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‫‪October 2011‬‬

‫‪Chapter 2‬‬
‫‪Stress and‬‬
‫‪Strain‬‬
‫)‪(Axial Loading‬‬
‫و‪١‬ف رى‪٘ ْٛ‬نٖ اٌّنوواد ش‪١‬مخ ‪ٚ‬أوضو ٔفؼب؟‬
‫أفجؤب ثوٍبٌخ ‪ SMS‬أ‪ ٚ‬ثبٌجو‪٠‬ل االٌىزو‪ ٟٔٚ‬أ‪ِٓ ٚ‬‬
‫فالي اٌّ‪ٛ‬لؼ‪eng-hs.com & eng-hs.net ٓ١‬‬

‫غ‪١‬رررررو غو‪٠‬مررررره ِرررررٓ ‪ٚ‬إٌررررر‪ٝ‬‬


‫ػٍّه‪ ،‬هثّب رىزشف عل‪٠‬لا‪.‬‬

‫عّ‪١‬غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‪٠ ٟ‬صً ف‪ٙ١‬ب ػلك اٌؾع‪ٛ‬ه إٌ‪ ٝ‬ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‪١‬ب ‪َ٠ٚ‬زوك ل‪ّ١‬خ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‪ٛ‬ع)‬
‫‪Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical‬‬
‫شوػ ‪َِٚ‬بئً ِؾٍ‪ٌٛ‬خ ِغبٔب ثبٌّ‪ٛ‬لؼ‪eng-hs.com, eng-hs.net ٓ١‬‬ ‫َ‪ .‬ؽّبكح شؼجبْ ‪info@eng-hs.com 9 4444 260‬‬
‫‪October 2011‬‬
‫‪Strain‬‬

‫ف‪ ٟ‬ؽبي رؼوض ػٕصو إٔشبئ‪ٌ ٟ‬م‪ٛ‬ح (‪ )P‬ف‪ ٟ‬ارغبٖ ِؾ‪ٛ‬هٖ رَجت‬
‫إع‪ٙ‬بك ( ‪ )‬فئْ َٔجخ اٌزغ‪١‬و ف‪ ٟ‬غ‪ )  ( ٌٗٛ‬رز‪ٛ‬لف ػٍ‪ ٝ‬وً ِٓ‬
‫ل‪ّ١‬خ ٘نا اإلع‪ٙ‬بك ‪ِٚ‬ملاه ِمب‪ِٚ‬خ اٌّبكح (‪ )E‬ظل ٘نا اٌزغ‪١‬و‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ E‬‬ ‫‪‬‬


‫‪P‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ normal stress ‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪ modulus of elasticity‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ strain  ‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪ E‬‬ ‫(ثبٌزؼ‪٠ٛ‬ط)‬
‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬
‫‪PL‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪EA‬‬

‫‪ٚ‬ثبٌّضً فؼٕل رؼوض اٌؼٕصو اإلٔشبئ‪ٌ ٟ‬م‪ٛ‬ح (‪ )P‬رَجت ( ‪ )‬فئْ اٌيا‪٠ٚ‬خ‬


‫إٌبشئخ ( ‪ ) ‬ػٕل اٌَطؼ اٌضبثذ وّب ف‪ ٟ‬اٌشىً اٌّج‪ ٓ١‬رز‪ٛ‬لف ػٍ‪ ٝ‬وً ِٓ‬
‫ل‪ّ١‬خ ٘نا اإلع‪ٙ‬بك ‪ِٚ‬ملاه ِمب‪ِٚ‬خ اٌّبكح (‪ )G‬ظل ٘نا اٌزغ‪١‬و‬
‫‪  G‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬
‫‪ shear stress ‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪G  modulus of rigity‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪w‬‬
‫‪) w  50 mm‬‬ ‫(ف‪ ٟ‬اٌشىً اٌّج‪ٓ١‬‬

‫اٌىض‪١‬و ِٕب ال ‪٠‬أثرٗ هّ٘‪١‬رخ اهِر‪ٛ‬ه اٌزر‪ٟ‬‬


‫‪٠‬غ‪١‬ل٘ب ثً ‪٠‬ؼزجو٘ب أش‪١‬بء ٍَِّب ث‪ٙ‬ب‪.‬‬
‫عّ‪١‬غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‪٠ ٟ‬صً ف‪ٙ١‬ب ػلك اٌؾع‪ٛ‬ه إٌ‪ ٝ‬ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‪١‬ب ‪َ٠ٚ‬زوك ل‪ّ١‬خ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‪ٛ‬ع)‬
‫‪Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical‬‬
‫شوػ ‪َِٚ‬بئً ِؾٍ‪ٌٛ‬خ ِغبٔب ثبٌّ‪ٛ‬لؼ‪eng-hs.com, eng-hs.net ٓ١‬‬ ‫َ‪ .‬ؽّبكح شؼجبْ ‪info@eng-hs.com 9 4444 260‬‬
‫‪October 2011‬‬

