy. while giving to much space as the consideration of the disciplines of the sciences. which must be determined. that philosophy to itself. it over altogether in . in other words. of experiment.

we an individual and fantastic Thus. For cannot be claimed that the theory of an object should be recognized when the reality of the object itself If philosophy does not exist. the logic of philosophy does not to both . philosophy. for it Others see no other way of salvation than a rigorous adherence to the experimental method. save the method of philosophy itself. if it Good-bye satisfy you.THE DIALECTIC It is 3 very natural that a logic of philosophy should be denied by those who. which produces itself like from the compasses to the to the zither ! bistouri. is Finally (and this is the latest fashion. are a philosophy studied clinic. then is denied. not new. owing to lack of reflection or mental confusion or eccentricity. it enjoy such a position But if I have called this spectacle strange. it deny philosophy in general. assert that philosophy must follow the abstract- or philosophizers. They extol dream and and so which. and from that art. showing themselves altogether devoid of the conscious Some of them ness of this inevitable necessity. . in the laboratory and the on. if an empirical metaphysic. as the case deductive method of mathematics. exist. is because we too often see those very philosophers may be. at least to now commended newly revived). every method seems good for philosophy.

If the object of philosophy be not the production or the reproduction of art and mathematics and of the various other activities of man. limits his study application of the poetical method. when studying a poem. and be as reflective consciousness of art and history. but he will not thus attain to a philosophic knowledge of the poem.4 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL One namely. the critic. explicit. which it is important to activity. but he will not attain knowledge of the nature of mathematical activity. of the practical fail researches of natural activity. when studying a mathematical theory. of mathematics and of the science. but the comprehension (the is understanding) of itself them all. that if i single observation should suffice against such views: philosophy is to it were the provide the understanding. this or that particular work of art . the perfecter of that He who theory . if we . will to the feel in himself the creation of the poet. will be the limits himself to disciple. an make In any case the hope of understanding and of judging the work of Hegel is vain. this comprehension proceeding by a method of its own. infused or implicit. He who. and moral we to see how it can do this by conforming to the method of one of those particular objects. mathematical thinking.

universal. and to the differences between such enquiry and other theoretic and nontheoretic forms. consist ample in a monograph by Kuno summary repetition of the contents of his books. and even the special monographs concern ing Hegel (for example. is concrete. the central was his main and problem of the Phenomenology of Spirit^ and of the new forms assumed by this book in the Science of Logic and in the Encyclopaedia of Philo sophical Sciences. in relation to the it modes or confused. should. attitudes with which most readily for Philosophic thought Hegel it : concept. Above in all. by But a complete exposi tion of Hegel's thought. that to say not or rapture. or any other . is thirdly. secondly. It is concept. or intuition. an inward and critical exposition. so close as to repeat his divisions sections and chapters. feeling. what should be made clear is the triple character that philosophic thought assumes three spiritual is is Hegel.i THE DIALECTIC always 5 do not that this keep clearly before the mind problem which we have just enunciated principal problem. in the first place and in chief part. be devoted to his doctrine of the nature of philosophic enquiry. firstly. the recent and most Fischer). Almost all histories of philo sophy.

" "horse." "blue.6 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL similar alogical psychical state. but of humanity. its the eyes to heaven. not merely general. "house. if you will. its its its sighings. incapable of exact demonstration. in so far they recognize philosophy cannot be constructed by the method of the empirical and natural sciences. not to be confounded with general representations. its prophetic mysterious phrases of the initiates. as for instance. that it should be. This distinguishes philosophy from theories of mysticism and of immediate knowledge ." which are usually termed concepts. i. He always maintains that philosophy should have intelligible a rational and form . accents. for these have as at the most a negative that significance. "not esoteric but exoteric." not a thing of sects. the philosophic it concrete : is not the making of a . which Hegel calls barbaric. The philosophic It is concept is universal. its bowing the neck and faintings. They an " are. universal is Finally.e. profound. difference between philosophy and the empirical or natural sciences. which are satisfied with types owing to a custom This establishes the and class-conceptions. but with empty profundity/' Hegel becomes ferociously satirical against raising mysticism. clasping the hands. of the sciences of the finite. with its frenzies.

i THE DIALECTIC and richness. shows versal. other hand. the uni logical." and command Hegel. which are attached to the first and and concrete. in the must. but the comprehension of in its fulness Philosophic abstrac tions are 'not arbitrary but necessary. itself i. obey the to draw such and such lines. command them. on the object that which really justify itself. such as the resumption of the of Saint Anselm logical argument (the defence against Kant). and it must completely without 1 admitting or allowing any presupposition. philosophical concept. would be necessary to include in a complete exposition the minor doctrines. . And this establishes the matical between philosophy and the mathe for these latter do not disciplines. some of which are of great ontoimportance. And in order to elucidate this triple difference. has for is . it fundamental doctrine. which maintains that in the 1 See especially the introduction to the Phenomenology and the pre liminaries to the Encyclopaedia.e. says we belief that this will be " opportune its " for the con duct of the demonstration. but " justify their points of departure. 7 it skeleton of reality. which they do not mutilate or difference falsify. and are therefore adequate to the real. according to which the true concept. Philosophy.

are the critique of the theory. and upon the he errors which he allowed to persist or in which became entangled. again. then. essence Another is the review of the implies existence. others. nor even of his logical doctrine but rather . demonstration (which may have curative efficacy in our times) . of the vanity of every " logical calculus " and not a few others besides. aspects of truth revealed upon the new by him. But it is not my intention to offer in these pages a complete exposition of Hegel's system. That doctrine " " based on something that is not clearly in telligible to thought. For this reason. I set aside the various theses briefly mentioned above . of which the true form is the "syllogism." in so far as that has the character of reuniting itself logical with itself. doctrine which regards the nexion of subject is judgment as a con and predicate. siders the concept to be a which con " (which Hegel ficiality calls the compound of marks" " " true mark of the super the of ordinary logic). and is therefore inadequate to philosophy. as distinct philosophic and different from mere representations of particulars. to concentrate all attention upon the most characteristic part of his thought.8 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL concept. the critique of divisions into species and classes .

so the philosophic with the whole. nor is the one separated from the other. are particular philosophic concepts . since they form the often neglected ABC of philosophy). as has been mentioned. like two . distinct in re sulting from those distinctions.THE DIALECTIC (from which it 9 seems to me impossible to dissent. universal). does not it exclude distinctions. As empirical concepts are distinguished into classes and sub concept possesses its particular forms. fancy and intellect. but they are not outside or beneath spirit. but the organic whole. in which every form unites itself intimately with the others and classes. they are indeed spirit itself in those particular forms . This is a problem whose terms must be his clearly defined gravity we wish to understand its and difficulty. in relation to the concept of spirit or spiritual activity. The philosophic concept if (which. For example. in so far as it is a concrete is concrete. of which it is not the mechanical aggregate. indeed itself. in It is the universal. although I recognize too how necessary it is that they should be studied. includes them itself. and I come all without further ado to the point around which the disputes have been kindled and against which opponents have aimed their direct denials the treatment of the problem of opposites.

but also with opposed concepts. nor be considered as special cases of them. with one another. in investigating reality. however may be from the foundation of intellect and indispensable to Our thought however. Where one enters. but the one passes into the other. not only with distinct. as if The logical they were a sort of distinct concepts. Hence distinct fancy. said. which follows in the is sequence of ideas. And to -these others could be added. Examples of distinct concepts are those already mentioned. But examples of opposite concepts are drawn from those numerous couples of words. is it. is another. A distinct concept is presupposed by and lives in it its other. it as is commonly intellect. These latter cannot be identified with the former without more ado. category of distinction is one thing. finds itself face to face. such as rights. As has been two distinct concepts unite . and the category of opposition said. of fancy and intellect.io entities PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL each confined to itself. An the opposite concept slain by its opposite: saying. although they are distinct cepts but two opposite con seem to exclude one another. the other totally disappears. mors tua vita mea applies here. and external to the other. morality and the like. of which our language is full and which certainly .

THE DIALECTIC n do not constitute peaceable and friendly couples. Opposition gives to deep fissures in the bosom of the of its philosophic universal and of each forms. thought seems everywhere to run against two universals. without. of good and evil. It is the two series. always . not-being. it if distinction do not impede. philosophy itself. the organic whole of reality which it seeks. and death. thereby shows that it has since imposed an absurd task on itself. Such are the antitheses of true and fake. the fulfilment of philosophy is impeded. value and lack of joy positive and negative. The that the seriousness of this impasse is the reason at this human mind has always laboured problem of opposites. value. the whole of philosophy. particular and to irreconcilable dualisms. distincts and opposites: so con spicuously do they differ. that the same should rise does not seem possible be true of opposition. In this way. life activity and passivity. and attain to its an activity which cannot fulfilment. and sorrow. Instead of finding the concrete uni versal. being and impossible to confuse and so on. if indeed rather render possible the concrete unity of it the philosophic concept. however. opposing and menacing each other. beautiful and ugly. Now. is menaced with failure.

and so on. a merely quantitative difference was drawn of between opposites the is two. employed It is force in against found the various dualistic systems. to tell the truth. of mechanism.12 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL realizing clearly And has been doing. thing. but the facts were denied and only one of the terms was accepted. first. logical doctrine. Another sition which posits oppo category. some kind of voluptuous or capricious . of the brain. had caused to disappear. dream . the other being " declared " illusion or. or be termed. These systems accentuate both . which reassert the antithesis that the with a delicate sleight of hand. proved just category. of empiricism. of egoism beauty. This logical doctrine contained in the philosophic systems of sensationalism. has consisted in excluding opposition from the philosophic concept. one of the solutions upon which it has relied in what it the course of centuries. or an . and in maintaining the unreality of that perilous logical The facts. the opposite . as a fundamental its has this for first centuries doctrine. what comes to the same . a refinement of sensuality the ideal. a mirage . effect of habit and association virtue. of materialism. however otherwise they may Thought and truth appeared in a secretion them in turn.

under the guise of the duality of an illusion with which reality and of illusion they could no more dispense than with reality : itself. Without doubt. become involved in contradictions. but necessary in order In this way. spring of ists all And the opposition admit some sort of identity or unity of opposites unattainable by the human mind. the problem which they had that it still and remains a problem. so that they sometimes even say that the life is in illusion. Unitarians surreptitiously The duality introduce the of opposites. In thought that both these sacrifices are so impossible. the one series being at variance with those of the other. the second sacrifices unity to opposition.i THE DIALECTIC good and those of evil. we continually see those who maintain the one doctrine turning more or less consciously into maintainers of the other. true and false. is But in itself. owing to its imperfection. ideal and real. . and come to recognize that they have set not solved themselves. because if the first sacrifices opposition to unity. being and not-being. 13 terms. as little satisfactory as the other. both adequately to think reality. the value against abstract dualistic view retains : its monism a polemical value due to its it denial of the other's negation.

is seems desperate . to . individual im a perfections. in so they affirm the second. and indeed of expressing his antipathy to them. then. and no less desperate the case of desperation. never weary of admiring the virile materialists firmness of the and in sensationalists monists of real. Thus reality and mind show us both unity and opposition. The case. mind beyond the human mind. are right in what affirm is they Hegel and and wrong in what they deny. far the oppositionists.i 4 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL For "necessary of illusion/' or "necessary imperfection the words. he forms less. relative We human mind/' are mere as we will. try any meaning. every sort asserting the unity of the and if. to which. For. A reality other than the real. as they affirm the far as first. owing to the historical conditions in which his admired never the dualistic thought developed. And (as Leibniz said of in so philosophical systems) the Unitarians. we can neither conceive nor constitute a term in any com parison. we cannot give know only accidental and and relative illusions. on the other hand he never lost an opportunity forgot that the consciousness of opposition justifiable is equally invincible and equally with that of unity.

its And when spiritual ism celebrates the same chiefest triumphs. but able to hold it in check It would seem almost as though. says with a smile. Nevertheless. and. return in a while for But the smile is or soon vanishes. at every . nothing really is cheerful in the condition of him who ceaselessly tossed from one extreme to another. as by an invincible force beyond control. amid the difficulties which clear. we had not already cut the knot in favour of is thought. ! he smiles in way and little Wait there . whether. he distracts himself with the variety of dualism he plunges again into monism. materialism will is forced. and alternates the two move ments. The casual observer of the history of philosophy sees a restoration of dualism follow every affirmation of monism. and vice versa each unable wholly to strangle the other. The casual observer. says. Wait now will come spiritualism. when he is tired of this. epidemic of materialism. when for a time. that unconquerable . thus tempering hygienically the one . that to say. by that very declaration. of hope. there is at the I have made bottom of our souls this a secret conviction. with the other.i THE DIALECTIC 15 declare the question insoluble would itself compel us to consider. : man has satiated himself with the uniformity of monism.

and so on. now and with pessimistic observations. which deny is complete to one another in turn. which is supreme unity. to What wanting ingenuous Implicitly. virtue it is but never is a harmony. when one has been overcome. but concordia discors. and gives advice now with optimistic. hoop and another to the barrel. philosophy? And amidst the smoke and the dust . a new opposition springs from the very bosom of the unity. potential so. insoluble : dilemma. is usually called nonIngenuous thought (which would perhaps be better called philosophical. that a combat but that against ourselves. but naively. It nevertheless our opposition recognizes that. nothing. philosophical) : is not embarrassed at the difficulty it thinks at once Its motto is not both unity and opposition. then a new opposition. selves. and that we can and should think opposition in the form of a concept. too. but of : it recognizes. or potentially. recognises that theless life is a struggle. thought. that this It is just the way systems to the knows nothing of exclusive the wisdom of proverbs gives one blow life. It mors tua vita mea.16 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL this dualism. is ultimately conquerable and soluble is that the idea of unity not irreconcilable with that of opposition. so there must be a new conquest.

i THE DIALECTIC we always 17 sigh for the of the battles of science. good sense. genuous consciousness. are welcome . no way to peace save through thought (and Ingenuous this is its defect) cannot give the grounds of dicts itself. For that may have cost the labours of centuries. for the truth which each one can find immediately in himself. Contradictions and doubts and the painful consciousness of antitheses. Such substantially the same . its affirmations . cannot but be truth. is all conflict if is through it we are to attain to the truth that complete and secure though it differs widely from the truth of ordinary and ingenuous thought in degree of elaboration. with juxtaposition. they . Its truths are because they are not found united. : it vacillates before every objection it becomes confused and contra not complete truths. and the exaggera tions [of professional philosophers. is vain ! But the sigh the battle has been joined. welcome in itself. and there is victory. without recourse to the labourings. indeed. but merely It works only placed alongside one another. the subtleties. and fails in systematic coherence. and is it is certainly a bad sign when a philosophy at variance with in this very reason it often happens that when people meet a simple and conclusive statement of philosophic truths.

abhors the mute ecstasies of it the mystics and the sentimentalists. and he makes it. because is what he in he utters and makes to ring the ear in beautiful words. ingenuous thought give the hope and the indication of the possibility of the reconciliation and opposition. This very reality. . thirsts for the real philosopher. limpid and silvery. feels that But the poet is not condemned to the unattain able. plain and known of all men. Precisely the same thing occurs in the case of the most inspired creations of art. Cannot the tion. And the poet. though throbbing with opposi one and undivided. the poet. provides of unity a sort of model. is the object of his contemplation. too. The philosopher has at his side the poet. because he strives towards the living and the concrete : he too. like the from arbitrary abstractions. or of being able to achieve If them himself. seeks the truth. which are developed with such simplicity and naturalness that every one experiences the illusion of having achieved. another form of spiritual creation. too. torn and rent with opposition. recoils he too. of which all have experience. yet philo sopher do the same? Is not like philosophy.i8 will PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL shrug their shoulders and remark that the boasted discovery is indeed a very easy thing. .

in power of solving and of representing unity opposition. neither The opposites are opposed illusion. that poetry is knowledge thought. principle Eureka* of solution the opposites: a most simple principle. the universal. and therefore intuition and imagination. the cry of the discoverer. discrete and continuous. discord and concord. and therefore But why should not the philosophic universal. be both at once difference and unity. that it problem of and so obvious those deserves to be placed among sym unity bolized by the egg of Christopher Columbus. another. like the aesthetic expression. is opposites are not illusion.THE DIALECTIC poetry. this 19 knowledge ? Why should this perfection. permanent and ever-changing? Why should mind rises reality lose its true character when from the contemplation of the particular Does not to the contemplation of the whole? the whole live in us particular ? it is as vividly as does the And his here that Hegel gives of his shout of the jubilation. and of. be wanting to the philosophic con cept when it is in ? all respects analogous to aesthetic expression is It is true that philosophy knowledge of the individual. For true and concrete unity nothing but the . The to one but they are not opposed to is unity.

not fixity. that unity has not opposition opposed to but holds within itself. and the pulse of thought beat with the indeed. which as the form of development corresponds to in- logical . the only possible solution. It rejects neither of the " 35 have called but two preceding. the fulness and unintelligible. if it be not sufficiently clear what is meant by a concrete concept. and that. is merged it in the unique truth. regards them as one-sided truths. a concrete The philosophic concept universal. Only thus does philosophic truth correspond to poetic truth. in third itself. richness of the positive If the would be analogy between poetry and philosophy be not satisfactory. pulse of things. And that truth it. because it would not be development and life.20 unity. of reality as at and therefore a thinking once united and divided. It is. opposition the negative. without opposition. fragments a third. which I monism and "dualism of opposites. Unity is the positive. is movement. reality would not be reality. It is It is not immobility. even the disappear. is but the negative far as negative. positive in so it Were not so. PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL or synthesis. it of opposites." It justifies both. is but development. also positive. which await their integration in which the first and second.

lation of the two first to the third is expressed by the word "solution" or "overcoming" (Aufheben). And that.THE DIALECTIC tuition as its 21 say. not the anatomy. relation to the second) as a or as absolute negativity. The two and by themselves. rejecting. a figure taken from the moments of the lever. applied to the third term. that the concrete universal. but preserved in the synthesis. poetical form. of the real. and the word " moment" is sometimes also The re the synthesis. -he calls opposites taken in moments. as the other formulae of unity and coincidence of opposites. because in these stress is laid only upon the unity. moments term as Hegel intimates. negation of negation. Hegel calls his doctrine of opposites^^/^ liable to cause misunderstandings. and not at the same time upon the abstract elements. to the first) (in relation (in The second and the third appears as negation. with opposites. which is also absolute affirmation. If for conveni3 . means that the two in their separation are both negated. its synthesis of life and not the corpse of it gives the physiology. we might sciences now that comparisons and metaphors are more readily chosen from the natural (sacrificing exactitude of analogy to aptness of comparison). expresses life . or the opposition.

we apply numerical symbols to this logical relation. is a moment of is is intrinsic to and it. call the dialectic a triad or trinity. because of three terms . is necessary to reason. in its the concrete own inner nature and structure. and the activity which yields the synthesis reason. and which. in order to obtain this synthesis all is above things necessary to define the opposition of the terms.22 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL we may it r ence of exposition. this. And it can be seen in the : triad of the Hegelian Logic the triad which comprehends in itself all the others. And indeed. . in the dialectic triad we do not think three concepts. it is evident that intellect it. which is altogether unsuited to the expression of specula tive truth. to speak accurately. More than it that. appears as composed but Hegel never ceases putting us on our guard against the extrinsic and arbitrary character of this numerical symbolism. Whoever cannot rise to this method of ing opposites can think make no philosophic affirmation This has already been ex which its is not self-contradictory and passes into contrary. which universal. it. how Hegel sometimes considers indeed. own emplified in the discussion of the antithesis of monism and first dualism. And if the activity which defines the opposition be called intellect. is but one single concept.

i. for the one other. being in general. What being without nothing? What is pure. is good without the make of the true some thing not thought (because thought is struggle that against the false). ineffable being. nothing conceived in itself. has meaning only in and through the to Thus to take the true without the false. what i. in becoming. and becoming. which. And. nothing without being. indistinguishable. or the evil. the two terms taken abstractly pass into one not good. is constituted by the terms is being. and therefore something is not true.e. is and therefore some ^ thing that Outside the synthesis. not this or that particular being ? How can it be distinguished from nothing ? on the other hand.e. not the In nothing of this or that particular thing ? what way is this distinguished from being ? To take one of the terms by itself comes to the same thing as to take the other by itself. without determina is tion or qualification. "the first concrete concept. triad. nothing. indeterminate. another and change sides. as Hegel says. in the third first . unqualified. therefore. Truth is found only that is to say. nothing in general.THE DIALECTIC as is 23 well known." . And similarly it is to make of the good something not good is willed (because to will the to negate the evil). in the case of the is.

which may also be designated the logical doctrine of development. the affirmation of the separate opposites which claims to stand alone as ultimate truth. becomes a derogatory and is depreciatory term. a somewhat so far as different it is meaning. It at bottom. contrary. enemy of philosophic speculation. The moment on the of reason and inseparable from is. the eternal is. as has just been shown. of the not the two opposite terms. this error. but the annulment. each on account of the other and there . intellect. is In this negative dialectic the result synthesis. synthesis. reason itself failing of its own task. in this sense. but intellect^ in not an intrinsic it. the dialectic in sense. It the abstract intellect. the opposites are unthinkable. that outside the synthesis. t which consists the in taking the opposites outside constantly reappearing. its This polemic " is 1 " subjective or " negative' But it must not be confused with the true and proper meaning of the doctrine of dialectic in its objective or positive sense. which we have " explained dialectic " above. fore the terminology. is it And against there must always be directed the polemic which shows. also acquires. if we do not proceed but a subjective impotence . is "It not the fault of the intellect further.24 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL Nevertheless. like the word itself.

intellect Reason intervenes as negative domain of it to bring confusion into the . not of identities. it neither produces nor states The aspect confusion between the merely negative of Hegel's dialectic and its positive content has given rise to an objection to the Hegelian doctrine of opposites. but if. or are not thought truly. 48." l triad itself gives place to a quatriad of terms two affirmations and two negations.i THE DIALECTIC The : 25 of reason which permits that determination to continue in that state. prepare and compel the positive it. must be a synthesis of opposites. doctrine. which is the battle-charger so often aries : mounted by his advers a Brigliadoro or a Bayard so very old and broken down that still succeeds in : do not see how any one It has keeping his seat on it. But being is identical with nothing only when being and nothing are thought badly. on Hegel's theory. in this negative capacity. I being and nothing are identical (as Hegel proves or thinks he proves). der Logik. of which there can be no synthesis. reason. but rather as Wissensch. a = a remains a. Only then does it happen that the one equals the other. iii. how can been said If they constitute becoming ? Becoming. and does not become b. 1 not as a = #. .

And two this conflict (which also a union. consists in observing that the concrete universal. or . in order to wrestle. but pre cisely opposite. with its synthesis of opposites. Another objection. which has also seemed triumphant. added to or derived from the is It is first two taken in their separation. each by are. two 'unreal itself. as such. And what there in the Hegelian concept of the universal particular. is and historical. shadows. individual. because tacitly introduces in the representation of movement and of develop ment an element sense of sense or intuition. but by their common vacuity. and in conflict is with one another. = 0. since wrestlers.26 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL x For the thought which thinks them truly. in the way in which. being and nothing are not identical. which not by their conflict. we can distinguish the particular. or which we can show to be historical? What can we separate out as such for instance. But if the words are given their precise significance. outside of there are two abstractions. being and nothing. individual. individual. and intuition should mean something particular. the very mark of its concreteness it is not a pure logical concept. an element. but a which unique concept. united. !) must lay hold not a concept of one another becoming.

philosophy must divine Poetry. not a mere "recipient" ready to receive any And content. objection But it may be that this was intended against in the character which the concept possesses There it is Hegel's logic. matre pulchra . spring from the filia bosom of pukhrior. has no sense-element . not a defect in Hegel." " is like that of mathematics. a concept." liTso be as called " intui when that intuition signifies. the synthesis of opposites. in this objection.^~ the true logical concept he has given a character -w. . if. but his true glory. the true concept exactly adequate to logical Its theory is the concrete universal. the criticism reveals. an abstraction which " " is commanded.i THE DIALECTIC element in 27 historical the empirical concept of "oak. It It is a universal. we showed above. but the ideal form of reality itself. For it makes it clear that he has destroyed that false concept of a barren and . of concreteness." or of "whale/' or of "feudal regime"? Movement or development has about it nothing of the particular and contingent. reality. it is a thought. which can tion. and " intuition taken to be the speculative concept. and to fe*. not something empty and indifferent. formal logic as an arbitrary abstraction. " " logic is taken to be only an inconceivable abstraction.

p. thus set in friendly relations enters that state which in these days of is poetry. who. 1883). the system of movement. on the part of being. go mad. as it dialectic of " : And being even were it is false. exclaimed as true." Probably Rosmini did not remember that the same description. I do not was ever made in the world. should itself? for it deny itself. though certainly in far all make things. by Hegel himself coming when. Thus he claims to give them life. how them ever.28 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL with Philosophy. Thus our Rosmini." timid thinkers. what could make this mad effort to annul Hegel does nothing less than make being go mad and introduce madness into all things. effort know if a similar becoming. in short. in so far as they philosophize. free passage. aghast at the and not being. find selves. . 371. Nietzschian phraseology It is a state to terrify called " dionysiac. had been given in the Phenomenology. in the same condition. better style. storico-critico sutte categorie e la diahttica^ posthumous work (Turin. having represented that process of the movement i of reality. to deny itself and to ignore itself? why. without knowing it. that being can the question would always recur: move it to deny itself? What reason could be assigned for this alleged desire. to * even being itself.

and the true and not meta phorical madmen are they who become mad with the empty words of semi-philosophy. 37. unattainable by them. that delirium l which not one of when also simple and transparent repose. Another manifestation of same irrational fear is the cry that. a madness which is the highest wisdom. who never succeed in raising themselves to that clear sky whence they can see their work as it really is. the very base and rule of man's thought is taken from him the principle of identity and contradiction. because that life it is life : philosophy seems breaks up abstractions and lives It is in thought. in " : The true its is the Bacchic de drunk solved is ." it Reality seems mad. Proofs are cited in Hegel's frequent outbursts of ill-humour against this principle and in his say should be substituted the ing that for it there opposite principle 1 : that everything d. . They see the sky above their heads. and are ready this to call it a madhouse. is self-contra- Pkanom. who take formulas for reality. components is not and since each becomes immediately dis the others withdraw. Geistes? p. with such logic as this.THE DIALECTIC into being 29 and passing away which itself is with out beginning and without end he concluded with the words lirium. because mad.

we might say that he does not believe in the principle of identity . it is most serious. it is now the other. And yet. and when the one. no longer have any philosophy. Hegel does not deny the principle of for otherwise he would have been obliged to admit that his logical theory was at once true and not ally. PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL But things do not stand precisely in this case. into two Now it is it is the one. For in ordinary thought. . reality is left divided. and also. identity. that philosophic being and nothing could be thought in the in and for itself. in this effort after exclusion. not the other. the And all his polemic. been seen. true. in semi-philosophy. would it meaning would never have been seriously accomplished So far whereas. If attention be paid to the words of Hegel alone. Hegel makes it what truly gives it new life and force.30 dictory. true and false. we see that what Hegel does not believe in is tilt fallacious use of . all his . is these truly unthinkable contradictions that ordinary thought claims to justify and embellish by adducing the principle of identity. it ought to be and what in ordinary thought it is not. from destroying the principle of identity. as has parts. each synthesis. outside synthesis. but if we look closer. the one passes into It the other and both are fused in nothingness. obviously.

or unity un is recognized. apparent obedience to the principle. a subjective but that it is indeed the true being of things. in think ing it. "Speculative thought consists determining opposition as . who retain unity or retain opposition cancelling unity. intellect. There is same difference between Hegel's method of thinking and the method of ordinary thought as there between him who confronts and conquers an enemy and him who closes his eyes in order is not to see him. as he says. or an evil in things. Opposition thought opposition overcome.THE DIALECTIC the principle of identity 31 the use made of it by those by by cancelling abstract thinkers opposition. error of ours . becomes in his victim. or. that to say. This establishes truly and firmly the principle of which triumphs over opposition is identity. in grasping is it in its unity." That \ because we are unwilling to is recognize that opposition or contradiction defect. and overcome precisely identity. or not a a stain. which could far less be eliminated from them. in virtue of the principle of Opposition unrecognized. the principle of identity taken as a "law of the abstract fallacious use exists. is its but in effect the real contradiction. All things are contradictory in them and thought must think this contradiction. and believing that he has thus got rid of him. selves.

and is Reality not rendered dis Indeed. which allows no separate rival existence. either as complement in or to the principle it enunciated older doctrines. allow itself to its so doing it determines thought. does not come to drive preceding truths from their place. ii. but to confirm and to enrich them. . 67-8. opposition and logically synthesizes The dialectic of Hegel.32 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL in thought does. because has absorbed the it older into principle into itself its and has transformed own flesh 1 and blood. which supreme reality. Logik. reality it sipated and discrete thereby. like all discoveries of truth.'' a nexus of opposites. grasps it. that eternally is Nor does but thought. and It does not. tinction The and concrete in universal. Wissenscb* d. it become unity in dissipated or discrete. is in and through opposition generates itself. the reality of reality. like representative be dominated by opposition into resolving own determinations only l in other is determinations or in nothingness. the true and complete principle of identity. unity is in dis opposition. itself.

