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# Short circuit calculations

## Purpose of Short-Circuit Calculations

– Dimensioning of switching devices
– Dynamic dimensioning of switchgear
– Thermal rating of electrical devices (e.g. cables)
– Protection coordination
– Fault diagnostic
– Input data for
– Earthing studies
– Interference calculations
– EMC planning
– …..
Short-Circuit Calculation
Standards
– IEC 60909:
Short-Circuit Current Calculation in Three-Phase A.C. Systems

## • European Standard EN 60909

» German National Standard DIN VDE 0102
» further National Standards

## • Engineering Recommendation G74 (UK)

Procedure to Meet the Requirements of IEC 60909 for the Calculation
of Short-Circuit Currents in Three-Phase AC Power Systems

## – ANSI IIEEE Std. C37.5 (US)

IEEE Guide for Calculation of Fault Currents for Application of a.c. High
Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Total Current Basis.
Short-Circuit Calculations
Scope of IEC 60909
– three-phase a.c. systems
– low voltage and high voltage systems up to 500 kV
– nominal frequency of 50 Hz and 60 Hz
– balanced and unbalanced short circuits
– three phase short circuits
– two phase short circuits (with and without earth connection)
– single phase line-to-earth short circuits in systems with solidly
earthed or impedance earthed neutral
– two separate simultaneous single-phase line-to-earth short circuits in
a systems with isolated neutral or a resonance earthed neutral
(IEC 60909-3)
– maximum short circuit currents
– minimum short circuit currents
Short-Circuit Calculations
Types of Short Circuits

3-phase

2-phase

1-phase

Variation of short circuit current shapes

## fault at voltage peak fault at voltage

zero crossing

fault located in
the network

fault located
near generator
Short-Circuit Calculations
Far-from-generator short circuit
Ik” Initial symmetrical short-circuit current
ip Peak short-circuit current
A Initial value of the d.c component
Short-Circuit Calculations
Definitions according IEC 60909 (I)
• initial symmetrical short-circuit current Ik”
• r.m.s. value of the a.c. symmetrical component of a prospective
(available) short-circuit current, applicable at the instant of short
circuit if the impedance remains at zero-time value

## • initial symmetrical short-circuit power Sk”

• fictitious value determined as a product of the initial symmetrical
short-circuit current Ik”, the nominal system voltage Un and the
 3 √3:
S" factor
k  U  I" n k

• NOTE: Sk” is often used to calculate the internal impedance of a network feeder at the connection
point. In this
2 case the definition given should be used in the following form:
c  Un
Z
Sk"
Short-Circuit Calculations
Definitions according IEC 60909 (II)
• decaying (aperiodic) component id.c. of short-circuit current
• mean value between the top and bottom envelope of a short-
circuit current decaying from an initial value to zero

## • peak short-circuit current ip

• maximum possible instantaneous value of the prospective
(available) short-circuit current

• NOTE: The magnitude of the peak short-circuit current varies in accordance with the moment
at which the short circuit occurs.
Short-Circuit Calculations
Near-to-generator short circuit
Ik” Initial symmetrical short-circuit current
ip Peak short-circuit current
A Initial value of the d.c component
IB Symmetrical short-circuit breaking current

2  2  IB

tB
Short-Circuit Calculations
Definitions according IEC 60909 (III)
• r.m.s. value of the short-circuit current which remains after
the decay of the transient phenomena

## • symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib

• r.m.s. value of an integral cycle of the symmetrical a.c.
component of the prospective short-circuit current at the
instant of contact separation of the first pole to open of a
switching device
Short-Circuit Calculations
Purpose of Short-Circuit Values
Design Criterion Physical Effect Relevant short-circuit current

