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Voltage stabilizer: after distribute power enter to voltage stabilizer because

voltage stabilizer is an electrical appliance which is designed to deliver a constant


voltage to a load at its output terminals regardless of the changes in the input or
incoming supply voltage. It protects the equipment or machine against over
voltage, under voltage and other voltages surges. Voltage stabilizers are preferred
for costly and precious electrical equipment to protect them from harmful low/high
voltage fluctuations. Voltage stabilizers regulate the fluctuating input voltage
before it could be fed to the load. The output voltage from the stabilizer will stay in
the range of 220V or 230V in case of single phase supply and 380V or 400V in
case of three phase supply, within given fluctuating range of input voltage. This
regulation is carried by buck and boost operation performed by internal circuitry.

Basic principle of voltage stabilizer

In a voltage stabilizer, voltage correction from over and under voltage condition is
performed through two essential operation, namely boost and buck operation.
These operations can be carried manually by switch or automatically through
electronic circuitry. During under voltage condition, boost operation increases the
voltage to the related level while buck operation reduce the voltage level during
over voltage condition.

Difference between voltage stabilizer and voltage regulator

Both perform same action which is to stabilize the voltage. But the main difference
is:

Voltage stabilizer: it is a device or circuit which is designed to deliver constant


voltage to the output without in change in incoming voltage.

Voltage regulator: it is a device or circuit which is designed to deliver constant


voltage to the output without in change in load current.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC): is a digital computer used for


automation of typically industrial electromechanical processes, such as control of
machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. PLCs are
designed for multiple arrangements of digital and analog inputs and outputs,
extended temperature ranges, immunity to output results must be produced in
response to input conditions within a limited time otherwise unintended operation
will result. It consists of a central processing unit (CPU) containing an application
program and input and output interface modules, which is directly connected to the
field I/O devices. The program controls the plc so that when an input signal from
an input device turns ON. The appropriate response is made. This appropriate
response is normally turning ON an output signal to some sort of output device.

Working principle of PLC

Firstly, the input sources convert the real time analog electric signal to suitable
digital electric signals which are applied to the plc through the connector rails.
These inputs signal are stored in the plc external image memory in a location
known as bits. The cup will execute this process. Then the program instruction are
written onto the programming device through symbol or through mnemonics and
stored in the user memory. The CPU fetches these instruction from the user
memory and executes the input signals by manipulating, computing, processing
them to control the output. Next the execution results are then stored in the external
image memory which control the output device. The CPU also keeps a check on
the output signal and keep updating the contents of the impute image memory
according to the change in the output memory. In addition CPU also performs
internal programming functioning like setting and resetting timer also checking
user memory.