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Comparing Means:

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related

Samples
t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Using the z-Test: Assumptions

• The z-test (of a sample mean against a population mean) is
based on the assumption that the sample means are normally
distributed.

• For this to be true, one of the following must also be true:

– The underlying population (e.g., of test scores) is normally distributed
– The sample size (n) is sufficiently large to approximate normality by way
of the central limit theorem

(σ)

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

The t-Statistic
• What if we don’t know σ ?
– In most real-world situations in which we want to test a hypothesis, we
do not know the population standard deviation σ
– If we don’t know σ we can compute a test statistic using s, but this
statistic will no longer be normally distributed, so we can no longer use
the z test statistic

• Why?
– s is variable across samples and its sampling distribution is not normally
distributed
• s2 is distributed as a chi-square distribution, which we’ll talk about near the
end of the semester

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

The Sampling Distributions of s2 and s

Sample 1
Student Score s 2  45.70
M  74.2 155 74
120 67 s  6.76
66 69
216 77
188 84

Sample 2
Student Score  7
s 2  20.80 n5
M  73.4 237 68
192 76 s  4.56
101 78
109 69
180 76

Sample 3
Student Score
221 65 s 2  11.80
M  67.6
85 70 s  3.44
223 71
48 63
40 69

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

The t-Statistic
• If we compute something like z, but using s instead of σ, we
get a statistic that follows the t distribution

Remember: Similarly,

M  M 
z , t ,
M sM

 s
where  M  where sM 
n n

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

(n = 5)

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Distribution of the t-Statistic & Sample Size

• You can think of the t statistic as an "estimated z-score."

• The estimation comes from the fact that we are using the sample
variance to estimate the unknown population variance.

• The value of degrees of freedom, df = n - 1, determines how well

the distribution of t approximates a normal distribution and how well
the t statistic represents a z-score.

– For large samples (large df), the estimation is very good and the t statistic
will be very similar to a z-score.
– For small samples (small df), the t statistic will provide a relatively poor
estimate of z.
– For large df, the t distribution will be nearly normal, but for small df, the t
distribution will be flatter and more spread out than a normal distribution.

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Distribution of the t-Statistic

The shape of the t-distribution depends on the number of degrees of freedom

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Distribution of the t-Statistic

Smaller samples (with fewer df) require greater t values to reject H0

t(4), α = 0.05
t(200), α = 0.05

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples
Level of significance for one-tailed test
0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0005
t-Distribution Table Level of significance for two-tailed test
df 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.001
1 1.000 1.376 1.963 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657 636.619
2 0.816 1.061 1.386 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 31.599
3 0.765 0.978 1.250 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 12.924
4 0.741 0.941 1.190 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 8.610
5 0.727 0.920 1.156 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 6.869
6 0.718 0.906 1.134 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 5.959
α 7 0.711 0.896 1.119 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 5.408
8 0.706 0.889 1.108 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 5.041
9 0.703 0.883 1.100 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 4.781
10 0.700 0.879 1.093 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 4.587
11 0.697 0.876 1.088 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 4.437
t 12 0.695 0.873 1.083 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 4.318
One-tailed test 13 0.694 0.870 1.079 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 4.221
14 0.692 0.868 1.076 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 4.140
15 0.691 0.866 1.074 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 4.073
16 0.690 0.865 1.071 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 4.015
17 0.689 0.863 1.069 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.965
18 0.688 0.862 1.067 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.922
19 0.688 0.861 1.066 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.883
20 0.687 0.860 1.064 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.850
21 0.686 0.859 1.063 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.819
α/2 α/2
22 0.686 0.858 1.061 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.792
23 0.685 0.858 1.060 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.768
24 0.685 0.857 1.059 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.745
25 0.684 0.856 1.058 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.725
-t t 26 0.684 0.856 1.058 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.707
Two-tailed test 27 0.684 0.855 1.057 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.690
28 0.683 0.855 1.056 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.674
29 0.683 0.854 1.055 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.659
30 0.683 0.854 1.055 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.646
40 0.681 0.851 1.050 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 3.551
01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014 50 0.679 0.849 1.047 1.299 1.676 2.009 2.403 2.678 3.496
100 0.677 0.845 1.042 1.290 1.660 1.984 2.364 2.626 3.390
t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

The One-Sample t-Test: Example

• Research Hypothesis H1: µDr.M ≠ µAVG
  70.0
• Null Hypothesis H0: µDr.M = µAVG  ?

