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Kayla​ ​Chonoles

Dr.​ ​Dredger
READ​ ​440
December​ ​1,​ ​2017

Ms.​ ​Chonoles’s​ ​Writing​ ​Notebook


The​ ​Standard
12.4​ ​The​ ​student​ ​will​ ​read,​ ​comprehend,​ ​and​ ​analyze​ ​the​ ​development​ ​of​ ​British​ ​literature
and​ ​literature​ ​of​ ​other​ ​cultures.
d)​ ​Relate​ ​literary​ ​works​ ​and​ ​authors​ ​to​ ​major​ ​themes​ ​and​ ​issues​ ​of​ ​their​ ​eras.
e)​ ​Analyze​ ​the​ ​social​ ​and​ ​cultural​ ​function​ ​of​ ​British​ ​literature.

Anchor​ ​Text
“​Political​ ​Satire​ ​and​ ​Postmodern​ ​Irony​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Age​ ​of​ ​Stephen​ ​Colbert​ ​and​ ​Jon​ ​Stewart”
by​ ​Lisa​ ​Colletta
https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/53366350/PoliticalSatirePostmodern
Irony.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1512104842&
Signature=UP9mpdjVG5SEaeXl9KQwOH2wPLU%3D&response-content-disposition=i
nline%3B%20filename%3DPolitical_Satire_and_Postmodern_Irony.pdf

Mentor​ ​Text
“A​ ​Modest​ ​Proposal”​ ​by​ ​Jonathan​ ​Swift
http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/30827_modestproposal.pdf

