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MINI-TЕST
READING

sgctlon Di]gсtions

тhis seсtiontests yourabi|ityto understаndan Еng|ishaсademiсreadingpassage.

Al|quеstionsexceptthe |astone аre Worthone pointeaсh.тhe |astquestionis Worthmorethanone


point.тhe direсtionsfor the |аstquestionWi|lstatehow mаnypointsit is Worth.

YoUWi||now startthe Reаdingseсtion.YoUhave20 minutosto reаdone passageапd answerthe


quostionsaboutit.

м|N'-тЕsI |: Readino 297


Read the passage.

Pаragtaph мigrаtion

traveledto the WesternHemispherefromAsia between25,000and 30'000yearsago, Whiсh


Wаsaroundthe sametime thatJapan was beingsett|edby stone Age inhabitants'тhere is
denta|evidenсeand b|ood-typeevidenceto suppod this theory.A dentalpatternthat is found
amongmost anсienthumanfossi|sin the Americasis consistentWiththe denta|рatternof
ancienthumanfossi|sin northeastern Аsia' |nbloodtype,the faсt that b|oodtype B is a|most
nonexistentamongNativeAmeriсanpoрUIations but exists in Asian popu|ations|eadsto the
сonс|Usionthat migrationsto the AmeriсаsfromАsia toоk p|aсebeforethe evo|utionof b|ood
iype E}'Whiсhis be|ievedto haveoссurredaroundЗ0,000yearsago. |nadditionto the denta.
and blood-typeevidence,moregenera|evo|Utionary evidenсesuggesisthat it took more
than20,000yearsfor the Varietyof physiсa|traitsсommonto NativeAmericanpopu|ations to
evo|Ve,and Iingujstsbroad|yconcurthatthe deve|opment of the approХimately500 distinct
Ianguagesof the NativeAmeriсanswouldrequireapproхimatelУ 25,000уears.

charaсterizedthe Pleistoсeneepoch. Duringthat periodof time,therewerehugegIaciers


ho|dingenormousVo|umesof Water,and, beсauseof the hugeg|aсiers,sea |eve|sWereas
much as 100 meterslowerthantheyare today.Тhe reducedsea leve|smeantthatAsiа and
NorthAmericaWereIinkedWitha 750-mile-wide|andmass,namedЕ}eringia afterthe Еlering
straitsthat now сover it, and сonsistedof trеe|essgrasslandWithWarmsummersand co|ddry
Winters.Beоauseof the geographiоa| featuresof BeringiadUringthe P|eistoceneepoсh,it Was
аn environment Wel|-suited to the |argemamma|s of thetime,such as mammoth, masiodon,
bison,horse,and reindeer,as We||аs to the stone Age huntersWhodeрendedon these
animа|sfor theireхistence'тhe stone Age inhabitantsof the areaused theseanima|snot on|y
for food but a|sofor she|ter,с|othing,and weapons;theyWereable to spreadout and eхpand
theirhuntingareasаs theirpopulationsgrew,and theirpopu|atjons most ljkelygrewat a Very
high ratebeсauseof the hugeamountof territoryavai|aь|e for expansion.

Asiа to the Americastook place as ear|yas 25,000to 30,000yearsago.Тhereis genera|


agreementthatthe migrationstook p|aсe'but some be|ievethatthe migrationstook plaсe
muсh later.No fossiIizedhumanbones have beenfound in what used to be Beringia;finding
humanbones datingfrom25'000to з0'000 yearsago Wouldbe strongрroofof the dates
Whenthe migrationstook p|aсe.However,beсauseWhatWasonсe вeriпgiais submerged
beneathoсean Waters,it may be a formidabletask to unсoverfossi|evidenсeof migration
fromAsia to theAmericasthroughвeringia.

298 м|N|-тЕsтl: Rеading


Referto thisversionof the oassaoeto answerthe ouestionsthatfо||ow.

мigrаtion
D A wide|yhe|dtheorytoday is thаt the anсestorsof todayЪ NativeAmericanрeopIes
traveledto the WesternHemispherefrom Asia between25,000and 30,000years ago' Whiсh
was aroundthe same time that Japan Was being sett|edby stone Age inhabitants.тhere is
denta| evidenсe and b|ood-typeevidence to supрoгt this theory A dental pattern that is found
among most anсienthumanfossils in the Ameriсаs is сonsistentWiththe dentalpаtternof
anсienthuman fossi|sin northeasternAsia. ln b|oodtype, the faсt that b|oodtype B is a|most
nonexistentamong NаtiveAmeriCanpopUlationsbut eХists in Asian popuIationsleads to the
conс|usion that migrations to the Ameriсas from Asia took plаce before the evolution of b|ood
type в, Whichis be|ievedto have ocсurredaround30'000 years ago. In additionto the denta
and blood-typeevidence,more genera|evolUtionary eVidenсesuggeststhat it took more
than20,000yearsforthe varietyof physica|traitsсommonto NativeAmeriсапpopUIations to
evolve,and IinguistsbrpadlуфЦQUrthatthe developmentof the approximate|y
500 distinсt
Ianguagesof the NativeAmericansWouldrequireapproХimate|y 25'000years.

straitsthat now cover it, and coпsistedof treelessgrasslandWithWarmsummersand оold dry