Hence a the history of the various of attempts at solution sometimes been taken for problem has the whole history of this philosophy. But the dialectic. and might be called its crown. and the one has been narrated in place of the other. so far from being the whole of philosophy. is not even the whole of logic. of the materialists and the spiritualists. These disputes form the D 33 . although it is a most important part of it.II EXPLANATIONS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC have thought that the problem of opposites was the whole problem historians of philosophy SOME of philosophy. The evident reason for this confusion will perhaps be It lies from what was said above. connexion in the intimate between the logical problem of opposites and the great disputes of the monists and the dualists.

34 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL part of the treatises principal and histories of not constitute is philosophy. every all philosophic problem calls up the others. All can be discovered implicit in each one. distinct . two different things. who have or at least in thought reality given on the occasions when they it have thought in that way. and in the solution. the solution. when to we consider a that logical to think logically and are construct theory it of logic. is also true that these problems are and we should not confuse the various of the organic all members whole. dialectically. of one problem. But the if it is impossible altogether of individual it to separate histories philosophic problems from one another. the Hegelian solution would have already been finally given by the fact many philosophers dialectically. we the circumscribe the enquiry as to . true or false. one thing to think and another to have logical con that is sciousness of dialectical thought. true or is false. there of all. which expressed by the phrase this better "know thyself. although they do its primary and fundamental task." But apparent coincidence . if we do if not wish to lose idea of that whole itself. This principle we must bear are to in mind. will disappear. Doubtless. Were this not so.

and thereby to recognize the place and originality that belong to the thought of within Hegel. The is best that has been collected on this theme. This enquiry. development ? who were they ? approxi- Through what forms and through what 1 See also the historical introduction to the Logik . has not persuaded of the importance and truth of the doctrine.. especially in his History of Philosophy^ and here it is opportune rapidly to review his scattered remarks. see preferably AL Schmid. where necessary. in the to be found books of Hegel himself. Bari. and if so. 1858). these precise has perhaps not yet been carried out in a suitable way. and the Proliisione ed introduzione alle lezioni di filosofia of B. Was Hegel Had he the first to formulate the logical its of principle of the dialectic and forerunners. EntwickdungsgescUcU der hegelschen Logik (Regensbnrg. 1908).ii HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC 35 historical development of the dialectic doctrine of opposites. 1865). dialectic and for the various phases of its development. Spaventa (NapoU. 1862 . . some additions and some comments. reprinted hy Gentile with the new title : La Filosofia itcdiana nelh sue rela&ioni con la filosofia Kuno For the immediate antecedents of the Hegelian europea. limits. Metaphysik ot Fischer (2nd ed. so that there have been wanting the necessary interest for and its the directive criterion research into history. This is due also to the fact the general consciousness philosophic studies that of those who been cultivate. making.

. reality. is one and immovable.36 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL its mations did that principle pass. showed the contradictions involved in space and time. having set the difficulties in very clear relief. (His arguments of the arrow. is His comparisons of things with a in its of the opposite which opposite as sweet and bitter are in honey.reality. of Achilles and the tortoise. . same. of the bow and of the lyre. show how profoundly as Heraclitus felt reality contradiction and . of discord and harmony. river. are the and also is not. to of the reality of the first perception of the difficulties which the principle of opposites gives rise. offers itself most easily to Zeno. prior to attain ing in him to perfection ? The doctrine of dialectic is the work of mature thought. in Zeno of Elea's motion. Motion is the very fact of development in the it form in which reflexion." " everything is." "being and not-being. the product of long philosophic incubation.) Motion is an illusion of the senses being. etc. resolved the contradiction And by denying the reality of movement. his cosmological views of war and peace. In Hellenic antiquity refutations we find." "all flows. In opposition to Zeno. Heraclitus the true made of His movement and becoming sayings are: .

of the Platonic philosophy.n HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC 37 development. identity and non-identity. matters of much dispute. the Sophist^ the Philebus. an ingenuous and penetrating vision of But we must not insist upon them the truth. still as yet abstract. he conferred upon these affirmations a far more precise signification than they had possessed when they stood alone. historical dialogues place are whose interpretation and . motion and rest. just as they have been handed down. and make a Post. to pass from the universal.e. that by the very act of incorporating them in his doctrine. too much. But it is to be observed. lest we should run the risk of historical falsification. to posit the speculative form of the concept as unity in diversity. Questions are discussed there concerning the one and the many. finite and infinite. being and not being. the attempt.Kantian of a Pre-Socratic. Hegel used to say that there was not one affirmation of Heraclitus that he had not incorporated in his own logic. 1 Hegel thought that they contained the essence i. to the concrete universal. coming into being and passing away. . in Without doubt we must hold them high esteem. The same remark dialectic applies to the Platonic^ of the Parmenides.

but not yet complete consciousness of its nature. and other than and that things in relation to themselves and in distinction from others are and are not. This is equally true of Plotinus. and is not. as Hegel noted. greatly superior in value to the argumentations of the Sophists or to the later ingenuities of the Sceptics logical : but it does not attain to the level of doctrine. It is a speculative method of thinking. God. his metaphysic of the categories. n the limited and the unlimited. it may be : said that his logical consciousness is in disagreement his logic is is with his speculative consciousness purely intellectualist. And a all of this indicates an attempt to overcome result. of the Parmenides is itself conclusion that the one itself. for whom all predicates are inadequate . lacuna. is For them. the abyss where all is negated. in the doctrines of Philo the Jew and of the Gnostics. Of Aristotle. absolute being. difficulty. appear and do not appear. considered unattainable by thought the ineffable. in Plato we find the dialectic. a study We can of discover nothing or more than an perhaps a conscious ness of helplessness and an indication of the extremity need. true inscrutable reality.38 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL The is is. which issues only in a negative In any case.

who conceived 1 contrariety as perfect difference. 39 to the Absolute. incomprehensible to man. and did not admit that unity could contain contraries. was the thinker who. . each of them expressing but a is determination of In Proclus developed an the idea idea that Plato had already mentioned of the trinity or the triad. But in his view. most energetically expressed the need of the human spirit to emerge from dualisms and conflicts.ii HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC it. either intellect. and of God. or by which are the three forms of the human remains a simple limit. is and the the Absolute as the great philosophic advance implicit in Christianity. idea. 1055 a. the coincidence of opposites prior to their separation. that unity is prior to duality. or by reason. idea of This spirit. opposite. Nicholas of Cusa. and to raise itself to that simplicity where opposites coincide. Metaphys. 1 It 'H ^oFTid-n/s Sta^opi rAetos. since he regarded each thing as the privation of its Cusanus maintained against this. thought is simple coincidence. that which unites as the opposites. inheriting Neoplatonic and mystical traditions. at the beginning of the modern world. And i the Cusan was the first to is perceive that this in coincidence of opposites antithesis to the merely abstract logic of Aristotle. tffrl mind. by sense.

of the and the plane. of of corruption and generation. This was the direction of Aristotle's thought. let the least opposites. to him study and contemplate the greatest of contraries and is Profound the magic that knows how draw the contrast. has been forgotten and must be resuscitated and gives of an eloquent description of the unification circle contraries. no other know 1 permitted. His thought seems to assume a more positive function in Giordano Bruno. who proclaims himself a disciple of " the divine Cusan. of avarice is and liberality: in And there an echo of the Cusan " : these memorable words Whoever wishes and to know the greatest secrets of nature. ii.40 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL is who ledge a union of is all contraries. love and spherical hate. of . cap. Quattrocento (Napoli. save an incomprehensible comprehension. after having found the point of union. 1 when he posited privation. of the concave and the convex. conjoined // On the Cusan. a learned ignorance. and obtuse angle. Risorgimento filosojice nel ." Bruno also upholds the coincidence of opposites as the best principle of a philosophy that . of the perfect and of the straight line. of of poison and antidote. see Florentine. of pride and humility. of wrath and patience.the acute heat and cold. 1885).

whatever may be. metafisici. . because stopping at the genus of opposition. We delight a sensible. Hence he in the erred at every step. Dialogue V. 1 The principle is no longer beyond (K Diakghi 1 De la causa principio ed uno. pp. in fine 255-257. the principle of the coincidence of opposites becomes of con Bruno a kind of aesthetic principle templation: "We delight in colour. 1907.. in a being which completes the is whole. which embraces all that can be comprehends understood . he was hampered in such a way that he failed to descend to the of attain to species contrariety. in which comprehends a knowable which every knowable." In his naturalistic intuition. Bari. not in a single voice.ii HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC 41 with a determinate disposition. but chiefly in that all sensibles in itself . in an apprehensible. through saying that the contraries could not truly come together same to subject. in one. so that he did not attain. but in one complex of sound which results from harmony in itself many voices. and mother of form. Gentile. but chiefly in that which )J the whole itself. but he could never parent it. Laterza). did not even fix his eyes upon the goal. We the in delight in a voice. as the progenitrix. but chiefly which weaves into itself all colours. not in one it specific colour. ed. He could not.

thought and extension unite in God. If he is to be known. was not capable even of setting the problem in the form proper to For Descartes. thought. unite in Substance: third term after For Spinoza. force." The One. is in himself unknowable. he must distinguish himself from himself." which is the substance and attribute. but in an incomprehensible manner. but does not succeed in putting his thoughts into the form proper to thought. the " yes " " is unknowable without the no. the Father must duplicate himself in the Son. does . God. sees Bohme he too the triad in all things. earnestly asserted by the philosophus theutonicus. still It awaits its justification in a doctrine of the concept. says He posits the antitheses in their full Hegel. man's reach it is a power of the human mind .42 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL . Jacob The unity of opposites is also Bohme. and proceeds to posit unity. and fathoms the significance of the Christian trinity. but does not allow his thought to be arrested by the strength of the differences. The philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries which developed under the influence of the mathematical science of nature. though not yet a rigorously logical power. they but "mode. For him.

and of history (logic of on the other he gives importance to the inductive logic of observation and of ex certainty) .ii HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC Leibniz 43 is not constitute a dialectic synthesis. wrecked on the problem of evil and arrives at an optimism of but slight philosophical value. the problem of problems. The popular philosophy all of the eighteenth century resolves antitheses in God. and he had carried "for years in his head . as presage of a more concrete logic. B. who thus becomes an assemblage of contradictions. Only here and there do we find in some of is solitary thinker hints and suggestions the dialectic solution. example. italic-its. solitary figure. Another to Vico. in many respects akin said John George Hamann (who was by all Jacobi to unite in himself in a high degree extremes) showed himself from youth onwards dissatisfied with the principles of identity and reason and attracted by that of the coincidentia Hamann had met with this principle oppositorum. For G. and from that of Cartesian physics and mathematics. life the pkilosopkus not only actually thinks history and dialectically. in the De triplici minima it et mensura of Bruno . periment. there Vico. but recoils from the logic of who Aristotle. founding on the one hand a logic of fancy (poetic logic).

the true progenitor of the new principle of the coincidence of opposites. 87-88." Yet it seemed to him to be "the sole sufficient reason of all contradictions and the true process of their solution and levelling/' which would put an end to all the contests of the abstract thinkers. who published 1 the extracts relating to in the it which are to be found But Jacobi. SaggifiL ill. a position to pass beyond thought.44 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL n without being able either to forget it or to under stand it. and to escape the mystical and agnostic solution (which indeed was no solution). 1 For Hamann. was not himself in works of Bruno. it by strict logical The reason for this is. Vermischte Schriften. 36-37. . although whole Critique less of Pure Reason seemed to Hamann much pronouncement important than the sole of Bruno on the principium precisely in coincidentiae oppositorum who was virtue of that critique. cf. Hegel. It was Kant. and the Essays collected in B. hampered by his theory of immediate knowledge. that in order to arrive at a truly logical statement of the problem of opposites. Croce. though he indicated the lacuna. it was necessary that the Kantian revolution should be his accomplished. of this principle From Hamann knowledge passed to Jacobi. ii.

that is. Hence his phantom of the of the thing-in-itself. " an original synthesis of can be nothing but With Kant this synthesis does not opposites/' . in his Antinomies. of the logical doctrine of dialectic. exposition of the Better still. which is no longer merely mechanical. as Hegel observed. and respect time. Kant advances the problem of opposites a stage further. . but is genuine internal teleology he catches sight of the idea . from Descartes to Leibniz and to Hume. What is more important (what indeed is his true glory).ii HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC the 45 of new dialectic. he discovers the a priori synthesis and that. like his immediate pre cursors. the science of nature. but contradictions spring directly from the necessities of the human mind. no longer either the external teleo Critique logy of the eighteenth century. the abstractness his categorical imperative. In the of Judgment he propounds a mode of thinking reality. beyond the abstract concept. was under the lectualism and influence of the prevailing intel- of the ideal of a mathematical agnosticism. he differ for traditional logic. It is true that Kant. The the Antinomies certainly seem insoluble. But at the same maintains and renders more effective the ence between intellect and reason.

light. and ends. new philosophical logic. which exists logic. But transparent. to solve the problem of opposites. It is it not developed in the dialectic triad. and does not accomplish the true unity of subject and object. so that Fichte does not succeed in justifying nature in relation to spirit. but inevitably bound at first parallel to it. in faith. and almost with the presentiment of greater destinies. like Kant. and although he employs it in an altogether ex trinsic manner. its near and The task that awaited philosophy after to Kant seems evident: to create the develop the a priori synthesis. by destroying the dualisms that had not only been left intact. yet in him everything becomes more simple and more The thing-in-itself is denied. And if there be little more in Fichte than there was in Kant. it it But once had been brought to could not be slow to reveal the riches which is contained in itself. by the side of the old it. by Kant. to end by destroying Kant also throws into relief the form of triplicity.46 receive PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL its full value. but rendered more powerful. yet he does employ it constantly. The a priori synthesis the source of transcendental logic. in moral abstractthe idea ness and But of a new . on the other hand the concept of the Ego retains a subjective significance.

in arriving at the conviction that it is not possible to think philosophically. for he conceives the Absolute as identity of opposites. whence began the process of his degeneration. is as be called. antithesis and synthesis. It is theory without logic. Its differences are merely quantitative. But for him the Absolute is indifference of subject and object. the metaphysic of the irrational. And his templation.ii HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC is 47 Logic better determined. and the consequences were so serious as to give rise to what has been called his second manner. philosophy conceived as a doctrine of science and the form of triplicity assumes a dominant as thesis. But what for Schelling was the point . except through the principle of identity of opposites. He too for some time . Schelling takes another step forward. appeared later in the philosophical world than his young contemporary Schelling. was for Hegel a point of transition what was for Schelling the final phase. whose disciple in a certain sense he may Hegel. known. position. was for Hegel a juvenile phase. so is much so that . This in deficiency Schelling never succeeded overcoming. of arrival. because for him the instrument of philosophy is aesthetic con of knowledge is not yet subject and spirit.

after Certainly. his seemed to him that the Christian idea of the Trinity. Hegel into this path of enquiry his admiration for the harmony of the Hellenic world. his participation in the romantic movement. which should be the form of the real in its the recent . which should preserve intellectualism of the two a logical conquests of philosophy form. Everything urged . and knew no other philosophical system than the work of art. should find its refuge and its true meaning in the . But the profound scientific spirit of Hegel led him gradually to recognize that philosophy cannot have any other form than that but religion. Fichte and Schelling.48 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL knew no other instrument of philosophy than aes thetic contemplation. knew intuition as intellectual intuition. so rich in antitheses theological studies. integrity. his He too (in the first sketch of at the system that has been preserved) placed spiritual summit of development. not philosophy. attenuated or rendered void by Protestant rationalism. it was no longer thought istic in the old logico-natural- Kant. the that was no longer a possible meaning sense: : preceding centuries had been mortally wounded. of thought. There must be a and reinforce logical form. from which it . in the precise sense in which thought differs from fancy and intuition.

movement and dialectic. and brought to light his principle of solution of the problem of opposites no longer a simple coincidence no in a third unknown or unintelligible term : . but also with those who are nearest to him. one need latter. and therefore . only consider his attitude towards these Kant. If a proof of this be sought. . he detached himself from the philosophical tendencies to which he had previously adhered. The " preface to the Phenomenology has been called Hegel's farewell " but the truth is that it was to Romanticism . Only a romantic who had in a certain sense surpassed Romanticism its could pluck philosophical fruit. not only in comparison with his remote predecessors. is The logic of the dialectic therefore to be considered a true and original discovery of Hegel.ii HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC . 49 new philosophy his speculative studies on the with Kantian synthesis and antinomies. philosophy there were not the necessary con ditions for understanding Hegel. longer motionless unity no longer the intuition but unity and diversity together. of Schelling . who disclaimed Fichte. only because of his secession that Romanticism was saved for philosophy. would have dis In Kant's claimed Hegel even more decisively. And the Phenomenology of Spirit (1807).

or the error. while violently rejecting the philosophy of Hegel. grown (as in old and degenerate. 1 Schelling always remained deaf and hostile to the conception of his former and during the half century that he survived. and all the obsolete views which appeared in its train. he obstinately opposed to it his own friend . there could be no true criticism.50 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL But Hegel. was also the man who showed what a new and fruitful contribution it had made to philosophy. and always calmly pointed out his merits and his it has been given me any man has thoroughly understood Kant except Hegel. in the same breath he com plained that he had been robbed by him : without however anywhere nature of the clearly formulating either the theft." He was recognized in the gleam of dialectic that there him. always venerated Schelling as " the father of the new philosophy. theory. The Secret of Hegel. Hegel. i. Sometimes. London. H. 1865. on the other hand. to indeed the celebrated preface the Fragments of Cousin). but never effectuated" (J. so far as that . So true is this that it has been possible to say that no one but Hegel has understood Kant. I " For my part. who combated in a definitive manner the erroneous tendencies and aspects of the Kantian philosophy. Stirling. or that this latter himself remains aught else than a problem whose solution has been arrogated. I have have no evidence to declare that.H)1 to see.

who turned from his transcendental logic to merely natural istic logic . . a superior point of view show it such by comprehending within inferior . and fell the arms of the neocriticists. by others and the then this sort of proof explication of their errors has not been wanting to the doctrine of Hegel. or of surviving each by himself know himself. credit as the second in But for Hegel. who was son : an end more worthy than in the failure to that of serving as an exercise for little scholars. those that are if the proof of the truth of a doctrine of furnishing at once the justifica lie in its power tion of truths discovered . Kant did not into fully understand himself. Schelling did not fully understand little himself and ended with Schelling.ii HISTORY OF THE DIALECTIC If 51 itself defects. both ended their spiritual his great mind.

the rents and wounds with which reality shows be lacerated by the abstract intellect. conception of reality modifies it in several parts and changes all its general aspect. two distinct mental acts. Yet it is clear that the second act strengthens the itself first. all All the dualities. but the most complete dialectician who has appeared in His dialectical treatment of the ordinary history. closed and healed. the hiatus. and to think the logical dialectic. complete unity itself to A 52 . He is not only the great theorist of the dialectic form of thought. theory of the are. and freeing it arise from false ideas concerning the nature of This is precisely what occurs philosophic truth. so to speak. are filled.Ill THE DIALECTIC AND THE CONCEPTION OF REALITY To think dialectically. and. then. f by giving it consciousness of from the embarrassments that in the case of Hegel. all the fissures.

false They are false opposites and distincts. Jinite and infinite. These sciences. if they truly rise to the designated they would give . refers here and there to the difference between them and genuine determines their and opposites) exactly genesis. and such like terms. just because they are immersed in phenomena. which are not true not even true distincts. manifestation and force. matter and spirit. which is to be found in distincts the phantasmagorias of abstraction. Were these terms truly distinct (or distincts). Hegel (who. in his criticism. note above all that there dis appears a series of dualisms. for the simple reason that. which They are have their origin in the empirical sciences. as formulated.in DIALECTIC AND REALITY is is 53 {gediegene Einheif) realized : the coherence of . many and one. terms which cannot be thought either as elements constitutive of the concept as universal. dualities of terms. accident and substance. in the perceptive and legislative consciousness. sensible and super sensible. whenever they attempt to rise to the universal are compelled to break up reality into appearance and essence. blood and again circulate within And we must opposites. in the sciences of phenomena. the organic whole life re-established it. or as its particular forms. they do not exist. external and internal.

But. to infinity. and every in it attempt to overcome the duality. the is but. criticism of them. . then another then another. preserves the phenomenon. This is what Hegel called the false or bad infinite. matter. problem of the synthesis of opposites. achieved by a negative different process dialectic. Supernaturalism pre- 1 These and similar reservations are made necessary by the plurality of meanings which those words have had in philosophical language. since they assume their appearance of distinction and opposition. naturalists and mathematicians. . the Were they true opposites. the external. dialectic. since they are not. the sensible. quantitative infinite. etc.54 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL distincts in problem of the conjunction of concrete concept. ends by changing into the other. unthinkable . by insisting upon either of the two terms. is accomplished by a from that which directs positive They are. Materialism finite. only through the arbitrary abstraction of the empiricists. the Wa ^appears again in that finite. as it appears distinction from the other. in truth. really designated things truly and they would give rise to the opposed really (or if they 1 opposed). since that term naturally so infinite ^constituted as to require its other. another born. finite is assuming the form of a finite from which finite.

as alone real and thinkable and precisely in as much as . very inanity. but which . leads back to the phe nomenon. terms . positive it is finite and external is The ness. become something inscrutable and unknowable. which (Hegel says) is a very easy thing to know. 55 serves the other term as sole reality but essence without appearance. but on the contrary is a product of thought. absolute. of thought which has been pushed on to pure abstraction. and annihilates which had It is the separated that from the phenomenon. to the finite. which itself fills the emptiness of the thing in the distance. the infinite without the finite. Here appears the thing-in-itself which would better b$ ^ called vacuity in itself \ the great mystery. to the external. because not only is the thing-in-itself not outside thought. nor is it The real is neither of those it is the concrete their sum : concept. by that character of concrete- proper to it the Hegelian concept and differentiating from naturalistic and mathe matical abstractions. the internal without the external.in DIALECTIC AND REALITY . and which takes as its object empty identity with from its itself. it is phenomenon. correction given by the concrete concept. which is no longer a parallelism of attributes or an indifference to both . The thing-in-itself.

Thus substance becomes overcome. to the rational and to life. which Hegel accepts and makes nut nor shell. antithetic duality of being This is a dualism founded upon real opposition for no. absolute determines itself as spirit and idea and is : materialism is Thus too reality no longer an internal confronting an external nature (according to the saying of Goethe. to the beautiful. evil. his own) has neither but is all of a piece. . naturalism is but 1 is many spirit is And superbody. is not beyond the many. and brings the other within subject. of the irrational. 1 For the criticism of these concepts. and the antithesis of these terms to the good. one could think of denying the existence of of the false.56 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL new in m new the accentuates and confers significance on one of the terms. is The one . of the ugly. there connected the purely dialectic treatment (the positive dialectic) of true opposi tions. the overcome. of death. but not beyond body. . . These may be summarily represented by the and not-being. see especially the doctrine of the Essence. absorbs itself. to the true. virtue of that significance. which. which forms the second part of the JLogic. With the destruction of these false distinctions all and oppositions. which may represented by the is duality be summarily of essence and appearance.

not thought not truth but is the absence of thought. If the negative term did not exist. which sees in the very act of itself thinking opposites. Innocence is : a character acts. in accord ance with the general and profound persuasion of humanity. errs . The negative is the spring of develop real. the side of not-being. and with it. and the conditions of it no place in the history of a world which. as something opposed and separated from the other. reality. opposition the very soul of the is The and lack of is all contact with error . the positive term. the conception of reality as development. " shows its find pages blank. If this be true J) (as it doubtless is. 57 to his But owing logical doctrine. not of action. the . fatuity and imbecility . development would not exist to . which seem sometimes relation to be Hegelian phrases).in DIALECTIC AND REALITY Nor does Hegel deny it. but of inaction he who evil. where strife is wanting (says Hegel). the ideal between the and the real. ment. Such a beatitude would be possible only to manly. istic. but he felicity. expressed in many aphorisms. and therefore of truth. is who a acts is at grips is with A or true felicity that truly human not a beatitude that knows no suffering. would dis is appear. he cannot consider the negative term.