‫‪Poisson’s Ratio‬‬
‫ف‪ ٟ‬ؽبي رؼوض ػٕصو إٔشبئ‪ ٟ‬إلع‪ٙ‬بك ف‪ ٟ‬ارغبٖ ػّ‪ٛ‬ك‪ ٞ‬ػٍ‪ِ ٝ‬مطؼٗ فئْ‬
‫مٌه ‪٠‬زَجت ف‪ ٟ‬رغ‪١‬و غ‪ ٌٗٛ‬ى‪٠‬بكح أ‪ٔ ٚ‬مصب ف‪٘ ٟ‬نا االرغبٖ ‪ٔٚ‬ز‪١‬غخ ٌنٌه‬
‫‪٠‬ؾلس رغ‪١‬و ف‪ ٟ‬أثؼبك ِمطؼٗ ف‪ ٟ‬االرغب٘بد اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬ك‪٠‬خ اهفو‪ٔ ٜ‬مصب أ‪ ٚ‬ى‪٠‬بكح‬
‫ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌزور‪١‬ت ‪٠ٚ‬ى‪ ْٛ‬إٌَجخ ث‪ ٓ١‬اٌزغ‪١‬و ف‪ ٟ‬االرغبٖ اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬ك‪ٚ ٞ‬االرغب٘بد‬
‫اٌغبٔج‪١‬خ َٔجخ ِؾلكح ؽَت وً ِبكح رؼوف ثـ ‪.) v ( poisson’s ratio‬‬

‫‪lateral strain‬‬
‫‪v ‬‬
‫‪axial strain‬‬

‫‪ٚ‬ثبٌزبٌ‪ّ٠ ٟ‬ىٓ ؽَبة اٌـ ‪ strain‬اٌىٍ‪ ٟ‬ف‪ ٟ‬وً ارغبٖ ف‪ ٟ‬ؽبي رؼوض‬
‫ػٕصو إٔشبئ‪ ٟ‬إلع‪ٙ‬بكاد ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّؾب‪ٚ‬ه اٌضالصخ (‪ )x , y , z‬وّب ‪:ٍٟ٠‬‬

‫‪x‬‬ ‫‪vy‬‬ ‫‪vz‬‬


‫‪x‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬

‫‪y‬‬ ‫‪v x‬‬ ‫‪vz‬‬


‫‪y‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬

‫‪z‬‬ ‫‪v x‬‬ ‫‪vy‬‬


‫‪z‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬

‫‪Relation between (E, G, v ):‬‬

‫‪ّ٠‬ىٓ ثّؼٍ‪١ِٛ‬خ اصٕ‪٘ ِٓ ٓ١‬نٖ اٌض‪ٛ‬اثذ ؽَبة اٌضبثذ اٌضبٌش وّب ‪:ٍٟ٠‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪ 1  v‬‬
‫‪2G‬‬
‫اٌّبظ‪ ٟ‬ال ‪َ٠‬ب‪ ٞٚ‬اٌَّزمجً‪.‬‬
‫عّ‪١‬غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‪٠ ٟ‬صً ف‪ٙ١‬ب ػلك اٌؾع‪ٛ‬ه إٌ‪ ٝ‬ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‪١‬ب ‪َ٠ٚ‬زوك ل‪ّ١‬خ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‪ٛ‬ع)‬
‫‪Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical‬‬
‫شوػ ‪َِٚ‬بئً ِؾٍ‪ٌٛ‬خ ِغبٔب ثبٌّ‪ٛ‬لؼ‪eng-hs.com, eng-hs.net ٓ١‬‬ ‫َ‪ .‬ؽّبكح شؼجبْ ‪info@eng-hs.com 9 4444 260‬‬
October 2011

‫ك ِجبشو ٌٍؼاللخ‬١‫رطج‬
‫االٔفؼبي‬ٚ ‫بك‬ٙ‫ٓ اإلع‬١‫ث‬

  250.18  250  0.18 mm

 act  E

6000 0.18 mark ‫ػالِخ‬


 E 
  (6  10 3 ) 2 250 placed ‫ب‬ٙ‫ظؼ‬ٚ ُ‫ر‬
apart ‫ّب‬ٕٙ١‫ّب ث‬١‫ف‬
rod ‫ت‬١‫لع‬
E  73.7 GPa
ultimate ٝ‫اهلص‬
gage ً‫ب‬١‫ ِم‬، ٌ١‫م‬٠