Rationale
Satire​ ​is,​ ​possibly,​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​difficult​ ​concepts​ ​to​ ​grasp​ ​in​ ​literature,​ ​but​ ​students
need​ ​to​ ​comprehend​ ​it​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​much​ ​of​ ​the​ ​British​ ​literary​ ​canon.​ ​A​ ​major​ ​part​ ​of
understanding​ ​satire​ ​and​ ​other​ ​forms​ ​of​ ​rhetoric​ ​is​ ​understanding​ ​that​ ​the​ ​literature​ ​that​ ​was
written​ ​is​ ​influenced​ ​by,​ ​and​ ​influences,​ ​the​ ​environment​ ​in​ ​which​ ​it​ ​is​ ​produced.​ ​Informing
students​ ​about​ ​the​ ​specific​ ​standards​ ​they​ ​are​ ​working​ ​with​ ​could​ ​be​ ​particularly​ ​useful​ ​in​ ​this
case,​ ​as​ ​it​ ​could​ ​help​ ​them​ ​think​ ​more​ ​critically​ ​about​ ​why​ ​authors​ ​use​ ​satire​ ​or​ ​write​ ​about
controversial​ ​topics​ ​with​ ​humor,​ ​and​ ​what​ ​affect​ ​they​ ​may​ ​have.
The​ ​anchor​ ​text​ ​uses​ ​a​ ​relevant,​ ​recent,​ ​reference​ ​to​ ​introduce​ ​students​ ​to​ ​satire,​ ​which
emphasizes​ ​the​ ​importance​ ​and​ ​relevance​ ​of​ ​the​ ​unit​ ​(Brown​ ​and​ ​Knowles,​ ​2007).​ ​Especially
now,​ ​late​ ​night,​ ​political,​ ​comedy-talk-shows​ ​are​ ​very​ ​popular​ ​and​ ​are​ ​where​ ​many​ ​young​ ​adults
get​ ​their​ ​news:​ ​they​ ​can​ ​be​ ​entertained​ ​and​ ​informed​ ​at​ ​the​ ​same​ ​time.​ ​There​ ​are​ ​similar​ ​videos
on​ ​social​ ​media,​ ​like​ ​the​ ​“unboxing”​ ​series​ ​by​ ​Seriously.TV,​ ​which​ ​increases​ ​students’​ ​access
and​ ​interaction​ ​with​ ​this​ ​kind​ ​of​ ​rhetoric.​ ​Although​ ​Jonathan​ ​Swift’s​ ​“A​ ​Modest​ ​Proposal”​ ​is
extreme,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​a​ ​wonderful​ ​mentor​ ​texts​ ​for​ ​students​ ​to​ ​grasp​ ​the​ ​way​ ​satire​ ​can​ ​serve​ ​as​ ​a​ ​social
and​ ​cultural​ ​function;​ ​and​ ​an​ ​excellent​ ​mentor​ ​text,​ ​particularly​ ​when​ ​discussing​ ​argumentative
writing,​ ​is​ ​crucial​ ​to​ ​understanding​ ​and​ ​producing​ ​one’s​ ​own​ ​arguments​ ​(Newell​ ​et.​ ​al.,​ ​2011).
Helping​ ​students​ ​understand​ ​how​ ​writing​ ​can​ ​both​ ​reflect​ ​and​ ​affect​ ​the​ ​world​ ​around​ ​them,​ ​and
how​ ​they​ ​can​ ​make​ ​their​ ​writing​ ​do​ ​that​ ​not​ ​only​ ​addresses​ ​relevant​ ​social​ ​concerns​ ​of​ ​the
students,​ ​but​ ​also​ ​prepares​ ​every​ ​student,​ ​not​ ​just​ ​the​ ​ones​ ​pursuing​ ​higher​ ​education​ ​(Brown​ ​and
Knowles,​ ​2007).
To​ ​help​ ​students​ ​comprehend​ ​satire​ ​and​ ​the​ ​way​ ​writing​ ​can​ ​reflect​ ​and​ ​change​ ​the
environment​ ​it​ ​comes​ ​from,​ ​students​ ​will​ ​use​ ​word​ ​webs,​ ​annotation,​ ​and​ ​writing​ ​their​ ​own
satirical​ ​letters​ ​to​ ​the​ ​community.​ ​There​ ​are​ ​many​ ​confusing​ ​concepts​ ​in​ ​understanding​ ​satire​ ​and
rhetoric,​ ​so​ ​having​ ​students​ ​create​ ​word​ ​webs​ ​--​ ​where​ ​they​ ​can​ ​have​ ​plenty​ ​of​ ​space​ ​to​ ​add
examples​ ​as​ ​we​ ​continue​ ​the​ ​unit​ ​--​ ​can​ ​help​ ​them​ ​keep​ ​track​ ​of​ ​all​ ​the​ ​strategies​ ​used​ ​in​ ​this
kind​ ​of​ ​argumentation​ ​(Newell,​ ​et.​ ​al,​ ​2011;​ ​Allen,​ ​2014).​ ​Students​ ​will​ ​write​ ​down​ ​the
definition,​ ​contexts,​ ​functions,​ ​examples,​ ​related​ ​words,​ ​text​ ​connections,​ ​and​ ​personal
connections​ ​to​ ​the​ ​words​ ​satire,​ ​irony,​ ​rhetoric,​ ​ethos,​ ​pathos,​ ​logos,​ ​Juvenalian​ ​humor,​ ​and
Horatian​ ​humor.​ ​These​ ​word​ ​webs​ ​will​ ​allow​ ​students​ ​to​ ​work​ ​collaboratively​ ​to​ ​create​ ​a​ ​visual
tool​ ​for​ ​breaking​ ​down​ ​these​ ​unfamiliar​ ​concepts​ ​(Allen,​ ​2014).​ ​Both​ ​the​ ​anchor​ ​text​ ​and​ ​the
mentor​ ​text​ ​are​ ​complex​ ​reading​ ​materials,​ ​which​ ​is​ ​why​ ​annotation​ ​will​ ​be​ ​helpful​ ​in
persevering​ ​through​ ​the​ ​reading​ ​and​ ​understanding​ ​the​ ​articles​ ​more​ ​clearly​ ​(Tovani,​ ​2004).
Interacting​ ​with​ ​the​ ​text​ ​by​ ​underlining​ ​key​ ​words​ ​and​ ​phrases,​ ​highlighting​ ​unknown​ ​words,
and​ ​writing​ ​down​ ​questions​ ​(using​ ​an​ ​asterisk​ ​or​ ​arrow​ ​to​ ​indicate​ ​where​ ​there​ ​question​ ​relates​ ​to
the​ ​text)​ ​helps​ ​“deepen​ ​the​ ​comprehension​ ​of​ ​a​ ​reading”​ ​(Fisher,​ ​2015),​ ​which​ ​will​ ​help​ ​students
process​ ​and​ ​think​ ​critically​ ​about​ ​how​ ​these​ ​complicated​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​satire​ ​affect​ ​the​ ​argument
the​ ​author​ ​is​ ​making.​ ​Writing​ ​their​ ​own​ ​satirical​ ​letters​ ​about​ ​an​ ​issue​ ​they​ ​chose​ ​will​ ​help
students​ ​understand​ ​the​ ​readings​ ​and​ ​the​ ​concepts​ ​of​ ​satire​ ​better,​ ​as​ ​engaging​ ​with​ ​a​ ​mentor​ ​text
allows​ ​reading​ ​to​ ​inform​ ​writing,​ ​and​ ​vice​ ​versa​ ​(Robb,​ ​2010;​ ​Newell,​ ​et.​ ​al.,​ ​2011).​ ​This​ ​is​ ​also
enforcing​ ​writing​ ​that​ ​is​ ​meaningful,​ ​purposeful,​ ​applicable​ ​to​ ​real​ ​life,​ ​and​ ​involves​ ​active
engagement​ ​on​ ​the​ ​students’​ ​part​ ​(Atwell,​ ​2016;​ ​Robb​ ​and​ ​Burke,​ ​2010).
Word​ ​Webs 
Name:​ ​_________________ Date:​ ​__________________ 
 