. Without it is doubt. the spring of development." which includes the but is. as call rational in thought it is unreal. the unreal . relying on this doctrine of the identity of the real and the rational. Preface to the Philosophy of Rights and cf. not be artistic fact. and what rational real} The idea and the fact are the What. then. itself? An . What do we ? the domain of artistic production 'art itself: The work ugly. as the conflict between a is which not real and a real which is not is What is real is rational. the reality which belongs not-being in the dialectic triad. have grossly misunderstood . but the stimulus of the real. but the to reality of unreality. to the nothing which is not the real. rational rational.irrational thought is not thought. Those who. and cannot be considered as a species or class of real objects. artistic unreality. for instance. do we call rational in the domain of scientific thought. but thought same. if it it were would artistic . What is called irrational. that is is. even unreality has its reality. have applied his the term optimism to the Hegelian conception of reality 1 and of life. m cannot be understood in the sense that these words bear in the philosophy of the schools.58 rational PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL and the real. of an artistic fact. is certainly no " note" of ugliness "reality. Encycl 6.

in

DIALECTIC AND REALITY
:

59

meaning, Hegel cancels neither the evil nor the ugly, nor the false nor the vain nothing could be

more alien

to his conception

of reality, so dramatic,

and

in a certain sense so tragic.
is

What he
it

sets

himself to do

to understand the function of evil

and of error
error
is

;

and to understand
it

as evil

and as

surely not to deny
it.

as such, but rather

to strengthen

To

do

this is not to close one's

eyes upon the sad spectacle, or to falsify it with the puerile justifications of the external teleology
of the eighteenth century
(as, for

instance, did

But the truth at Bernardin de Saint-Pierre). the bottom of this superficial ascription of
optimism to Hegel is that he cannot be called a pessimist because pessimism is the negation of the positive term in the dyad of opposites, just as
;

optimism

is

the negation of the negative term.

And

indeed, have there ever been or can there

ever be self-consistent optimists or pessimists ? No more than there have been self-consistent
monists or
dualists.

Every optimist has a
and from

pessi

mistic side; just as every pessimist proposes a

method of
evil are

liberation from evil

error,

and therefore has

his optimistic side.

Good and
;

opposed and correlative terms and the affirmation of the one is the affirmation of the
other.

Hegel, who denies both, while preserving

60

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL

both in the dialectic synthesis, is beyond both optimism and pessimism, high up on that
philosophic

Olympus, where
;

there

is

neither

laughter nor tears

for laughter

and

tears

have

become objects for spirit, and their agitation is overcome in the serenity of thought, as in the
concreteness of
Fact,
it

life.

reality,

is

always rational and ideal; always wisdom
it

is

always truth,
But,
is

and moral

goodness.
is
is

be

well understood,
fact
;

meant what
truly
reality.

really

by fact by reality, what
the unpleasing,
is

The

illogical,

the ugly, the base,

the capricious,
fact,
it is

not

fact,
;

but the absence of

void, not-being

at

most
to

it is

the

demand

for true being, the stimulus
itself.

Hegel never dreamed of accepting and justifying as fact what is and may this not misplaced and perverted
reality,

not

reality

;

be his

justification
it,
it,

for

considering

it,

as

he

considers

unreality

and void?

As
;

the old
but
is

spying has

Nature abhors a void
so,
i.e.

man
the

most certainly does
death of his
If
tion,
evil,

because the void

activity,

of his being as man.

Hegel's philosophy furnishes the justifica not of evil, but only of the function of

on the other hand he was never weary of warning against the facility and superficiality

DIALECTIC AND REALITY

61

with which people are wont to declare irrational that which effectually has been and is, and
which,
in

virtue

of

this

effective

existence,
is
life,

cannot be considered
great

irrational.

Hegel

the

enemy

of the discontented with

of

those sensitive souls

and agitate in the and (to take an historical example) of Faustism, which proclaims that theory is grey and the tree
of
life

who perpetually declaim name of reason and virtue,

green, which rebels against the laws of

custom and of existence, which despises truth

and

science,

and instead of being possessed by
spirit,
falls
is

the celestial
earthly spirit.

into

the power of the
of encyclopaedic

He

the

enemy

humanitarianism
opposes
its

and

of

Jacobinism,

which

own

exquisite heart to hard reality,

and sees everywhere the tyranny and roguery of priests and despots and of Kantian abstract;

ness,

of a duty which

is

always outside
is
;

human
always

feeling.
,

He

hates that virtue, which

at

strife

with the course of the world
it

which
itself

brings stones to birth that
against them;
it

may dash
just

which never knows

what

which certainly has a big head, but be big because it is swelled, and which, if it
wishes
;

seriously

occupied with anything,
its

is

occupied

with

admiring

own

unapproachable

and

62

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL
perfection.
be, the

m
the

moving
ought to

He

hates the

Sollen,

impotence of the ideal, which always ought to be and never is, which never finds a reality adequate to it, when, as a matter
of
fact, all reality is

destiny of that

"

adequate to the ideal. The " is to become ought to be
the

wearisome, as do
(Justice, Virtue,

all

most beautiful words
etc.),

Duty, Morality, Liberty,
for

in the

mouths of those

whom

they are mere

words,

resounding in noisy barrenness, where others act who do not fear to soil the purity of
it

the idea by translating
strife

into

deed.

In

the

between the "ought to be," between this vain virtue and the course of the world, the
course of the world always wins.
the course of the the

For

either

world does not change and
virtue

demands of
at the

reveal

themselves

as

arbitrary and absurd,

and therefore as not truly
but
"

virtuous:

most they are good intentions,
;

perhaps excellent intentions
of

the

laurels

good intentions are dry leaves, which have " never been green. Or else, the end of virtue
is

achieved,

it

enters into
;

the world's course
is

and becomes part of and what dies in this case
world,

not

the course of the

but

virtue,
it

separated from the actual;

unless indeed

is

willing to continue living, in order to sulk at its

in

DIALECTIC AND REALITY
for

63
!

ideal

The

having been guilty of becoming real illusion arises from the struggle, which is
but not as the struggle of the
the world,
itself,

certainly real;

individual with

but as the struggle

of the world with
itself.

of the world that

makes

"Each one

wills

and believes himself
but he

better than the world in which he is;

who

is

better, only expresses
l

his

world better

than others express

it."

What
the

then

is this

repugnance of the bearers

of ideal towards the actual, of the admirers of
universal towards individuality?

Individu

ality is

nothing but the vehicle of universality,
its

the process of

becoming

effective.

Nothing
without
is

can be achieved
of

if it

does not become a passion
can
is

man

:

nothing great

be

done

passion.

And
is
it

passion

activity,

which

directed toward particular interests and ends.

So much

true that

particular interest

is

the vehicle of the universal, that

men by

the

very pursuit of their
the universal

own

private ends

realize

For

instance,

one man makes
strife

a slave of another, and from the

between

slave and master, there arises in both the true
1

From

Hegc^s Leben, p. 550.
Phenomenology,
Philosophy of History.

the aphorisms, to be found in the appendix of Rosenkranz's For the satire on the Sotten see especially the
section

Vemunft,

B,

and the introduction

to

the

is The cunning of reason whether or no he has of it. it is not conscious of its action the way are in which the it observer later. Thus the supreme good and ingenuously heroic soul believes that it simply of its own individual impulse obeys the sentiment in . what in real and substantial the wants of their time and people. their own peculiar interest : they are the spirit. achieve more than conscious and fulfil the immanent intentions. and does not understand the completed work his work yet. the imaginative phrase which denotes the rationality of all that man truly does (of any human work whatsoever).64 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL their m idea of liberty and of humanity. Great is men take the very will of reason. though he fail to understand it. "men this is of affairs" precisely of the world- And the reason why . is not irrational. and the it historian conscious of and is not for this reason less good and less heroic. for it obeys the rationality of genius. this is the cunning of reason (die List der Vernunff). reflective consciousness Thus the artist creates the work of art . Their actions intentions. This must not be understood in a transcendental sense. and make of them their own individual passion. which avails of them. the intentions itself of reason.

and who yet are of them. has been held to be a conservative it spirit. is than true. live in the spirit of those very people who full strove with them. For this reason. honours and gratitude are not usually accorded nor do to great men by their contemporaries . of the greater or less truth in fact of these affirmaF . This Hegelian manner of considering life. What falls to them is not honour. the philosopher of the secret council of government and of the bureaucratic ruling of But without going into the question the state. not because the great because the valet man is not a great man. and this personal. For this reason has been said that just as Rousseau was the so Hegel philosopher of the French Revolution. was the special philosopher of the Prussian Restoration. they receive this satisfaction at the hands of the public opinion of posterity. but a valet. but immortal glory they . translated into terms of current politics.in DIALECTIC AND REALITY who judge them in 65 those in superficially never succeed but discovering them anything mean motives. They the see no other aspect of their work although that is essential. and thus they justify the proverb that no man is a hero to his valet. as Hegel observes (and Goethe takes repeating the acute is pleasure in remark).

F. way they should carry and Fichte. finds its justification in On 1 this point the socialist Engels and the con I servative historian Treitschke are in agreement . Treitschke. revolution. philosophical that conservatism. of " construct a model police passport. Engels.66 tions. the Hegel who belongs to the bio grapher and the political historian. historical Hegel who took in the under certain determinate conditions. iii. individual. each in turn. not only with particulars portrait. The position from which a particular political attitude can be deduced shows by that very fact that it is not pure philosophical truth. Ludwig Feuerbach^ und der Ausgang der (1885). Deutsche GescMchte im ig. Jahrhundert. must not be confused with the philosopher Hegel. . 1888). and therefore Plato might well have spared himself the trouble of giving advice to nurses on the children in their arms " . ftlassischen deutschen Philosophie (Stuttgart. it PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL is m historical important to distinguish between the Hegel and the philosopher Hegel. restoration. as to its bearer. who alone belongs to the historian of philosophy. pp. vol. which should be ing furnished. the The part. but also with his Hegel's conception of life was so and it. according to him. social and political problems of his time and of his nation. H. Philosophy should not meddle (observed the same Hegel) with things that do not concern it . 720-1 .

and by itself into this declaration brought All line with Hegelian philosophy. i. in that year the But the formula .m DIALECTIC AND REALITY 67 formula of the identity of the rational and the real could be invoked equally differ for both recognize that the by all political opinions and parties. not as to this is common 1 formula.e. common it to all of them was not an empty label fact that the Jacobinism and the " crude naturalism of the century of the Enlighten stood for the ment" were of all henceforth ended. Hegelian school the wings of the variously participated in the revolution of the nineteenth century. and especially in that of 1848. in which. examining the condition of Germany. it pro claimed its adversary irrational. he defined " abstract state" it as an (ein Gedankenstaat\ has reminded one of Secretary actual his critics of the Florentine and his profound Italy analysis of the conditions of the of the Renais- . The early work. which from one another. It was even two Hegelians who wrote vigorous Communist Manifesto. and that all men parties had learned from Hegel the meaning of true political sense. and what the irrational and unreal on ! every occasion that a political party prepared for war against an institution or class of society. devoid of solid and real existence. but in determining what the rational : and real.

it. which are developed in time ceases to be conceived as something separate from and in different to the essence of things. a mutual This is not the place to recall misunderstanding. or. was the exaltation the life of history. since denies values. not to speak of all materialism. 1 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL And Cavour men in and Bismarck seemed to appear as splendid embodiments of the Hegelian theory. combined with the destruction of and opposites. the most ancient forms of this disagreement. whom the rational and the real were always fused and united. Hegek Le&en p. to The consequence false distincts which this mediation of opposites led. 59. what even worse.68 sance. Thus had history appeared is In the various dualistic systems it . And between historians and philosophers there had sprung up a profound disagreement. in the painful and futile conflict. K. as 1 . facts History of the human race. characteristic of the minds of idealizers and dreamers. is and Spinozism called Werke. such as the philosophy of Descartes. (or Hegel u. Fischer. to the idea. cannot admit the value even of history. which. which pre-eminently antihistorical Oriental pantheism. in whom they were not estranged from one another. as something which weakens and degrades the idea. . adding Cf.

m that it DIALECTIC AND REALITY 69 was erroneously considered to be atheism. and all the sensationalism and intellectualism of the eighteenth century. where the infinite and the finite are fused in one. too. which influence of Hegel. precisely because a fact. of economics. On this may and be said that agreement. and of philosophy. historical But Hegel's influence in studies has been generally considered . For Hegel. on the contrary. is every a fact of the in idea and belongs to the concrete organic whole of the idea. for whom the life of the human . outside fact. languages. spirit its nothing it. ! But even among Hegel's own contemporaries. of literatures. admiration a certain sense there particular general because has attention always been accorded to the were inspired by the great historical works. race does not present problems of progress nor in the positivist systems of Comte and of Spencer. is it becomes sacred history. and good and is evil constitute a single process. history has no place in the system of Herbart. of of rights. nor in that of Schopenhauer. in therefore. In the system of Hegel. all history point. who is altogether without the idea of development . historical development it is . but should rather be called " acosmism "). history is the very reality of the idea. histories of religions.

for how could a philosophy. a philosophy is whose principle spirit and idea. or of the Hegelian logic in most of characteristic aspect. an aspect of the character of immanence. J proper to Hegelian thought. there was truth in the observation.70 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL who was a passionate student and a con of historical knowledge. due simply to the personality of the master. it an accident. but the true reason of the advancement was ignored . historical Thus the advancement study was recognized as a great benefit. the pre miss was rejected. ever be naturalistic and materialistic? But when these words were intended to signify the antireligious character of Hegelian thought. it has been equally an error to praise or to blame his thought as materialism and naturalism. the consequence was accepted. to his negation of all transcendence. a philosophy of activity. Certainly. It is some (I a philosophy is should say the only philosophy). The is sacred character. which reveals the genesis of these illusions. assumed by history. radically because it is not content to oppose . which irreligious. summate master It was not observed that was really the inevitable dialectic false consequence of that much combated principle of the solution of opposites and of its opposites .

itself to religion or to alongside of but it resolves religion into itself and substitutes for it. that they ought not to be asked"" The sophy. . in the logical doctrine. And its vigour. its unexhausted fecundity in the then.in DIALECTIC AND REALITY range It 71 itself. and in thought effectively conformity with that and youth are increasingly apparent even in our own day. lie. the solution won by the genius of Hegel. itself And is for this it same reason. from called the only . who more than others . and of insincere religiosity. and the Jacobinism which frequently ensues in these historical conditions. which is marked by a new efflorescence of neurotic doctrine. Whoever feels the dignity of man and the dignity of thought can find satisfaction in no other solution of conflicts and of dualisms than in the dialectical. The one philosopher. another point of view. mysticism. fecundity. "The questions to philosophy has no answer have their answer in this. by an anti- barbarism engendered by positivism. philosophy that task for is may be supremely religious since its to satisfy in a rational manner the need all religion the highest of it man's needs. perpetual youth of the Hegelian philo its indomitable vigour. Outside of reason leaves nothing there is no insoluble which remainder.

from the biographical point of view. For Hegel. objectively it assumes the value of unconscious irony. as Hegel was a romantic. was a most and unequivocal Catholic. similar to the conscious irony of Machiavelli.72 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL can be ranged with Hegel in this respect." Vico the establishes the true is identical with . Vico. Vico. the whole thought of Vico is not only anticatholic. whom I have already referred to as the precursor of the antischolastic logical doctrine. from the subjective point of view. because (he said) "they are ruled by superior reasons. it if. For he explains how myths . is G. sincere but antireligious. B. was a very Christian. Nevertheless. be the idiosyncrasy of a believer. biographically speaking. and religions are formed by a natural process and his renunciation of this principle of explana tion in the single case of Hebrew history and religion. a preromantic. yet resembling him in closely his genuinely dialectic thinking. when he forbore to enquire how the Papal States ever subsisted beneath a very bad government. an sesthetician like Hegel. to which the human mind cannot that attain. insufficiently explicit in ambiguous stating his position towards the Church. is Certainly less radical the attitude of Vico toward religion than that of the later if German philosopher.

and which. has knowledge of it : a limitation. which followed upon But the resemblances between Vico and Hegel are far more evident when we leave this point of religion. Vico against the antihistoricism of Descartes and his school. which forms but a slight obstacle to the revolutionary principle which he enunciated. while zealous Catholics reproved him as the fountain-head of the antireligious movement his. ligious this And so profoundly irre of was the whole theory of knowledge pious Catholic. of the historical epoch. He showed that if philosophers did not bring their reasonings into line with the .in DIALECTIC AND REALITY only he it. that immediately after his it death was said that he had been obliged to conceal part of the thought in his books. because he alone. that truly full it who has done a thing can Consequently he assigns to man consciousness of the world of man. and to God he restores knowledge of all the rest of the natural world. once established for the human world. by order of the churchmenRationalists saw in Vico their master. As Hegel was in opposition to and in conflict with the antihistoricism of the so was Encyclopaedists and of the Aufklarung. 73 deed. because know his is own work . who made it. must of necessity be extended to the whole of reality.

their out of the passions of men. all the customs of natural cannot be changed in a trice. rules for conduct.74 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL if authority of philologists. and that "native customs. has created . such as the regulation of the duties of life by the pleasures of the senses " and who gave laws and founded republics in shady repose." less than Hegel. forgetting the struggles and the pains of which the " web of reality is woven. both equally achieved only half their purpose. impossible or the human condition. tion to As Hegel set himself in opposi the Utopian preachers of abstractions and champions of sentiment and enjoyment." well that He knew "governments must conform to the nature of the governed". and recognized only those whom railed he at called "political philosophers/' He those learned men who. in the passage of time. and above liberty. but only Vico." which "had no other habitation than in the minds of the learned. had the idea of the " cunning of " : reason'' He called it divine Providence all which. not gradually. for the sake of which they lived like wild beasts in solitudes. so Vico refuted at once both Stoics and Epicureans. dictated dangerous to " . and to criticize philologists failed their authority by the reasonings of philosophers. intent upon private advantage.

and always superior to those particular ends. for example. sometimes opposed. world is but the profounder truth is that certainly the outcome of a mind . wisdom? Without the force of laws but making use precisely of the customs of men. These narrow often different from. . but when he does not understand he creates things of himself. men wish to give free course to their lusts and to abandon their offspring. for themselves this world of nations this . . transformed into ends. Thus. it divinely regulates and guides them. ends. which men had proposed to themselves." What does matter that men are unconscious of what they do less rational. . and thereby they create the chastity of marriage. .DIALECTIC AND REALITY civil order. The fact is not thereby the "Homo non intelligendo jit omnia> because by understanding man explains his mind and understands things. . . that It is true men have made .. ." " " And must we that this is not say" (he exclaims elsewhere) a counsel of superhuman . and in so doing becomes that into which he transforms himself. .. 75 by which men it ? live in human society. of those habits which are as unrestrained as the natural expressions of human nature. this greater means for realizing wider in mind has always adopted order to preserve the race of man upon the earth.

j 96.76 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL families arise . It was not . 136. The reigning classes of nobles desire to abuse their feudal power over the plebeians. and turns of phrase as in this is the Hegel. often with the same images. like the phoenix. for there was choice in their actions nor Chance. endure slavery from stronger nations nations wish to destroy themselves. 183. m whence heads of families wish to exercise to the extreme their paternal power over their dependants. 98. Vico. ed. for there was intelligence in the actions of men. now my JSee Philosophy ofG." l same actions there followed the same These are the same metaphors. Fate. 14-6-7. since The quotations from Vico are in the Works. Monarchs wish to strengthen their own positions by debasing dissoluteness. It whence. for there was continuity . 143. 571-2 vi. and by going into solitude to preserve what remains of themselves.] . 97. Ferrari. 1911. was Mind that achieved all this. created by popular freedom free peoples wish to . 117. and thereby they are brought into subjection to the laws. Bari. v. B. they arise again. loose themselves from the restraint of their laws and thereby they become subject to monarchs. ideas. 1 And more wonderful. 235. their subjects with all the vices of and thereby they reduce them to . and thereby cities arise. always from the results.

under the 1 title of The New Science.DIALECTIC AND REALITY the 77 German philosopher (at least during the period that he was meditating his philosophy and composing his Phenomenology of Spirit] does not " seem to have known the other phenomenology/ meditated in Naples a century earlier. reappearing in him. at the distance of a century. more mature and more self-conscious. It almost seems as if the soul of the Italian Catholic philosopher had migrated into the German thinker. .

nature. passion. how has it come about that this 78 . in a word as the opposite of what artifice. intellectualistic. so rich in irresistible truth. so harmonious with and sympathetic towards concreteness. full of arbitrari to variance with history.IV THE CONNEXION OF DISTINCTS AND THE FALSE APPLICATION OF THE DIALECTIC FORM How then has it come about that this system of philosophical thought. at it ness and means to be ? How it. can we explain the violent reaction successful against a reaction which it seemed and definitive. fancy. established with such logical depth. little and which would be Hegel) to superficial (and in the spirit of explain as entirely due to accidental motives. to lack of intelligence and to On the ignorance? other hand. and poetry. has appeared some thinkers and has been condemned by them as abstract. and history.

iv DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC 79 philosophical system has been invoked in support of the most different schools. it is especially as presented in the Encyclopaedia? division into Logic. both as understood it myself. this interpretation of and commentary on the Hegelian doctrine of the synthesis of opposites. And we must not be too easily contented with . which perhaps does not relate exclus ively to a personal case) that who am writing now with such a feeling of complete agreement. which hinder the very life of the living. should for several years of my mental life have felt a marked repugnance to the system of Hegel. and as I saw it and advocated by Hegelians? And it that even now. the unburied bones. in re-reading those works. shown what is living in the system of Hegel. arising within expounded how comes The inmost reason for all Now that we have indi this must be sought. we me? must show also what is dead in it. the very schools which Hegel in tended to combat and to surpass? And how comes it too (if I may be permitted I. the old repugnance. a personal instance. I sometimes feel the old Adam. cated the healthy part of the system. Philosophy I with its tripartite of Nature and Philosophy of Spirit. we must After having point out the diseased part as well. such as materialism and theism.

or even reconstructed from top to of the study. which has often been offered by strictly the recognition that Hegel could and did err in many of his state ments of historical fact and of the natural and mathematical sciences. Such Hegelians admit all this part of the system must be re-examined and corrected.8o PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL orthodox Hegelians iv a concession. above to consider the influence of Hegel's deficiencies thought upon historical studies as something separate from and independent of the principles of his system. owing to the limitations both of the general state of knowledge of his time and of his own individual culture. bottom. to I cannot consent consider the cause of his . Here. despite and occasional archaisms). as is deficient and out of date . I have declined but precisely the philosophy. one who never founds data. remain unsatisfied with this concession because the source of the dissatisfaction with the system of Hegel its is not the quantity or the quality of it the erudition which contains (most admirable. for the same reason. upon empirical His adversaries rightly . his truth he remains intact. in the light progress of those special branches of it The implication would be that is only as historian and as naturalist that Hegel as philosopher.

because his they spring from thought. and natural and it is science. is to seek out what might be the philosophical error or errors (or the fundamental error. are at bottom. which encounter. all of a piece to his credit his errors cannot in general be explained as an accidental series of inconsequent irrelevancies. truths in so far as this reaction all was not the usual obstructionism. original but rested on evidently rational grounds. and the others derived The from it) which fused and combined with his in Hegel's thought immortal discovery. and thereby to understand the reaction against the Hegelian system. Those most of errors which have seemed or for historical and naturalistic. And said. from method of conceiving Hegel that is history . which would in that] case be an error of logical theory. the part. since. problem.IV DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC as 81 errors independent of his his philosophical principles. then. philosophical his errors. i be presumed that there we shall find the origin of the error. according to what has already been the logic of philosophy was the it special field of Hegel's mental activity. is to a just feeling of the direction in which this search should be conducted that It is therefore G .

and proves to be equally unfounded every other objection that can be thought out satisfactorily : for that principle resists and will resist every examination and assault. as would be expressed flistic logic. in another part of his logic. doctrine must now be considered more because it is my firm conviction that in it is hidden the logical error committed by Hegel. so weighty in its consequences.jdistincts. principle of the synthesis of opposites on the ground. and to set itself to exhibit the error of the itself. as it seems to me.Hegelian criticism in general details of neglect the particular and incidental the system. Yet we have seen that substantially none of these objections is well founded. or on similar grounds. In the rapid summary of the various Hegelian to doctrines given at the beginning of this work. to the it doctrine or. go directly to the problem of the only passing reference of the relation of in natura- was made . or that their synthesis is not logical. . then. That closely. is The error of Hegel. to the theory of classification. either that the two terms are not opposed.82 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL to has led anti. when it was important dialectic. or that it destroys the principle ' of identity and contradiction. to be sought in his logic but. .

for example. now as poet. yet each . Even if we were to forget the distinction. now as philosopher. And wliile we consider of these particular forms essential to complete spiritual achievement (so that deficiency in us and impels us to total _ or partial any one of them offends find a remedy. shows the spheres of economic. art Therefore we reprove him or morality who judges by moral criteria. by artistic criteria. is the synthesis distincts. We talk.iv DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC The philosophical 83 concept. and so on. logic. spirit. we are also jealous and vigilant that no one of them should be confused with any other. And remind us of the philosophy distinction. should is for it not capable of expression aesthetic. just as the synthesis of opposites. itself now as man of business. and its absence shocks us as something monstrous and absurd). now as statesman. it: a glance at life would remind us of for life scientific. of and of moral activity almost externally distinct. without specialization into and the like : all of them philosophy. or of spiritual activity in general but we all also talk continually of the particular forms of this spiritual activity. ethic. or truth by utilitarian criteria. and makes the same man appear a specialist. is the concrete of universal or the it Idea. of .