## Breaking capacity of circuit Thermal stress to arcing Symmetrical short-circuit

breakers chamber; arc extinction breaking current Ib
Mechanical stress to Forces to electrical devices Peak short-circuit current ip
equipment (e.g. bus bars, cables…)
Thermal stress to equipment Temperature rise of electrical Initial symmetrical short-
devices (e.g. cables) circuit current Ik”
Fault duration
Protection setting Selective detection of partial Minimum symmetrical short-
short-circuit currents circuit current Ik
Earthing, Interference, EMC Potential rise; Maximum initial symmetrical
Magnetic fields short-circuit current Ik”
Equivalent Voltage Source
Short-circuit
Equivalent voltage source at the short-
circuit location
real network
Q A F

equivalent circuit
ZN Q ZT A ZL

~
c.U n
I"K
3

## Operational data and the passive load of consumers are neglected

Tap-changer position of transformers is dispensable
Excitation of generators is dispensable
Load flow (local and time) is dispensable
Short circuit in meshed grid
Equivalent voltage source at the short-circuit
location
• real network equivalent circuit
Voltage Factor c
• c is a safety factor to consider the following effects:
• voltage variations depending on time and place,
• changing of transformer taps,
• neglecting loads and capacitances by calculations,
• the subtransient behaviour of generators and motors.

## Voltage factor c for calculation of

Nominal voltage maximum short circuit currents minimum short circuit currents

## Low voltage 100 V – 1000 V

-systems with a tolerance of 6% 1.05 0.95
-systems with a tolerance of 10% 1.10 0.95
Medium voltage >1 kV – 35 kV 1.10 1.00
High voltage >35 kV 1.10 1.00
Short Circuit Impedances and Correction
Factors
Short Circuit Impedances

## • For network feeders, transformer, overhead lines, cable etc.

• impedance of positive sequence system = impedance of negative
sequence system
• impedance of zero sequence system usually different
• topology can be different for zero sequence system

## • Correction factors for

– generators,
– generator blocks,
– network transformer
• factors are valid in zero, positive, negative sequence system
Network feeders
• At a feeder connection point usually one of the following values is given:
– the initial symmetrical short circuit current Ik”
– the initial short-circuit power Sk”

c U n c U n2
ZN   "
3  Ik"
Sk

ZN
XN 
1  (R / X )2

• If R/X of the network feeder is unknown, one of the following values can be
used:
– R/X = 0.1
– R/X = 0.0 for high voltage systems >35 kV fed by overhead lines
Network transformer
Correction of Impedance
ZTK = ZT KT

– general

c max
K T  0,95 
1  0,6  x T
– at known conditions of operation

Un c max
KT  
Ub 1  x T (IbT IrT ) sinbT

## • no correction for impedances between star point and ground

Network transformer
Impact of Correction Factor
1.05

1.00

0.95
KT

0.90
cmax = 1.10
0.85 cmax = 1.05

0.80
0 5 10 15 20
xT [%]

##  Reduction of transformer impedance

 Increase of short-circuit currents
Generator with direct Connection to Network
Correction of Impedance
ZGK = ZG KG

– general
Un c max
KG  
UrG 1  xd  sinrG

## • turbine generator: X(2) = X(1)

• salient pole generator: X(2) = 1/2 (Xd" + Xq")
Generator Block (Power Station)
Correction of Impedance
Q
2
ZS(O) = (tr ZG +ZTHV) KS(O) G

## – power station with on-load tap changer:

2 2
UnQ UrTLV c max
KS  2  2 
UrG UrTHV 1  xd  x T  sinrG

## – power station without on-load tap changers:

UnQ
 rTLV  1  p t  
U c max
K SO 
UrG (1  pG ) UrTHV 1  xd  sinrG
Asynchronous Motors
• Motors contribute to the short circuit currents and have to be considered for
calculation of maximum short circuit currents

2
1 UrM
ZM  
ILR / IrM SrM

ZM
XM 
1  (RM / XM )2

## • If R/X is unknown, the following values can be used:

– R/X = 0.1 medium voltage motors power per pole pair > 1 MW
– R/X = 0.15 medium voltage motors power per pole pair ≤ 1 MW
– R/X = 0.42 low voltage motors (including connection cables)
Special Regulations for low Voltage Motors

## – low voltage motors can be neglected if ∑IrM ≤ Ik”

– groups of motors can be combined to a equivalent motor
– ILR/IrM = 5 can be used
Calculation of initial short circuit current
Calculation of initial short circuit current
Procedure
– Set up equivalent circuit in symmetrical components

## – Consider fault conditions

– in 3-phase system
– transformation into symmetrical components

## – Calculation of fault currents

– in symmetrical components
– transformation into 3-phase system
Calculation of initial short circuit current
Equivalent circuit in symmetrical components