،‫زون وً ثبة‬٠ ُ‫اٌّزشبئ‬


.‫طوق وً ثبة‬٠ ً‫اٌّزفبئ‬ٚ
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
eng-hs.com, eng-hs.net ٓ١‫لؼ‬ٌّٛ‫ٌخ ِغبٔب ثب‬ٍٛ‫َِبئً ِؾ‬ٚ ‫شوػ‬ info@eng-hs.com 9 4444 260 ْ‫ ؽّبكح شؼجب‬.َ
October 2011

2.14

 MA  0
 4  7.21 m
 FBC   * 6  P (3.5)  0
 7.21
FBC  1.052 P

maximum load due to deflection:


Fig. P2.14

 E
B

2.5
P  FBC
 E P
A L
1.052 P 6 * 10 3
 (200 * 10 ) * 9 3.5
 * (2 * 10 3 ) 2 7.21
Ax A

P  1.988 kN Ay

maximum load due to stress: elongation ‫اٍزطبٌخ‬


cable ‫ ٍٍه‬،‫ع‬١ٍ‫ؽجً غ‬
P
  exceed ٓ‫ل ػ‬٠‫ي‬٠
A
1.052 P load ًّ‫ؽ‬
190 * 10 6

 * (2 * 103 ) 2
P  2.27 kN
ٖ‫و‬١‫ غ‬ٌٝ‫زطٍغ إ‬٠ ‫زٕب‬١‫أصجؼ غبٌج‬
Choose smallest P = 1.988 kN ٟ‫ٕجغ‬٠ ‫ِبما‬ٚ ً‫فؼ‬٠ ‫ؾلك ٌٗ ِبما‬١ٌ
.ٗ١‫فىو ف‬٠ ْ‫أ‬ٚ ً‫أو‬٠ ْ‫ٗ أ‬١ٍ‫ػ‬

)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
eng-hs.com, eng-hs.net ٓ١‫لؼ‬ٌّٛ‫ٌخ ِغبٔب ثب‬ٍٛ‫َِبئً ِؾ‬ٚ ‫شوػ‬ info@eng-hs.com 9 4444 260 ْ‫ ؽّبكح شؼجب‬.َ
October 2011

2.19

‫رررب‬ٙٔ‫ ِىب‬A ‫ رظرررً ٔمطرررخ‬ٝ‫ؽزرر‬


‫ االٍرزطبٌخ‬ٜٚ‫غرت أْ رزَرب‬٠
 AB   BC BC ٟ‫غ ف‬ٛ‫ج‬ٌٙ‫ ِغ ا‬AB ٟ‫ف‬

PL
 
EA

(4  103 )  0.4 
 AB 
(70  109 )  (  (10  10 3 ) 2 )
Fig. P2.19
6
 72.76  10 m

(Assume Q in kN)
((Q  P)  103 )  0.5
 BC 
(70  109 )  (  (30  10 3 ) 2 )

72.76  10 6  2.526  10 6  Q  4 

magnitude ‫ِملاه‬

a) Q  32.8 kN portion ‫عيء‬


corresponding ‫إٌّبظو‬
b)  B   BC  0.0728 mm
deflection ‫غ‬ٛ‫٘ج‬

ٓ‫بح اٍأي ػ‬١‫ّٗ اٌؾ‬١‫ رلهن ل‬ٟ‫ٌى‬


.‫د‬ٌّٛ‫ فواُ ا‬ٍٝ‫إؽَبً ِٓ ػ‬

)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
eng-hs.com, eng-hs.net ٓ١‫لؼ‬ٌّٛ‫ٌخ ِغبٔب ثب‬ٍٛ‫َِبئً ِؾ‬ٚ ‫شوػ‬ info@eng-hs.com 9 4444 260 ْ‫ ؽّبكح شؼجب‬.َ
October 2011

from symmetry:
4.72

Ay  Cy  114 kN

Point A:
  Fy  0
 2.5 
114  FAB   0
 4.72  FAB
FAB  215.5 kN
A
FAD
Ay

 Fx  0
 4 
FAD  FAB    0
 4 .72  truss ٌْٛ‫عّب‬
FAD  182.6 kN )C) member ‫ ػٕصو‬،ٛ‫ػع‬
sectional ٟ‫ لطبػ‬،ٟ‫ِمطؼ‬
P L respectively ٌٟ‫ا‬ٛ‫ اٌز‬ٍٟ‫ػ‬
 
EA
(215.5 * 103 ) * (4.72)
 AB 
(200 * 109 ) * (2400 * 10 6 )
 2.12 mm )C)

(182.6 * 103 ) * (4.0)