Reality breaks up into a number of elements. extraneous and this is assumed as the basis one cuts little of division. farewell to the unity of the universal. and with such a result. constitute a connexion or a rhythm. introduced. fication one concept is is In ordinary classi taken as foundation . the conception of concepts as subordinate and co-ordinate. the is rendered impossible.84 of PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL them a philosophy distinct from the others. Hegel saw this very clearly. With such procedure. external and indifferent to thinking of unity. These distincts. then another concept to the first. concept) into so many which remain separate one from another. one another: philosophy. of which we have given once unity examples and which are at and distinction. and he never ceased to combat the importation of empirical classification into philosophy. like the first knife with which a cake (the pieces. of to this Hegel's classification abhorrence caused method prior of to first him reject Herbart statement of (incorrectly credited criticism) soul. with the the of this conception feculties of the to which Kant . classification is which the ordinary theory of not capable of explaining.

in spirit/ the most various forms and on the most various occasions. and with his of ethic and aesthetic." "The we have of the living unity of the he repeats in the Encyclopaedia ( 379. of psychological in the opinion of the writers manuals and histories of philosophy.iv DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC adhered. and Hegel almost as a reactionary. and cfr. and in all his other books. "is itself opposed to the different forces. independent observed that Hegel. And be it with far greater right and with far greater consistency than Herbart. breaking faculties. 445). was able to develop this criticism whatever they be. who should have preserved the ! old scholastic divisions 1 Verhaltnis d. which consisted from each catalogues of ideas. . always sollicitus servandi unitatem spiritus. 130). separated to one another and without relation other. conceived as " of one another. But nevertheless. iSoa 1 85 still and to reject (as he writes in ) that psychology which represents the spirit as a feeling that 3 "bag full of faculties. who never succeeded in making his refutation of faculties of the soul agree with his atomistic metaphysic. Skeptisismus s&r Pkitosepkie (in Werke^ xvi. up of the spirit into or activities. in Herbart passes for a revolutionary his view of the spirit.

customs. but will divide itself internal to itself. and mind*. will but that of implication. And the thought of Hegel set out on this path. it by a move and throughout these acts maintain its of self-distinction identity the distincts will not be in a relation of mutual will own . For Vico never distinguished spirit. rights. the only one that conformed to the principle with which he started. he had his pre and here. . languages. heroic language. the philosopher most nearly akin to him whom we should investigate perhaps Vico. imagination. governments. languages as divine mental language. otherwise than as a series of degrees : spirit as sense. but of lower and higher degree. indifference. too. cursors. is Here. The theory of degrees permeates it all his works. religions. . and . The classification of reality must be replaced by the conception of degrees of Spirit. explicitly although nowhere receives full and reasoned statement. too.86 If : PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL " >? 1V distinct concepts cannot be posited in separation but must be unified in their distinction. the logical theory of these distincts will not be \tihe theory of concept classification. the concrete universal. The ment not be cut in pieces by an external force. or in general of reality the classificatory scheme by the scheme : di degrees.

His criticism of Kant for having simply enumerated the faculties and the categories in his tables was supplemented his appreciation of Fichte. by and proper precursor was Schelling's system of identity. " The " subject-object (thus did Schelling himself recall his juvenile concep- . with the method of potentiality. governments as heroic right. The very sensualism of the eighteenth century. established by force. by fully . by demonstrating their genesis. and human right. not as a cabinet with separate pigeon-holes. especially the doctrine of Condillac. for which reality developed itself as a series of But his true powers or degrees. notwithstanding the its poverty of tions. aristocratic. but as ! " eternal ideal history. and so on. for having affirmed " " the necessity of the deduction of the categories.'For . established . in so as it contained the attempt to render comprehensible the variety of forms in the unity of spirit. rights as divine right. articulate speech'." r* But if Hegel did not know the work of Vico. its categories and of to presupposi far seemed him valuable. upon which particular 1 histories appear in time. established by the gods. he had other incentives toward the solution which he sought. developed human reason this reason. Vico too conceived philosophy. and democratic-.iv DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC for 87 language theocratic.

thanks the doctrine of degrees. b cannot be posited Again. of language and logic. it appears as subject triumphing over all. is both distinct from and united is (to the concept which superior to it in degree i . 2 that of art and philosophy (or of poetry and prose. 1 It is not possible to posit 2 In the preface to the Fragments of Cousin. we see how an insoluble puzzle and for enigma to empirical and classificatory logic resolves itself naturally in speculative logic. and what is their relation? What difference does it present to the terms and relation | of the theory of opposites ? In the let theory of degrees. when higher has ex hausted every one of its virtualities.88 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL IV tion in his vindication of himself against Hegel) " in virtue of its own nature. objectifies itself. power of subjectivity. In my Esthetic as Science efExp-essien and General Linguistic. of intuition and thought. taking as an example the relation of two concepts. without studied at length elsewhere. but from every objectification it returns victorious at a it and shows itself on every occasion until." I What does the theory of degrees mean? What are its terms. hence (beginning the exposition of the relation) if a be posited without 3. . every concept and the | i concept be a 6. and so on). a case which I have a.

which are its artistic and indispensable that. so that the presence of the one excludes the other.. species of a genus (which might the cognitive form) to which both are subordinate.^. but philosophy directly includes art. it of speech. . - -- - ^ . philo- sophy itself would be wanting. real 1 symbols. divided in itself.iv DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC and philosophy as two distinct 89 art and co-ordinate be e. But the knot is unravelled. and continue to be given. .. is consciousness. images.*H^*^fflJt"~'" And in fact.*^ ^. or from the perceptive consciousness to the legislative Thus the real. vain..^^. no philosophy ever exists save in .^. the transition from rights to morality. of them most arbitrary since they are founded upon characteristics.g. is An : unexpressed thinks In philosophy speech. to use the words . forms side. . were a side so wanting. . but prose canf never exist without poetry art does not include philosophy. ^.*.-. not conceivable man The same thing can be proved by adducing other dyads of philosophic concepts. metaphors. as in the case of co-ordinate members. when we think of the relation as one of distinction and : union together poetry can exist without prose I (although it does not exclude it). which have been given. There is proof of this in the many all distinctions between poetry and prose. AlMfclw l fs -^ words. which is one. grows on itself. _______ .

now we b of the stages pass from the relation the a and (in example to chosen. we wish to apply to both connexions the Hegelian terms " moments" and . or. If we wish to give the name (objective) dialectic r* ! both to the synthesis of : opposites and to the connexion of the different degrees. of opposites in the synthesis. or. if we prefer it. relation . not-being. it is. is as real and concrete as . 7 (employing the example of being. but which. but two abstractions. taken out of relation to are not two concepts.90 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL passes of Aristotle. On the other hand. complete or perfect form. through its ideal history which gathers up in itself attains to If itself. a triad. in its connexion with the first. the second of which would be abstract and arbitrary without the first. we shall be able to perceive the logical difference between the two relations.the we must dialectic not lose sight of the fact that one has a different process from If M. in its and in the last stage. /?. and becoming). all the preceding. which is triunity. in the second a unity. If we apply arithmetical symbols to the two connexions.hat of the other. a and b are two concepts. a and 7. art and the philosophy) and pass the a. . the only concrete concept is 7. becoming. we have in the first a dyad. to use those of Vico.

iv DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC 91 <( "overcoming. life out death and death without falsities. only phorically. because they never exist as a and distinct from one another. which do not permit that both modes of connexion should be treated in the same manner. But truth without goodness and goodness without . considered objectively. Indeed. in the of opposites both are abstract. in the theory of degrees. In the nexus /$. $ i These are profound differences. as has been noted . as independent : suppressed and preserved as dependent spirit in passing from art to philosophy negates at the art and same time maintains it as the expressive form of philosophy. which a nexus of and death. is it overcome is in b. The true is not in the same relation to the _/#/$# as it is to ti& good\ nor is the beautiful to the ugly in it the same Life with relation as is to philosophic truth. are both but of them meta-| suppressed and maintained. both the ") moments synthesis are concrete. pure In the nexus of degrees a is being and not-being. of itself and of its opposite." which is at once suppressing" and " maintaining. a and their in mutual distinction." we must note that these terms bear different meanings in the two cases. life are two opposed is whose truth is life. that to say. of opposites.

92

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL
term
:

IV

truth are not two falsities, which are annulled

they are false conceptions, which resolve themselves in a connexion of degrees,
in a third

which truth and goodness are at once distinct and united goodness without truth is impossible,
for
:

since

it

is
it

impossible to will the good without
;

thinking

truth without

only in the sense in

goodness is possible, which that proposition co
with

incides with the philosophic thesis of the priority

of the theoretic over the practical

spirit,

the theorems of the autonomy of art and the

autonomy of science. Without doubt, a, being a concrete concept, that Is, presenting the concrete concept in one
of
its

particularizations,

is

also

a

synthesis

of affirmation and negation, of being and notbeing.

Thus, to return again to the same ex
artistic

ample,
it

fancy lives as fancy
it

;

and therefore
itself itself

is

concrete,

is

activity

which affirms
affirms

against

passivity,

beauty

which
being

against

ugliness.

And

and

not-being
as

become
and

particularized,

consequently,

truth

beauty and ugliness, goodness and But this contest does wickedness, and so on.
falsity,

not take plzzzforone degree in relation to another-, for those degrees, considered in their distinction,
are the concept of the spirit in
its

determinations,

iv

DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC

93

and not the universal concept of spirit considered
in its dialectic of synthesis of opposites.

The"

organism
but the

is

the struggle of

life

against death;

members

of the organism are not therefore
foot,

at strife with

one another, hand against

or

eye against hand. Spirit is development, history, and therefore both being and not-being, be

coming;
which
eternal

but

spirit

sub
is

specie

aeterni,

which
history,

1

philosophy considers,
is

eternal
It
is

ideal

not in time.

the series of the

forms of that coming into being and passing away, which, as Hegel said, itself never

comes
is

into being

and never passes away.
:

This
into

an essential point

if

neglected

we

fall

the equivocation, to which Lotze (alluding per

haps to a passage of the Parmenides) referred when he wrote, that because the servant takes
care of his master's boots
it

does not follow that

the concept of servant takes care of the boots

of the concept of master

!

When we
with
art,

say that the
is

spirit is
its

not satisfied

and

driven by

dissatisfaction to

elevate itself to philosophy,

we speak
which
is

correctly

;

only

we must
with

not allow ourselves to be misled

by a metaphor.
satisfied

The
it

spirit,

artistic

contemplation,
is

is

no longer no longer

the artistic

spirit,

already beyond that level

94
it

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL
is

the incipient philosophic

spirit.

And

in

the same

way

the spirit which feels itself dis

satisfied with the universality of
thirsts for intuition

philosophy and

and

for

life, is

philosophical but the aesthetic

no longer the spirit, a single and
fall

determinate aesthetic
in love again with
intuition.
,

spirit

which begins to
vision

some determinate

and

In the second, as in the
in

first

case, the

I

antithesis does not arise

the bosom of the

1

r

degree that has been surpassed. As philosophy does not contradict itself as philosophy, so art
does not contradict
itself

!

as art

;

and every one

'knows the complete satisfaction, the profound and untroubled pleasure, which springs from the
enjoyment of the work of art The individual spirit passes from art to philosophy and passes
again from philosophy to
that
it

art,

in the

same way
that

passes from one form of art to another, or
:

from one problem of philosophy to another
\

is,

not through contradictions intrinsic to each of

j

these forms in distinction from the others, but

I

through the contradiction that is inherent in the Ireal, which is becoming. And the universal spirit passes from a to b, and from b to a through no other necessity than that of its own eternal
nature, which

theory and

to be both art and philosophy, or however otherwise it praxis,
is

may

iv

DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC
itself.

95

determine

So

true

is

this

that

if

this

ideal transition

were caused by a contradiction
itself as intrinsic to

any determin ate degree, it would no longer be possible to return to that degree, which had been recognized
as self-contradictory
:

which revealed

to return to

it

would be a;

degeneration or a retrogression.
ever dare to consider
it

And who would

a retrogression to return

from philosophy to aesthetic contemplation ?

Who
spirit
?

could ever judge to be contradictory or erroneous
either of the essential forms of the

human

That

transition of ideal history
it

is

not a transition,

or rather

is

an eternal transition, which, from
is

this view-point of eternity,

a being.

Hegel did not make
tinction,
clear,

which

I

most important dis have endeavoured to make
this

between the theory of opposites and theory/

of distincts.

He
\

conceived the connexion of these

degrees dialectically^ in the

manner of

the dialectic

of opposites

and he applied to this connexion the triadic form, which is proper to the synthesis of The theory of distincts and the theory opposites.
of opposites became for him one and the same. And it was almost inevitable that this should be
so,

in

owing to the peculiar psychological condition which the discoverer of a new aspect of the

real finds himself (in this case, the synthesis of

96

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL
He
is

iv

opposites).

so tyrannized over by his

own
of

the discovery, so inebriated with
that truth, as to see
it

new wine

everywhere before him,

and

to be led to conceive everything according

to the

new

formula.

It

was

also almost inevit

able that this should be so, owing to the relations,
close as they are subtle, which unite the theory

of distincts to that of opposites, and both to the

theory of the concrete universal or idea. There are also' in the theory of degrees, as in that of
opposites, various
that
is,
:

moments

that are overcome,

are negated, and at the

same time main

tained
is

in the former too, as in the latter, there

unity in diversity.

To

discern the differences
for a later

between the two theories was reserved
historical period,

when the new wine was matured
of

and

settled.

We

can

find

proofs

the

lack

of this
its

distinction

and of the confusion caused by

absence at every step in the system of Hegel, in which the relation of distinct concepts is
always
presented
as

a

relation

of

thesis,

antithesis,

and synthesis.
:

Thus we
thesis

find in the
;

anthropology
soul,

natural
real

soul, soul,

sensitive

antithesis;

synthesis.

In

the

psychology:
spirit,

theoretic
free

spirit,

thesis;

practical

antithesis;

spirit,

synthesis;

and

seriously all who approach the system j of Hegel. free spirit.iv DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC : 97 again thesis last : intuition. the state. anti this ethicity. thesis. as being in and not-being. and morality the negation of rights. And so on. . life synthesis is judgment. family. In the same way thought. civil society the negation of the family. ethicity. society. synthesis. in that of subjective antithesis concept thesis . the This triadic the first case of that abuse of offends so form which has offended and still. thesis . synthesis. anti philosophy. art is thesis . in the . anti thesis the state. that representation Is the negation of intuition. syllogism. the synthesis of both . spirit : In the sphere of . logic . representation. an abuse. logic of the idea: . : synthesis is or . and in the knowledge. and that all these concepts are unthinkable outside their synthesis. which are true only becoming? Certainly Hegel was not always H . or civil again. . absolute thesis . and has been justly described as: For who could ever persuade him is self that religion the not-being of art. synthesis thesis . and that art and religion are two abstractions which possess truth only in philosophy. antithesis absolute is Idea. religion. or that the practical spirit is the negation of the -theoretical.

who puts forward false money money good is in order to pass in the confusion. nor an error of diction: it it it an essential in error. he but minimized the error of the triadic form . mode But to their substantial to accept such an interpretation would form in be tantamount value. a swindler alloy. which however small in may seem has the summary formula the which been given confusion between the .e. discrediting that its logical it in precisely the value which must most fully maintain opposites. The is error not such as can be corrected is it incidentally. affirmations of arguments would be to proceed like an advocate who wishes to win with ingenuity rather than with or of like Hegel with extrinsic truth. to i. triangulum mentis) in developing particular cases. of expressing which of themselves do not attain truth. On other occasions the triadic form seems almost to be an imaginative thoughts. est lex naturae. no such particular determination can suppress the principle of division assumed as foundation. in the dialectic or synthesis to defend of the On the other hand.98 faithful PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL to in the triadic form (and indeed essays he that . declared one of his juvenile quadratum and often.

This we must now examine in detail. . yet say. if I 99 theory of distincts and the theory of opposites. that is to all from is it am not mistaken.iv DISTINCTS & FALSE DIALECTIC the gravest arises. produces results. that philosophically erroneous in the system of Hegel.

are philosophical errors to entail. they assumed the aspect ofphilosophical errors. to incomplete and imperfect truths: is to say. was bound a double consequence. as did. came really distinct concepts were lowered to the that level of simple attempts at truth. that is. of these consequences determined the structure of the Logic. On the one hand.V THE METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS INTO PARTICULAR CONCEPTS AND DEGREES OF TRUTH (STRUCTURE OF THE LOGIC) THE application of the dialectic of opposites to the relation of distincts. logical carried out with full seriousness (as indeed was to be expected from the vigorous and systematic it mind of Hegel). what are . what to acquire the of partial or particular concepts. as we find it. at first 100 The . dignity of distinct concepts and on the other.

practical activity. which relation to becoming analogy. 1830). in being and nothing. and the courses of lectures posthumously published. by two degrees. intuition. the abstract its moments are of the concept (which in is truth and concreteness naturally the synthesis of opposites) taken to be related to one another in the same way higher. in being itself. relative to the third But what are those two abstractions. each but two first falsities. The second determined the character of aesthetic and gave origin to the two philo sophical sciences of history and of nature. and one of the Encyclopaedia (1817. in the series of distinct concepts. example. the of these corre- . the sense in which. as they may be in seen. for are two abstractions. thought. that the lower concepts are to the For example. and practical activity. and as Science set forth later in detail in the great in the small of Logic (1812-1816). intuition and thought are stages stage. two errors? Indeed. taken or separately. in it is 101 least in the Phenomenology of Spirit. and nothing.v METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS germ. 1827. To and begin with the first point. chiefly in the Encyclopaedia. in become. opposites distincts being confused with one another.

for spends allied absolute as simple being. but necessary . both of which claim to think the indeterminate and abstract as supreme reality. yet similar. truths. And what. conceives nothingness as the base of things. philosophical errors. it becomes clear owing to the confusion between the of dialectic of opposites and the connexion distincts and to the assumption that the opposites. still They become truths of a lower degree of spirit. ^Esthetic. and God the as nothing but the whole of all reality. fulfil the same function as the distinct concepts. not two unreal abstractions. but two concrete and real concepts. most real The second which corresponds to the Buddhistic view. on the other hand. are intuition and thought but two truths? The first term sums up the whole rise imaginative activity of to man and gives a particular philosophical is science. this Once that has been posited. those errors become transmuted into particular truths. the second the crown of all human scientific activity and gives rise to the science of sciences Logic. They are therefore two opposite. taken abstractly. as the true absolute. They are. therefore.102 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL or to other Hegel to the Eleatic which conceive the philosophical views.

fixed and thrown how could their concrete unity have been thought afterwards? Kant was wrong In presenting the antinomies as insoluble. but It was thus he came to the antinomies. of errors Do we open the way to truth? Do we not say that humanity has learned more from certain errors than from many truths? The Eleatics were wrong being. even in ordinary which language.v METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS spirit. affirms in conceiving that the absolute as simple but error of theirs nevertheless partial an undeniable. there error truths. in nothing to* hinder every error. general. the recognize the necessity of . that the absolute is also being. 103 forms of errors or categories. being considered particular the The phenomenokgy of error thus assumes appearance of an ideal history of truth. of thought and extension but unless. this transfiguration. though truth. not frequently speak. And when these have been baptized truths of a is certain kind. and will still seem to some. thanks to that very error. of progressive errors. of mind and body. the distinction between the two terms had been into relief. to be the recognition of a principle as important as it is profound. has seemed. Descartes and Spinoza were wrong in positing the parallelism . This baptism.

whole. Hume? He who He who for despises error is despises truth truth incomprehensible without therefore those antecedent its errors. or the not error but doctrine as truth. itself. In error. the doctrine resolves into a series of affirmations. but we may declare it if we consider it more itself be false or true in detail. which are eternal aspects. some of which are true and some and . Unless Plato had conceived could the Ideas as merely logical have been changed concept of Socrates ever into transcendent. that sive. which may justly like. Schelling was wrong . false . be called progres is or fruitful. we must re -think the thing itself.io 4 basis in PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL of the dialectic. how the the Aristotelian concrete (<rwokov) ? How of could the a priori synthesis of Kant ever have negation appeared without the sceptical wishes truth to be generated without error wishes for the son without the father. But here too we must be careful not to allow ourselves to be led astray by metaphors . When we consider to a a . conceiving the absolute as simple identity but that error of his was the bridge which had to be crossed to reach the conception of the absolute as unity in opposition and distinction.

the Eleatic is doctrine. we cannot think. explained but it remains : to be how it is produced theory. a certain sense. is. what is false is the hasty metaphysical which explains those two terms by or making them two two attributes manifestations of substance. the Cartesian and Spinozist parallelism. of thought from at least in extension. but as objective and the error lies in separating the ideas real from real things. as no longer purely subjective. It is the error in each of these doctrines that . true. Platonic transcendency. Thus lies too. is nothing but being. in though not simple being. the affirmation that true : the that absolute it is being. and in placing them in a : world which . is " Even in the The absolute is highest expression of 7 spirit/ the absolute being. the truth in the value assigned to the idea. but can only and in thus imagining them we imagine confuse them again with things real and finite. God. in called affirmations. of and for takes the statement of in the problem the solution.v its METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS progressiveness and fruitfulness lie 105 in the affirmations which are true. not in those which are false. the distinction of mind from body. Similarly. and which therefore cannot even be Thus. is what is false. truth.

Therefore the transmutation of errors into truths. truth. be. accompanies every history. not of darkness. The a error. true These aspects of the truth are of the history the subject is of thought : error as error the hemisphere of darkness. . which the and we has not yet illuminated write the history of successive illumina light of truth tions. fully which has "been expounded and above. does not therefore possess the virtue of changing not -being into being^ darkness into light. and he we not to should make no advance. without perplexity dissatisfaction. because and indeed would r altogether cease to So much we know henceforth : it is the principle of the synthesis of opposites.io6 is PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL : the incentive to progress it is the not-being. Man would would cease conquer think. . which preserved truth is as particular degree which call or aspect of is that aspect of truth contained in the doctrines that we erroneous. error into or degree in it. accepted But if this principle affirm it the synthesis of being and not -being. which is without history. the necessary moment of development without contradiction and doubt. this it because first consequence of the transference of the . truth is of truth. the incentive partial to progress into progress.

and laid if have premised. which has. something unsellable. erroneous.v METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS of opposites to 107 of to dialectic distincts. which he called Logic or the Science of logic. and developed in three sections. seemed strange and obscure. we are now in a position to understand the problem and the structure of the Hegelian Logic : not indeed. because it provides no secure point to take hold of or to lean upon. the logic of Being. be it well under stood. the connexion into which is Hegel allowed himself be drawn. the logic of Essence. rigorous in appearance. The problem of the Hegelian Logic (as appears from the principal content of that book) is to submit to examination the various definitions of . and the It is a science. but arbitrary in fact and at every step. be exact. logic of the Concept. the theory of distincts. etc. to be considered as fundamentally which If these explanations. not without reason.) of which we have already discoursed in preceding chapters but of that determinate thought which led Hegel to conceive a fundamental science. these canons of judgment which I have I down. the principle of the logical doctrines of Hegel (the concrete concept) and of his various particular doctrines (the theory of opposites.

now sometimes in allusion expressly named. Leibniz. Aristotelianism. Eleaticism. and other It is Schelling. Descartes. by means of their difficulties and contradictions.io8 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL is. Jacobi. the Absolute. philo Scholasticism then. Wolff. too. as philosophy is the has been the aspiration. Heracliteanism. it is to show at the same time light that the aspects of truth brought to find their justification by other philosophies it in this conception. of the Sceptics of the Gnostics. Fichte. to it. Herder. Saint Anselm. Christianity. and hostile . the "pathology of thought. in a sense somewhat different from mine it : the polemic. all the efforts of human Hence in the Logic there pass before us." as ' has been called by an English writer. of thought. the Oriental Emanationism. Further. in order to demonstrate. . Pythagoreanism. that to review critically all forms of philosophy. the doctrines of the Pantheists. so that this result. Buddhism. by which every philosophy affirms and maintains its life against other philo it is sophies. Kant. Locke. Hume. Spinoza. Platonism. the truth of that philosophy which considers the Absolute as spirit or idea. sophical points of view. more or less discordant with. Atomism and of Democritus. now sometimes and reference.

generally said. as Bacon said. as the straight line is the itself and of the curve. like every true history). qnejrf which presupposes the other as philosophies. in chronological and we thus have the History of Philosophy (which is both history and criticism. at the beginning. Or we can study the universal possibilities of philosophical errors. so as is verum index sui et falsi. now the end of a philosophic theory. or. in the definite form that they assumed various thinkers at different times. for convenience' sake. The different and their partially erroneous points with of view. can be studied in their individuality. the measure both of philosophy itself. for it is > and in this case the only in the completely developed system that the causes of errors become errors can clear. This criticism. A polemic against now and now at be placed. is also the basis of that other criticism. the confusion of philosophy with the various other activities of the spirit is . . every affirmation is also negation. its basis. but logically it is inseparable from because. their perpetual sources. sequence . in the middle. which is the entire system. the history of philosophy.v METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS 109 This polemic. human polemic against errors philosophy itself the whole system . if we observe it well. can be conducted in two distinct modes^.