## (1) (1) (1)

(1)
positive sequence system
(1) (1) (1) (1)

## (2) (2) (2)

(2)
(2) (2) (2) (2)
negative sequence system

(0)
(0) (0)
(0)
(0) (0)
(0) (0)
zero sequence system

Calculation of initial short circuit current
3-phase short circuit
L1-L2-L3-system Z(1)l
012-system Z(1)r
L1 ~ ~
c Un
L2 ~ (1)
3
L3
Z(2)l Z(2)r
~ ~ ~ -Uf ~ ~
c  Ur
 
I sc3 (2)
3  Z (1)
Z(0)l Z(0)r
~ ~
(0)

## network left of fault location network right of

UL1 = – Uf fault location fault location

U(1) = – Uf
UL2 = a2 (– Uf)
U(2) = 0
UL3 = a (– Uf)
U(0) = 0
Calculation of 2-phase initial short circuit current
L1-L2-L3-system Z(1)l
012-system Z(1)r
L1 ~ ~
L2 ~ c Un (1)
L3 3
~

Z(2)l Z(2)r
-Uf c U r ~ ~
 
I sc2 (2)
Z 1  Z 2 
Z(0)l Z(0)r
~ ~
c U r 
I sc2 3
 
I sc2   (0)
2 Z 1 
I sc3 2
network left of network right of
U fault location
IL1 = 0 U (1)  U ( 2)  c n fault location fault location
3
IL2 = – IL3 I(0) = 0
UL3 – UL2 = – Uf I(1) = – I(2)
Calculation of 2-phase initial short circuit
current with ground connection
L1-L2-L3-system Z(1)l
012-system Z(1)r
~ ~
L1
~ c Un (1)
L2
3
L3
Z(2)l Z(2)r
~ ~
3 c U r
~ -Uf 
I scE2E  (2)
Z 1  2Z 0 
Z(0)l Z(0)r
~ ~
(0)

I L1  0
network left of network right of
fault location
Un fault location fault location
U L2   a c
2

3 Un
U (1)  U ( 2)   c  U (1)  U (0)
Un 3
U L3   a c
3 I(0) = I(1) = I(2)
Calculation of 1-phase initial short circuit current
L1-L2-L3-System Z(1)l 012-System Z(1)r
~ ~
(1)
L1
L2
Z(2)l Z(2)r
L3
~ ~
3 c U r
"
I sc1  c Un
~
(2)
~ -Uf Z (1)  Z ( 2)  Z ( 0) 3

Z(0)l Z(0)r
~ ~
(0)

## network left of network right of

fault location
Un fault location fault location
U L1   c
3 Un
U (0)  U (1)  U ( 2)   c
IL2 = 0 3
IL3 = 0 I(0) = I(1) = I(2)
Short Circuit Calculation Results
Faults at all Buses
Short Circuit Calculation Results
Contribution for one Fault Location
Example
Data of sample calculation

## • Network Transformer: Overhead line:

feeder:
110 / 20 kV 20 kV
40 MVA 10 km
• 110 kV uk = 15 % R1’ = 0.3 Ω / km
PkrT = 100 kVA X1’ = 0.4 Ω / km
• 3 GVA
• R/X = 0.1
Impedance of Network feeder

c  Un2
ZI 
Sk"

1.1 20 kV 
2

ZI 
3 GVA

## ZI  0.1467  RI  0.0146  XI  0.1460 

Impedance of Transformer

Un2 Un2
Z T  uk  R T  PkrT  2
Sn Sn
20 kV 2 20 kV 2
Z T  0.15  RT  100 kVA 
40 MVA 40MVA 2

## ZT  1.5000  RT  0.0250  XT  1.4998 

Impedance of Transformer
Correction Factor

c max
K T  0.95 
1  0.6  x T
1.1
K T  0.95 
1  0.6  0.14998

K T  0.95873

## ZTK  1.4381 RTK  0.0240  XTK  1.4379 

RL  R' XL  X'