 AD 
(200 * 109 ) * (1800 * 10 6 )
 2.03 mm ٝ‫اٌؾّمررررر‬ٚ ‫بء‬ٙ‫إما وررررربْ اٌَرررررف‬
ٓ‫ْ فّررر‬ٛ‫شررر‬١‫ؼ‬٠ ‫رررف‬١‫ْ و‬ٚ‫مررروه‬٠
.‫ي ٌٕب‬ٛ‫اٌّؤول أْ ٘نا اٌؾك ِىف‬

)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
eng-hs.com, eng-hs.net ٓ١‫لؼ‬ٌّٛ‫ٌخ ِغبٔب ثب‬ٍٛ‫َِبئً ِؾ‬ٚ ‫شوػ‬ info@eng-hs.com 9 4444 260 ْ‫ ؽّبكح شؼجب‬.َ
October 2011

FAB = FCD

1.5
joint C: 1.2

  Fy  0 0.9

FCD  T cos   0

 1.2 
FCD  T   
 1.5  C

 0 .8 T T FCD

PL
 CD 
EA
(0.8 T )  1.2 
1  10 3 
(200  109 )  (  (15  10 3 ) 2 )

T  147.3 kN tight ُ‫ِؾى‬


diagonal ٞ‫لطو‬
tension ‫شل‬
exceed ٓ‫ل ػ‬٠‫ي‬٠

‫ّٗ اهفذ اٍأي‬١‫ رلهن ل‬ٟ‫ٌى‬


.‫اد‬ٛ‫خ أف‬٠‫ٌ ٌل‬١ٌ ‫شقصب‬
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
eng-hs.com, eng-hs.net ٓ١‫لؼ‬ٌّٛ‫ٌخ ِغبٔب ثب‬ٍٛ‫َِبئً ِؾ‬ٚ ‫شوػ‬ info@eng-hs.com 9 4444 260 ْ‫ ؽّبكح شؼجب‬.َ
October 2011

...2

‫ّب‬ٙ١‫) الثل أْ ٔمطغ ف‬Members AB, CD( ٟ‫ ف‬ٜٛ‫و اٌم‬ٙ‫ رظ‬ٟ‫ٌى‬


ً‫صُ ٔله‬
 MB  0
FCD (0.64)  P (0.2)  0 Fig. P2.27

FAB P FCD
FCD  0.3125 P
E
 1.563 kN B C

0.2 0.44

  MC  0 0.06
 FAB (0.64)  P (0.44)  0
h
 0.6875 P
0.072
FAB
 3.44 kN
rigid ‫عبِل‬
member ‫ ػٕصو‬،ٛ‫ػع‬
P L
  deflection ‫غ‬ٛ‫٘ج‬
EA
(1.563 * 103 ) * (0.36)
 CD   0.06 mm
(75 * 109 ) * (125 * 10 6 )
(3.44 * 103 ) * (0.36)
 AB   0.132 mm
(75 * 109 ) * (125 * 10 6 )

h 0.44
  h  0.0495 mm
0.072 0.64

E  (0.06  0.0495)  0.1095 mm


‫ك ٌٍّوء‬٠‫فَؼ اٌطو‬٠ ٌُ‫إْ اٌؼب‬
.‫ ما٘ت‬ٛ٘ ٓ٠‫ أ‬ٌٝ‫ؼوف إ‬٠ ٞ‫اٌن‬
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

...8

‫٘نٖ اٌَّأٌخ وبٔذ‬


midterm

 CD 1 .5

0.08 0 .4
 CD  0.3 mm Fig. P2.28

0.08 0.32 m
P L
 
E A
FCD * (0.25)  CD 1.5 mm
0.3 * 10 3

(200 * 109 ) * ( * (1 * 103 ) 2 )
FCD  754 N length ‫ َِبفخ‬،‫ي‬ٛ‫غ‬
adjusted ‫غ‬ٛ‫ِعج‬
gap ‫ح‬ٛ‫فغ‬
 MA  0 rigid ‫عبِل‬
 20 (9.81) * (0.4  x)  754 (0.08)  0 beam ‫ ػبهظخ‬،‫عَو‬
block ‫ثىوح هفغ‬
x  0.0926 m contact ٌِ‫ رال‬،ٌٍّ٠

to cause contact, x should be ≤ 92.6 mm


ّٓ‫إْ ٌُ رضك ثٕفَه ف‬
.‫ضك ثه‬٠ ْ‫ّىٓ أ‬٠
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
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October 2011

 steel   barss

Pst L Pbrass L

Est As Ebrass Abarss
Psteel P brass

(200  109 ) (25  25  10 6 ) (105  109 ) (37  37  25  25)  10 6
Psteel  1.6 Pbrass