145. as the great autobiography of philosophic thought. c p. had ever displayed. discharged magnificently criticizing philosophical errors: certainly. but as internal history. save Aristotle. 1 History of Philo sophy ibsa* Hegel attained to heights never reached previously to him and rarely since. in a letter of 1851 metaphysique qui existe. ." H. as an exposition which philo sophy itself makes of its own genesis in time. 1 "C'est la scale Taiae.no PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL by the affirmative Hegel. in the he is considered as the true founder of the history of philosophy. him from seeing further into the errors of others but in any case with a breadth and richness such as no other philosopher. avec celle d'Aristote. within the limits of his system. theses of his the task of philosophy. 1902). so much so that And for this reason. from the Hellenic. even from the Oriental world. Hence the Logic Q^ Hegel has on several occasions been compared with and placed beside the Metaphysic of Aristotle. : see Sa Vie et sa correspondence (Paris. Aristotle indeed stands to the previous development of Hellenic thought in the same relation as Hegel stands to the whole philosophical development up to his own time. L 162-3. no longer understood as literary history or as a collection of erudite matter. or up to the point at which the errors of his own system prevented .

s'il ( fera" said some courtierminister of the ancien regime.v METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS in ! j ! But owing to the confusion between the dialectic and the connexion of distincts. or to develop errors. and to the consequent conception of errors as particular truths. as categories. What was bound attempt. in ruin his and provoking will the Similarly own ruled supreme the structure that Hegel devised. Yet he himself recognizes . realized the structure as of the Here | errors are treated distinct concepts. and the attempt made to deduce. Hegel always gave himself great trouble over this problem of the beginning. The method ftruth is applied to non-truth. is that is. And he performed impossible. He begins at the beginning. not less than over that of the introduction to be provided to philosophy (the senseless dispute as to the place that the Phenomenology has in the system is well known). in the same way proper to that the categories or the distinct concepts are Deduced and developed. c est fait. this happen in this desperate violent and spasmodic effort toward " to the impossible? est Sil est le difficile . on the impossible with a state to fiat of his will. leading the revolution. l Hegel was not in satisfied with the two modes that indicated. but attempted a third mode Logic.

Is : first. on the other a hand. to a complete system. Spirit or But In the Logic. is true. or. by going backwards and forwards from some problem and philosophical . In vestigation and criticism of errors. this point. and so it is with philosophy. We can pro from that by determinations. most simple concept. or by discomposition. its TTP&TOV fyvGet. that philosophy.ii2 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL Is quite clearly that philosophy a " circle " and thereby implies the inconceivability of a necessary A circle can be entered at any starting-point. But if the problem of the beginning it is of no importance in philosophy. In so far as it is an examination of a series of errors. the first in the which is a circle. such example. It is we can work way that in . Idea. this every one begins to philosophize and here. for also last. Is reality TO TTp&rov Ttpbs fifj^a^ and at this stage of apprehen : sion there is no Trp&rov <j*vcri. or from some intermediary concept. at each one has his beginning. objectively considered. has Its first position. The preference to be accorded to one beginning rather than to another is at most a question of didactic convenience. or we can ceeding proceed by successive complications from the begin with the concept of spirit in general. point . from the most complex. finally. philosophy of Hegel. how can a first . which as.

an examination which begins at has <l this point. that is. autobiographical. a Hegel began with pure being.v METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS first <f>vo-et>? 113 be thought that should be irp&rov of necessity. or aesthetic value. the Phenomenology which begins again. but in vain. the water of Thales or the air of Anaximenes ? in Or with the the absolute sensationalist philosophies. and the Logic> which begins from pure being. perhaps. which recalls some philosophic romance : Emile. follow here and there a course. equally justified with it any other. beginning. from sensible certainty. or the journey of the Irishman in search of the best of religions. with the examination of the philosophical systems which define the Absolute as simple being and he repeatedly tried to justify this . Why should we not commence with the philosophies which place the root of things one of the other of the cosmological elements. Indeed. but as the unjustifiable if is claimed to justify only one. The beginning was arbitrary . for is ? which is the relative. p Or . the course of the argument has a purely biographical. It was a beginning it like any other. and the sequel . and reality the phenomenon being : Let the starting-point be pure only. commanded" a principle. like that laid down in the mathematical disciplines.

one triad the links itself to another. determinate being its antithesis. as implies. into which other triads are inserted .ii 4 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL arbitrary. that determinate being corresponds to pure being in the preceding triad. is should arise from becoming as as not-becoming. but as a single funda mental triad. comes the category of : the determinate being (Daseyn) to but if there is be a link between them. method After the first triad.e. not as a great uninterrupted chain. triadically. Triad follows triad but it does not appear that learning it mechanically : for there is . unless recourse be had to no necessary generation of its successive parts from one another. of being. and into which still others could be inserted. from pure being to the idea. of the Logic and that ascent was the purpose So the book is thus reduced to a congeries of criticisms directed against the affirma tions of abstract terms. and becoming. But the fact that Hegel this himself says. apparently by interpretation. which are resolved in . the series of triads of the Hegelian Logic has been interpreted by some critics. i. not-being. For reason. It is was not easy to hold Hegel's Logic in one's mind. way the But on this necessary ascent through different degrees. of example. is made illusory. as well as that limited number which Hegel gave.

v METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS And it 115 dialectic syntheses. being hence Hegel himself says. either in the form of the exposition of a complete philosophic system (and 1 Enc* 240. could only be developed. that "in we have another and a passing into in another. the successive parts of Hegel's Logic. as into a bed of Procrustes. . as it gradually rises from It is the primary to the ulterior categories. in the appearing the in the and the concept. criticisms are concerned not only with opposites. but it with false opposites and therefore is not altogether an erroneous view which has noted a certain change of method in the Logic. clear that the content of the criticism changes. is distinct which it. as has already been said. That content. which has been compelled into those schematic forms. opposite. distinction between the particular and universality. would be necessary also to add that the abstract . there appear in it on the other hand marks of the tendencies which might be expected in a thoughtcontent. essence. continues as such in that which from and a relation of identity with the distinct" l If there be no necessary connexion between is in . when we pass from to those which refer the errors concerning being to essence and to the j i concept. .

as or in the form of a history of philosophy.e. Thus. in the section. in other clitus. in this case. parts. we discover an attempt at a history categories. in their necessary relation. the gnoseo- in the doctrine of essence. Kant : the first part of the doctrine of the concept contains . Democritus . in the doctrine of is being (section on quantity) there logy of arithmetical procedure . sometimes to the other. first In the doctrine of the concept. the criticism of the Leibnizian the second monad ology. Descartes. has an even stronger tendency to transform itself into a philosophy (speculative again. and of the syllogism . spirit. of the theory involved in the natural sciences. Spinoza. it And and not empirical) of forms of spirit. Heraand then again.n6 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL a philosophy of spirit). in the third section. And the treat ment of the Logic approximates sometimes to the one type. of mechanism and chemism are and and in those relating to teleology . i. For instance. of philosophy in the order of the in first which appear successively Parmenides. the more properly philo In the parts relating to objectivity. and then. there is the logic of the concept. of the judgment. the critique of the Aristotelian analytic part. of the particular cognitive and practical. sophical logic the concepts elucidated.

Weifce. . A concrete content. to chemism and nature : to life. the Philosophy of nature develops the doctrines of being and of the essence . Finally. taken from the history of philosophy. a sketch of a philosophy of nature while a practical philosophy appears in the section on the Idea. which to be found in the Propaedeutic of 1808-1812. The Logic anticipates the Philosophy of the Spirit\ which takes up again the themes of the Logic. which Hegel did not first publish. the parts of the Logic relating to mechanism. 2nd course.v life. Rosenkranz. METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS there is 117 . in not excluded: is the compendium of logic. imposed by the of an a priori the Hegelian 10 (in \ deduction of errors: that 1 how Pkilosopkhcke Propadeuiiki ed." 1 For - this reason also. aesthetic is in the discussion of altogether will. and in great measure from the Philo sophy of spirit. 120). xviii. it is desperate to attempt to keep the various parts of the system of Hegel distinct from one another. anticipate the Philosophy of the Phenomenology of Spirit contains the in a first sketch (if whole system we do not take account of the System der Sittlichkeit. a violent and arbitrary arrangefalse idea is \ ment. and which was the very sketch). the category of the " Beautiful" is united to that of "Life.

But in saying this condemning the undertaking of Hegel. of change. like the dog of Rabelais. I do not intend to condemn to death and to oblivion that richest of title all the books which bear the I Logic . with the intention of understand ing its development and above all the reason of the commencement. Hegel and have persistently pointed to the door by which the Logic can be entered pure being. Its mean to place it in conditions favourable to its life and to the continued exercise of profound influence upon the mind. The arrangement and in injures the content. now here and it. of determinate being. of being for self. down the book in despair of understanding or persuaded that he finds himself face to face with a mass of meaningless abstractions. his disciples after him. now there. will be obliged ere long to put it. But he "a who. He who takes up the Logic of Hegel. etc. as em bodied in the Logic. In order to reach the sanctuary of the Goddess.n8 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL itself to Logic presents me. up and sucks will eventually nourish himself with the substantial marrow." instead of leaving the bone alone. takes a bite breaks at it it. of becoming. philosophical beast. of something. or : . of the limit. on the contrary. from which we must gradually pass : by the vestibules and up the stairs of nothing. chews it. etc.

Take the palace by assault from all thus alone will you reach the interior. door. is which has been indicated as the only one. and penetrate to the very sanctuary. indeed a a sham sides .y METAMORPHOSIS OF ERRORS But he who obstinately knocks false information. be " holding the devotees. closed. And it may be " that lit you will see the countenance of the Goddess with a benevolent smile. at that gate and believes the such \ and no other must be the door and the vainly attempt to enter the palace. will That door. that 119 the Idea. stair. saintly simplicity of many of her .

and to be treated as nothing but imperfect forms ofphilosophy. the THE other second counter blow arising from the confusion between the synthesis of opposites tincts. 120 . to lose all intrinsic measure. to be brought to the level of speculative truth.VI THE METAMORPHOSIS OF PARTI CULAR CONCEPTS INTO PHILO SOPHICAL ERRORS I. as philosophical errors had become for Hegel particular truths. so particular truths were bound to be associated with errors and to become philosophical errors. their just truth. and. Hegel deprived himself of the means of recognizing the autonomy and of attributing and proper value to the various forms Error was confused with particular of the spirit. ART AND LANGUAGE (^ESTHETIC) consequence. relation of dis- was not less Owing to this confusion. and the grave.

We are carried by these pages far and above the vulgar view. of judgments and of problems. to say. in virtue of of ideas. a pleasure. life. to the Hegelian aesthetic. or of history. a pastime or a simple mode of instruction. of Hegelian speculation with taste and with works of art. tendency to make art a primary element in human life. Hegel did not completely succeed in recognizing the nature of the aesthetic. the pages of Hegel concerning aesthetic are animated with great artistic feeling and on the whole there prevails in them the . for beyond which art is far a superfluous accident of real . in part. Without doubt. gave it an fluence over men's minds and made effective it in a powerful stimulus to the study of aesthetic problems. which. This is a merit. and the dignity which it assigned to the artistic activity. a game. a mode of knowledge and of spiritual eleva tion. or of the physical and natural sciences. in part. is peculiar its wealth .PARTICULAR CONCEPTS For this 121 reason. of art. The constant contact empirical and relative . or of the historical. or of the naturalistic activity that is . is common to all the Romantic period (the great period of the fermentation and the renewal of the criti philosophy of art and of literary and artistic aesthetic theories of the cism and history). and which.

he is already at a point where that region is behind him. This first form is its condition. When Hegel begins his medita upon the phases of spirit. and yet he does not recognize that he has passed it. in its essential character. scattered plenty In the Hegelian aesthetic. has not yet emerged. in principle. nothing philosophically because the philosophic problem contradictory. firm in his belief that every form of spirit (save the ultimate and supreme form) Is nothing but a provisional and contradictory way of conceiving the Absolute. it is the : region of tion art. music or song in a word. which Hegel accepts. of language. divergent from the fundamental concept of art. of pure fancy. because Hegel. which is first the lyric is ingenuous theoretic or the music of spirit. as painting. The Phenomenology of all : takes Its start from sensible certainty. It is and in which there the region of the intuition. or merely incidental. And he does not find . It is erroneous. and which is erroneous. and are. are either too general. according to Hegel the simplest form that in which (he says) in we behave towards an immediate or receptive manner changing nothing in it and abstaining from all reality the labour of concepts. could not discover that form.122 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL in VI But the elements of truth.

in the here there is something else this. (such as we have is in aesthetic contemplation. receives differentiation and . richest and most true. in phenomenon. the abstract now . an empty and foundation . and in a . where there and object. with the predicate. the indeterminate which. subject Hegel often repeats predicate "the the without resembles. on the the most is abstract is The it thing here. here. which seems to be the contrary.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS it difficult 123 to show that such contemplation. not the first theoretic form ata-Brjo-^ . the thing without thing in itself. everything else disappears. as he believes. now. It not. only it is the concept in itself. is it pure and simple. But is the sensible certainty. immediate consciousness : is it already mingled with intellectual reflexion. no distinction between subject no comparison of one thing to another. properties. it is not genuine sensible certainty. of which Hegel speaks. not the moment after is \ is and moment. already contains the question as to what is In place of genuine sensible certainty truly real. and the poorest. all that survives. and first there has been substituted \k& first reflexion upon it is natural that that to reflexion should seem imperfect and that: be surpassed. is. no collocation in spatial and temporal series) sensible knowledge.

" because is produces " signs ". him it an organized contradiction. through which there opens a view of a reality. which we cannot render in intellectual terms in and which we possess only that is." altogether By means its of language the intelligence impresses presentation re upon an external element. without intellectual relations. and the sign intuition. becomes. so Owing to dividual. so which is he does not succeed too. singing or in it. explicitly defined as an immediate tf which represents a content different from that which is its own. is intellectual is is the product of a logical instinct. for Language. only in creating Since aesthetic Hegel never reaches the region of activity and therein the theoretic form truly primary. which after this wards theorized logical in grammar. re -singing. precisely.124 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL 1 determination/ But . therefore. in explaining language. which he calls it " productive. art is. in his eyes. subject without predicate that is quite other than the nothingness and void of the thing-in-itself and It is intuition of the thing without properties. it is the emotion. language tries to express the in " but do cannot : you wish to say this . Indeed. is the work of memory. which a poem communicates. The it form of language. form. .

that individual shading. always expressing the universal. tones. or by artistic expression. lines. not in terms of concepts. colours. full under its true nature. does language confute attempting to express the individual. or rather have written. and when that fragment it is separated from the organic whole to which belongs. that proposes to it itself an end that dwell in is absurd and therefore that must self-deception. Thus. language. adequate to reality. we must substitute the opposite solum individuum (or : effabile else correct the former with the addition logicis modis ineffabile}. on the contrary. precisely this but you do not say the this" What you say is a universal. and in the is extent of illusion meaning. Thus paper. itself. But for the omne individuum ineffabile of the scholastics. does not attain its end. and so on. The of inadequacy arises when the term language is applied to a fragment of this full meaning. . it. we grasp individual reality. stood in its For this reason. which our spirit intuites and renders. this . from which essentially it cannot escape? art : Language is poetry and by language. but in sounds. and. How can we ever think that a human activity. upon which I 125 am writing. it such as language. which Hegel here seems to repeat.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS piece of paper. according to Hegel.

" essentially from the lines and the colours of . not completely understand language it in he was obliged to think of that mutilated and intellectualized manner. to declare it and therefore contradictory.126 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL I VI paper. precisely. colour. he regards as a different mere "sign." it is say: "this paper it because : I have before me and am showing it to others the words that issue from full my mouth obtain their meaning from the whole psychical situation in which I find myself. could But Hegel (who had no of the clear idea of the aesthetic spirit) . " is not only what " is ex pressed by the words this paper in themselves. If we abstract them from that situation. in his ^Esthetic. in the falls end. and gesture. torn asunder from their context and rendered abstract. intonation. it . with which I pronounce them. and so from the intention. my whole it spirit. of which speak. by mutilating them. after some attempt to emerge from it Poetic language also. has present to it which in so far as represents. or rather. It is what my eyes. he back into the old rhetoric. certainly they will appear : inadequate to that individual but that is because we have made them condition so. with If I sound. and so on. he passes from the language of prose to consider the language of poetry. And when. can also render externally.

too ends by appearing as nothing but imperfection and error. had studied the as activity along with the teleological judgment. like language (which has first been arbitrarily separated from the representative and aesthetic it activity. 127 sculpture and of painting. that is treated in this fashion. nor would his individual disposition. Hegel could neither pass it by in silence nor get rid of it lightly (as Is the way of naturalistic and positivist philosophers). one of the modes of representing nature. But it is not only language activity. with which it altogether coincides). aesthetic in the third Critique. which leads him of necessity to consider language as an error. Kant.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS of music. obtrudes itself upon his mind of it. and from the tones Thus Hegel's erroneous place that logical theory con cerning distinct concepts conceals from him the properly belongs to the aesthetic and suggests to him a philosophy of language. and since he does not know what it to make he transfers to a place. where it does not belong and where. . In which Interest in art was so prominent. Art. The conception to which he attained was substantially that of his time. His time would not permit this. its true function unrecognized. when the mechanical conceptions of the exact sciences .

sometimes placed above. Schopenhauer was later to consider it in like manner as the contemplation of the Ideas and the freeing of the will. which the whole romantic period sometimes substituted for. of works of that is the properly is aesthetic form. The history of poetry and of art consequently appears in the lectures on &stketic as a history of philosophy. in which the individuality to say. the religion first in the of beauty. because . and Schelling conceived it as the true organ of the Absolute.128 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL . became a mode of apprehending the Absolute. superior to merely natural religion (which adores material objects. a degree in relation to revealed religion. r of religion and of the moral history of life of humanity : a human art. as this latter. and sometimes placed below religion and philosophy. inferior to the latter. it makes fetiches and the like). . For Hegel also. is inferior to philosophy. Encyclopaedia with but slight difference. it is indeed a mode of adoring spirit as subject he makes it. of solving the great In the Phenomenology. he philosophical problem. ideals. a form of religion. in its turn. occupies a secondary place. are surpassed Schiller had indicated it as the ground of reconciliation in the struggle between necessity and liberty. or referred to only incidentally. this activity.

art would be philosophy. assumption was bound solution to lead In him its to the usual to of the dialectic. that art is not at all distinct. His logical activity superior to the philosophical. is proved by the fact that he does not shrink from . and that for Hegel it is practically reduced (whether he like it or not) to a philo True sophical error. application distinct concepts. Hegel could solving in to its not. is peculiar to common is to his time. make the aesthetic activity complementary to the philosophical activity. as 129 same problem as religion engaged upon the and philosophy. what is Hegel the relation which he establishes between those : three forms the distinctive character. only because it apprehends the Absolute in a sensible and immediate form. which addresses itself again to the same problem upon which art has worked in vain and attains a perfect solution of it That such is the genuine thought of Hegel. whereas philosophy apprehends it in the pure medium of thought. or an illusory philosophy. way the problems that were insoluble Still less could he make it an philosophy.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS If the conception of art. The artistic activity is distinct from the philosophical only through its imperfec tion. which he assigns to art in relation to religion and philosophy. This means. as others did. logically.

or the This grandiose paradox the aesthetic everywhere error of Hegel. because die. is directed to shewing the gradual dissolution of the artistic form. is it has been said that is the death of of which he speaks. of a death of art in the historical world. there of the death of art. rising from the intuition to the universal. in modern times. it it is already quite dead. art. in our true and highest interests. This is in complete agreement with his treatment of the degrees of reality as a series of opposites. difficult to abstract and to . is superfluous : and indeed error. illuminates It is a past. that eternal death. which has no place. When must must it is philosophy completely developed. it art art disappear. the fact that Hegel speaks not in the sense of perpetually renewing itself. The history of art. so that in his eyes.130 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL is vi the extreme consequence of this theory. when he passes from poetry to philosophy. but as actually about to happen and as having happened. In defence of Hegel. which Hegel traces. and better perhaps than any other ex ample makes clear the error of his logical assump tion. which an eternal rebirth: such as spirit we observe in the of man. survival of the past. If an is not necessary and eternal. the world of intuition loses its is colour. But against this interpretation.

whose forms concern only the relation of finites . other choice than one of two ways. it is not altogether wrongly system of Hegel (whose twin principles of the concrete concept and the dialectic.vi PARTICULAR CONCEPTS 131 separate from one another. he limited himself to revealing the inadequacy of classificatory and naturalistic logic to provide that have already a principle for philosophy. or. Hegel Is usually considered an adversary of the Aristotelian would be better to say. with greater exactness. For this reason. are of that the frankly aesthetic inspiration) has appeared to be a cold intellectualism. either to suppress art by means of that grandiose paradox. or to preserve it with a not less grandiose inconsistency. We Aristotle " " (he says) is the author of in tellectual logic (the logic of the abstract intellect). but it classificatory and naturalistic logic. better still. irreconcilable to the consciousness. recognized this merit in him and his polemic on this subject could not have a different mean " ing. Once he had assumed Hegel had no this application of the dialectic. art leaves its artistic misunderstanding of traces in his treatment of aU the And the problems into which the concept of art enters as a necessary and proximate premiss. that he was the adversary of formal logic .

his reach. Hegel did not and could not criticize this error. in which there is no logic. cannot 1 in them. Oesch." But the method of is not what most characteristic : in the logic of Aristotle and of also to his school the classificatory tendency is be found in the Baconian or inductive of the Aristotelian logic. between themselves be conceived classification is the true. . for The it exact distinction was beyond consists in recognizing that the is pure proposition nothing but speech itself. therefore. while limiting itself to verbal forms. distinguish logical He certainly tries to between the proposition and the judgment. or verbalism. the logical confusion into which it falls its between thought and speech. and he states that a proposition (for instance " it is hot ") becomes a judgment only when with it we answer the doubt that may arise as to the truth of the Affirmation. der Pkiks* 365-68. though 1 it is the necessary vehicle ii.132 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL . which can be furnished only by a valid philosophy of language. because he was without the instrument of criticism. or language as pure aesthetic fact. is The its characteristic logic syllogistic. but he cannot adduce good reasons for this distinction. and claim to establish logical forms.

Indeed. . demonstration sets to judgment between element definition. and proof. but he even work to distinguish and define new classes of judgments and of syllogisms. not only does he re tain the tripartition of concept.vi PARTICULAR CONCEPTS 133 of logical thought. between division. and the division ary forms and methodology. logical and syllogism.

as it is also psychologically probable that Hegel's idea of religion contributed in some measure to produce the first. already mentioned. because he trans particular concepts into philosophical From the logical point of view. as we have formed errors.e. to do full justice to this theoretic form. it is probable that the first prepared the way for the second. same reason as in the case of the others. He regarded as an imaginative and more or less religion 134 . for the i.VII THE METAMORPHOSIS OF PARTI CULAR CONCEPTS INTO PHILO SOPHICAL ERRORS II. HISTORY (IDEA OF A PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY) IT might be said that the failure to understand the autonomy of art also prevented from Hegel understanding the character of history (historio But the truth is that Hegel was unable graphy). the two errors have the same origin. Psychologically.

Caesar was killed. Dante. though it has theory and system So that. r . at its foundation. it finds its material in the intuitive element History. and especially upon those aspects of to treat historically. that each one of them is constituted of intuitive elements. and on the other to the formation of clear ideas upon reality and life. and so on and the second. the historical judgment. which act as subject and of which act as predicate. 135 imperfect and this was bound to lead him to assign an analogous position to art in relation to philosophy. presupposes . condition but. will be Caesar. Dante composed the Comedy see. therefore. like art. we upon analysing these propositions. life It which they undertake has seemed therefore with scientific that history cannot dispense accuracy and yet remain always a work of art. or " " has happened position affirming that something example. and never theory and system. is always narration. Rome. . the Comedy. . on the one hand. If all historical works be reduced to their simplest the pro expression. historians are trained to the scrupulous study of documents. logical elements.vn PARTICULAR CONCEPTS form of philosophy.). Alaric devastated (for Rome. herein differing from philosophical thought as its art. etc. History. first The for instance and speaking generally.

composition. it follows progress of philosophic thought is translated into a progress of historical knowledge. History can give rise an empirical character. but for that very not absorbed by that conceptual of which it remains the science. A philosophy of understood not as the elaboration of . for that very reason. it cannot be be absorbed in that philosophy. but. as when we pass from it to a sociology that proceeds by types and classes . That would be to absorb the whole and complete fact in what is merely the condition of the fact. VII the concepts of slaughter. and such devastation.136 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL like. presupposition or reason. basis. sideration Conversely. philosophy. artistic From this historical gnoseology. it to a conceptual science of is the basis. which are at the bottom of that con sideration said to its . gather that the attempt would be vain to resolve those historical affirmations into abstract philo sophic affirmations. since that every we understand far were truly the position of his historical more adequately what facts of Dante's com poem. its which is pre-supposition and history. when we know better what But we also poetry and artistic creation are. history can give rise to when we pass from the historical con of the particular to the theoretical elements.

as history of a second degree? Neither more nor less than the annul ment of history. one seems to hear the usually so docile to bells tolling for the death of the history of historians. but as history of a second degree. a contradiction What is the significance of such an idea of a philosophy of history. this postulated philosophical consideration of historical narrative. or rather. The idea of a philo sophy of history is the non-recognition of the autonomy of historiography. in relation to would be true which the history of the historians would be revealed as error. to the advantage of abstract philosophy. does not lead to complete truth. On the appearance of the second form.viz PARTICULAR CONCEPTS a history obtained is 137 this abstract philosophy. precisely because it would not be a form. but something formless. history. it would be dis solved. The historians when their attention is called some progress in science or philosophy. Whenever such a claim is made. this philosophic history. by means of that in terms. the first form would be dissolved. not lead to truth. abstract philosophy. what amounts to the same thing. which may help to make clear some part of their work as narrators yet rebel with violence when any . because it is constructed according to a method which does or. For this second degree.

to the hands of to consign the labour. divided philosophy into pure or formal philo was required by his sophy (which should have been logic. and into applied and concrete philosophy. and of which every line and every shade is dear to them. a philosophy of history and he had to negate. are not historians. his Thus Hegel adopted Scholastic division as own the traditional of . the three together composed the encyclopaedia of the philosophical sciences. when he had completed it. so that they might raise it to the second power.138 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL talks to vn one some them sort them of a philosophy of history. or when the attempt made to persuade which they have put all their powers. into the second of which the philosophy of history entered again. and was also metaphysics). to revise their rebellion is and complete able. by introducing into it strokes of the philosophic brush and philosophic harmonies. the history of the historians. It is And if reason just as a painter or a musician were told to consign to the philosophers his picture or his score. of of speculative method of knowing is history. Hegel had to posit and did posit the idea of . as he did negate. for that He logical presupposition. into philosophers who it. comprising the two philosophies of nature and of spirit.

from the method of ordinary historiography. and he claims for it the character of an a priori con struction. contained in the philo sophical encyclopaedia. which constitute the work of lectures In his upon the philosophy of history. historians. from all the other histories.vii PARTICULAR CONCEPTS real> 139 philosophy into rational and and this not as a simple formula and external scheme. but these words did not possess so innocent a meaning for Hegel as for For him they implied the sharp dis ourselves. critical and conceptual history). pragmatic. It is true that by this he sometimes seems to mean. for he places on the one side original historiography and reflective historiography (the second of these two being subdivided into general. but a priori. tinction of the history. and on the other philosophic historiography or philosophy of history. only the need for a better elaborated He notes that ordinary historians also write . not a distinctive character. affirms that this philosophic historio Hegel different graphy should have its own method. but as expressing also the demand for a philosophic treatment of the contingent facts of nature and of human history. this dis tinction is very clearly drawn. can be called concrete applied philosophy. All history. as I have pre or viously explained.