Winters. Beсauseof.the. geographiсaI featuresof Beringiaduringthe Pleistoceneeрoch,it Was
an environment wёl}isцitёdto the |argemamma|sof the time,suоhas mammoth,mastodon'
bison,horse,and reindeer,as We|Iаs to the stone Age huntersWhodependedon these
anima|sfortheireхistence. ThestoneAge inhabitants of the areausedtheseanimalsnoton|y
for food but a|sofor she|tе(с|othing,and weapons;thiэywereab|eto spreadout and eхpand
theirhuntingareasas theirPopu|ations grew,andtheirpopu|ations most|ikelygrewat а Very
highratebeсauseof the hugeamountof territory availablefor eХpansion.
@ tпф'ite.ottr'eevidenсe,nota|lanthropologists areсoпVinсed thatthe migrations
fromAsia to the Ameriсastookр|aceas ear|yas 25,000to 30,000yearsago'@ Тhereis
generа| аgreement thatthe migrations tookplaоe,butsomebeIievethatthe migrations
tookp|aсemuоh|аterE No fossi|ized humanboneshavebeenfoundin Whаtusedto be
Beringia; findinghumanbonesdatingfrom25,000to 30,000yearsago wouldbe strongproof
of the dateswhenthe migratiоns tookр|ace.However, beсauseWhatWasonce Beringiais
submergedbeneаthoсean Waters,it may be a foйkjаb|e task to uncoverfossi|evidenсeof
migration fromAsia to theAmeriсasthroughBeringia. !!l!

М|N|-тEsтl j Reаding
Quеstions

1. Тhe word "ЁfЧ" in parаgraph1 сou|dbest 6. |t is statedin thё pаssаgethаt вeringiа


be rep|асedby @ was the sourceof the namoBering
Ф acоeptф Straits
@ possessed @ usgd to b€ сovered Withtrees
@ contained @ is now submerged
@ cагied @ wаs unаbleto supportаnimа||ife

2. тhe Word.r" in pаragrаph1 сould 7. Тhe phrase in paragraрh2


best be rep|аcedby is о|osostin meаningto
Ф hoId Ф eouа|to
@ finапсe @ аppropriаtefor
@ сonfirm @ f|аttering to
@ stiffen @ modifiedfor

з. Whiсhof the fo||owingis Noт providodas 8. тhe Wordfr'' in parаgraph2 refersto


evideпсeto supportthe hypoth€ s is that @ ston6 Ag€ inhаbitants
the migrationdisсussedin the pаssаge @ аnima|s
oссuпвd 25'000to 30'000yeаrsago?
@ weаpons
Ф Denta|Dаtternsсommon to Asians and @ thek huntingаreas
Native Amrriсans
@ Variаtionsin blood typ€s betwe€n 9. |tis impliф in tho passаgethatthe stone
Asians аnd Native Ameriсаns Age inhаbitantsof в€ r ingiа weв most |ike|y
@ тhe numb€ r of NativeAmericаn @ dependenton agriоulture
|anguagesiп eхistenсetoday
@ poor hunters
@ Тhe humаnbonesfound in вeringia
@ involved in rаising |ivestoсk
4' тhe phrase. in paragraph1 @ mobile
is closest in moaningto
10. The authorbeginspаragraph3 withthe
@ hаve the сontrаry idea expression..J'to sьow thаtthe
@ hаve extensivedebates fасt that some аnthropo|ogistswвre not
@ openlyquestion сonvinсedby the evidonсewas
@ аre in generаlagreement Ф unexpected
@ a naturа|сonс|usion
5. tryhiсhof the sentenсes bo|owbest
@ unsurprising
expressesthe essentialinformationin
the high|ighted sontencein parаgraph2? @ logical
/лсorrectсhoiсes chаngetho m€ a ning
in importantways or leaveout ossential ll. Look at the four squares[l] thаt indiсato
information. wher€ th€ fo||owing seпtenсeсould be
addedto paragraph3.
@ Sincethe lce Age,the amountof
Wаterin th6 oсeаns has decreased some' in hypothesiz€ that the
dramatiса||y. migratlons took plасэ eround 15'qю в.с.
'act'
@ Duriпgthe |ceAge, soa |ev6|swere WhereWou|dthe sentoncebest fit? с|iсk
|oWbeсаUs€ of how much Wat6rWas on a square[l] to add the sвntenceto
frozen. the pаssage.
@ G|aсiershаvegrowntrem€ n dously since
the last lce Age.
@ Duringthe |сeAge, hugeg|аciers
dispIaсeda |otof water,сausingthe
oсeansto riso.

з00 ,l: Reаding


м|N|-тЕsт
.|2.ТheWord.ffiWш" in paragrаph
з is
с|osestin meaningto
@ suрerior
@ maddening
@ powerful
@ difficult

Direсtions:

тhis pаssаge discusses а theory of migrаtionfrom the Еаstern нemispheгe to the


Western Hemisphere25'ЦЮto 30'0ц) yeers ago.

Answer сhoiсes (choose3 to compIetethe chart):


(1) Тhereare geogrаphiсalreаsonsto supportthis theory.
(2) A numberof fossi|sfromthe Pleistoсeneepoch havebeenfound in Beringiа.
(3) тhere are physiologica|
reasonsto supportthis theory
(4) A studyof b|oodtypes indiсаtesthat bloodtype в is rareamongNative
Ameriоans.
(5) тhereаre soсio|ogicаlreasonsto supportthis theory.
(6) тhereаre linguistiсtheoriesto suрportthis theory.

lЙ|N|-тEsт
1: Reаding з01

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