Work​ ​with​ ​your​ ​group​ ​to​ ​fill​ ​out​ ​the​ ​word​ ​web​ ​for​ ​the​ ​word​ ​on​ ​the​ ​board. 
Look​ ​up​ ​the​ ​definition​ ​from​ ​a​ ​credible​ ​source​,​ ​and​ ​jot​ ​down​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​functions 
from​ ​our​ ​class​ ​discussion.​ ​What​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​that​ ​word​ ​do​ ​you​ ​see​ ​in​ ​the​ ​text​? 
Have​ ​you​ ​encountered​ ​it​ ​in​ ​real​ ​life?​ ​Are​ ​there​ ​words​ ​that​ ​are​ ​related​ ​to​ ​it?​ ​Make 
sure​ ​you​ ​add​ ​to​ ​this​ ​chart​ ​as​ ​we​ ​continue​ ​talking​ ​about​ ​this​ ​word​ ​in​ ​class!​ ​It’ll 
help​ ​you​ ​understand​ ​it​ ​more!  
 
 
 
 
Word​ ​Webs 
Name:​ ​Eleanor Date:​ ​12/1/17 
 
Work​ ​with​ ​your​ ​group​ ​to​ ​fill​ ​out​ ​the​ ​word​ ​web​ ​for​ ​the​ ​word​ ​on​ ​the​ ​board.​ ​Look​ ​up 
the​ ​definition​ ​from​ ​a​ ​credible​ ​source​,​ ​and​ ​jot​ ​down​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​functions​ ​from 
our​ ​class​ ​discussion.​ ​What​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​that​ ​word​ ​do​ ​you​ ​see​ ​in​ ​the​ ​text​?​ ​Have​ ​you 
encountered​ ​it​ ​in​ ​real​ ​life?​ ​Are​ ​there​ ​words​ ​that​ ​are​ ​related​ ​to​ ​it?​ ​Make​ ​sure​ ​you 
add​ ​to​ ​this​ ​chart​ ​as​ ​we​ ​continue​ ​talking​ ​about​ ​this​ ​word​ ​in​ ​class!​ ​It’ll​ ​help​ ​you 
understand​ ​it​ ​more!  
 
 
 
 
Word​ ​Webs​ ​Rubric

Word​ ​and​ ​definition​ ​correctly​ ​written………​ ​1pt


All​ ​boxes​ ​filled​ ​out………………………….​ ​1pt
Group​ ​collaboration………………………....​ ​1pt
Clear​ ​text​ ​connections……………………….​ ​1pt
Thoughtful​ ​personal​ ​connections……………​ ​1pt
Total​………………………………………...​​ ​5pts
Annotating​ ​“A​ ​Modest​ ​Proposal”​ ​and​ ​Other​ ​Articles 
 
What​ ​are​ ​annotations?​ ​→​ ​Annotations​ ​are​ ​notes​ ​made​ ​while​ ​reading.​ ​Good 
readers​ ​use​ ​annotations​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​track​ ​of​ ​their​ ​thoughts​ ​while​ ​reading​ ​so​ ​they​ ​can 
think​ ​more​ ​critically​ ​about​ ​what​ ​they​ ​are​ ​learning.​ ​Annotations​ ​are​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​help 
you​ ​engage​ ​thoughtfully​ ​and​ ​carefully​ ​with​ ​the​ ​text​ ​so​ ​you​ ​get​ ​more​ ​out​ ​of​ ​it​ ​and 
you​ ​can​ ​review​ ​the​ ​important​ ​stuff​ ​easily​ ​when​ ​you​ ​come​ ​back​ ​to​ ​it.  
 
What​ ​do​ ​I​ ​need?​​ ​→​ ​You​ ​will​ ​need​ ​a​ ​copy​ ​of​ ​the​ ​text​ ​you​ ​are​ ​reading,​ ​a​ ​dictionary 
handy​ ​(in​ ​case​ ​there​ ​are​ ​unfamiliar​ ​words),​ ​a​ ​pen​ ​and/or​ ​pencil,​ ​and​ ​a​ ​highlighter 
(if​ ​it’s​ ​helpful,​ ​you​ ​can​ ​use​ ​multiple​ ​colors​ ​to​ ​code​ ​your​ ​notes!).​ ​Some​ ​of​ ​these 
texts​ ​may​ ​be​ ​difficult​ ​or​ ​complex,​ ​so​ ​you​ ​will​ ​also​ ​need​ ​perseverance!!! 
 