PL
 
EA
Psteel  0.3
0.15  103 
(200  109 )  (25  25  10 6 )
Psteel  62.5 kN

Pbrass  39.1 kN

Ptotal  101.6 kN

Psteel
 steel 
Asteel
62.5  103

(25  25  10 6 )
 100 MPa ٓ‫بح اٍأي ػ‬١‫ّٗ اٌؾ‬١‫ رلهن ل‬ٟ‫ٌى‬
.‫د‬ٌّٛ‫ فواُ ا‬ٍٝ‫إؽَبً ِٓ ػ‬
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
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October 2011

 st  c
 st c

E st Ec

 st c

200 25
 st  8c

concrete ‫فوٍبٔخ‬
Pst Pc reinforce ُ‫لػ‬٠ ،ٞٛ‫م‬٠
 8
As Ac axial ٞ‫ه‬ٛ‫ِؾ‬

Pst Pc
 8
3 2 3 2 3 2
6  * (14 * 10 )  * (225 * 10 )  6  * (14 * 10 )
Pst  0.19 Pc 1

Pst  Pc  1550 kN .

solving, Pc  1302 kN , Ps  247 kN

Ps
s   67 MPa
As

Pc
c   8.38 MPa ْ٢‫إْ ٌرررُ رىرررٓ اهفعرررً ا‬
Ac .‫لذ‬ٚ ‫فضك أْ اهِو َِأٌخ‬
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
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October 2011

Dimensions in mm
100 100
180 120
A C D E

60 kN 40 kN

40-mm diam. 30-mm diam.

PL
 
B
EA A C
D E
Ax
60 kN Ex
 AB   BC   CD   DE  0 40 kN

× × × × ×
81.0 81.0 81. 81.
Ax (0.18) (60 10  Ax ) (0.12) 3
 .

(200 109 ) (  0.022 ) (200 109 ) (  0.022 )

(60 103  Ax ) (0.1) (100 103  Ax ) (0.1)


  0
(105 109 ) (  0.0152 ) (105 109 ) (  0.0152 )

Ax  62.8 kN

Bx  37.2 kN

C   AB   BC

 46.3 m 

‫ّٗ اهفذ أٍأي‬١‫ رلهن ل‬ٟ‫ٌى‬


.‫اد‬ٛ‫خ أف‬٠‫ٌ ٌل‬١ٌ ‫شقصب‬
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

As  20  20  400 mm 2
Ab  30  30  400  500 mm 2

‫غخ ِٕغ‬١‫ٌٗ ٔز‬ٛ‫مً غ‬٠ٚ ΔbT ‫غخ اٌؾواهح ثّملاه‬١‫ٌٗ ٔز‬ٛ‫ل غ‬٠‫ي‬٠ brass

ΔbF ‫ل ٌٗ ثّملاه‬٠‫اٌؾل‬

ٗ‫ٌرر‬ٛ‫ررل غ‬٠‫ي‬٠ ‫ وّررب‬ΔsT ‫غررخ اٌؾررواهح ثّمررلاه‬١‫ٌررٗ ٔز‬ٛ‫ررل غ‬٠‫ي‬١‫ ف‬steel ‫أِررب‬

ΔsF ‫ ٌٗ ثّملاه‬brass ‫غخ عنة اٌـ‬١‫ٔز‬

steel ،brass ٓ١‫ االؽزىبن ث‬Force ‫ رّضً ِملاه‬F ‫ش‬١‫ؽ‬

ΔT ‫ رٕبظو أوجو‬F   s As ‫ّب‬ٕٙ١‫ ِّىٕخ ث‬Force ‫أوجو‬

 bT   bF   sT   sF
FL FL
 b T L    s T L 
Eb Ab Es As

(55  106  400  10 6 )


6
(20.9  10 ) T 
(105  109 ) (500  10 6 )

(55  106  400  10 6 )


6
 (11.7  10 ) T 
(200  109 ) (400  10 6 )

T  75.4

،ٗٔ‫ ٍوٖ ثٍَب‬ٝ‫إما اٌّوء أفش‬


.‫ أؽّك‬ٛٙ‫وٖ ف‬١‫ٗ غ‬١ٍ‫الَ ػ‬ٚ
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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‫‪October 2011‬‬

‫)‪a‬‬ ‫‪PL‬‬
‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪EA‬‬
‫) ‪(30 * 103 ) * (150 * 10 3‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫) ‪(70 * 109 ) * ( (10 * 10 3 ) 2‬‬

