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You are on page 1of 56

– Dimensioning of switching devices

– Dynamic dimensioning of switchgear

– Thermal rating of electrical devices (e.g. cables)

– Protection coordination

– Fault diagnostic

– Input data for

– Earthing studies

– Interference calculations

– EMC planning

– …..

Short-Circuit Calculation

Standards

– IEC 60909:

Short-Circuit Current Calculation in Three-Phase A.C. Systems

» German National Standard DIN VDE 0102

» further National Standards

Procedure to Meet the Requirements of IEC 60909 for the Calculation

of Short-Circuit Currents in Three-Phase AC Power Systems

IEEE Guide for Calculation of Fault Currents for Application of a.c. High

Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Total Current Basis.

Short-Circuit Calculations

Scope of IEC 60909

– three-phase a.c. systems

– low voltage and high voltage systems up to 500 kV

– nominal frequency of 50 Hz and 60 Hz

– balanced and unbalanced short circuits

– three phase short circuits

– two phase short circuits (with and without earth connection)

– single phase line-to-earth short circuits in systems with solidly

earthed or impedance earthed neutral

– two separate simultaneous single-phase line-to-earth short circuits in

a systems with isolated neutral or a resonance earthed neutral

(IEC 60909-3)

– maximum short circuit currents

– minimum short circuit currents

Short-Circuit Calculations

Types of Short Circuits

3-phase

2-phase

1-phase

Variation of short circuit current shapes

zero crossing

fault located in

the network

fault located

near generator

Short-Circuit Calculations

Far-from-generator short circuit

Ik” Initial symmetrical short-circuit current

ip Peak short-circuit current

Ik Steady-state short-circuit current

A Initial value of the d.c component

Short-Circuit Calculations

Definitions according IEC 60909 (I)

• initial symmetrical short-circuit current Ik”

• r.m.s. value of the a.c. symmetrical component of a prospective

(available) short-circuit current, applicable at the instant of short

circuit if the impedance remains at zero-time value

• fictitious value determined as a product of the initial symmetrical

short-circuit current Ik”, the nominal system voltage Un and the

3 √3:

S" factor

k U I" n k

• NOTE: Sk” is often used to calculate the internal impedance of a network feeder at the connection

point. In this

2 case the definition given should be used in the following form:

c Un

Z

Sk"

Short-Circuit Calculations

Definitions according IEC 60909 (II)

• decaying (aperiodic) component id.c. of short-circuit current

• mean value between the top and bottom envelope of a short-

circuit current decaying from an initial value to zero

• maximum possible instantaneous value of the prospective

(available) short-circuit current

• NOTE: The magnitude of the peak short-circuit current varies in accordance with the moment

at which the short circuit occurs.

Short-Circuit Calculations

Near-to-generator short circuit

Ik” Initial symmetrical short-circuit current

ip Peak short-circuit current

Ik Steady-state short-circuit current

A Initial value of the d.c component

IB Symmetrical short-circuit breaking current

2 2 IB

tB

Short-Circuit Calculations

Definitions according IEC 60909 (III)

• steady-state short-circuit current Ik

• r.m.s. value of the short-circuit current which remains after

the decay of the transient phenomena

• r.m.s. value of an integral cycle of the symmetrical a.c.

component of the prospective short-circuit current at the

instant of contact separation of the first pole to open of a

switching device

Short-Circuit Calculations

Purpose of Short-Circuit Values

Design Criterion Physical Effect Relevant short-circuit current

breakers chamber; arc extinction breaking current Ib

Mechanical stress to Forces to electrical devices Peak short-circuit current ip

equipment (e.g. bus bars, cables…)

Thermal stress to equipment Temperature rise of electrical Initial symmetrical short-

devices (e.g. cables) circuit current Ik”

Fault duration

Protection setting Selective detection of partial Minimum symmetrical short-

short-circuit currents circuit current Ik

Earthing, Interference, EMC Potential rise; Maximum initial symmetrical

Magnetic fields short-circuit current Ik”

Equivalent Voltage Source

Short-circuit

Equivalent voltage source at the short-

circuit location

real network

Q A F

equivalent circuit

ZN Q ZT A ZL

~

c.U n

I"K

3

Tap-changer position of transformers is dispensable

Excitation of generators is dispensable

Load flow (local and time) is dispensable

Short circuit in meshed grid

Equivalent voltage source at the short-circuit

location

• real network equivalent circuit

Voltage Factor c

• c is a safety factor to consider the following effects:

• voltage variations depending on time and place,

• changing of transformer taps,

• neglecting loads and capacitances by calculations,

• the subtransient behaviour of generators and motors.