But the a priori that he introduces is not the logical element. for they proceed from certain thoughts and representations of their own. we know philosophic truths. which has been recognized above all as indispensable for it historical work. and to accomplish only one task in the whole achievement. is far there is it a rational But there more in than this. though defective and arbitrary. we learn what these words really mean." or rather. as . each one of which destined to re present one degree only. the interpretation of intuitive data. and therefore in the history of the process. "The one is J> thought (writes Hegel) " with which philosophy : approaches history is the simple thought of reason that reason rules the world. a history already complete^ which needs only to be clothed in names and dates. Rather. which spirit finds in Its own universal being and does not deduce . world also.140 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL a priori history. he knows what they must be he knows them in anticipation. Before Hegel seeks the data of facts. is The history of the progress in the consciousness of single its moments or degrees ( are the various national spirits Volksgeister\ the various is peoples. yet are always a priori. which. when we see him the world liberty : trace the necessary process of reason in the historical world.

might be set his various declarations of the great respect due to actual fact But we must first examine what value " these declarations can assume or retain. and history (he says historically elsewhere) "should lower the universal. it should be a we must take history as it is. In the History of Philo historical sophy^ which is perhaps his principal work.. he knows a priori that the history of philosophy and the system of philosophy are identical. empirical individuality and the idea is its essence but the appearance of the Idea is in the sphere of accident and in the realm . The first phases of Hellenic thought are the first categories of metaphysic and the phases follow one another in the same order as the categories.into into effectual reality .. and proceed and empirically. there is That rational process in the history of the " world " (he says) should be shown by the con sideration of history itself result : . historical has the addition of these externalities (names and dates). itself in which is represented in the system the pure medium of thought." The accidental is extraneous to philosophy.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS 141 from contingent facts. free from and in the history it externalities . The theme is the same development. Against an interpretation of Hegel's theory of the philosophy of history.

but only And if a philosophy of history be created. if we can know them only empirically. and the historical and empirical method. have saved neither could save the one nor the other. are not recognized and are refuted. when in consequence of the it adoption of certain principles.PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL of arbitrary choice. though they were two friends and companions engaged in the same task. It is very ingenuous to affirm that one and the same activity can be exercised with two different methods. then this accidental and individual. facts. one another's assistance. there can history. is To recommend or to recognize that the study of documents the indispensable point of departure for history. We cannot escape attention to from the dilemma. are mere words. and documents. is not known what use to make of those facts disciples. for the method is intrinsic duplicity It is to the and a of methods means a worse than ingenuous to make the two methods alternate and come to duplicity of activity. activity. believed Those of Hegel's that they who have both the goat and the cabbage by maintaining both the speculative and the philological methods in history. be no a priori philosophy of history itself. as ." dividuality are But if accident and in to truly extraneous philosophy.

closely . all: and it should contain the principle of them therefore is but only if if be truly the most developed.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS At other times." a philosophy and the most in The reservation implied the parenthesis amounts to a tautological affirma tion. the richest and most concrete philosophy. of history." At other times again he modifies his statement in such a way that hardly anything remains of it. Thus. is which con possible that a philosophic system stitutes a regression may appear last in time. the idea of which however. he observes: philosophy which is last in time is also all the result of preceding philosophies. system in affirming the identity of the philosophic and the "The history of philosophy. but in the Whole (im Ganzen) the order is the same. the richest concrete. is not the last in time. since it but that which is truly a philosophy . What are we to conclude from in all this? That Hegel never had mind an a priori philosophy is. that the most developed. 143 his Hegel seems to understand a priori scheme as nothing but a rough anticipa tion of what is given by actual history "It may be : thought " (he writes in the History of Philosophy} that the philosophic order of the degrees of the " idea must be different from that of the concepts which are produced in time .

history as such. be comes involved. should not suffer beside itself history properly so-called. that thought is alone distinguishes man from the animal). which is not eternal. instructive of all But most facts is what he says of the which are the material of the historian's study. . And indeed. from Hegel's principle. the very fact that he defines the philosophy of history as "the thinking contem >J (recalling immediately after plation of history wards. almost as though a philosopher of art should quarrel with professional poets and painters. likewise significant . but rather that error that contradiction. which he adopts toward pro fessional historians. Certainly.144 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL is VII connected with his dialectic treatment of distincts? No. is not merely a probable inference. That the philosophy of history. but in time) shows itself to involuntary contradictions in by the which Hegel be error. thus conceived. and a philosophy Hegel's erroneous thesis of of history (of an ideal history. but should negate it. we cannot conclude that those admissions suffice to heal the defects of the erroneous thesis and to change it into truth. but is explicitly enough stated in several propositions. confirmation that he regards either as not thought. or as imperfect thought. And is the attitude of antipathy and depreciation.

essential characteristic of the spirit and of the times is. according to this concept. It is to be held a proof of good taste to unite pictures of unessen tial and particular life to a subject-matter equally unessential.). For.vn PARTICULAR CONCEPTS 145 only facts which. or. only oppress and obscure the objects worthy of history the . are valuable for history are those which represent the move The ment of spirit or the history of the State. But mingle. etc. is that which not the vacuity of external existence. the truth for spirit is substantial. whether such insignificant things are formally documented. such as those that fiction extracts from private to facts and subjective passions. It therefore. but contrary to the concept of objective truth. . invented in a characteristic manner and attributed to such and such a name. All the particular facts that remain " are a superfluous mass which. as in fiction. individual trivialities of time and people with the representation of general interests is not only contrary to judgment and to taste. in the interests of so-called truth. It is perfectly indifferent and of accident. always contained in great events. when faithfully collected. a true sentiment that has led to is the handing over of such representations of the particular to romances (such as those of the cele brated Walter Scott. in his opinion.

only of the great epochs of history and of great groups of people. and how many days and hours he were not necessary for the suffered torture. that documents were necessary. essential facts and unessential which has often since reappeared among the ciples of Hegel.146 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL Whoever or to such and such circumstances. when publishing the lectures ofthe master upon the philosophy of it history. kinds of facts. the reforms of Luther. the Catholic Church. but facts. between historical facts historical facts. to establish in what prisons Thomas Campanella was successively confined. in a well-known polemic. and to leave the rest to merely And it has reappeared right narrative history. It dis reappeared first in Edward Gans. and the Council of Trent. down to that Italian Hegelian. who maintained some years ago. but determination of the historical meaning of his thought and action. not of all facts. took occasion to if repeat that this discipline would lose in dignity had to encumber itself with the micrology of and that consequently its function was to demonstrate the necessity. who. Such dis- ." meditates these words will find in them most plainly the pernicious distinction between two and nonfacts. This second thing would be deduced a priori from the ideas of the Renaissance.

if the French Revolution and the i8th Brumaire and Waterloo were necessary facts. which it is wished to declare essential and ? indispensable. in his resistance to fatigue in his early years. so far from preserving a class of facts as necessary for true history. rejected as useless.d e?& unessential and y superfluous. we do not see how necessity can be denied to Bonaparte. equally contingent and individual If it be a contingent fact that Napoleon suffered from cancer of the stomach. other than that they are individual and contingent ? k. what reason is there for regarding the facts a. z. which enabled him to remain whole days erect on horseback and to spend whole nights bent over his little table of work. and to Bonaparte in effective reality: in his he was constituted in his strength and mental and physical weaknesses.TO PARTICULAR CONCEPTS 147 tinctions. who was an actor just as in the drama. and in . will not the i8th Brumaire and the battle of Waterloo be also contingent? Will not the whole epoch of the Revolution and the Empire be contingent ? And thus (since individuality and contingency extend to all facts). on the other hand. the whole history of the world will be contingent. And. c. make it that all even the very nation of fact. And are not the facts/ g. h. /. Indeed. b. are facts.

to Hegel hands over art. there always implied a reference to definite historical representations. so the mass of facts is a compact mass. this another way of shewing the evil fate of history at the It is hands of Hegelian philosophy. and what before was necessary becomes another. and pass from one theme to was superfluous becomes necessary. is. But in the passage quoted there is one thing more that to be noted. which philosophy dissipates is and displaces. to romance.148 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL As nor shell and comes the abdominal disease of his mature years. as the internal and the external one (and Hegel has taught this). in relation to the theme of which. and only in relation to thai definite theme. . certain facts masses of appear superfluous. The dis if we change our point of view. what before superfluous. a strange fate that the same philosophy. reality has neither kernel forth all in a jet. tinction is so evidently relative that. it is not composed of an essential kernel and an inessential shell. of are all facts that are intrinsically necessary and facts that are superfluous externalities. When these distinc is tions are adopted in ordinary language. him to be historical art facts and since should say was for him a pro we visional form. a form of the facts which do not seem all to .

of the res gestae. And the contradiction blazed in the light of the all sun. in virtue of one of logical doctrines. Famished for history. .vii PARTICULAR CONCEPTS its 149 which. had so effectively vindicated the value of history. so there came forth from the same school the most petulant and comic depredators of history and of fact that the world has ever seen. that it could not recognize the value of the historia rerum gestarum and so of the same res gestae. without understanding that it did so. found. Hegel's philosophy. for. as there issued from the school of Hegel a series of great writers of history. nourished on history. yet advocated fasting. as the result of another of its logical doctrines. before the eyes of the world.

The sensationalism and materialism of the eighteenth century had been the ultimate consequence of that predominance of the naturalistic ideal. the exact science of nature and science had come more and more . of the natural and mathematical disciplines. even life itself. there had taken place a continual enlargement of what was called experi mental and mathematical science.VIII THE METAMORPHOSIS OF PARTICU CONCEPTS INTO SOPHICAL ERRORS III. or the true nature. Spinoza. to rule the intellect. Philo science. and Leibniz. LAR PHILO NATURE (IDEA OF A PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE) IT was certainly a more difficult task to under stand the true limits. as plain from many parts of the systems of Descartes. 150 . is sophical speculation gave way before exact its or received to some extent imprint. From the Renaissance onward.

feeling and of immediate knowledge. they aspired to a vision of a revealed only to him living nature. artists and men of letters. studying the notable monument of the application of exact science to speculative problems. armed at mathematics and with empirical knowledge. analysing the methods of the exact sciences and drawing their conclusions. the philosophy of Spinoza. points exact natural science was in adequate to attain to with real reality. who must that again be mentioned here) clear in it was being made several quarters of Germany of things. to be . Other most philosophers. and therefore declared that God and the infinite and moral problems belonged to the realm of Poets. a movement of doubt and of reaction had already commenced.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS It Is true that 151 when the mind of Hegel was forming. proclaimed knowledge. and (not to speak of Vico. like the cold and the void of the intellectualism of the Aufkldrung^ and Goethe. felt at the time of the Sturm und Drang. and assigned the fundamental problems to the practical reason scientific the limits of and to Aesthetic and teleological intuition. showed that with the method of the finite sciences we cannot escape from the finite. like Jacobi. to the bottom all Philosophers like Kant.

itself the weight and power of that ideal an effective influence.152 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL should contemplate it who soul. not translatable into the form of thought. even in this movement which makes if seems so hostile to the ideal of the exact sciences. and remains "sentiment. with a sympathetic Hegel accepted gave has it this critical inheritance. the only . For example. have not cognitive or thought value for him . and the solutions which he proposes by another method. Nevertheless. and vigorous expression. by establishing. which man can attain just this exact science. for him. have not true value. of the finite sciences it is none the less certain that." is In Hegel and in his immediate predecessor Schelling. form of knowledge is that the other is not knowledge. because both posited as true knowledge . for him. things would seem to take a different form. the difference between the method of philosophy and that of the mathematical and natural disciplines. finite If Jacobi criticize they the method of the sciences in relation to the it knowledge of God. it Kant deny to exact science the the fundamental problems. the only science to is possibility of solving is also certain that. that is. as already been mentioned.

Now.vni PARTICULAR CONCEPTS But. and philo sophy the true science. in favour them it of the exact sciences. necessity. but for both the same assumptions. and of considering philosophy as incapable of scientific exactitude. made Schelling and sciences non-philosophical in character. Hegel make the exact sciences a semi-philosophy. These are two different solutions of a problem. in order definitely to settle the dispute between exact science and philosophy. though in receives a new statement. and philo sophy non-scientific . or that their concepts are more or less perfect logical formulations. And the principal of these is the persuasion that the exact sciences have theoretic value. 153 the knowledge of the intellectual Intuition and of the idea. . on deeper investigation. it was necessary to adopt an altogether different method. ing them with an internal Jacobi. we discover in both the same prepossession (which could be called the specially modern preposses sion). Instead of excluding the exact sciences from philosophy. and to recognize the respective rights of both. Kant and the exact each in his own way. Schelling and Hegel consider the exact sciences as insufficiently scientific and include them in philosophy which elaborates them? rendering them scientifically rigorous and supply '.

that a determinate its activity has but one intrinsic method. since they were a mediocre philosophy. taken by Kant and by the i. once thought had been shewn capable of the solution of the problems of reality. and philosophical logic had been dis covered. own. if Con was a versely. to be Hence.e. for the reason already recorded. exact science. which could not maintain itself against a better philosophy.154 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL as So long scientific the naturalistic and philosophic methods were taken to be two methods of truth. philosophy had to be eliminated. the other to be the only method of mere clumsy and contradictory tentative on the lines of the first method and had to yield before the complete development of the speculative method. The only other way that was open was to consign the naturalistic and mathematical disciplines. to the non- was closed. if the first method were admitted science. theoretical. the consigning of philosophy to practical reason or to sentiment. the second was shaken and was bound to fall . the speculative method were admitted truth. conflict was inevitable. that is. i. On the other hand. way of escape. to the non-theoretical. to the practical This path has been .e. The mathematical and naturalistic disciplines had to be replaced by philosophy. the Jacobi.

of which we speak. in reducing them to unity. that > must increasingly appear. and it seems to me fruitful. for example. the velocities are proportionate to the times. which could be transplanted without alteration into the books of the most modern theorists of the method of those disciplines. without their being demonstrated by experience ? Of the notion of centrifugal and centripetal forces. the pores. His books are rich in analysis and observations. but only necessity. but just the definition of a uniformly accelerated movement ? And what are the numerous hypotheses worked out by the physicists but assertions. Hegel observes that it is a . the constant image of the inconstant appearance so that. in which the intellect its expresses not the reality of things. in passing from the more particular to the more general laws. What is the postulate. we run own into tautologies. cannot be said that Hegel had no notion of the practical nature of the naturalistic and mathe matical disciplines. which corre spond neither to empirical reality nor to the philosophic concept.vm PARTICULAR CONCEPTS it 155 *** entered upon in our day. Read his pages on the concept of law in the empirical sciences. that in a uniformly accelerated movement. not only It but j necessary. as. Law (he says) is nothing but .

" which therefore is not only superficial. And fiction and arbitrariness appeal precisely to . the name applied only to what the science contains of reality and rationality. both through the Phenomenology and the Logic. which is simply presup posed and which we are forbidden to submit to any intellectual examination as to the mysterious fashion happens that these forces increase and decrease and each In turn acquires in which it or loses its preponderance. as well as through the Philosophy of Nature? there recur frequently in the pages of Hegel the words intellectual fictions (Verstandes(willkurlicfi). but in In the same way. fiktionen)* arbitrary conceptions to indicate the constructions of the abstract intellect and of the natural and mathematical disciplines. unthinkable. "It is quite thinkable as they say. which are scattered profusion. irrational is mathematics. In addition to these and to very similar many other in observations. and false. is In the exact sciences.156 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL vm metaphysical monster. that a uniformly increasing and decreasing move j ment should take ability is place in circles but this think- nothing but an abstract possibility of representation. because -. what it is called thinkable is false. which neglects the determinate character of what is under consideration.

Mathematics (he says) "Is the science of the finite determina tions of magnitude.YIII PARTICULAR CONCEPTS . which must remain and have value in their finitude and must not pass beyond of the it . as if these were per evil will formed at the bidding of caprice and of passions but rather in the sense of acts of . and therefore Since it is it essentially a science intellect. it should be evident that it was im possible to speak of acts of will in a depreciatory sense. where he propounds to himself the question as to whether philosophic mathematics are possible that is. yet shows that he recognizes the legitimate character of those constructions. on account of the proved utility of the results attained. or of practical acts." is His answer ** impossible. even in enthusiastic admiration. 157 the voluntary and practical activity and since those acts of will have a secular history and are the result of most noble efforts and are held in high esteem. has the capacity of . rationally justifiable or of legitimate practical acts. But there is a case In which Hegel explicitly non-scientific. : "a science which knows by concepts according to is what ordinary mathematical science deduces from presupposed determinations the that " method of the such a science intellect. as It is they are and as they must remain.

and must be relations. but operates (operiert) with is them . . from without." that "arithmetic does not contemplate numbers and their for figures." motion and placed in Once a form of activity was admitted. than to disturb it by the admixture of the con cept.: the same meaning and their particular a philosophy of them would become a matter of logic or of some other concrete philosophical science. or of empirical ends" (Enc* " 259). and thereby attain ing a truer theory of the genuine nature of exact science. which is heterogeneous to " it. there should have been no difficulty in it attaching to extending the observation and in all the other scattered observations oo the non-theoretical procedure of the natural and mathematical disciplines.158 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL it being a perfect intellectual science. If we desired to treat of space or of philosophically the configurations unity (he had said in the preceding edition of book). "they would lose their form. on the other hand. which operates with thought-data but does not think them. number indifferent determinateness set in and inert. rather to preserve to it is desirable it the advantage which possesses over other sciences of the same kind. the concepts. according as a more concrete meaning came to be attributed to He knew.

of nature. with the and the mollusc. con fined within its own limits. which would lead to the same tion. he should have is been able to reach the conclusion that the content of the so-called natural sciences part of reality.viii PARTICULAR CONCEPTS Hegel also 159 had very of the clearly in mind a concept not a i.e. to method applicable not only kingdoms). or naturalistic method. it does not with philosophy. but simply gnoseological. in which the forms of to thought were described and placed alongside one another. but also to intelkctualis). that nature. by the doctrine of virtue By this path. precisely because. a mode which arises and persists side by side with the philosophical. metaphysical. too. as is done in natural history with the black-beetle unicorn and the mammoth. result. all the so-called inferior manifestations of reality (the three natural Thus the others (to the orbis he considered Hugo Grotius's theory of the external right of States as analogous to the natural philosophy of Newton Aristotelian : logic istic seemed science him to be nothing but a natural of thought. compete Another characteristic observation of Hegel. upon which he greatly . and the same comparison was suggested in ethics (Tugendlehre}. but a not indeed a all mode of treating reality. is the affirma insists.

n. in the same way that the histories of art.160 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL if all VIII herein differing from humanity. nature contracted classes and mummified abstract and concepts. Hegd and Hege&mism^ P. in truth. in the Philo sophy of the spirit\ to the section on objective spirit. that which has no history . can a part of reality ever be conceived. coming ? is nature in the naturalistic sense that in is to say. . 1 Why? Precisely be cause and is psychology is a naturalistic science thus condemned to the same historical 1 Mackintosh. which comprehends the three spheres of art. con sidered psychologically. how be movement and development. Thus in that philosophy of spirit. has no history. correspond respect ively to the section on absolute spirit. which reality Is not. which Hegel has specially treated elsewhere. in process of be But. and philosophy. together with the whole. And this affords another ground against considering these classes and con cepts as modes critic of apprehending real reality. of religion and of philosophy.236. religion. corresponds. Now. An has opportunely noted that the philosophy of history. only the section on subjective spirit or psychology has no corresponding historical treatment : no history is given of man. or the treatment of uni English versal political history.

viii PARTICULAR CONCEPTS which has been recognized in 161 sterility nature in general. not withstanding the observations which he had occasion to make and fell the admissions which more or less consciously from his lips. He was driven to that conclusion by his logical presupposition. adopted by Schelling. formulations of reality and of ex and had to be treated as philosophic attempts and partial errors. As art and the philosophy of history as he had conceived so analogically. the natural and mathematical disciplines could not retain their relative autonomy as practical perience. the one in pure philosophy. The reason is quite clear. Hegel did not correct. draw the conclusion which seems to us He did not their proclaim the philosophical indifference of the natural and mathematical disciplines and he turned instead complete autonomy towards the solution which had already been . when he had conceived a philosophy of nature. had appeared to his mind as philosophical errors to be turned into truths. philosophy of nature means nothing A M . the other history in it . But notwithstanding these suggestions. to be turned to truth in a philosophy of nature. (he " between physics and philosophy of nature says) is " The antithesis " not that between a not-thinking and a thinking of nature.

and others similar to this. . often speaks elsewhere of an " instinct of reason. brate.. only. but he nevertheless believes that " " they can be replaced by natural classifications.162 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL ." "In the philosophy of nature there is no other question than just the replacing of the categories of the intellect by the relations of the speculative concept and the understanding and the determin ing of experience according to these relations. and it seems to him that he has discovered a kind of beginning of such classifications in the re searches of comparative anatomy and in the division of animals into vertebrate and inverte and of plants into monocotyledons and He dicotyledons. classifications are artificial. in which the speculative ." He sees the natural sciences. laws. etc. purely clear and their purpose is to give and simple marks as aids to subjective knowledge. are thoughts ." Not only must philosophy agree with natural experience. but the birth and formation of philosophic science has empirical physics well as presupposition that in and condition. in physics those thoughts are formal and intellectualistic. vm but a thinking contemplation of nature and this for its determinations ordinary physics also is of forces." which should manifest physicists itself in the theories of the and naturalists.

is seized with the desire for a philosophical system. wishes to apply philosophy to historical cannot do otherwise than narrate history (which in order to be history must always be to some extent philosophically Illuminated). Is In the presence of the natural for sciences. and in if any one facts. In the first case. and why he preserves unshaken " his faith in the eternal laws of nature/* A able single remark suffices to is show how unten If this equivocal position. in the same any one. way. the reality of natural genera and of mathematical concepts. simply and solely return to philosophy. If so. the presence of history.vni PARTICULAR CONCEPTS 163 concept would be In some measure anticipated. he any one. according as his need Is for a concrete'or for an abstract philosophy. he must nature and of man cepts) to . he must pass from the natural and mathematical disciplines (and from their intellectualist and arbitrary con the historical vision of the things of In the second. a philosophy which should . he has but two ways of satisfying It. And this explains also why he defends against the naturalistic and mathematical nominalism of Locke. he cannot do otherwise than abandon historical exposition and expound abstract philosophy. disturbed by the need philo sophy. But a philosophy of nature.

The only difference is that in it the analogy is taken . inorganic.1 64 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL its VIII have the natural sciences as base. Hence the divergence between the two philosophies. the philosophy of history . The evolution and the dialectic of the concepts. a contradiction in terms because it implies philo sophic thought of those arbitrary concepts. dialectic opposites. with its concept of becoming and of evolution. in my opinion. is also (as. from the forms of the concept. which philosophy does not know. philosophy of nature is equally incapable of development. and upon which it consequently has no hold. in Hegel's philosophy . save by means of analogy. has. Nor does it seem to me fitting to attribute to Hegel's natural philosophy. and that he there talks of judgment. and developed by the But Hegel's application of a prearranged plan. syllogism. Hegel difference repeatedly called his attention to the philosophy of nature and Schelling's. and the like. criticizing the latter for being founded upon the analogy between organic and between upon the comparison of one sphere of nature with another. either to affirm or to deny them. mother and daughter. is) on another side. the merit of being the precursor of Darwin's discoveries. but slight importance.

which guides the degrees in their is immanent in progress. to regard the progress and transition from one natural form or sphere to a higher as an actual product of external reality. 249). Nebulous representations. Certainly. when we speak of the fallacious idea of a philosophy of nature and condemn the it mode of treatment proposed by Hegel. ternality is the special characteristic of nature. "It has been a clumsy representation on the part of ancient as well as of modern philosophy of nature. has been driven back into the Ex obscurity of the past. must be altogether excluded from philosophic consideration" (Enc. which.VIII PARTICULAR CONCEPTS is 165 of nature. by means of which she permits differences to assert themselves and to appear as indifferent existences: the dialectic concept. is not .. in order that it may be made ckar. which are at bottom of sensible origin. who does not recognize any in nature. them. This is sheer hostility to the hypothesis of transformation and it is what might be expected historicity from Hegel. and indeed proclaims their fixity. purely ideal. etc. like those of the birth of plants and of animals from water and of the most highly developed animal organisms from the lowest. It leaves natural species intact.

pores. the invectives of Hegel are documents of the hostility towards naturalists and mathe maticians. physicists and but which are really directed against the metaphysic which they mingle with their naturalists. abstractions. these forming the be greater part of the book) a host of most just criticisms. which the idea of a philosophy of nature brought with it. The devil is not so ugly as he is painted. That " ineffable is to say. or wrongfully deduce from them. or against the bad metaphysic. This polemic is also the only just part of the violent invective against Newton. which seem at first glance to directed against mathematicians. teachings. like forces. the rest.1 66 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL vm necessary to Include in the condemnation the whole book which bears that title. introduced or suggested. atoms and so on." as Hegel into realities which changes these mathematical and naturalistic calls it. just as the idea of a philosophy of history inspired a certain hostility . they are directed against the metaphysic. in and Hegel's observations book also contains (generally appended to his paragraphs. Here Hegel is quite right and we cannot with hold from him our lively agreement. which Newton (although he had " uttered the warning Physicists. beware of : For Metaphysic").

