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Water Table
Water Table

Distribution of fluid pressures in the ground respect to the water table

Capillary fringe
ü Capillary pores in the zone of aeration draw up water from the zone of
saturation beneath the water table.
ü In very fine-grained soils, this capillary fringe can saturate the soil
above the water table
ü Tensiometer reading is negative
ü Capillary fringe is a part of vadose zone
ü Vadose Zone : the upper layer of the earth that contain a three-phase
system of solid, liquid, and gaseous material.
ü Also called the zone of aeration or unsaturated zone.
Definition of aquifer
— A aquifer is a geologic unit that can store and transmit water at
rates fast enough to supply reasonable amounts to wells.
— Type of rocks for aquifer: unconsolidated sands and gravels,
sand stones, lime stones and dolomites, basalat, fractured
plutonic and metamorphic rocks.
— A confining layer is a geologic unit having little or not intrinsic
permeability –less than about 10-2darcy.
— Aquifuge is an absolutely impermeable unit that will not
transmit any water
— Aquiclude is a formation that has very low hydraulic
conductivity, which hardly transmit water
— Aquitard is a layer of low permeability that can store ground
water and also transmit it slowly from one aquifer to another;
also know as leaky confining layer.
Types of Aquifers
— Unconfined aquifer (Water-table aquifer)
— Confined aquifer (Artesian aquifer)
Unconfined Aquifer
— An aquifer that is close to the ground surface, with
continuous layers of materials of high intrinsic
permeability extending from the land surface to the
base of the aquifer.
— Recharge from downward seepage through the
unsaturated zone, lateral ground water flow, or
upward seepage from underlying strata.
Confined Aquifer
— An aquifer that is overlain by a confining layer.
— Recharge occurs in recharge area, where the aquifer
crops out, or by slow downward leakage through a
leaky confining layer.
— Potentiometric surface is the surface representative of
the level to which water will rise in a well cased to the
Perched Aquifer
— Water intercepted by a layer of low-permeability
material in more permeable materials and
accumulated on top of the low-permeability layer.
— Occurs above the main water table.
— (akifer tumpang, terjadi apabila air yang meresap
ditahan oleh suatu lapisan yang kedap air, biasanya
kecil dan bersifat sementara)
Type of rocks for aquifer: unconsolidated sands and
gravels, sand stones, lime stones and dolomites,
basalat, fractured plutonic and metamorphic rocks.

Formation gravel (kerikil)

Formation sand (pasir)

Unconsilidated rocks
Consolidated rocks



Natural recharge of unconfined aquifers

the excess water over passing the field

capacity of the soil

this occurs when the groundwater

level is at a lower value than the river
water level
Natural recharge of unconfined aquifers
Natural recharge of confined aquifers
Natural discharge of unconfined aquifers

this occurs when the groundwater

level is higher than the river water
Natural discharge of unconfined aquifers

a. If the water table intersects the ground surface a spring can occur

b. if an impervious layer does not allow the normal percolation and a perched
aquifer is formed, a spring can flow at a higher elevation
Natural discharge of confined aquifers
Spring water
Water table and
potentiometric surface maps
— Maps of the water table an uncofined aquifer and the
potentionmetric surface of the confined aquifer are
basic tools of hydrogeologic interpretation.
— Data : water level elevations as measured in wells
— The water table generally has the same shape as the
topography, modified by the location of water
source/sinks and distribution of permeability.
— A sloping water table indicates water is flowing
— Water typically flows away from topo highs an toward
topo lows
Aquifer characteristic
— Transmissivity : amount of water that can be transmitted
horizontally through a unit width by the full saturated
thickness of the aquifer under a hydraulic gradient of 1.
T= bK
T: transmissivity(L2/T or m2/d)
K: hydraulic conductivity (L/T)
b: saturated thickness of the aquifer (L or m)
• For multilayer aquifer, total transmitivity is the sum of the
transmivitiy of each of the layers:
T = å Ti
i =1
Specific storage (Ss) or Elastic storage
— The amount of water per unit volume of a saturated
formation that is stored or expelled from storage owing
to compressibility of the mineral skeleton and the pore
water unit change in head.
Ss = ρw g(α + n β)

ρw : density of water
g : the acceleration of gravity
α : compressibility of aquifer skeleton (1/(M/LT2))
β : compressibility of water (1/(M/LT2))
n : porosity (L3/L3
— Storativity(S) orStorage coefficient : The volume of
water that a permeable unit will absorb or expel from
storage per unit surface area per unit change in head.
— Storativity in a confined aquifer is the product of the
specific storage and the aquifer thickness (b)
— Confined aquifer S = b Ss

— Unconfined aquifer S = Sy + b Ss

— Volume of water drained Vw = S A Δh

Vw volume of water drained
S the storativity
A surface area overlying the drained aquifer
Δh average decline in head
Homogeneity and Isotropy
Homogeneous: has the same properties at all locations.
In heterogenous formation, hydraulic properties change spatialy
Isotropic: the instrinsic permeability is the same in all directions, due to the
geometry of the voids is the same in all direction.

Fig. 3.27 Grain shape and

orientation can affect the isotropy
or anisotropy of a sediment
Fig. 3.28 Anisotropy of fractured rock Fig. 3.26 Hetrogeneous formation consisting
units due to directional nature of of three layers of differing hydraulic
fracturing conductivity
Horizontal and vertical K
K hmbm K v avg = n
K h avg = å å
m =1 b m =1 K vm

Kh avg the average horizontal hydraulic conductivity

Khm the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the mth layer
bm the thickness of the mth layer
b the total aquifer thickness
Kv avg the average hydraulic conductivity
Kvm the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the mth layer
Titik elevasi : 95,90,85,80,75,70
Bagi perbedaan head antara dua sumur dengan jarak kedua
sumur tersebut




+56 100 m +76

50 m

50 m
+51 100 m