‫‪ 204.6 * 10 6‬‬ ‫‪m‬‬

‫‪ 0.2046 mm‬‬


‫إما ىاك اٌط‪ٛ‬ي ‪٠‬مً اٌمطو‬
‫)‪b‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬اٌؼىٌ ثبٌؼىٌ‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪ v‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪standard‬‬ ‫ل‪١‬بٍ‪ِٛ ،ٟ‬ؽل‬
‫‪0.2046‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫* ‪ 0.35‬‬ ‫‪tensile‬‬ ‫شل‪ٞ‬‬
‫‪150‬‬
‫‪elongation‬‬ ‫اٍزطبٌخ‪ ،‬رغ‪١‬و ف‪ ٟ‬اٌشىً‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪ 477  10‬‬
‫‪gage‬‬ ‫‪٠‬م‪٠ ،ٌ١‬ؼب‪٠‬و‪ِ ،‬م‪١‬بً‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪477  10 6‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪20‬‬

‫‪ 2  0.0095 mm‬‬


‫رزأهعؼ ٔف‪ٍٕٛ‬ب ث‪ ٓ١‬ص‪ٛ‬ر‪ :ٓ١‬أؽلّ٘ب ِٓ‬
‫فبهط أٔفَٕب ‪٠‬م‪ٛ‬ي (‪٠‬غت أْ رفؼً) ‪ٚ‬ا‪٢‬فو‬
‫ِٓ كافٍٕب ‪٠‬م‪ٛ‬ي (‪٠‬غت أال رفؼً) ‪٠ٚ‬ى‪ْٛ‬‬
‫شؼ‪ٛ‬هٔب ٍ‪١‬ئب ِ‪ّٙ‬ب وبْ اهِو اٌن‪ٍٕ ٞ‬فؼٍٗ‪.‬‬

‫عّ‪١‬غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‪٠ ٟ‬صً ف‪ٙ١‬ب ػلك اٌؾع‪ٛ‬ه إٌ‪ ٝ‬ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‪١‬ب ‪َ٠ٚ‬زوك ل‪ّ١‬خ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‪ٛ‬ع)‬
‫‪Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical‬‬
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October 2011

ً‫م‬٠ ‫ي‬ٛ‫إما ىاك اٌط‬


‫اٌَّه‬ٚ ‫اٌؼوض‬

a)  PL

EA
(2.75 * 103 ) * (50 * 10 3 ) ٞ‫شل‬
 tensile
(200 * 109 ) * (1.6 * 12 * 10 6 ) coupon ‫عيء ُِ ْمزَطَغ‬
 0.0358 mm
‫عيء‬
2  v
portion

1 gage ً‫ب‬١‫ ِم‬،‫و‬٠‫ؼب‬٠ ،ٌ١‫م‬٠


thickness ‫ ٍّبوخ‬،‫ٍّه‬
ُ

 w 12
b)   0.3   w   0.00258 mm
0.0358 50

t 1.6
c)   0.3  t   0.000347 mm
0.0358 50

d) A  Anew  Aold

A  ((1.6  0.000347) * (12  0.00258))  (1.6 * 12)

A   0.00829 mm 2
‫ض‬ّٛ‫ررررربح كائّرررررب ثررررربٌغ‬١‫رزَرررررُ اٌؾ‬
‫ك أِبِه‬٠‫ذ اٌطو‬٠‫اٌّشبوً فئما هأ‬ٚ
.‫مه‬٠‫ٌ غو‬١ٌ ٗٔ‫لا فبػٍُ أ‬ِّٙ
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

a)
P (N ) 640 * 103
  
A (m 2 )  (1202  1102 ) * 106
 88.6 MPa

  E

88.6 * 106  73 * 109 *
2 Fig. P2.64
  2.43 mm

‫أخ‬ٛ‫ي اهٍط‬ٛ‫إما لً غ‬
b)
v 
 2
‫ب‬ٙ‫ونٌه ٍّى‬ٚ ‫ل لطو٘ب‬٠‫ي‬٠
 1

d
240
0.33 
2.43 2000
d  0.0961 mm

length ‫ َِبفخ‬،‫ي‬ٛ‫غ‬
c)
2 axial ٞ‫ه‬ٛ‫ِؾ‬
v 
1 thickness ‫ ٍّبوخ‬،‫ٍّه‬
ُ
10 t
0.33 
2.43 2000
t  0.004 mm
.‫ي مٌه‬ٛ‫ أْ رم‬ٟ‫ٕجغ‬٠ ‫ي (ال) ػٕلِب‬ٛ‫رؼٍُ ل‬
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
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October 2011

..25

D
2 
D

13  10 6

60  10 3 Fig. P2.65

 217  10 6
‫ٌخ‬ِٛ‫وٍّب رُ إؽىبَ هثػ اٌصب‬
‫ اٌَّّبه‬ٟ‫ح اٌشل ف‬ٛ‫ل ل‬٠‫ري‬
2
 v
1
bolt ٟ‫ثوغ‬
2
1   747  10 6 nut ‫ٌخ‬ّٛ‫ص‬
v
tightened ُ‫ِؾى‬
observe ‫الؽع‬٠
  E
P
 (200  109 )  (747  10 6 )
  (30  10 3 ) 2
P  422.5 kN