RL  0.3  / km  10 km XL  0.4  / km  10 km

RL  3.0000  XI  4.0000 
Initial Short-Circuit Current – Fault location 1

R  RI  RTK X  XI  XTK
R  0.0146  0.0240 X  0.1460  1.4379
R  0.0386 X  1.5839
c  Un
Ik" 
3  R1  j  X1 
1.1 20 kV
Ik" 
3 0.03862  1.58392
Ik"  8.0 kA
Initial Short-Circuit Current – Fault location 2

R  RI  RTK  RL X  XI  XTK  XL
R  0.0146  0.0240  3.0000 X  0.1460  1.4379  4.0000
R  3.0386 X  5.5839
c  Un
Ik" 
3  R1  j  X1 
1.1 20 kV
Ik" 
3 3.0386 2  5.58392
Ik"  2.0 kA
Peak current
Peak Short-Circuit Current
Calculation acc. IEC 60909
• maximum possible instantaneous value of expected short
circuit current ip    2  I"
k

## • equation for calculation:

Peak Short-Circuit Current
Calculation in non-meshed Networks
• The peak short-circuit current ip at a short-circuit location, fed from
sources which are not meshed with one another is the sum of the
partial short-circuit currents:

M
G

## ip = ip1 + ip2 + ip3 + ip4

Peak Short-Circuit Current
Calculation in meshed Networks
• Method A: uniform ratio R/X
– smallest value of all network branches
– quite inexact

## • Method B: ratio R/X at the fault location

– factor b from relation R/X at the fault location (equation or diagram)
–  =1,15 b

## • Method C: procedure with substitute frequency

– factor  from relation Rc/Xc with substitute frequency fc = 20 Hz
R Rc fc

– 
X Xc f
– best results for meshed networks
Peak Short-Circuit Current
Fictitious Resistance of Generator

– RGf = 0,05 Xd" for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG  100 MVA

– RGf = 0,07 Xd" for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG < 100 MVA

## NOTE: Only for calculation of peak short circuit current

Peak Short-Circuit Current – Fault location 1

Ik"  8.0 kA
R  0.0386 X  1.5839

R / X  0.0244
  1.02  0.98  e3R / X
  1.93

ip    2  Ik"

ip  21.8 kA
Peak Short-Circuit Current – Fault location 2

Ik"  2.0 kA
R  3.0386 X  5.5839

R / X  0.5442
  1.02  0.98  e3R / X
  1.21

ip    2  Ik"

ip  3.4 kA
Breaking Current
Breaking Current
Differentiation
• Differentiation between short circuits ”near“ or “far“ from
generator

## • for at least one synchronous machine is: Ik” > 2 ∙ Ir,Generator

or
• Ik”with motor > 1.05 ∙ Ik”without motor

## • Breaking current Ib for short circuit “far“ from generator

Ib = Ik”
Breaking Current
Calculation in non-meshed Networks
• The breaking current IB at a short-circuit location, fed from sources which
are not meshed is the sum of the partial short-circuit currents:

M
G

## IB = IB1 + IB2 + IB3 + IB4

Breaking current
Decay
 IB =of Current
μ ∙ I“ k
fed from Generators
Factor μ to consider the decay of short circuit current fed from
generators.
Breaking current
Decay
 IB =of
μ ∙Current
q ∙ I“k fed from Asynchronous Motors
Factor q to consider the decay of short circuit current fed from
asynchronous motors.
Breaking Current
Calculation in meshed Networks
• Simplified calculation:
I b = I k”

## • For increased accuracy can be used:

U"Gi U"Mj
Ib  I    (1   i )  IkGi    (1   jq j )  IkMj
" " "
k
i c  Un / 3 j c  Un / 3

## UMj  jXMj  IkMj

" "
UGi  jX"diK  IkGi
" " "

## • X“Mj reactance of the asynchronous motors (j)

• I“kGi , I“kMj contribution to initial symmetrical short-circuit current from the synchronous machines (i) and the
asynchronous motors (j) as measured at the machine terminals
Continuous short circuit current
Continuous short circuit current Ik

##  r.m.s. value of short circuit current after decay of all transient

effects
 depending on type and excitation of generators
 statement in standard only for single fed short circuit
 calculation by factors (similar to breaking current)

## Continuous short circuit current is normally not calculated by

network calculation programs.

For short circuits far from generator and as worst case estimation

Ik = I”k