PARTICULAR CONCEPTS against professional historians. those disciplines it from contempt for came rather from an excess of love. In the dissertation. remarks jestingly about the little story of the apple. which Hegel still had of them and which made cultivated them. . Hegel accumulated criticisms. deinde Trmac miseriae principtis pomnm ad/mssc^ jam sti&titis pkilesophicis omen " (in xrri 17). In physics and 1 . as we have said. causing first the sin of Adam. then the destruction of Troy. he made bad observations and even malum cf . summarizing. did not arise . 167 His hostility. accusations and sarcasms against Newton. in the History ofPhilosophy} was the chief contributor to the introduction into science of the reflective determinations of forces. optics. mathematices et pkysices cotifusionem" and he . . his b$te noire was destined to become the exact greatest representative of modern science. the ruin of natural * 1 philosophy ! Newton (he says. and finally by falling upon the head of Newton. from the too lofty and philosophical Idea. by substituting the laws of forces for the laws of phenomena. unvDsrsae generis kmmaxi. he deplores "illam. qna& Newtone incepta est. from the dissertation De orbitis planetarum to the last edition of the Encyclopaedia. him severe towards those who Nevertheless. that this fruit was three times fatal to the human race.

and without ittempting to excuse Hegel by recording how o these criticisms and even in the violence of lis language. He was a barbarian in the use of concepts. He handled concepts as we handle stones and pieces of wood. worse syllogisms. . have caused scandal and have been judged with great severity. But while making allowance for whatever small element of passion aiay be mingled with his criticisms. made these fundamental. which are adduced as the most sublime example of such operations in the study of nature. and never bethought himself that he was employing determinations of thought. Similar outbursts.i68 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL From experience he passed to general points of view. lie was in accord with some of his smfneat contemporaries and chiefly with Goethe. The experiments and reasonings of his Optics. should really serve as an example of how one should not experiment or reason. and from them constructed single facts. Such Is the nature of his theories. she is greatly superior to the mean idea of her entertained by any one who puts his faith in them. which culminate in the hurling of an accusation of bad faith at Newton (whom he accuses of having knowingly altered the results of certain experi ments). Nature opposes these pretended ex for periments.

the by constructing their laws and their concepts. And declara tions of the same sort have been repeated by the disciples of Hegel. simply the logical consequence of the philosophic position which Hegel took up in relation to the intellectualism of exact science. and Vera. In the philosophy of nature also. inspired by much impertinence all . on the whole. to whom they offer the material ready and half elaborated.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS it is 169 certain that. alike is in its justice and unjust exaggeration. in its his polemic. so that it could be wholly replaced by the speculative sciences. as in the philosophy of history. he recommended agreement between physics and philosophy. last Rosenkranz. Hegel never dared to declare the empirical and positive method altogether erroneous. such as Michelet. we do one of two things we think that the empirical method is . either For in truth. and the philosopher and says that "la physique les rassemble et prepare sophic vient ensuite mai&riaux^ gue la philo marquer de sa forme? But these are phrases. method. and as we have seen. come to meet (enigegenarbeiten) empirical the work of the philosopher. This compares physicists to the labourers to the architect. towards physicists and in any case empty of content. For him.

method not only but can draw from it mere To make verbal concessions to physics and to the empirical trifling. pkce again upon which were henceforth for him annulled and non part of it existent All the rights imply all the duties . and the whole system of them. is Hegel. some genera. and in that case we cannot understand why the other laws. reveals in that act its capacity for positing the others and the whole . however small in that case the speculative has no need of the other.i . it was henceforth the business of philosophy. forms the first and which completes the whole poem. in and satisfies philosophy duties. it is the same activity and no other which verse. in a word. should not be attainable with the same method.o PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL vm capable of positing some laws. truths and concepts. For the activity. which thus assumed all their rights and And having thus placed so great a burden upon the shoulders of philosophy. genera. some truths. he had no longer any right to lighten it to by trying the empirical sciences. which posits the first naturalistic concept. . Or else we think that the empirical . some concepts. method. not . just as in poetry. really denied them altogether and absorbed them nobody. method and no is not capable of any truth. assistance. in consider ing the exact sciences to be a semi-philosophy.

viii PARTICULAR CONCEPTS 171 of empirical science. Hegel from first to last of his writings made fun of him and represented him as a comical person. 1 but this does not prevent Hegel's reply to Krug's objection from being embarrassed and ambiguous beneath an appearance of careless ease. in Wsrke. 250**. Krug's pen. or even only the pen with which he. but that science has far more urgent tasks on hand than the deduction of Mr. do not belong to philosophy and on the other. and perhaps he may have been so . chemical bodies. seems this must henceforth be admitted) simply the spokesman of good sense. a dog. also. individual (and all facts . physiological elements. to discover stars. to prove and to justify the existence of this or that particular fact of nature . that the deduction is quite possible. are individual). And the illustrious Neapolitan philologist and physician.. 1 Salvatore Tommasi. unknown species of animals and vegetables. physical forces. Krug. . was writing at that moment. For Hegel seemed that to say on the one hand that things of facts kind. a horse. when he demanded \ \ of the natural philosophy of Schelling that it should deduce the moon with its characteristics. That poor devil Krug was (it. xvL 57-59 and cf. like See an article of 1802. was . or a rose.

only when some sort of discovery medicine had been made by means of it : in for example.the natural sciences . ended by arbitrarily historical fact. to the Hegelian persistent protagonist of De Meis. It than to prove does not heal ^the false nor make true. His discovery is delicious : it is of the impotence . after having dismissed them. that he would be dis posed to turn his attention to the method recom mended. as has been said above with regard to history (and the basis of . The attempt to hold on to the coat-tails of the empirical sciences. But the analogy does not end here. who was a some sort of speculative physiology and pathology.that is historical).172 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL in the right. exceptions. the direct cure of pneumonia. has then no other meaning. when he replied. and by consigning fiction. not without annoyance. away a part of which seemed to him more em cutting it barrassing than the rest. Hegel. to And he did the same for the natural sciences. is it HegePs thesis false. and to what are rare cases. as his idea of a philosophy of history demanded. despairing of ever being able altogether to rationalize history. in relation to many classes and species of natural facts. to an infinite number of the called appearances of reality. vm Krug. or extraordinary beings.

in the realm is himself that fact sacred So of nature. for is we had learned from Hegel here. as conceived by Schelling and Hegel. having learned from him that there reason in the world.PARTICULAR CONCEPTS of Nature (die 173 Ohnmacht der Natur\ of her weakness. her swoonings and faintings. during the difficult ! task of achieving the rationality of the concept But in the realm of history we did not allow ourselves to be persuaded to abandon a part of the facts. And what is has been called the impotence of nature^ clearly nothing but the impotence of the philosophy of nature. . to keep with its faith own programme. we shall not consent to is believe that one part of reality inert rebellious or towards reason.

even in contemporary literature. have inculcated and and have done nothing else. : often happens. It would almost be worth while making an instructive catalogue of them. But Hegel did not leave the 174 . especially when the programme is dangerous. sophy of history and of a philosophy of nature he might have desired it.IX THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE FALSE SCIENCES AND THE APPLICA TION OF THE DIALECTIC TO THE INDIVIDUAL AND TO THE EMPIRICAL HEGEL might have posited the idea of a philo . There are not a few systems and books. A programme may be announced. which have never gone beyond intro ductions and preliminaries. and in their number are some of those announced with the greatest boasting. and then it may be resolved not to carry it out a thing which defended it.

first. In this passage to actualization. he was obliged to proceed to the dialectic treatment of individual facts and of Hegel empirical concepts. . we could not com these. not only a full comprehension of the fact. . prehend how Hegel could ever have arrived at so strange a thought: but by following it. but a kind of feeling of admiration for the in genuity of that closely-knit web of errors. that is. is in its 1 turn a consequence of j some of all its Without following that path in twists and turnings. and since he had already applied the dialectic to these last. he had to force himself to treat individual facts and empirical concepts like particular philosophical concepts. and to place ourselves a position to give it its exact formulation and genesis. In order to reach this second abuse.FALSE SCIENCES 175 philosophy of history and the philosophy of nature as ideas in the air he constructed both effectively. this For second abuse. for the method of that madness^ as Polonius would have said. And this is the second great abuse that made of in his dialectical discovery. we reach. was indispensable to pass through the and to work out its manifold consequences. the failure to i recognize the autonomy of history and of the positive sciences.

But in this connexion. make certain we must The observations. of philosophy and of religion. or what guarantee can attach to the results ? The books from beginning to end will be sophisticated science and history. been viewed with diffidence. has Involved in a general condemnation all Hegel's books on the history of civilization and of art. If the method is erroneous (so the ingenuous reasoning runs) what value. almost with the fear of being stained by contact with them. into thing else to bring the Hegelian philosophy disrepute. and on the various mathematical disciplines. Now. jured by the historical studies and the positive sciences in and both alike reacted energetically their own defence. . not neglect to acquired con viction of the error of the method which Hegel defended and strove to apply. not only is the philosophy of nature never sought and consulted by students of natural phenomena. and some translators even omit It from their versions of the Encyclopaedia treatises tipoa historical but even Hegel's subjects have themselves . And for this reason.1 76 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL is it ix The second abuse known: and the most commonly has contributed more than any philosophy were in the second injured or menaced . If certain parts of first.

their those books are to be examined. as appears. their general execution for and in details Hegel could act and on many occasions did act in them. In the same way. nor make in original obser vations In the positive parts of his naturalistic treatises 1 (such as we find the works of " tJber Goetbes natnrwissensdbaJtlicbe See Helmooltz's two lectures. 1896.ix FALSE SCIENCES all 177 books. wished to adopt methods in optics altogether foreign to physics. speaking of Schelling's and of Hegel's and of their disciples' books on the philosophy of nature continually increases as we pass from the parts. obtain important results. (in Vortrage vnd R&din}^ Braunschweig. L 23-47. according to the best authorities." Ideen" 361. Hegel did not. ii. like both In . he made true and proper discoveries. Goethe. organic world to the organic and the reason for this is clearly that the utility of the mathematical method decreases In any case. and yet in other branches of science. If In the more concrete it parts. more abstract to the to more concrete from physics physiology. such as botany in that natural and anatomy. and ** Goetbes Voralrnungen kommeiKier imtnrwissenscIialtlicBer Arbeiten. 335- . either against or in dependently of his programme. the value Indeed. 1 in general. which have drawn down upon him the unanimous reproval of specialists subject. from the so-called In .

wMdi places in relief certain merits of Hegel as a physicist . pp. in the greatest historians it of the nineteenth century. Heraclitus and of the Sophists). on the other hand. of the critical-speculative period of Kant and of Schelling. In the history of philosophy (of which. a note by Engels. he fully realized the profound difference between ing way of presenting and of understand problems and the way of modern philosophy its . This applies to his characterizations of the Presocratics (and particularly of Parmenides. and in modern times. he may be considered almost the creator) his observations are as full of truth as they are original.) . he stands on a level with the properly versed . although was (partly thanks to him) the century of historical writing. of the Neo-Platonists and of Christianity. of Plato. rv-xvi. oo the other Ijand. of Socrates himself. as has already been noted. offers Is etc.178 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL 1 Treviranus. a subject in which he was more treatment of history. In the study of ancient philo sophy. of the English empirical philo sophy. and the error of rendering its propositions in terms of current philosophy. of Oken. of the Stoics and of the Sceptics. if the best that he perhaps always in pyschology and an thropology. as did Brucker or 1 Compare wi& this. of Aristotle. of Jacobi and of the sentiment alists and mystics.

or Hegel as definite first which received form at his hands. Hegel of researches historical by making use of to and discoveries posterior these criticisms him. in truth. on the Homeric epos. interspersed his lectures on aesthetics. of Rome. although they have been repeated and popularized by writers (like Taine) who either did not know. literature The history of in and of the arts. on ancient tragedy. or were In error about their origin. it would be an unfair criticism. of the Middle Ages.FALSE SCIENCES TIedmann. which have all become popular. contains views and judg ments example. (Sometimes have rested on doubtful discoveries. of the Reformation and of the French Revolution. as when he has been blamed " matriarchate " Into for not having taken the . would be astonished at number their of them which derive from source. to accuse errors. though often made. of Greece. on Italian painting of the Renaissance 'and on Dutch (for painting). on the Shakespearean drama. His political history 179 gives broad and luminous views on the character and the con nexions of the great historical epochs. And any one who makes a the historical ideas which were patrimony of our the great special study of in vogue in the nineteenth century and have become part of the culture. Again.

not even a Niebuhr or a Mommsen. in general. it is necessary also to distinguish between those |arising philosophical concepts land those which are connected with his dialectic. could origin of art to economic labour and industrial decoration. which appear neither more nor less frequently in his constructions of history than in so many other historians. other philosophers or with the claim to reconstruct speculatively the . based the concept of upon an art that should be substantially religion or philosophy.i8o PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL theories K consideration. philosophers Italian and publicists : from the "primacy" of GiobertI to the contem porary Germanist manias of Herr Chamberlain or of Herr Woltmann. has in common with the philosophy of his time (for example. And in discussing these historical errors.) No historian. And equally it would be unfair to make too heavy and personal a charge of certain political and national prejudices. Hegel often. or for not having of the sociological had a suspicion which assign the great. from erroneous The former. nor Machiavelli. however : withstand such an examination neither Thucy- dides nor Polybius. which were the consequence of philosophical errors. the treatment of the history of poetry and of art. and construct or to also.

These are thesis. in deed. to explain and in part to justify the violent reaction of historians and naturalists against the dialectic itself. it is these reservations have been certain that we do meet in the books of Hegel examples of the dialectic treatment of the individual and empirical and that suffices . conceived in triadic form. as the Oriental world. history which But the universal is Hegel developed. that some are free the Germanic world. For the reasons already given. the Graeco. Hegel is obliged to suppress many and time. all But when made. first is Hence the character of the despotism. of the third monarchy. In space. . alone it 181 but it is the latter which concerns us to seek here. he altogether the fifth facts in space eliminates part of the world Australia and the . knew and knows that only one man is free . that all are free. In order to establish this triad. the history of philosophy may be considered almost altogether exempt. concreteness for that the Orient and synthesis.Roman world. of the second democracy and aristocracy. there are fewer examples in his historical expositions. antithesis. which receive better or worse in the formula.FALSE SCIENCES course of history). the classi cal world and the Germanic world.

and he refuses to itself is for take into consideration the very ancient tions of civiliza Mexico and of Peru. was with reference to such limitations in . d. has nothing to It do with history. a. Peoples may have passed a long life without a State. he sought to adapt it to his dialectic universal history as appears in the books of the historians.i8a PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL to ix other islands between Asia and America. p 559. Berliner Periode. in Rosenkranz. because from what we know of them. in time and space that Hegel put down one of his note-books in the last year of his universal history. and he deluded a Mmself that he had found in the individual point of departure which should have the pre cision of the first term of the dialectic triad." In this way. hence the German word "storia") (or the Italian word subjecti means both history a parte and history a parte objecti. the life "In same division Greeks: is valid as was in use 1 among the Greeks and barbarians. . " they were altogether natural 3 and bound to perish at the approach of Spirit/ As regards time. which is their prehistory. but this." America him nothing but an append age of European civilization. seem to him be affected with "physical immaturity. he maintains that history only begins when there are Geschichte historians.

Symbolical. Roman Germanic world. and Christian or Romantic.FALSE SCIENCES Such would be the the sun of history. and in the Orient. development which Hegel attempts. The two last are also determined triadically : the . and of which the synthesis would third term. art is a triad whose very formulation unstable enough. deduced as it is from the not the also lack of equilibrium between content and form. to refer to a fourth artistic period. this would change this triad also into a quatriad is unless indeed the last phase dissolution of art into philo meant to be the sophy. Hegel seems later than the Romantic and . spiritual Orient. the world. the history gives rise to a triad of Oriental or nation. : be. conquered with such difficulty. and the religion of the transition to the religion of liberty. which is for Hegel the first truly the historical and of art In like manner. in three The history of : religions is arranged phases the duplication of consciousness natural religion. to take only those which first catch the eye. China and India are at once sacrificed to Persia. but the second. this fundamental triad widens into a quatriad. the Greek world. 183 where rises But the at triad. Greek or . the religion of in itself. the Oriental world. totters every particular Indeed. Classical.

and of absoluteness or absolute And these are subdivided into new The religion of nature is subdivided into of the the religions of light (the Persian). triads. of pain (the Syrian). of spiritual liberty. the religion of spiritual liberty. of beauty (the Greek)." according to him. hardened region by heat. the religion of the transition into the religions of nature. into the religions of sublimity (the Jewish). either physically or spiritually : the " new world.1 84 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL of reduplication into the religions religion of measure (the Chinese). But one of the most curious examples of the dialectic construction of the individual is furnished by the characterization of the three parts of the world. presented an incompletely developed division into a northern part and a southern part. of the intellect or of finality (the Roman). religion Absolute would then be Christianity. as has been said. in which man is confined within himself and obtuse). enigma (the Egyptian). of the lunar element. and of internality (the Buddhist). of which the first. in the manner of the magnet But ! the ancient world exhibited the complete division into three parts. of fancy (the Indian). religion. which does not attain . Hegel. got rid of the two others by saying that they did not seem to him mature. Africa (the of metal. is mute spirit.

Europe. This compendium of different sorts of knowledge is arranged in the fundamental triad of mechanics. with its equilibrium of rivers. valleys. Asia. % 340 Zos. . botany. the region of formless and indeterminate generation. mineralogy. and the centre of Europe is Germany. represents conscious and constitutes the rational part of the and 1 earth. physics and organic physics and the whole is subdivided into minor triads. is the centre of the universe the Earth (and Germany would be least the centre of the earth.ix FALSE SCIENCES knowledge. geology and physio three sections: first. The dialectic construction runs riot in the philosophy of nature. mountains . . We need not concern ourselves with the idea that since in universal history final the point of con vergence and the spirit. result is the Germanic so in the cosmological conception of Hegel. that book is at concepts. physics and chemistry third. ness. bottom nothing but a compendium of mathe matical and naturalistic disciplines. and the third. at the words iei according to above quoted). which cannot order itself. is 185 splendid to bacchantic dissipation. divided into geometry and mechanics. second. zoology. the second. astronomy. logy. the field of the empirical In its positive part.

present. the body of the concrete totality. . a negation essentially spatial and so becomes a line and the negation of the it but is . negation is the surface! And he offers the deduction of the celestial bodies. and future . any case. .i86 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL This only shows once more how a lofty philo sophical intellect can now and then be sub Let us jugated by sentiment and prejudice. whereas he observes that the three dimensions of time are not existentially differentiated in nature. he seems to admit that the three In dimensions of space are so differentiated. the moon and the comets are the bodies of the antithesis . They are superficial. yet Hegel deduces them space dialectically. is the planet. abstract quantity. in this first form of externality. The point is the negation of . Besides the three dimensions of space. they are empty. although (he says) the determinations of the concept. are only superficial and constitute differences which are altogether empty. Hegel posits three dimen sions of time but past. the synthesis. these three would be founded upon the nature of the concept. rather consider some examples of the dialectic of geometry and of physics. Magnetism seems to him the demonstration ad . the central body is the thesis. they are arbitrary.

preserving them in dialectic form.FALSE SCIENCES complete syllogism. yet they do not possess sensible and mechanical reality. consider as disseminated everywhere. Owing to the necessity of the dialectic form. the individual is still external to its own members. in such a way that they receive sense . which are themselves individuals. the members exist essentially as members of the . electricity. its posits to itself own conditions . but ideal reality. life vegetable and animal nature. difference. the identification Hegel combats of magnetism. of the The two poles are the extremities of a real line existing in sense. and chemistry. "natural kingdoms" answered his triadic theory too well to permit of his not The three as geological. in the third. and shew themselves to be altogether inseparable. He would be equally opposed to the physiologists. and exist ence only in such a unity and polarity is only the relation of such moments. which their substance finds their unity as determinations of the concept. which physical science tries to effect . in the second. 187 oculos of the dialectic concept in nature. who life abolish the clear distinction cell between the animal or and the vegetable cell. in is The point of in place. and wishes the three facts to be both united and distinct. In the first.

i88 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL and therefore the individual is individual. and the antithesis of the solution of concrete neutrality taste and : smell The third : is the sense of ideality. as such in its ex- temalkation. The first is that which belongs to the mechanical sphere. For him the senses are yet they are three. sight and . which are five and not three. But Hegel five. that ized aerity. The dialectic applies also each of these forms of : nature the process of the plant is is divided into three syllogisms. of light . is more laborious. is not dismayed. subject. by tone hearing! that is to say. that to say. the sense of touch. and more precisely. known . the unity of the two preceding. determined in the concrete externality of colour and the sense of the manifestation of which makes itself internality. of light in general. into the process of formation. that is to say. to say that of particular and that which comprehends the neutrality of concrete water. of weight and cohesion and of their change. The second is is the two senses of the antithesis. and into the process of reproduc tion. The dia lectical reconstruction of the five senses. the sense of ideality as manifestation of the external by the external. and it also is double that is to say. into the process of opposition toward inorganic nature.

epic. architecture. his classification of the In logic. music. the judg ment of rektion that of necessity. the judgment of quantity that of reflexion. which has a quatriad as basis judgments is. and dramatic poetry. terminology. with a new word the same as that of : * the judg- 1 ment of quality becomes that of existence. the judgment of modality that of the concept and the triadic . and is sub divided into painting. word for Kant. subdivisions of these are preserved. the triadically. creates third God him self.e. The syl- . i. and poetry. as in natural science he found the three natural kingdoms. or a philosophy of the empirical. in many parts of the aesthetic. and of spirit.ix FALSE SCIENCES 189 Other examples of this dialectic of the empirical are to be found in profusion in what for us is also a philosophy of nature (in the gnoseological sense). . is determined by another number (the five arts into three. system of the first arts is developed The of the : arts. the five senses into three) is spared to him in the fields of poetry and of rhetoric. of the logic. the philosophy of In the aesthetic. creates the temple of God the second. the expresses the feelings of the and words. The labour of condensing into three. what empirically faithful in colours. in which he found ready the tripartition into lyric. sculpture. tones.

of determinate syllogism of and syllogism of necessity. family. . or the restoration of the concept in the judgment and so the unity and truth of both. and the the State. and of rights against wrong. natural. is also developed being. and (a curious leap) universal dialectic The Hegelian has so often been satirized. and reason spirit. and Europe. as syllogism reflexion. into internal rights. developed of in the three degrees of anthropology. theoretic. second. society. when he tries to think Africa. phenomenology and of psychology the first includes the soul. or . or the hand. but no satire can compare with that which the author himself unconsciously gives of it. consciousness of self. of contract. . the nose. morality. and ethics : rights are sub divided into rights of property. of spirit. finally. and the ear. the third. external history. In the well that philosophy Hegel knows psychology cannot serve as basis for philosophy . and free Objective spirit has the three moments of rights. consciousness.190 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL is logism (which the synthesis in relation to judgment as antithesis. sentient. The civil ethical sphere is subdivided into State. Asia. rights. triadically. Subjective spirit is yet he treats it dialectically. and real the . practical.

and becom It sometimes seems as if Hegel was not ing.FALSE SCIENCES will 191 family patrimony. . in full possession of his thought. with the same rhythm with which he had thought being. and the last and testament. nothing. so much so that : he was obliged to in the assist himself with mythology same way that (according to an ingenious interpretation of Hegel himself) Plato. replaced the solution by thought with the solu tion by imagination. when his thought failed to master certain arduous problems which in his time were not yet ripe for solution. the concept with the myth. paternal authority.

Because in Hegel Logic. of which logic. growing from it. with a science of logic as a particular philosophical His science). But it is an error to consider panlogism as the fundamental characteristic of the system. which has been noted in the system of Hegel.X DUALISM NOT OVERCOME THE panlogism. when it is but a morbid excrescence. logic was the doctrine of the categories. the substitution of philosophic thought for the other processes of the spirit. in that for him logic is at the for same time so-called. in general. adduce as proof of HegeFs panlogism his identification of logic and metais There no need to physic. is nothing but the sum of the errors arising from the misuse of the dialectic. had nothing common with the logic of the schools (nor. which must acquire logical (philosophical) form and perish. metaphysic. 192 . which It is all all I have analyzed and exposed one by one.

of logic bottom nothing more than the identification of metaphysic with metaphysic. Hegel there appears gave concept a philosophical value. the reality of this spirit. That his meta physic and philosophy are developed. or behind. The of this conversion is the philosophy of nature. not in the principle by The other accusation which has been it against the system of Hegel. The error lies exactly in the use of the principle. as has been shown. . the old concept of nature. of philosophy with philosophy. o . And since the categories embraced all spirit and all reality. irreconcilable with the accusation of panlogism but it is not so. constituted only one. thereby making it the thought of a reality which should stand opposed to. in part. into dualism. is true but it is a different question. that is a made more to or less masked dualism. The critical point of this conversion. everywhere. where. it is clear that the identification of logic and philosophy. would appear be . or only one group. itself. as panlogism. full Since error can never affirm coherence of truth.x in the DUALISM NOT OVERCOME 193 narrow sense. that field itself with the of panlogism converts is. was at and metaphysic. the error itself into its contrary. solid and persistent. suggested by the physical and natural sciences.

and on which many is words. to appear in only as finite knowledge itself. the immediate idea which " reflexion (Enc. or substance as subject. on which self his disciples little very briefly have shed so " light : Hegel expressed him and obscurely. The absolute freedom of the idea is therefore that life it does not pass only into it life. which con is sidered according to this unity with intuitive. that transition are so many have interpretations of the Hegelian thought been proposed (and others might be proposed) in order to avoid the danger. to eliminate the dualism and to pre serve to the system its initial motive. as intuition. 244). par. or the revelation of the dualism. nor allow . but so for itself.194 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL is . it but in the absolute truth of resolves to allow to go its freely out of itself. by means of extrinsic reflexion. which dis covered at the very conceal it. But. the first moment of its particularity or of its determination and is its of otherness. the idea is brought into the one-sided determination of immediacy or negation. this This conversion and dangerous. moment when he tries to is the celebrated transition from the idea to nature. The idea. which is absolute idealism. itself. But in none of those interpretations seems to be . as nature.