• We sample 5 (i.e., N=5) students from Dr. M’s class,

administer the test and find that their average score is 75, with
a sample standard deviation of 7.0. Do we accept or reject
the null hypothesis?
– Assume a two-tailed test, with α = 0.05

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

The One-Sample t-Test: Steps

1. Use t distribution table to find critical t-value(s) representing
rejection region (denoted by tcrit or tα)

2. Compute t-statistic
– For data in which I give you raw scores, you will have to compute the
sample mean and sample standard deviation

3. Make a decision: does the t-statistic for your sample fall into
the rejection region?

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples
Level of significance for one-tailed test
0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0005
t-Distribution Table Level of significance for two-tailed test
df 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.001
1 1.000 1.376 1.963 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657 636.619
2 0.816 1.061 1.386 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 31.599
3 0.765 0.978 1.250 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 12.924
4 0.741 0.941 1.190 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 8.610
5 0.727 0.920 1.156 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 6.869
6 0.718 0.906 1.134 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 5.959
α 7 0.711 0.896 1.119 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 5.408
8 0.706 0.889 1.108 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 5.041
9 0.703 0.883 1.100 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 4.781
10 0.700 0.879 1.093 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 4.587
11 0.697 0.876 1.088 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 4.437
t 12 0.695 0.873 1.083 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 4.318
One-tailed test 13 0.694 0.870 1.079 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 4.221
14 0.692 0.868 1.076 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 4.140
15 0.691 0.866 1.074 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 4.073
16 0.690 0.865 1.071 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 4.015
17 0.689 0.863 1.069 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.965
18 0.688 0.862 1.067 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.922
19 0.688 0.861 1.066 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.883
20 0.687 0.860 1.064 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.850
21 0.686 0.859 1.063 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.819
α/2 α/2
22 0.686 0.858 1.061 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.792
23 0.685 0.858 1.060 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.768
24 0.685 0.857 1.059 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.745
25 0.684 0.856 1.058 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.725
-t t 26 0.684 0.856 1.058 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.707
Two-tailed test 27 0.684 0.855 1.057 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.690
28 0.683 0.855 1.056 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.674
29 0.683 0.854 1.055 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.659
30 0.683 0.854 1.055 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.646
40 0.681 0.851 1.050 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 3.551
01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014 50 0.679 0.849 1.047 1.299 1.676 2.009 2.403 2.678 3.496
100 0.677 0.845 1.042 1.290 1.660 1.984 2.364 2.626 3.390
t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Compute t-Statistic

  70.0 M 
t  df  
s  7.0 s
n5 n
M  75.0 75  70
t  n  1 
7
t.05  2.776
5
5
t  4   1.60
3.13

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

critical region
t(4), α= 0.05, 2-tailed test
(extreme 5%) middle 95%
reject H0 retain H0

µ from H0
t -2.78 0 2.78
t = 1.60 retain H0:
no difference
01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014
t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

The One-Sample t-Test: A Full Example

Moon illusion example: how large must moon be at zenith to appear
equivalent in size to moon at horizon?

• x = sizezenith /sizehorizon

• Do we accept or reject the null hypothesis?

– Assume a two-tailed test, with α = 0.05

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples
Level of significance for one-tailed test
0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0005
t-Distribution Table Level of significance for two-tailed test
df 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.001
1 1.000 1.376 1.963 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657 636.619
2 0.816 1.061 1.386 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 31.599
3 0.765 0.978 1.250 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 12.924
4 0.741 0.941 1.190 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 8.610
5 0.727 0.920 1.156 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 6.869
6 0.718 0.906 1.134 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 5.959
α 7 0.711 0.896 1.119 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 5.408
8 0.706 0.889 1.108 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 5.041
9 0.703 0.883 1.100 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 4.781
10 0.700 0.879 1.093 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 4.587
11 0.697 0.876 1.088 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 4.437
t 12 0.695 0.873 1.083 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 4.318
One-tailed test 13 0.694 0.870 1.079 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 4.221
14 0.692 0.868 1.076 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 4.140
15 0.691 0.866 1.074 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 4.073
16 0.690 0.865 1.071 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 4.015
17 0.689 0.863 1.069 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.965
18 0.688 0.862 1.067 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.922
19 0.688 0.861 1.066 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.883
20 0.687 0.860 1.064 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.850
21 0.686 0.859 1.063 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.819
α/2 α/2
22 0.686 0.858 1.061 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.792
23 0.685 0.858 1.060 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.768
24 0.685 0.857 1.059 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.745
25 0.684 0.856 1.058 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.725
-t t 26 0.684 0.856 1.058 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.707
Two-tailed test 27 0.684 0.855 1.057 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.690
28 0.683 0.855 1.056 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.674
29 0.683 0.854 1.055 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.659
30 0.683 0.854 1.055 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.646
40 0.681 0.851 1.050 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 3.551
01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014 50 0.679 0.849 1.047 1.299 1.676 2.009 2.403 2.678 3.496
100 0.677 0.845 1.042 1.290 1.660 1.984 2.364 2.626 3.390
t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