How​ ​do​ ​I​ ​annotate?​​ ​→​ ​Everyone​ ​may​ ​do​ ​it​ ​a​ ​little​ ​differently,​ ​and​ ​over​ ​time​ ​you 
can​ ​develop​ ​a​ ​system​ ​of​ ​annotating​ ​and​ ​note-taking​ ​that​ ​works​ ​best​ ​for​ ​you!​ ​But 
for​ ​now,​ ​use​ ​this​ ​key:  
 
Important​ ​words​ ​or​ ​phrases……………………………………………………​ ​Underline 
 
 
Unfamiliar​ ​words​ ​or​ ​phrases…………………………………………………….​ ​Highlight 
 
 
Questions/comments…………………………………………………………………​ ​Use​ ​an​ ​asterisk​ ​(*)​ ​on​ ​or 
an​ ​arrow​ ​(​ ​→​ ​)​ ​from​ ​the​ ​text​ ​and​ ​put​ ​your​ ​thoughts​ ​in​ ​the​ ​margin 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Feel​ ​free​ ​to​ ​add​ ​to​ ​the​ ​key​ ​if​ ​you​ ​need​ ​to!​ ​Enjoy​ ​interacting​ ​with​ ​the​ ​text!   
Sadie   12/5/17 

“Having​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​space”​ ​→​ ​encompassing?


Sadie 12/5/17 
 
SATIRE​​ ​IS​ ​ONE​ ​OF​ ​THE​ ​MOST​​ ​CAPACIOUS*​ ​AND​ ​MOST​ ​MISUNDERSTOOD

literary​ ​terms​.​ ​This​ ​may​ ​be​ ​because​ ​it​ ​is​ ​applied​ ​broadly​ ​to​ ​any​ ​art​ ​form​—in​ ​any

media—that​ ​mocks​ ​or​ ​sniggers​ ​at​ ​convention​;​ ​or​ ​it​ ​may​ ​be​ ​that​ ​its​ ​humor​ ​rests​ ​on​​ ​irony​,​ ​which​ ​is

a​ ​term​ ​that​ ​is​ ​even​ ​more​ ​misused​ ​and​ ​misunderstood​ ​than​ ​the​ ​term​ ​satire.​ ​We​ ​have​ ​Alanis

Morissette​ ​to​ ​thank​ ​for​ ​most​ ​people​ ​thinking​ ​that​ ​rain​ ​on​ ​your​ ​wedding​ ​day​ ​is​ ​ironic*,​ ​and​ ​sports

reporters,​ ​who​ ​claim​ ​that​ ​it​ ​is​ ​ironic​ ​when​ ​basketball​ ​players​ ​are​ ​also​ ​good​ ​golfers,​ ​do​ ​not​ ​help

much​ ​either.

Ironically,​ ​though,​ ​much​ ​of​ ​the​ ​humor​ ​in​ ​popular​ ​culture​ ​is​ ​ironic​,​ ​but​ ​it​ ​is​ ​the

postmodern*​​ ​irony​ ​of​ ​cynical​ ​knowingness​ ​and​ ​self-referentiality.​ ​Traditionally,​ ​irony​ ​has​ ​been​ ​a

means​ ​to​​ ​expose​ ​the​ ​space​ ​between​ ​what​ ​is​ ​real​ ​and​ ​what​ ​is​ ​appearance,​ ​or​ ​what​ ​is​ ​meant​ ​and

what​ ​is​ ​said​,​ ​revealing​ ​incoherence​ ​and​ ​transcending​ ​it​ ​through​ ​the​​ ​aesthetic​​ ​form​ ​and​ ​meaning

of​ ​a​ ​work​ ​of​ ​art.​ ​The​ ​irony​ ​of​ ​postmodernity​ ​denies​ ​a​ ​difference​ ​between​ ​what​ ​is​ ​real​ ​and​ ​what​ ​is

appearance​ ​and​ ​even​ ​embraces​ ​incoherence​ ​and​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​meaning.​ ​It​ ​claims​ ​our​ ​interpretations​ ​of

reality​ ​impose​ ​form​ ​and​ ​meaning​ ​on​ ​life:​​ ​reality​ ​is​ ​constructed​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​perceived​ ​or

understood,​ ​and​ ​it​ ​does​ ​not​ ​exist​ ​separately​ ​from​ ​its​ ​construction.​​ ​Awareness​ ​of​ ​constructions​ ​has