‫ش خ ا خخصن نخخحا حي خ خ‬
‫خخخ و اخخخ شخخخ ا خخخصن خخخ‬
.‫اد ه بثب ت سعى ه ب ش و‬

)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

x y z
x   v  v
E E E
120 * 106 160 * 106
  0  0.34 *
87 * 109 87 * 109
 754 * 10 6

 y z fabric ‫ظ‬١َٔ ،ُ‫لّب‬


z  v x  v 
E E E inflated ‫ ِٕزفـ‬،‫ؿ‬ٛ‫ِٕف‬
120 * 106 160 * 106 structure ً‫ى‬١٘
  0.34 *  0 
87 * 109 87 * 109 approximated ٟ‫ج‬٠‫رمو‬

 1.37 * 10 3

x x
x   754 * 10 6   x  0.0754 mm
100 100

z z
z   1.37 * 10 3   z  0.1027 mm
75 75

 AB  ABnew  ABold

 (100  0.0754) 2  (75  0.1027) 2  (100) 2  (75) 2

‫ٌىٓ االػزمبكاد‬ٚ ‫ٕغؼ‬١ٌ ْ‫فٍك اإلَٔب‬


 0.1219 mm .ً‫فشً ثوِغزٗ ٌٍفش‬١ٍ ٗٔ‫اٌفبٍلح ثأ‬
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

ٓ١‫ٓ اٌَطؾ‬١‫ َِبؽخ اٌزالٌِ ث‬ٞ‫اى‬ٛ‫ح ر‬ٛ‫هْ اٌم‬


shear stress ‫بك‬ٙ‫ع اإلع‬ٛٔ ْٛ‫ى‬٠

 all  G 

36  103 
 (385  106 ) 
(132  84  10 6 ) 53

  0.45 mm

block ‫وزٍخ صٍجخ‬


base ‫لبػلح‬
deflection ‫أؾواف‬
rigid ‫صٍت‬

‫هاؽخ لٍجه‬ٚ ‫إْ صمزه ثٕفَه‬


ً‫خ ِٓ ٔظوح إٌب‬١ّ٘‫أوضو أ‬
.ٌُ‫ض اٌؼب‬ٚ‫ِٓ وً فو‬ٚ ‫ٌه‬

)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

ٓ١‫ٓ اٌَطؾ‬١‫ َِبؽخ اٌزالٌِ ث‬ٞ‫اى‬ٛ‫ح ر‬ٛ‫هْ اٌم‬


shear stress ‫بك‬ٙ‫ع اإلع‬ٛٔ ْٛ‫ى‬٠

 all  G

2 .5
1.54  106  (12.6  106 ) 
a

a  20.5 mm

 all 
P
A vibration ‫ا٘زياى‬
13  103 isolation ‫ػبىي‬
1.54  10 6

2  75  b  10 6 rubber ‫ِطبغ‬
deflection ‫غ‬ٛ‫٘ج‬
b  56.3 mm

ْ‫و ِٕب أ‬١‫صبه اػزمبك اٌىض‬


ٛ٘ ‫ هكا‬ٚ‫ل أ‬١‫ٕب ثغ‬١ٍ‫اٌؾىُ ػ‬
.ٓ٠‫فو‬٢‫هاء ا‬٢ ‫فمػ غجمب‬

)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

..22

ٓ١‫ٓ اٌَطؾ‬١‫ َِبؽخ اٌزالٌِ ث‬ٞ‫اى‬ٛ‫ح ر‬ٛ‫هْ اٌم‬


shear stress ‫بك‬ٙ‫ع اإلع‬ٛٔ ْٛ‫ى‬٠

  G 

P 
 G
A w Fig. P2.77

(240 * 103 ) 
 (1050 * 106 ) *
(120 * 80 * 10 6 ) 50 * 10 3

  1.19 * 10 3 m
block ‫وزٍخ صٍجخ‬
 1.19 mm bond ‫وثػ‬٠ ،‫هثػ‬
rigid ‫صٍت‬

‫ره‬ٛ‫ اٍزضّبه ٔمبغ ل‬ٍٝ‫هوي ػ‬


.‫ك أ٘لافه‬١‫إِىبٔبره ٌزؾم‬ٚ
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