M 
t  df  
X X2
1.73
1.06
2.99
1.12
s
2.03 4.12 n
1.40 1.96
0.95 0.90
1.13 1.28
1.41 1.99
1.73 2.99
1.63 2.66
1.56 2.43
sum 14.63 22.45

x
M i

n

 x
2

SS   x 2  
n

SS
s 
n 1

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

1. Compute sample mean and SD 2. Use these values to compute t-statistic

(Remember, µ=1 under H0)
X X2
1.73 2.99

M 
1.06 1.12
2.03 4.12
t  df  
1.40 1.96 s
0.95 0.90
1.13 1.28 n
1.41 1.99
1.463  1
1.73 2.99
t  n  1 
1.63
1.56
2.66
2.43
0.341
sum 14.63 22.45 10
0.463
x 14.63
t 9   4.29
M i
  1.463 0.108
n 10

 x
2
14.632
SS   x 2   22.45   1.046
n 10
t0.05  2.262
SS 1.046
s   0.116  0.341
n 1 9 4.29  2.262; reject H 0

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Hypothesis Testing with the t-Statistic

• Both the sample size and the sample variance influence the
outcome of a hypothesis test.
• The sample size is inversely related to the estimated standard
error. Therefore, a large sample size increases the likelihood
of a significant test (for an existing effect).
• The sample variance, on the other hand, is directly related to
the estimated standard error. Therefore, a large variance
decreases the likelihood of a significant test (for an existing
effect).

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

t-Tests for Two Related Samples: Repeated

Measures
• The related-samples t-test allows researchers to evaluate the
mean difference between two treatment conditions using the
data from a single sample.
– This test can also be called the repeated-measures t-test, the matched-
samples t-test, or the paired-samples t-test

• In a repeated-measures design, a single group of individuals

is obtained and each individual is measured in both of the
treatment conditions being compared.

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

• The related-samples t test can also be used for a similar

design, called a matched-subjects design, in which each
individual in one treatment is matched one-to-one with a
corresponding individual in the second treatment.

• The matching is accomplished by selecting pairs of subjects

so that the two subjects in each pair have identical (or nearly
identical) scores on the variable that is being used for
matching.

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

t-Statistic for Two Related Samples

• The repeated-measures t statistic allows researchers to test a
hypothesis about the population mean difference between two
treatment conditions using sample data from a repeated-
measures research study.

• In this situation it is possible to compute a difference score for

each individual:

difference score = D = x2 – x1

where x1 is the person’s score in the first treatment and x2 is the

score in the second treatment.

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Two Related Samples: Example

Family therapy for anorexic girls

x1: weight before treatment

x2: weight after treatment

X1 X2 D = X2 –X1
83.80 95.20 11.40
83.30 94.30 11.00
86.00 91.50 5.50
82.50 91.90 9.40
86.70 100.30 13.60
79.60 76.70 -2.90
76.90 76.80 -0.10
94.20 101.60 7.40
73.40 94.90 21.50
80.50 75.20 -5.30

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

t-Statistic for Two Related Samples

The sample of difference scores is used to test hypotheses
about the population of difference scores.

• The null hypothesis states that the population of difference scores has a
mean of zero:

H 0 : D  2  1  0
• The alternative hypothesis states that there is a systematic difference
between treatments that causes the difference scores to be consistently
positive (or negative) and produces a non-zero mean difference between
the treatments:

H1 : D  0

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

t-Statistic for Two Related Samples

• This should seem very familiar: the repeated-measures t statistic forms
a ratio with exactly the same structure as the one-sample t statistic.

M D  D MD
t  df  nD  1
sM D sD
nD
• The numerator of the t statistic measures the difference between the
sample mean and the hypothesized population mean.