replaced​ ​awareness​ ​of​ ​meaning,​ ​and​ ​postmodern​ ​irony​ ​replaces​ ​unity​ ​with​ ​multiplicity,​ ​meaning

with​ ​appearance​ ​of​ ​meaning,​ ​depth​ ​with​ ​surface.​ ​A​ ​postmodern​ ​audience​ ​is​ ​made​ ​conscious​ ​of

the​ ​constructed​ ​nature​ ​of​ ​meaning​ ​and​ ​of​ ​its​ ​own​ ​participation​ ​in​ ​the​ ​appearance​ ​of​ ​things,​ ​which

results​ ​in​ ​the​ ​self-referential​ ​irony​ ​that​ ​characterizes​ ​most​ ​of​ ​our​ ​cultural​ ​output​ ​today.

Television,​ ​the​ ​dominant​ ​media​ ​of​ ​postmodern…


Aaron 12/7/17 
 
I​ ​do​ ​therefore​ ​humbly​ ​offer​ ​it​ ​to​ ​public​ ​consideration​ ​that​ ​of​ ​the​ ​hundred​ ​and​ ​twenty
thousand​ ​children​ ​already​ ​computed,​ ​twenty​ ​thousand​ ​may​ ​be​ ​reserved​ ​for​ ​breed,​ ​whereof​ ​only
one-fourth​ ​part​ ​to​ ​be​ ​males;​ ​which​ ​is​ ​more​ ​than​ ​we​ ​allow​ ​to​ ​sheep,​ ​black​ ​cattle​ ​or​ ​swine*;​ ​and
my​ ​reason​ ​is,​ ​that​ ​these​ ​children​ ​are​ ​seldom​​ ​the​ ​fruits​ ​of​ ​marriage,​ ​a​ ​circumstance​ ​not​ ​much
regarded​ ​by​ ​our​ ​savages,​ ​therefore​ ​one​ ​male​ ​will​ ​be​ ​sufficient​ ​to​ ​serve​ ​four​ ​females*.​ ​That​ ​the
remaining​ ​hundred​ ​thousand​ ​may,​ ​at​ ​a​ ​year​ ​old,​ ​be​ ​offered​ ​in​ ​the​ ​sale​​ ​to​ ​the​ ​persons​ ​of​ ​quality
and​ ​fortune​ ​through​ ​the​ ​kingdom;​ ​always​ ​advising​ ​the​ ​mother​ ​to​ ​let​ ​them​ ​suck​ ​plentifully​ ​in​ ​the
last​ ​month​,​ ​so​ ​as​ ​to​ ​render​ ​them​ ​plump​ ​and​ ​fat​ ​for​ ​a​ ​good​ ​table​.​ ​A​ ​child​ ​will​ ​make​ ​two​ ​dishes​ ​at
an​ ​entertainment​ ​for​ ​friends;​ ​and​ ​when​ ​the​ ​family​ ​dines​ ​alone,​ ​the​ ​fore​ ​or​ ​hind​ ​quarter​ ​will​ ​make
a​ ​reasonable​ ​dish,​ ​and​ ​seasoned​ ​with​ ​a​ ​little​ ​pepper​ ​or​ ​salt​ ​will​ ​be​ ​very​ ​good​ ​boiled​ ​on​ ​the​ ​fourth
day,​ ​especially​ ​in​ ​winter.*

I​ ​have​ ​reckoned​ ​upon​ ​a​ ​medium​ ​that​ ​a​ ​child​ ​just​ ​born​ ​will​ ​weigh​ ​12​ ​pounds,​ ​and​ ​in​ ​a
solar​ ​year,​ ​if​ ​tolerably​ ​nursed,​ ​increaseth​ ​to​ ​28​ ​pounds.
I​ ​grant​ ​this​ ​food​ ​will​ ​be​ ​somewhat​ ​dear*,​ ​and​ ​therefore​ ​very​ ​proper​ ​for​ ​landlords,​ ​who,
as​ ​they​ ​have​ ​already​ ​devoured​ ​most​ ​of​ ​the​ ​parents,​ ​seem​ ​to​ ​have​ ​the​ ​best​ ​title​ ​to​ ​the​ ​children.
Infant's​ ​flesh​ ​will​ ​be​ ​in​ ​season​ ​throughout​ ​the​ ​year*,​ ​but​ ​more​ ​plentiful​ ​in​ ​March,​ ​and​ ​a
little​ ​before​ ​and​ ​after;​ ​for​ ​we​ ​are​ ​told​ ​by​ ​a​ ​grave​ ​author,​ ​an​​ ​eminent​​ ​French​ ​physician,​ ​that​ ​fish
being​ ​a​ ​prolific​ ​diet,​ ​there​ ​are​ ​more​ ​children​ ​born​ ​in​​ ​Roman​ ​Catholic​ ​countries​​ ​about​ ​nine
months​ ​after​ ​Lent​ ​than​ ​at​ ​any​ ​other​ ​season;​ ​therefore,​ ​reckoning​ ​a​ ​year​ ​after​ ​Lent,​ ​the​ ​markets
will​ ​be​ ​more​ ​glutted​ ​than​ ​usual,​ ​because​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​popish​ ​infants​ ​is​ ​at​ ​least​ ​three​ ​to​ ​one​ ​in
this​ ​kingdom:​​ ​and​ ​therefore​ ​it​ ​will​ ​have​ ​one​ ​other​ ​collateral​ ​advantage,​ ​by​ ​lessening​ ​the​ ​number
of​ ​papists​ ​among​ ​us.​*
Annotations​ ​Rubric