..27

ٓ١‫ٓ اٌَطؾ‬١‫ َِبؽخ اٌزالٌِ ث‬ٞ‫اى‬ٛ‫ح ر‬ٛ‫هْ اٌم‬


shear stress ‫بك‬ٙ‫ع اإلع‬ٛٔ ْٛ‫ى‬٠

 all  G 

1.4  106  (12  106 ) 
a Fig. P2.79

a  42.9 mm

P
 all 
A block ‫وزٍخ صٍجخ‬
(40  103 ) modulus ًِ‫ِؼب‬
1.4  10 6

2  (100  10 3 )  (b  10 3 ) rigidity ‫صالثخ‬

b  142.9 mm dimension ‫ثؼل‬


shearing ‫مص‬٠ ،‫لص‬
deflection ‫أؾواف‬

ْ‫ٓ أ‬٠‫فو‬٢‫ال رطٍت ِٓ ا‬


‫ن‬ٛ‫ؾج‬٠ ٍُٙ‫ اعؼ‬،‫ن‬ٛ‫ؾج‬٠

)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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October 2011

2.124

 ABC   AB   BC

P L P L
 ABC      
 E A  AB  E A  BC Fig. P2.124

(110 * 103 ) * (0.3) (110 * 103 ) * (0.450)


 
(70 * 109 ) * ( (19 * 10 3 ) 2 ) (70 * 109 ) * ( * ( 29 * 10 3 ) 2 )
 ABC  683 * 10 6 m

cylindrical ٟٔ‫ا‬ٛ‫أٍط‬
P L ‫عيء‬
 DE   ABC  683 * 10 6    portion
 E A  steel length ‫ َِبفخ‬،‫ي‬ٛ‫غ‬
vertical ٍٟ‫ هأ‬،ٞ‫ك‬ّٛ‫ػ‬
6 (110 * 103 ) * (0.75)
683 * 10  deformation ‫غ‬ٛ‫ ٘ج‬،‫و‬١‫رغ‬
( 200 * 109 ) * ( * ( r 2 ))
r  0.0139 * 10 3 m  d  27.7 mm

P 110 * 103
   165 * 10 6

A  r2
r  14.57 * 10 3 m  d  29 mm

‫أغٍت اٌّشبوً ِؤلزخ‬


Choose biggest diameter d = 29 mm .‫كح‬ٚ‫ب ِؾل‬ٙ‫ٔزبئغ‬ٚ
)‫ع‬ٛ‫ّخ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‬١‫َزوك ل‬٠ٚ ‫ب‬١‫ ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‬ٌٝ‫ه إ‬ٛ‫ب ػلك اٌؾع‬ٙ١‫صً ف‬٠ ٟ‫غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‬١ّ‫ع‬
Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical
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‫‪October 2011‬‬

‫‪2.132‬‬

‫هْ اٌم‪ٛ‬ح ر‪ٛ‬اى‪ٍ ٞ‬رطؼ اٌرزالٌِ ثر‪ ٓ١‬اٌَرطؾ‪ٓ١‬‬


‫‪٠‬ى‪ٛٔ ْٛ‬ع اإلع‪ٙ‬بك ‪shear stress‬‬

‫‪  G ‬‬ ‫‪Fig. P2.132‬‬

‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫* ‪ 19 * 106‬‬
‫) ‪(2 * 100 * 150 * 10 6‬‬ ‫‪30 * 10 3‬‬

‫) ‪(19 * 106 ) * (2 * 100 * 150 * 10 6‬‬


‫‪P/‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫‪30 * 10 3‬‬
‫‪isolation‬‬ ‫ػيي‬
‫‪P/‬‬ ‫‪ 19 * 106‬‬ ‫‪N /m‬‬ ‫‪block‬‬ ‫وزٍخ صٍجخ‬
‫‪corresponding‬‬ ‫إٌّبظو‬
‫‪magnitude‬‬ ‫ِملاه‬
‫‪modulus‬‬ ‫ِؼبًِ‬
‫‪rigidity‬‬ ‫صالثخ‬

‫صررررؾ‪١‬ؼ أٔرررره ٌررررٓ رَررررزط‪١‬غ رغ‪١١‬ررررو‬


‫ِبظرررررر‪١‬ه‪ٌٚ ،‬ىررررررٓ ‪ّ٠‬ىٕرررررره رغ‪١١‬ررررررو‬
‫َِزمجٍه ِٓ فالي ِب رفؼٍٗ اٌ‪.َٛ١‬‬
‫عّ‪١‬غ اٌّؾبظواد اٌز‪٠ ٟ‬صً ف‪ٙ١‬ب ػلك اٌؾع‪ٛ‬ه إٌ‪ ٝ‬ػشوح غالة (رصجؼ ِغبٔب رٍمبئ‪١‬ب ‪َ٠ٚ‬زوك ل‪ّ١‬خ اٌّجٍغ اٌّلف‪ٛ‬ع)‬
‫‪Physics I, Physics II, Statics, Dynamics, Strength, Circuits, Fluid Mechanics, C++, MATLAB, Numerical‬‬
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