Nominal voltage maximum short circuit currents minimum short circuit currents

-systems with a tolerance of 6% 1.05 0.95

-systems with a tolerance of 10% 1.10 0.95

Medium voltage >1 kV – 35 kV 1.10 1.00

High voltage >35 kV 1.10 1.00

Short Circuit Impedances and Correction

Factors

Short Circuit Impedances

• impedance of positive sequence system = impedance of negative

sequence system

• impedance of zero sequence system usually different

• topology can be different for zero sequence system

– generators,

– generator blocks,

– network transformer

• factors are valid in zero, positive, negative sequence system

Network feeders

• At a feeder connection point usually one of the following values is given:

– the initial symmetrical short circuit current Ik”

– the initial short-circuit power Sk”

c U n c U n2

ZN "

3 Ik"

Sk

ZN

XN

1 (R / X )2

• If R/X of the network feeder is unknown, one of the following values can be

used:

– R/X = 0.1

– R/X = 0.0 for high voltage systems >35 kV fed by overhead lines

Network transformer

Correction of Impedance

ZTK = ZT KT

– general

c max

K T 0,95

1 0,6 x T

– at known conditions of operation

Un c max

KT

Ub 1 x T (IbT IrT ) sinbT

Network transformer

Impact of Correction Factor

1.05

1.00

0.95

KT

0.90

cmax = 1.10

0.85 cmax = 1.05

0.80

0 5 10 15 20

xT [%]

Increase of short-circuit currents

Generator with direct Connection to Network

Correction of Impedance

ZGK = ZG KG

– general

Un c max

KG

UrG 1 xd sinrG

UrG (1+pG) instead of UrG

• salient pole generator: X(2) = 1/2 (Xd" + Xq")

Generator Block (Power Station)

Correction of Impedance

Q

2

ZS(O) = (tr ZG +ZTHV) KS(O) G

2 2

UnQ UrTLV c max

KS 2 2

UrG UrTHV 1 xd x T sinrG

UnQ

rTLV 1 p t

U c max

K SO

UrG (1 pG ) UrTHV 1 xd sinrG

Asynchronous Motors

• Motors contribute to the short circuit currents and have to be considered for

calculation of maximum short circuit currents

2

1 UrM

ZM

ILR / IrM SrM

ZM

XM

1 (RM / XM )2

– R/X = 0.1 medium voltage motors power per pole pair > 1 MW

– R/X = 0.15 medium voltage motors power per pole pair ≤ 1 MW

– R/X = 0.42 low voltage motors (including connection cables)

Special Regulations for low Voltage Motors

– groups of motors can be combined to a equivalent motor

– ILR/IrM = 5 can be used

Calculation of initial short circuit current

Calculation of initial short circuit current

Procedure

– Set up equivalent circuit in symmetrical components

– in 3-phase system

– transformation into symmetrical components

– in symmetrical components

– transformation into 3-phase system

Calculation of initial short circuit current

Equivalent circuit in symmetrical components

(1)

positive sequence system

(1) (1) (1) (1)

(2)

(2) (2) (2) (2)

negative sequence system

(0)

(0) (0)

(0)

(0) (0)

(0) (0)

zero sequence system

Calculation of initial short circuit current

3-phase short circuit

L1-L2-L3-system Z(1)l

012-system Z(1)r

L1 ~ ~

c Un

L2 ~ (1)

3

L3

Z(2)l Z(2)r

~ ~ ~ -Uf ~ ~

c Ur

I sc3 (2)

3 Z (1)

Z(0)l Z(0)r

~ ~

(0)

UL1 = – Uf fault location fault location

U(1) = – Uf

UL2 = a2 (– Uf)

U(2) = 0

UL3 = a (– Uf)

U(0) = 0

Calculation of 2-phase initial short circuit current

L1-L2-L3-system Z(1)l

012-system Z(1)r

L1 ~ ~

L2 ~ c Un (1)

L3 3

~

Z(2)l Z(2)r

-Uf c U r ~ ~

I sc2 (2)

Z 1 Z 2

Z(0)l Z(0)r

~ ~

c U r

I sc2 3

I sc2 (0)

2 Z 1

I sc3 2

network left of network right of

U fault location

IL1 = 0 U (1) U ( 2) c n fault location fault location

3

IL2 = – IL3 I(0) = 0

UL3 – UL2 = – Uf I(1) = – I(2)

Calculation of 2-phase initial short circuit

current with ground connection

L1-L2-L3-system Z(1)l

012-system Z(1)r

~ ~

L1

~ c Un (1)

L2

3

L3

Z(2)l Z(2)r

~ ~

3 c U r

~ -Uf

I scE2E (2)

Z 1 2Z 0

Z(0)l Z(0)r

~ ~

(0)

I L1 0

network left of network right of

fault location

Un fault location fault location

U L2 a c

2

3 Un

U (1) U ( 2) c U (1) U (0)

Un 3

U L3 a c

3 I(0) = I(1) = I(2)

Calculation of 1-phase initial short circuit current

L1-L2-L3-System Z(1)l 012-System Z(1)r

~ ~

(1)

L1

L2

Z(2)l Z(2)r

L3

~ ~

3 c U r

"

