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TIA/EIA

TELECOMMUNICATIONS
SYSTEMS BULLETIN
TSB100-A

Wireless Network Reference Model

TSB100-A
(Revision of TSB100))

MARCH 2001

TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

The Telecommunications Industry Association


represents the communications sector of
NOTICE

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regulations, or for other appropriate reasons.

(From Project No. 4463, formulated under the cognizance of the TIA TR-45 Committee on
Mobile and Personal Communications.)

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TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 2001


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TSB100-A

1
2
3
CONTENTS
4
5
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................. iii
6
7 PREFACE..............................................................................................................................iii
8
9 REVISION HISTORY.............................................................................................................. iii
10
11
1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE ............................................................................................... 1
12 1.1 References........................................................................................................ 1
13
14 2. REFERENCE MODELS................................................................................................ 4
15 2.1 TR-45 Wireless Network Reference Model ............................................................. 4
16
2.1.1 Network Entities................................................................................... 6
17
18 2.1.2 Reference Points ................................................................................. 13
19
20
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22
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TR-45 Wireless NRM i Contents


TSB100-A

LIST OF FIGURES 2
3
4
Figure 2.1 TR-45 Wireless Network Reference Model ........................................... 5 5
6
7
8
9
10
11

PREFACE 12
13
14
This TR-45 Wireless Network Reference Model depicts circuit-mode and packet-mode
15
operation.
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

REVISION HISTORY 23
24
25
Revision Date Description 26
27
0 March 1998 TSB100 initial publication. 28
29
1 March 2001 TSB100-A publication. 30
31
32
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List of Figures ii TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
2
3
1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE
4
5 This document recommends the basic TR-45 Wireless Network Reference Model.
6
7
8
1.1 References
9
10 ANSI-41
11 • TIA/EIA-41-D, Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations,
12 December, 1997.
13
14
15
ANSI-93
16
• TIA/EIA-93-B, Cellular Radio Telecommunications Ai - Di Interface Standard,
17
December, 1997.
18
19 ANSI-95
20 • TIA/EIA-95-B, Mobile Station – Base Station Compatibility Standard for
21 Wideband Spread Spectrum Cellular Systems; Telecommunications Industry
22 Association; February 1999.
23 • TSB74, Support for 14.4 kbps Data Rates and PCS Interaction for Wideband
24 Spread Spectrum Cellular Systems, December, 1995.
25
ANSI-124
26
• TIA/EIA-124-C, Wireless Radio Telecommunications Intersystem Non-Signaling
27
Data Communications DMH (Data Message Handler), September 2000.
28
29
30
ANSI-136
31
• TIA/EIA-136-B, TDMA Third Generation Wireless, Rev. B, March 2000.
32
33
ANSI-553
34
• TIA/EIA-553-A, Mobile Station - Land Station Compatibility Specification;
35
November 1999.
36
37 ANSI-634
38 • TIA/EIA-634-B, MSC - BS Interface for Public Wireless Communications
39 Systems, April 1999.
40
41 IS-658
42 • TIA/EIA/IS-658, Data Services Interworking Function Interface for Wideband Spread
43 Spectrum Systems, July, 1996.
44 • TIA/EIA/IS-658-1, Data Services Interworking Function Interface for Wideband
45 Spread Spectrum Systems - Addendum 1, April, 1999.
46
47 IS-683
48 • TIA/EIA/IS-683-A, Over-The-Air Service Provisioning of Mobile Stations in
49 Spread Spectrum Systems, June 1998.
50
51 IS-725
52 • TIA/EIA/IS-725-A, Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations -
53 Over-The-Air Service Provisioning (OTASP) & Parameter Administration
54 (OTAPA), July 1999.
55
56
IS-728
57
• TIA/EIA/IS-728, Intersystem Link Protocol, April, 1998.
58
59
60

TR-45 Wireless NRM 1 Purpose And Scope


TSB100-A

1
IS-737
2
• TIA/EIA/IS-737, Enhancements for Circuit Mode Services, May 1998.
3
4
IS-756
5
• TIA/EIA/IS-756-A, TIA/EIA-41-D Enhancements for Wireless Number Portability
6
Phase II, December 1998.
7
8
IS-771 9
• TIA/EIA/IS-771, Wireless Intelligent Network, July 1999. 10
11
IS-788 12
• TIA/EIA/IS-788, Connector Specification for the Portable Phone Interface, June 13
1999. 14
15
IS-789 16
• TIA/EIA/IS-789-A, Electrical Specification for the Portable Phone to Vehicle 17
Interface, April, 2000. 18
19
IS-816 20
• TIA/EIA/IS-816, IDB Message Set Definitions for the Electrical Interface Between 21
Portable Phone and Vehicle,_tbd_2000. 22
23
IS-820 24
• TIA/EIA/IS-820, Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM) for TIA/EIA Spread 25
Spectrum Standards, March 2000. 26
27
IS-826 28
• TIA/EIA/IS-826, Wireless Intelligent Network Capabilities for Pre-Paid Charging, 29
August 2000. 30
31