Underlined​ ​important​ ​sections…………………………………..​ ​ ​2pts


Highlighted​ ​unknown​ ​words/phrases…………………………....​ ​2pts
Looked​ ​up​ ​or​ ​asked​ ​about​ ​unknown​ ​words/phrases……………..​ ​2pts
Indicated​ ​where​ ​notes​ ​in​ ​margin​ ​related​ ​to​ ​text………………….​ ​2pts
Thoughtful/helpful​ ​comments​ ​and​ ​questions…………………….​ ​2pts
Total​……………………………………………………………..​ ​10pts
References

Allen,​ ​J.​ ​(2014).​ ​Tools​ ​for​ ​teaching​ ​academic​ ​vocabulary​.​ ​Portland,​ ​ME:​ ​Stenhouse.

Allen​ ​provides​ ​a​ ​helpful​ ​flipbook​ ​of​ ​methods​ ​and​ ​ideas​ ​for​ ​teaching​ ​vocabulary​ ​in​ ​ways
that​ ​make​ ​students​ ​think​ ​critically​ ​about​ ​the​ ​words​ ​and​ ​concepts​ ​they​ ​are​ ​working​ ​with.​ ​Each
method​ ​is​ ​provided​ ​a​ ​description,​ ​ways​ ​and​ ​reasons​ ​to​ ​use​ ​the​ ​methods,​ ​examples,​ ​and​ ​references
for​ ​further​ ​study.​ ​Some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​exercises​ ​even​ ​have​ ​printable​ ​templates​ ​in​ ​the​ ​back​ ​of​ ​the​ ​book.
Tools​ ​for​ ​Teaching​ ​Academic​ ​Vocabulary​ ​is​ ​an​ ​excellent​ ​and​ ​resourceful​ ​addition​ ​to​ ​any
teacher’s​ ​library.

Atwell,​ ​N.​ ​(2016).​ ​How​ ​to​ ​Thrive​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Middle.​ ​Voices​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Middle,​ ​Vol.​ ​24,​ ​No.​ ​2​,​ ​9-12.

Atwell​ ​describes​ ​what​ ​she’s​ ​learned​ ​since​ ​she​ ​fell​ ​in​ ​love​ ​with​ ​middle​ ​school​ ​classrooms
during​ ​her​ ​practicum;​ ​particularly,​ ​the​ ​extraordinary​ ​benefits​ ​of​ ​a​ ​student-centered​ ​environment.
Atwell​ ​emphasizes​ ​the​ ​importance​ ​of​ ​intentionality,​ ​flexibility,​ ​real​ ​life​ ​connections​ ​and
applications,​ ​social​ ​working​ ​in​ ​groups,​ ​and​ ​agency​ ​and​ ​choice.​ ​By​ ​teaching​ ​writing​ ​as​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to
think​ ​and​ ​communicate​ ​on​ ​paper,​ ​students​ ​can​ ​become​ ​more​ ​engaged​ ​with​ ​their​ ​writing,​ ​because
it​ ​is​ ​a​ ​chance​ ​for​ ​their​ ​voice​ ​to​ ​be​ ​heard.

Brown,​ ​D.​ ​F.,​ ​&​ ​Knowles,​ ​T.​ ​(2007).​ ​What​ ​Every​ ​Middle​ ​School​ ​Teacher​ ​Should​ ​Know​.
Portsmouth,​ ​NH:​ ​Heinemann.​ ​113​ ​–​ ​151.