I sc1 c Un

~

(2)

~ -Uf Z (1) Z ( 2) Z ( 0) 3

Z(0)l Z(0)r

~ ~

(0)

fault location

Un fault location fault location

U L1 c

3 Un

U (0) U (1) U ( 2) c

IL2 = 0 3

IL3 = 0 I(0) = I(1) = I(2)

Short Circuit Calculation Results

Faults at all Buses

Short Circuit Calculation Results

Contribution for one Fault Location

Example

Data of sample calculation

feeder:

110 / 20 kV 20 kV

40 MVA 10 km

• 110 kV uk = 15 % R1’ = 0.3 Ω / km

PkrT = 100 kVA X1’ = 0.4 Ω / km

• 3 GVA

• R/X = 0.1

Impedance of Network feeder

c Un2

ZI

Sk"

1.1 20 kV

2

ZI

3 GVA

Impedance of Transformer

Un2 Un2

Z T uk R T PkrT 2

Sn Sn

20 kV 2 20 kV 2

Z T 0.15 RT 100 kVA

40 MVA 40MVA 2

Impedance of Transformer

Correction Factor

c max

K T 0.95

1 0.6 x T

1.1

K T 0.95

1 0.6 0.14998

K T 0.95873

Impedance of Overhead Line

RL R' XL X'

RL 0.3 / km 10 km XL 0.4 / km 10 km

RL 3.0000 XI 4.0000

Initial Short-Circuit Current – Fault location 1

R RI RTK X XI XTK

R 0.0146 0.0240 X 0.1460 1.4379

R 0.0386 X 1.5839

c Un

Ik"

3 R1 j X1

1.1 20 kV

Ik"

3 0.03862 1.58392

Ik" 8.0 kA

Initial Short-Circuit Current – Fault location 2

R RI RTK RL X XI XTK XL

R 0.0146 0.0240 3.0000 X 0.1460 1.4379 4.0000

R 3.0386 X 5.5839

c Un

Ik"

3 R1 j X1

1.1 20 kV

Ik"

3 3.0386 2 5.58392

Ik" 2.0 kA

Peak current

Peak Short-Circuit Current

Calculation acc. IEC 60909

• maximum possible instantaneous value of expected short

circuit current ip 2 I"

k

Peak Short-Circuit Current

Calculation in non-meshed Networks

• The peak short-circuit current ip at a short-circuit location, fed from

sources which are not meshed with one another is the sum of the

partial short-circuit currents:

M

G

Peak Short-Circuit Current

Calculation in meshed Networks

• Method A: uniform ratio R/X

– smallest value of all network branches

– quite inexact

– factor b from relation R/X at the fault location (equation or diagram)

– =1,15 b

– factor from relation Rc/Xc with substitute frequency fc = 20 Hz

R Rc fc

–

X Xc f

– best results for meshed networks

Peak Short-Circuit Current

Fictitious Resistance of Generator

– RGf = 0,05 Xd" for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG 100 MVA

– RGf = 0,07 Xd" for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG < 100 MVA

Peak Short-Circuit Current – Fault location 1

Ik" 8.0 kA

R 0.0386 X 1.5839

R / X 0.0244

1.02 0.98 e3R / X

1.93

ip 2 Ik"

ip 21.8 kA

Peak Short-Circuit Current – Fault location 2

Ik" 2.0 kA

R 3.0386 X 5.5839

R / X 0.5442

1.02 0.98 e3R / X

1.21

ip 2 Ik"

ip 3.4 kA

Breaking Current

Breaking Current

Differentiation

• Differentiation between short circuits ”near“ or “far“ from

generator

or

• Ik”with motor > 1.05 ∙ Ik”without motor

Ib = Ik”

Breaking Current

Calculation in non-meshed Networks

• The breaking current IB at a short-circuit location, fed from sources which

are not meshed is the sum of the partial short-circuit currents:

M

G

Breaking current

Decay

IB =of Current

μ ∙ I“ k

fed from Generators

Factor μ to consider the decay of short circuit current fed from

generators.

Breaking current

Decay

IB =of

μ ∙Current

q ∙ I“k fed from Asynchronous Motors

Factor q to consider the decay of short circuit current fed from

asynchronous motors.

Breaking Current

Calculation in meshed Networks

• Simplified calculation:

I b = I k”

U"Gi U"Mj

Ib I (1 i ) IkGi (1 jq j ) IkMj

" " "

k

i c Un / 3 j c Un / 3

" "

UGi jX"diK IkGi

" " "

• I“kGi , I“kMj contribution to initial symmetrical short-circuit current from the synchronous machines (i) and the

asynchronous motors (j) as measured at the machine terminals

Continuous short circuit current

Continuous short circuit current Ik

effects

depending on type and excitation of generators

statement in standard only for single fed short circuit

calculation by factors (similar to breaking current)

network calculation programs.

For short circuits far from generator and as worst case estimation

Ik = I”k

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