IS-835 32

• TIA/EIA/IS-835, cdma2000 Wireless IP Network Standard, December 2000. 33


34

IS-839 35

• TIA/EIA/IS-839, R-UIM Overview, Operation and File Structure Support in 36

TIA/EIA-136-A, June 9, 2000. 37


38
39
IS-841
40
• TIA/EIA/IS-841, Network Based Enhancements for User Identity Module (UIM),
41
August, 2000.
42
43
IS-2000
44
• TIA/EIA/IS-2000-A, cdma2000 Series, March, 2000 which includes:
45
• TIA/EIA/IS-2000.1-A, Introduction for cdma2000 Spread Spectrum Systems, 46
• TIA/EIA/IS-2000.2-A, Physical Layer Standard for cdma2000 Spread Spectrum 47
Systems, 48
• TIA/EIA/IS-2000.3-A, Medium Access Control (MAC) Standard for cdma2000 49
Spread Spectrum Systems, 50

• TIA/EIA/IS-2000.4-A, Signaling Link Access Control (LAC) Standard for 51

cdma2000 Spread Spectrum Systems, 52


53
• TIA/EIA/IS-2000.5-A, Upper Layer (Layer 3) Signaling Standard for cdma2000
54
Spread Spectrum Systems, and
55
• TIA/EIA/IS-2000.6-A, Analog Signaling Standard for cdma2000 Spread
56
Spectrum Systems.
57
58
59
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Purpose And Scope 2 TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
IS-2001
2
• TIA/EIA/IS-2001, Interoperability Specification (IOS) for CDMA 2000 Access
3
Network Interfaces, December 2000.
4
5
ITU
6
• M.3100, Generic Network Information Model, July 1995.
7
8
9
J-STD-025
10
• TIA/EIA/J-STD-025, Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance, 2000.
11
12
J-STD-036
13
• TIA/EIA/J-STD-036, Wireless Enhanced Emergency Services, 2000.
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
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57
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59
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TR-45 Wireless NRM 3 Purpose And Scope


TSB100-A

2. REFERENCE MODELS 2
3
4
Reference models are a graphical tool used to visualize, structure, and describe certain 5
complex subjects. A few such models are widely used in the TR-45 wireless standards. 6
7

2.1 TR-45 Wireless Network Reference Model 8


9
10
Figure 2.1 presents the network entities and associated reference points that comprise a
11
wireless network. The network entities are represented by squares, triangles and rounded
12
corner rectangles; the reference points are represented by circles. The network reference
13
model in this document is the compilation of several reference models currently in use in
14
TIA wireless standards.
15
16
17
Note the following: 18
19
• The network reference model is a functional block 20
diagram. 21
22
• A network entity represents a group of functions, not a 23
physical device. For example, a Mobile Switching Center 24
(MSC) is a physical device; it comprises frames, shelves, 25
circuit packs, etc. The physical device may comprise a 26
single network entity such as the MSC, or it may 27
comprise some combination such as the MSC, the Visitor 28

Location Register (VLR), the Home Location Register 29

(HLR), and the Authentication Center (AC). The physical 30

realization is an implementation issue; a manufacturer 31


32
may choose any physical implementation of network
33
entities, either individually or in combination, as long as 34
the implementation meets the functional requirements. 35
Sometimes, for practical reasons, the functional network 36
entity is a physical device. The Mobile Station (MS) is an 37
excellent example. 38
39
• A reference point is a conceptual point that divides two 40
groups of functions. It is not necessarily a physical 41
interface. A reference point only becomes a physical 42
interface when the network entities on either side of it are 43
contained in different physical devices. 44
45
• A “Collective Entity” contains encompassed network 46
entities that are an instance of the collective. 47
48
• A “Composite Entity” contains encompassed network 49
entities that are part of the composite. 50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Reference Model 4 TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
2
3
4
5
6
7 MS IP T3 T7 SN Di Ai
SCP
8
9
T8
10
NPDB T5 T9 T1 T2 T6 T4
11 Z
MT0
12
ME
13
14 LPDE VMS EIR DCE Rv
PSTN W
E? Z1
15 TE2
16 Ai [ESNE]
A ter
Sm MT1 F
17 E
TE1
18 BS

19 Um BTS A bis BSC A MSC Pi PDN Rx


TE2
20
21
Rm TAm Q Z2 C B
22 Z3 Di
TE2
23 A quinter
24 MC N HLR D VLR ISDN S
Q1 TE1
25
M2
[ESNE]
26 G
R MT2 PCF M1 H D1
m N1
27TE2
28
X
29 SME AC OTAF CSC TA R
Ur Ui A quater M3 TE2
30 E3 V
31 Di
32 UIM Pi
33
PDSN AAA HA MPC E9 IWF
34
E12
35
Uv Pi WNE Y
36 E5