This samje tion difficulty confronts is the interpreta which declares that there no transition. but not hostile to to experience. subsistence. nothing but the transition from philosophy to experience. not the empirical concept in contrast with the speculative. and independence side by side with philosophy. and therefore he understands nature. that is. the transition from the idea to nature for Hegel. but is already nature. between the idea and nature. which has equal rights with every other. . from philosophy to natural science. universal. because the idea does not become nature.DUALISM NOT OVERCOME accordance with the genuine philosopher. whose existence. Hegel would never have thought of denying. the observation and study of particular historical and natural facts. but as a speculative concept. But such an interpretation is met by the simple consideration. and the universal the individual. that Hegel does not pass from philosophy to natural (empirical) science* but from of logic or philosophy in general to the philosophy nature as . 195 thought of the Thus it may be convenient to maintain that is. either logical or temporal. The system of Hegel would become in this way a philosophy of mind or of spirit. the individual is is the universal. extraneous.

spirit and nature would not be two distinct of two realities. the universal it is merely individual. philosophically. among seemed the parts. not some few incidental pages of digression. in this because in it is the universal alone which consideration. to the author at to be vital organs of the interpretation whole structure. realized. as passivity opposed to activity. But Hegel has not abandoned the individual to the poets or historians he thought the philosophy : of the individual. In this case. A third could be elaborated.196 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL way dualism would be avoided is . him in the manner proposed. the mechanical opposed to the teleological. concepts or of two forms of reality . but reality. by in by a level of spirit. as the negative moment of spirit. and these from least. when he thought the philosophy In order to interpret it of nature and of history. concepts. dialectic and develop- . which pre is its cedes the philosophical level and condition. Doubtless. would be neces sary to cut out from his system. but to mutilate it by whole books and sections. as notbeing opposed to being. that is to say. in so far as tuition. is grasped philosophical The individual itself) is (which. one unique concept of the unique is which synthesis of opposite^. founded upon a meaning of the word "nature. which." of which there are traces in Hegel.

would be spirit in its concreteness. spirit as thought of thought (pure thought) and nature. were this not so. of not being. understood which includes the negative Spaventa. fore understands by the object of that philosophy something positive. some have attempted pp. this interpretation. and is its unity would be saved. 197 idea.DUALISM NOT OVERCOME ment . . Hegel maintains the idea of nature understood as reality. when he wrote the logos in it is not reality. very near " The Italian thinker. save in so far as Logic. came that : moment. and therefore it not only pre supposes ideally the logos. Indeed. Hegel could never have thought of constructing a philosophy of the negative. TO irepov tcaff avro (the other in itself). to interpret the Finally. to itself in spirit. is not self-sufficient. 53-54. that . " l Yet. to return itself. as the other of spirit. side by side with this meaning of the word nature as negation and not-being (as side by side with the meaning of the word nature as the individual and the matter of intuition). itself is is. faced as nature. and there . The which alienated from itself as nature. precisely because it has it as its real and absolute end. of what is a mere abstraction whereas he does write a philosophy of nature. but has absolute spirit as its real principle.

as in the conscious spirit. nature and spirit itself. Is intelligence petri Therefore Hegel maintained that in nature the forms of spirit are not. is is different . 380) the dialectic : . but only . there is not thought. and which he affirms as the distinction between logicity. exist as facts In the solar system the determinations of the senses exist as a quality* of bodies. . cancel the an unconscious and a conscious Pan- psychism was far from Hegel's intention for him. resolved into one another. as Schelling it Hegel approved). but. when that But separated from the rest. their identity apparent division: it would be spirit in its uni in the world versality. Hegelian as if nature and spirit. . an intelligence. and so on (Enc. example. but have the of separate for position existences. and the logos would signify the true in the reality that constitutes both. which there certainly said (and fied. as elements. Matter and movement. and not only as it appears called social or ally human. to is it empiric would be impossible profound distinction which Hegel makes between nature and spirit. and also separately.198 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL tripartltion of logos. determinations of thought. thought belonged to man and was foreign to the animal in nature. par. were nothing but the concrete spirit divided only empirically into two parts .

overcoming the But since nature and spirit in are not opposites in his thought. but. as found in his philosophy of nature. which had done such excellent service dualism of opposites. each distinct from the other. may be contrary. . two realities : the one opposed to the other. . between things and thinkers. in the positive and negative poles of the magnet. he had adopted for the con of the essence cepts of reflexion. is qualitative. the legos the necessity of overcoming the dualism drove him to try to overcome it with the triadic form. distinguishable into two only civilized by a convention. in the doctrine . also with triadic marvellous results. but two concrete realities . then. is qualitative if the difference between unconscious and conscious beings. To regard nature and spirit as a single series. or the one the basis of the other. In the genuine thought of Hegel. may be a just conception but foreign to the intention of Hegel. was altogether His distinction said to the of nature and spirit. Therefore he had : recourse to a third term. they are not two abstractions. as it man is distinguished from the savage. whatever .DUALISM NOT OVERCOME 199 nature of the concept stands as a natural fact. in any case. Nor was it valid to apply the form of criticism which. spirit and nature are. and the form was inapplicable.

200

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL
and
spirit, in

since, for him, nature

the sense in

which he took them, were not concepts of re flexion, difficult to distinguish, but two quite dis
tinct concepts, of quite determinate character.

The

third term, the Logos,

is,

in his triad, the first,

the thesis.

But, while the content of the second
is

term, the antithesis,

clearly nothing

but the
natural

whole

of mathematical,
;

physical,

and

theories

and the content of the third term, the
is,

synthesis,

equally clearly, psychology on the
other, the philosophies of

one hand, and on the

rights, of art, of religion,
spirit

and of the absolute

or Idea; the

first,

has no content of

its

the thesis, the Logos, own, but borrows it from
last,

the other two parts, especially from the

and

mingles with
philosophies.

it

a polemic against inadequate
fact
is,

The
it

that this Logos, for

him who
spirit

truly separates

it

from nature and from

and looks

well in the face, reveals itself

C

nothing but the dark foundation of the old
etaphysic
;

God,

in

whom were

united the two

pubstances

of Descartes, the sitbstantia sive Deus,

Iwhich, in Spinoza, supported the

two

attributes

of thought and of extension.

It is

the Absolute

of Schelling, indifference of nature and of spirit ; or the blind (but not too blind) Will of Scho
penhauer, from which

come

forth

nature and

x

DUALISM NOT OVERCOME
or the Unconscious of
also with

201

consciousness;

Edward

von Hartmann, which,

much

manifesta

tion of reason, gives a beginning to consciousness.

Hegel had reproached Schelling with conceiving
the Absolute as substance and not as subject.

But

his

Logos
all

is

indeed, a subject, which cannot

be thought as
thought at
"

subject, or rather,
It
is,

which cannot be
says,

as

Hegel himself
"
;

God

in his eternal essence before the creation
finite spirit

of nature and of the
well think

and we can

God

in nature

and

in the finite spirit,

Dens

in nobis et nos, but certainly not a

God

outside or prior to nature

and man.

The

triadic

expedient, and the term Logos, to which Hegel

has recourse, show that he
in dualism
;

is

always entangled
it,

that he struggles valiantly against
it.

but does not escape from

This dualism not overcome, in which Hegel's absolute idealism becomes entangled, owing to
\

the grave logical error he has committed,

is

the

reason of the division of the Hegelian school into a right and a left, and for the eventual
extension of the latter to an extreme
right
left.

^

wing interpreted Hegel

theistically.

The The

subject, the Logos of Hegel, was the personal

Hegelian philosophy to Christianity was not exhausted in the recog;

God

and the

relation of the

202

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL

x

nition of the great philosophical element contained
in

Christian theology, but extended to a
substantial

much
wing

more

agreement.

The

left

was opposed to all transcendence and to the whole conception of a personal God. It empha sized the character of immanence of the system, and
finally

came

to sympathize with philosophic
its

materialism, in so far as this in

own way

has

an immanent and not a transcendental character.

would be impossible to decide which of the two interpretations was the more faithful to the
It

thought of Hegel

;

for

both of them were founded

upon Hegelian doctrines, and were opposed and hostile to one another, precisely because those
doctrines were contradictory.

XI

THE

AND CONTINUATION OF THE THOUGHT OF HEGEL
CRITICISM
CONCLUSION

WITH

the

interpretation

of the philosophy of

Hegel, which I have attempted in this essay, I have declared at the same time what, in my
opinion,
is

the task that should

fall

to

its critics

and

to those

who

continue it

It
it,

was necessary
that Is to say,

to preserve the vital part of

concept of the concept, the concrete universal, together with the dialectic of opposites
the

new

and the doctrine of degrees of
with the help of that
ing
it,

reality

;

to refute

new concept and by develop

panlogism, and every speculative con struction of the individual and of the empirical, of
all

history

and of nature

;

to recognize the
spirit,

autonomy

of the various forms of

while preserving

their necessary connexion and unity ; and finally, to resolve the whole philosophy into &pnre pkilo203

204
sopky

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL

of spirit (or a logic- metaphysic, as it might then have been called). It was necessary

to

draw

forth the
its

Hegelian thought "from the
is

sheath of

members," that

to say, of

its false
;

members, which had been badly attached to it and to permit it to form its own members,

answering to the nature of the primitive germ. The school of Hegel failed altogether in this task. It divided, as has been observed, into right

and

left,

and subdivided into secondary
to

fractions,

on the importance
immanence,

be attached to the respective tendencies towards transcendence and towards
in the

wholly united in
dialectical

and yet it remained preserving and increasing the
system
;

entanglement, the confusion between rthe dialectic of opposites and the dialectic of
distincts,

between the

dialectic

of the absolute and

the dialectic of the contingent. Michelet, for example, the editor of the Philosophy of Nature,

amused

himself
;

with

dialectically

correcting

certain details

to the

fifth

such as the place that belongs part of the world in the dialectic of

geography, which

already mentioned. He believed that the islands of Oceania represent the ultimate future of the human race, the ex

we have

treme development of democratic self-government.

And

to those

who

did not see clearly into dia-

Rosenkranz (another of the principal representatives of the right wing). the dignity of the fixed stars. and the like. eg. which Hegel to have wrongfully confused j the transference of the process of crystallization from the physical to But on the other the organic. also proposed re-arrangements and corrections of the philosophy of nature. makes no claim to universal acceptance. which Hegel was supposed to have slighted in favour of the planets and of the earth . where Hegel had lighted on a glimpse of the struction of mathematics. he never abandoned the Hegelian assump tion of the philosophy of nature . Michelet replied that the dialectic method. in a way which all I shall content myself with calling bizarre. but must remain I " a specific talent of the favourite of the Gods. like artistic creation. hand. the terms of the coarsest and most vulgar psychology. the division between was supposed physics and astronomy. must not be but exoteric. Rosenkranz truth by of a dialectic con declaring the impossibility was ready ." Truly master. this was far from doing honour to the so who had affirmed so persistently and with profoundly human a sense. His corrections concerned. that philosophy esoteric.CONCLUSION lactic 205 modes of reasoning. after he had constructed in his ^Esthetic of the Ugly. indeed.

206

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL
"

to contradict him.

he exclaims,
universal,

"This cannot be admitted," because if the dialectic method be
should mathematics be excluded

why

from it?"

Vera, the Italian champion of ortho

doxy, continued the exploits against Newton. He maintained that the science of nature is to

be effected by three methods, the experimental, the mathematical, and the speculative, which last
is

the crown of the three
"
:

other things
lumiere, et
et

and he wrote, among Nous disons quil y a un air, une
:

mme un

temps

et

un

espace apparents
etc.,

qui sont sentis, et

un

air,

une lumiere,

qui

n apparaissent point
and dwelling
in recent

et

qui sont simplement pensds"

Passing from the extreme right to the extreme
left,

for a

who has

moment upon a writer, times been much known and

discussed in Italy, Frederick Engels (the friend and collaborator of Karl Marx), we can see how

he reduced philosophy, by equating it to the positive sciences, and preserving of it only "the doctrine of thought and of its laws formal (!)
:

logic

and the

dialectic."

And

of this dialectic,

"which was nothing but the science of the general kws of the movement and development
of

human

societies

and of thought," Engels

gave such examples as the following. A grain of barley, put Into the earth, sprouts, and becom-

CONCLUSION
ing a plant,
is
:

207

negated

from the plant
negation.
butterfly

but other grains come and this is the negation of the
;

The
the

chrysalis is
it
;

comes out of
chrysalis

negated when the but the butterfly
the
is

reproduces

again

negation

of the negation.

In arithmetic, a

negated

by ax

a,

but, negating the negation,

we have
a
raised

a=a2

;

that

is

to say, the first

to a power.

In history, civilization begins with

common
perty
will

proprietorship of the soil; private pro
primitive

denies
effect

communism;

socialism

the

negation of the negation, re

producing the primitive communism, but raised In the history of philosophy, to a higher power.
the
first

moment

is

original materialism

;

this is

negated by idealism, which afterwards suffers the negation of its negation, in dialectical material
ism,

Nor can
it

it

be objected (added Engels),

that

is
it,

possible to negate a grain of barley

by

or an insect by treading upon it, or the positive magnitude a by cancelling it because the negation must be such as to render possible the
eating
;

negation of the negation otherwise (he remarks 1 ingenuously), there would not be a dialectic process.
:

g* intr., pp. 9-11, and OQ the negatkm of the 137-146, This extract is also to be found in Italian in pp. of Labriola's book, Discorrendo di S&ciaHsmo e di jtt&sejia (Rome, 1897),

pp. 168-178.

208

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL
narrate in
all

Who will
method

their wealth of

amus

of the dialectic ing details the lamentable fortunes

hands of Hegel's disciples ? One of them dialecticized spirit as the masculine
at the principle, nature as the feminine,

and history as
in the in the

the matrimonial union.

Another found
being;
;

Oriental world, the category of
classical world, the category

of essence

and

in

the

modem

world, the category of the concept,
antiquity

For yet another, art the modern
;

was the kingdom of
;

world, that of philosophy

the

future
in

was to be the kingdom of morality and the ancient world, Athens was made to corre
;

spond with dynamic electricity, Sparta with static electricity, Macedonia with electro -magnetism,
Persia with
light,
1

Rome
These
in

with

expansive and
are to be

absorbent heat.

stupidities

found in profusion
as

books illustrium virorum
it

weU

as obscnromm\ nor can

be said that

those of the obscure

men

are the least significant.

best of the school were those who, feeling themselves unable to go beyond Hegel, or believ

The

ing that the time was not yet ripe for doing so, limited themselves to preserving the doctrines of
1

**e^
1*2.

These examples aie taken from C. Koapp, from A. v. Geszkowski, in P. B^rth, Ge$ck^s$Uk$opkiii Hegels . d. Hegelicmer* pp. 29, For otte cfa-aoteistie examples, see the faisfcoaical part of my
13.

xi

CONCLUSION

209

the master as a sacred trust, emphasizing the

profound elements of truth in them, and refrainIng, as though through an instinct for the truth,

from insisting upon the

difficult

parts (the philo

sophy of nature, or the philosophy of history), They yet without refuting them explicitly.

showed
as
it

their cautious and critical spirit, also,

in,

were, reconducting Hegel to his Kantian foundations, and in making the necessity of the
transition from

Kant

continuous study.

Hegel the object of their Such were Kuno Fischer in
to

Germany,

to

whom we owe
1

a lucid re-elaboration

of the Hegelian logic; Bertrando Spaventa in Italy; Stirling in Great Britain ;* and several of
the students
countries.

they formed in the three Spaventa did not pass beyond or

whom

Hegel, but he foresaw clearly that "In the this was necessary and had to happen.
transform
in philosophers (he remarked on this subject),

the true philosophers, there is always something underneath, which is more than they themselves

and of which they are not conscious
1

;

and

this is

See

Ms

Lvgik

und

Mctefihysik (1852), especially in the

edition of 1865.
3
J. Stirling,

The Secret &f'Hegel {Isyafam, 1865):
:

" That seen* may fe

indicated at shortest thus

Plato
$e

with considerable assistance from. made explicit the abstract vnxserstil, that was implicit fa Socrates*
as Aristotle
less considerable assistemce

d p.

mw& explicit the concrete tma&rsal, thst was implicit m Kmst
3*7)-

Hegel-with

from Fichte <md

Schem^~
(L p.

n

;

210
the

PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL
germ of a new
life.

To

repeat the philo

sophers mechanically,
to

is

to suffocate this germ,

impede its developing and becoming a new 1 and more perfect system."

Of

the adversaries of Hegel,

it

must be said
;

and indeed, had they done it, they would not have been the adversaries, but the disciples and continuers of
that they too failed of their duty
his thought.

For

if his

fanatical followers pre
it

served the

dialectic,

just as

stood, with its
they,
;

confusions and false applications,

on the

other hand, rejected

it

altogether

thus falling

into an analogous but opposite error.
set aside the bizarre

may who belched Schopenhauer,
Hegel, but spoke of

We

forth contumelies against

him by hearsay, without knowing anything pre
cise

about him, 2

Indeed his calumnious gossip

never rises above the level of the general or
anecdotic.

Herbart, far better balanced, at least

" recognized in Hegel one of those rare for speculation";

men born

and held that the Hegelian philosophy, because of the clear relief in which
it

sets the contradictions, with
is

which

reality, as it

presents itself to thought,
1

charged, constitutes

cxt., pp, 182-183. opinion of tbe anti-Hegelian R. Haym, in his essay oe Sdiapeobstfier (reprinted in the Gesammetie Aufsatze* Berlin, 1903) ;

Profemone e introdnzione

2

Such

is

also

tibe

<

pp. 330-31-

the question. * Enc. 86 Zus . by Janet in France (to name only the most important). These hated nothing : in Hegel but which he represented in all its grandiose severity Philosophy. but they did not show the true genesis of the errors. by Rosmini in Italy. realize that a critic his makes his task too we divine from very words of condemna is tion and of depreciation that there in something much more profound has failed to reach. 670. which he Doubtless those ingenious confuters brought to light difficulties. Harteustem. "To determinate principle. exaggeration of confute a philosophy (Hegel himself said) means nothing but to surpass its limits. and to lower its how they derived from the a new and great truth. we cannot but experience a feeling of distrust . the philosophical adversaries of Hegel were soon succeeded by barbaric adversaries.xr CONCLUSION 211 the best propaedeutic to metaphysic. 1 See Ills critidsm of tbe Eneyclopa&iiay Werke. and some times errors. for when we easy. ed. which is without heart and without compassion for the feeblephilosophy itself. 685. so as to make of it an ideal moment/' 2 But with the new generation that reached maturity after 1848. 1 But if we read the refutations of the dialectic by Trendelen- burg in Germany.

Hegel was the un avenged shade of the speculative need pf the human spirit. . : Hence the fierce hatred of Hegel a hatred composed of fear and of remorse. For these. How then could it have been possible the elementary or propaedeutic distinctioas. 1 But the positivist regression reduced minds to such an extremity. after Hegel had observed Fichte philosophy had become too and could no longer be an occupation for the beau monde and for the cultured public. which lacked criticize Hegel. who assumes the knowledge and solution of the elementary problems^ whose refined questions. as it in the eighteenth century. that they were rendered blind to the distinction between the concept and sensation. which is not to be placated with the specious offerings of sentiment and of fancy.212 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL for the lazy: xi minded and Philosophy. previous to had been Kant. and certainly not caused by the that subtle. to understand or all for such an age. nor with the light foods of half-science. errors of his system.\ iiL these. between speculation and empiricism. thought revolves round the ultimate and most who ? d. to look 577-S. breathes and lives on the most lofty summits For such as PkH. a shade which seemed disposed to take its own revenge at any moment.

We are now beginning to possess a philosophy of art and of language. the old concept became entangled. a gnoseology of the mathematical and naturalistic disciplines. in our day. People are sighing again for mysticism and for . as the practical activity . it agitations and its ferocious condemnation of joys that may not taste. of nature. how he has acquired he forgets it a concept. with irritations. is in process of dissolution every day it becomes : clearer how nature. It is more favourable to philosophy in general. or rather from the philosophy of the seventeenth century. and more favourable to Hegel himself. is a product of of man and it is only when it. that he finds opposed to him as something external. in which Hegel In particular. a certain philo is romanticism everywhere appearing (though nothing this is a condition more than a condition) for the true understanding of Hegel and all the philosophers of his time. Happily.xi CONCLUSION to 213 upon him was and awake in themselves the sad its consciousness of impotence. which terrifies him with its aspect of impenetrable mystery. inherited from science. there is an improvement in our intellectual outlook. sophical again. and On the other hand. a theory of history. which render impossible the reappearance of those errors.

such a view was only a point. without breaking it into pieces or making it rigid and falsifying it ? But for Hegel. not a conclusion. give. one of the writers who have attached themselves to this movement.214 PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL . his 1 " iBtrodoctkMi a la M6tapbyaqme " in Revue de mfiaph. life of which should feel " the pulse of reality/' its and should mentally reproduce the rhythm of development. and for others of like tendencies. which should participate in the things. The renunciation of thought would have been asked of Hegel in vain. after the manner of Jacob! and they are setting up again the old Schellinghian ideal of an aesthetic contemplation. . qui sinstalle dans le mouve- ment et adopte la vie m$me des choses" I But was Hegel demanded. 29. advocates as a metaphysic of the absolute. an " intuitive knowledge. as it is starting- for the writer we have quoted. which should give to the spirit a thirst for truth and for con- creteness. and the point from which he began to find a form of mind. which should be mobile as the movement not this just what of the real. et de morale^ xL p. Bergson. is his great merit. immediate knowledge. And to have shown that the demand of concrete knowledge is satisfied in the form of thought. something that (natural) science cannot Thus.

uniting him brotherhood with our Nolan Bruno and with our Vico. nee sine te. the powerful spirit of George Hegel has for the first time awakened to the speculative . as used to be done fifty years ago. for we have never some wise in altogether forgotten him. Parthenopean. Far more important than the are the studies on Hegelianism. for there is clearly criticized expounded. for which have been carried on England. truthfully reverently and with freedom of mind. The modern consciousness can neither accept the whole of Hegel. and of sifting the intimate and vital elements of his thought from the extrinsic and dead. In relation to him it stands in the position of the poet to his lady nee tecnm vivere possum. and have in made him our own. studying Hegel critically. itself to over thirty years There the work of Stirling has shown be very fruitful . the German in studies. nor wholly refute him.xi CONCLUSION Hence the necessity 215 of immortal discovery. Hegel interpreted and In return. which is so forgetful of it its great son that has not even reprinted his works and frequently expresses judgments con cerning him. It does not appear that we can now obtain this critical revision of Hegelianism from : Roman its German fatherland. which astound us who belong to this remote fringe of Italy.

That Is to say. Car no Spinozist. after all I have said. Leibnizian. Christian. any one were to ask me if he should " or should not be an Hegelian. if Hegelian." and if I am an Now. an Hegelian in but in the same sense and sophical spirit time. of living modern thought. dispense with a reply. Sceptic. to answer here this question in a way which is I perhaps derived from that very philosophy. or in the sense of a . and so on. believe it am. which forms part. Platonic. Heraclitean. obsequious follower. a servile and to Neither I aor any sensible person would wish to in the sense of be an Hegelian. Stoic. Neoplatonic. who have been for centuries the world purveyors of empirical philo sophy and who even in the last century seemed incapable of producing any philosophers better than Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer. is has a philo and philosophical culture In our which any one who feels himself to be at once : Eleatic. Yet I wish as a corollary. consciously or no. who professes accept every womd of the master. without depositing an element of truth. Kantian. Socratic. I might. Aristotelian. in the sense that thinker and no historical movement bearing of thought come to pass without fruit. tesian. and .216 life PHILOSOPHY OF HEGEL the minds of the English. Buddhist. necessary to be. Vichian.

accord recognition and value. if with much marvel. sooner or later. first But the condition for resolving whether to accept or to reject the doctrines which Hegel to make explicit (I am constrained propounds what I should have preferred to leave to be an understood) is to read his books : and to put end to the spectacle.CONCLUSION religious sectarian. we must still proclaim him. In short. & R. way . of the accusation not know him. half comical and half dis and the abuse of a gusting. Hegel too has discovered a of the truth j moment this to this moment we must That is all. and philosopher by critics who do who wage a foolish war with a ridiculous puppet created by their own imaginations. it does not much matter. CLASK. The same content of truth must be reached. If does not happen just at present. yet when we look back upon the history of thought. by a different we have not availed ourselves of his direct help. a prophet. under the ignoble sway of traditional tellectual laziness. and. prejudice and in THE END Printed by R. 217 who considers disagreement a sin. LIMITED. . Edxttfargk. The Idea is not in a hurry^ as Hegel used to say.

.

" ATHENMUM. Italy may weH be proud of him. as is evident HIBBERT JOURNAL. His criticisms of other aesthetic doctrines are very outspoken and usually adverse. and in a very useful Historical Summary The translator historical portion of the original.^Esthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN OF BENEDETTO CROCK BY DOUGLAS Price AINSLIE. net SOME PRESS OPINIONS SPECTATOR. but on the whole we do not fhmk he makes extravagant claims for Croce. Ainslie has done a valuable service in making it/' '* It is in Signer Croce's work win appeal to many. ~ "Mr. tbosogh the concfasio<ns to be drawn from them coaki The translation is usually very his own. B. Those ideas. . full. or the nonsense that pretends to be scientific ." subject. LONDON. . only be set out in a book as long as dearr and Mr. of the most suggestive and original views.. " and candid. . accessible to English readers can only be enhanced if we realise the courage foil of such original and required to undertake the transJatk>n of a work unwonted theories/' Signer Croce's destructive criticism is deadly.A. Our gratitude to Mr. but for the many suggestive views which the author puts forward on most of the subjects related to aesthetics. LTJX. having made the volume. . "A book which has aroused more interest than any other recent work on aesthetics. Croce's work is valuable not simply for the theory which it presents." and readable. reading his book has any excuse for believing any kind either the nonsense *** pretends to be mystical. "Every recognition is due to Mr. simple. severe. the whole of Ainslie translates * Esthetic. nevertheless they are stimulating translation is MORNING POST. * " . spaceless and tfmpfless as any classic. Ainslie for having made Croce's --Esthetics . "The most felicitous and valuable. the grand manner. This Esthetic is really a most remarkable performance. accessible to English readers. Ainslie for when all is said. supported by reasoning at ooce close are of great importance. and when lie comes to constractkm. we believe. No one after of nonsense about art." JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY (AMERICA). his main ideas are usually TIMES. . MACMILLAN AND CO. and an English translation is a real boon. ' the Theory of for his gives is a synopsis of the an enthusiast from the introduction. i os.

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