The​ ​chapter​ ​“Student​ ​Designed​ ​Curriculum”​ ​in​ ​this​ ​book​ ​discusses​ ​how​ ​curriculum​ ​can
affect​ ​students’​ ​interest​ ​and​ ​investment​ ​in​ ​their​ ​learning.​ ​Brown​ ​and​ ​Knowles​ ​not​ ​the​ ​importance
of​ ​5​ ​guidelines​ ​in​ ​keeping​ ​students​ ​engaged​ ​and​ ​active​ ​in​ ​their​ ​learning:​ ​relevant,​ ​challenging,
integrative,​ ​and​ ​exploratory​ ​learning.​ ​By​ ​taking​ ​students’​ ​interests​ ​and​ ​curiosities​ ​into
consideration,​ ​students​ ​can​ ​become​ ​invested​ ​in​ ​work​ ​they​ ​are​ ​excited​ ​to​ ​learn​ ​about,​ ​and
provides​ ​opportunities​ ​for​ ​interdisciplinary​ ​learning.

Colletta,​ ​L.​ ​(2009).​ ​Political​ ​Satire​ ​and​ ​Postmodern​ ​Irony​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Age​ ​of​ ​Stephen​ ​Colbert​ ​and​ ​Jon
Stewart.​ ​The​ ​Journal​ ​of​ ​Popular​ ​Culture,​ ​Vol.​ ​42,​ ​No.​ ​5​,​ ​856​ ​–​ ​874.
https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/53366350/PoliticalSatirePostmodernIrony.p
df?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1512104842&Signature=UP9
mpdjVG5SEaeXl9KQwOH2wPLU%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename
%3DPolitical_Satire_and_Postmodern_Irony.pdf

Colletta’s​ ​article​ ​looks​ ​at​ ​the​ ​self-reflexive​ ​irony​ ​in​ ​popular​ ​late-night​ ​television​ ​shows
and​ ​how​ ​they​ ​reflect​ ​and​ ​make​ ​fun​ ​of​ ​the​ ​fact​ ​that​ ​our​ ​society​ ​oth​ ​values​ ​reality​ ​and​ ​the​ ​reality
we​ ​create.​ ​Particularly,​ ​Colletta​ ​explores​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​modern,​ ​political​ ​and​ ​social​ ​satire​ ​these
shows​ ​use,​ ​and​ ​whether​ ​it​ ​has​ ​any​ ​real​ ​efficacy​ ​on​ ​their​ ​audiences​ ​beyond​ ​simple​ ​entertainment.
Overall,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​concluded​ ​that​ ​these​ ​shows​ ​continue​ ​the​ ​humor​ ​of​ ​incongruity​ ​in​ ​our​ ​world​ ​and
continue​ ​to​ ​use​ ​satire​ ​to​ ​encourage​ ​audiences​ ​to​ ​see​ ​things​ ​in​ ​a​ ​new,​ ​or​ ​clearer​ ​way.

Fisher,​ ​D.​ ​(2015).​ ​50​ ​instructional​ ​routines​ ​to​ ​develop​ ​content​ ​literacy​.​ ​Boston:​ ​Pearson.

Fisher​ ​provides​ ​an​ ​excellent​ ​resource​ ​for​ ​teachers​ ​with​ ​various​ ​methods​ ​to​ ​engage
students​ ​in​ ​reading​ ​before,​ ​during,​ ​and​ ​after​ ​reading​ ​the​ ​text.​ ​Each​ ​strategy​ ​is​ ​thoroughly
described,​ ​and​ ​is​ ​supplemented​ ​with​ ​applications​ ​and​ ​examples,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​references​ ​for​ ​further
study.​ ​The​ ​variety​ ​Fisher​ ​gives​ ​allows​ ​teachers​ ​to​ ​use​ ​many​ ​kinds​ ​of​ ​learning​ ​(auditory,​ ​visual,
kinesthetic,​ ​etc.),​ ​which​ ​provides​ ​multiple​ ​learning​ ​opportunities​ ​for​ ​all​ ​students.

Newell,​ ​G.​ ​E.,​ ​Beach,​ ​R.,​ ​Smith,​ ​J.,​ ​VanDerHeide,​ ​J.,​ ​Kuhn,​ ​D.,​ ​&​ ​Andriessen,​ ​J.​ ​(2011).
Teaching​ ​and​ ​Learning​ ​Argumentative​ ​Reading​ ​and​ ​Writing:​ ​A​ ​Review​ ​of​ ​Research.​ ​Reading
Research​ ​Quarterly,​ ​(3),​ ​273.