• The only differences are that:

– the sample mean and standard deviation are computed for the difference scores D
– The population mean under H0 is always 0
– The number of degrees of freedom (df) is computed based on the difference scores

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

The Repeated-Measures t-Test: Full Example

Does family therapy affect the weight gained by anorexic girls?

• x1 : weight before treatment

• x2 : weight after treatment
• D = x 2 – x1

• Do we accept or reject the null hypothesis?

– Assume a two-tailed test, with α = 0.05

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples
Level of significance for one-tailed test
0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0005
t-Distribution Table Level of significance for two-tailed test
df 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.001
1 1.000 1.376 1.963 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657 636.619
2 0.816 1.061 1.386 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 31.599
3 0.765 0.978 1.250 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 12.924
4 0.741 0.941 1.190 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 8.610
5 0.727 0.920 1.156 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 6.869
6 0.718 0.906 1.134 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 5.959
α 7 0.711 0.896 1.119 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 5.408
8 0.706 0.889 1.108 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 5.041
9 0.703 0.883 1.100 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 4.781
10 0.700 0.879 1.093 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 4.587
11 0.697 0.876 1.088 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 4.437
t 12 0.695 0.873 1.083 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 4.318
One-tailed test 13 0.694 0.870 1.079 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 4.221
14 0.692 0.868 1.076 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 4.140
15 0.691 0.866 1.074 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 4.073
16 0.690 0.865 1.071 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 4.015
17 0.689 0.863 1.069 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.965
18 0.688 0.862 1.067 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.922
19 0.688 0.861 1.066 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.883
20 0.687 0.860 1.064 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.850
21 0.686 0.859 1.063 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.819
α/2 α/2
22 0.686 0.858 1.061 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.792
23 0.685 0.858 1.060 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.768
24 0.685 0.857 1.059 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.745
25 0.684 0.856 1.058 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.725
-t t 26 0.684 0.856 1.058 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.707
Two-tailed test 27 0.684 0.855 1.057 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.690
28 0.683 0.855 1.056 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.674
29 0.683 0.854 1.055 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.659
30 0.683 0.854 1.055 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.646
40 0.681 0.851 1.050 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 3.551
01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014 50 0.679 0.849 1.047 1.299 1.676 2.009 2.403 2.678 3.496
100 0.677 0.845 1.042 1.290 1.660 1.984 2.364 2.626 3.390
t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

1. Compute sample mean and SD 2. Use these values to compute t-statistic

X1 X2 D = X2 –X1 D2
(Remember, µD=0 under H0)
83.80 95.20 11.40 129.96
83.30 94.30 11.00 121.00
MD  
86.00 91.50 5.50 30.25 t  df  
82.50 91.90 9.40 88.36 sD
86.70 100.30 13.60 184.96
79.60 76.70 -2.90 8.41 nD
76.90 76.80 -0.10 0.01
7.15  0
94.20 101.60 7.40 54.76
t  n  1 
73.40 94.90 21.50 462.25 8.14
80.50 75.20 -5.30 28.09
Sum 71.50 1108.05 10
7.15
D
t 9   2.78
MD  i

71.50
 7.15
2.57
n 10

 D
2
71.502
SS   D 2   1108.05   569.82
n 10
t0.05  2.262
SS 569.82
s   66.31  8.14
n 1 9 2.78  2.262; reject H 0

01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014

t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Measuring Effect Size for Mean Differences

• Because the significance of a treatment effect is determined
partially by the size of the effect and partially by the size of the
sample, you cannot assume that a significant effect is also a
large effect.
• Therefore, a measure of effect size is usually computed along
with the hypothesis test.

1  0
Cohen’s d: d

• Cohen’s d measures the size of the treatment effect in terms

of the standard deviation.
01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014
t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Measuring Effect Size for Mean Differences

• Of course we usually do not have all of the population
parameters. Therefore, we usually compute an estimate of the
effect size.

M  0
• For z-tests: dˆ 

M  0
• For one-sample t-tests: d̂ 
s

ˆ M D   D0
• For related-samples t-tests: d 
sD
01:830:200:01-04 Spring 2014
t-Tests for One Sample & Two Related Samples

Measuring Effect Size for the t-Statistic

For the moon illusion example:

  1.0
s  0.341
n  10
M  1.463
ˆ M   1.463  1
Cohen’s d: d    1.36
s 0.341