Newell,​ ​et.​ ​al.’s​ ​review​ ​explored​ ​the​ ​power​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​and​ ​learning​ ​argumentative
reading​ ​and​ ​writing​ ​in​ ​grades​ ​K-12).​ ​They​ ​particularly​ ​looked​ ​at​ ​the​ ​importance​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​and
using​ ​both​ ​the​ ​cognitive​ ​and​ ​social​ ​perspectives​ ​to​ ​help​ ​students​ ​think​ ​critically​ ​about​ ​their
arguments;​ ​including​ ​their​ ​thesis,​ ​evidence,​ ​reasoning,​ ​and​ ​counterarguments.​ ​They​ ​also
addressed​ ​the​ ​importance​ ​of​ ​group​ ​discussion​ ​in​ ​acquiring​ ​and​ ​adapting​ ​schemas​ ​and​ ​the
argumentative​ ​form​ ​in​ ​a​ ​school​ ​setting.

Robb,​ ​L.​ ​(2010).​ ​Teaching​ ​middle​ ​school​ ​writers:​ ​what​ ​every​ ​English​ ​teacher​ ​needs​ ​to​ ​know​.
Portsmouth,​ ​NH:​ ​Heinemann.​ ​124​ ​–​ ​156.

The​ ​chapter​ ​“Making​ ​Powerful​ ​Writing​ ​Happen​ ​Day​ ​to​ ​Day”​ ​emphasizes​ ​the​ ​importance
of​ ​including​ ​opportunities​ ​to​ ​write​ ​with​ ​meaning​ ​and​ ​purpose​ ​in​ ​the​ ​classroom.​ ​Robb​ ​also
discusses​ ​the​ ​benefits​ ​and​ ​importance​ ​of​ ​using​ ​reading​ ​to​ ​inform​ ​writing,​ ​and​ ​writing​ ​to​ ​inform
reading,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​mentor​ ​texts​ ​that​ ​students​ ​can​ ​engage​ ​with​ ​critically​ ​and​ ​use​ ​for
inspiration.​ ​Allotting​ ​time​ ​for​ ​brainstorming,​ ​planning,​ ​and​ ​peer​ ​discussion​ ​also​ ​makes​ ​students
take​ ​an​ ​active​ ​role​ ​and​ ​a​ ​genuine​ ​interest​ ​in​ ​their​ ​own​ ​learning.

Swift,​ ​J.​ ​(2001).​ ​A​ ​modest​ ​proposal.​ ​[electronic​ ​resource]:​ ​for​ ​preventing​ ​the​ ​children​ ​of​ ​poor
people​ ​in​ ​Ireland​ ​from​ ​being​ ​a​ ​burden​ ​to​ ​their​ ​parents​ ​or​ ​country,​ ​and​ ​for​ ​making​ ​them
beneficial​ ​to​ ​the​ ​public​.​ ​Blacksburg,​ ​VA​ ​:​ ​Virginia​ ​Tech,​ ​2001.
http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/30827_modestproposal.pdf
Swift’s​ ​“A​ ​Modest​ ​Proposal”​ ​is​ ​a​ ​biting​ ​piece​ ​of​ ​satire​ ​written​ ​in​ ​1729,​ ​in​ ​response​ ​to
worsening​ ​conditions​ ​in​ ​Ireland​ ​and​ ​the​ ​apathy​ ​and​ ​inaction​ ​of​ ​England.​ ​Swift​ ​sarcastically
proposes​ ​that​ ​one​ ​solution​ ​to​ ​the​ ​despair,​ ​overpopulation​ ​and​ ​starvation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​many​ ​poor​ ​people
in​ ​Ireland​ ​was​ ​to​ ​eat​ ​the​ ​excess​ ​children;​ ​solving​ ​both​ ​hunger,​ ​and​ ​shortage​ ​of​ ​resources​ ​in​ ​the
family.​ ​His​ ​grotesque,​ ​Juvenalian​ ​humor​ ​is​ ​striking,​ ​but​ ​helpful​ ​in​ ​understanding​ ​the​ ​effect​ ​satire
has​ ​in​ ​an​ ​argument.

Tovani,​ ​C.​ ​(2004).​ ​Do​ ​I​ ​really​ ​Have​ ​to​ ​Teach​ ​Reading?​ ​Maine.​ ​Stenhouse​ ​Publishers.

Tovani’s​ ​book​ ​includes​ ​a​ ​myriad​ ​of​ ​methods​ ​to​ ​engage​ ​students​ ​in​ ​reading,​ ​especially

when​ ​it​ ​is​ ​difficult​ ​or​ ​challenging.​ ​Tovani​ ​encourages​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​anything​ ​that​ ​emphasizes​ ​and

places​ ​importance​ ​on​ ​students’​ ​thought​ ​process​ ​while​ ​reading.​ ​This​ ​includes​ ​asking​ ​questions

while​ ​reading,​ ​annotating​ ​thoroughly,​ ​and​ ​acknowledging​ ​when​ ​the​ ​text​ ​is​ ​confusing,​ ​but

persevering​ ​in​ ​spite​ ​of​ ​it.