37 E2
38 Vehicle PDE ESME
39 IAP
CDIS
40
41 I d E11

42
43 MWNE CDCP DF CRDB
CDGP J
44
45
O1 K e
46
47
48 OSF CDRP CF
49
O2
50

Key
51
52
Interface to Another Instance
53 Specific Network Entity Collective Entity
x
of Same Network Entity
54
Composite Entity
55
H Interface Reference Point Line Intersection
56
57
58
Figure 2.1 TR-45 Wireless Network Reference Model
59
60

TR-45 Wireless NRM 5 Reference Model


TSB100-A

AAA Authentication, Authorization MC Message Center 2

and Accounting 3
AC Authentication Center ME Mobile Equipment 4
BS Base Station MPC Mobile Position Center 5
BSC Base Station Controller MS Mobile Station 6
BTS Base Transceiver System MSC Mobile Switching Center 7
CDCP Call Data Collection Point MT Mobile Terminal 8
CDGP Call Data Generation Point MWNE Managed Wireless Network Entity 9
CDIS Call Data Information Source NPDB Number Portability DataBase
10
CDRP Call Data Rating Point OSF Operations System Function
11
CF Collection Function OTAF Over-The-Air Service
12
Provisioning Function
CRDB Coordinate Routing Data Base PCF Packet Control Function 13

CSC Customer Service Center PDE Position Determining Entity 14


DCE Data Circuit Equipment PDN Packet Data Network 15
DF Delivery Function PDSN Packet Data Serving Node 16
EIR Equipment Identity Register PSTN Public Switched Telephone 17
Network 18
ESME Emergency Services Message SCP Service Control Point 19
Entity
20
ESNE Emergency Services Network SN Service Node
21
Entity
22
HA Home Agent SME Short Message Entity
HLR Home Location Register TA Terminal Adapter 23

ISDN Integrated Services Digital TE Terminal Equipment 24


Network 25
IP Intelligent Peripheral UIM User Identity Module 26
IAP Intercept Access Point VLR Visitor Location Register 27
IWF Interworking Function VMS Voice Message System 28
LPDE Local Position Determining Entity WNE Wireless Network Entity 29
30
31
2.1.1 Network Entities
32
33
Each Network Entity may be a physical device, may form part of a physical device, or
34
may be distributed over a number of physical devices. See Section 2.1.2 for the
35
definition of the Reference Points associated with each Network Entity.
36
37
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) 38
39
The AAA is an entity that provides Internet Protocol functionality to support the 40
functions of Authentication, Authorization and Accounting. 41
42
43
Authentication Center (AC)
44
45
The AC is an entity that manages the authentication information related to the MS. The
46
AC may, or may not be located within, and be indistinguishable from an HLR. An AC
47
may serve more than one HLR.
48
49
Base Station (BS) 50
51
A BS is an entity that provides the means for MSs to access network services using radio. 52
It includes a BSC and a BTS. 53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Reference Model 6 TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
Base Station Controller (BSC)
2
3
The BSC is an entity that provides control and management for one or more BTSs. The
4
BSC exchanges messages with both the BTS and the MSC. Traffic and signaling
5
concerned with call control, mobility management, and MS management may pass
6
transparently through the BSC.
7
8
9 Base Transceiver System (BTS)
10
11 The BTS is an entity that provides transmission capabilities across the U m reference
12 point. The BTS consists of radio devices, antenna and equipment.
13
14
Call Data Collection Point (CDCP)
15
16
The CDCP is the entity that collects the ANSI-124 format call detail information.
17
18
19 Call Data Generation Point (CDGP)
20
21 The CDGP is an entity which provides call detail information to the CDCP in ANSI-124
22 format. This may be the entity which converts call detail information from a proprietary
23 format into the ANSI-124 format. All information from the CDGP to the CDCP must
24 be in ANSI-124 format.
25
26
Call Data Information Source (CDIS)
27
28
The CDIS is an entity that can be the source of call detail information. This information
29
may be in proprietary format. It is not required to be in ANSI-124 format.
30
31
32 Call Data Rating Point (CDRP)
33
34 The CDRP is the entity that takes the unrated ANSI-124 format call detail information
35 and applies the applicable charge and tax related information. The charge and tax
36 information is added using ANSI-124 format.
37
38 Collection Function (CF) - [Intercept]
39
40 The CF is an entity that is responsible for collecting intercepted communications for a
41 lawfully authorized law enforcement agency.
42
43 The CFs typically include:
44
• the ability to receive and process call contents information for each intercept
45
subject.
46
47
• the ability to receive information regarding each intercept subject (e.g., call
48
associated or non-call associated) from the Delivery function and process it.
49
50 Coordinate Routing Data Base (CRDB)
51
52 The CRDB is an entity which stores information to translate a given position
53 expressed as a latitude and longitude to a string of digits.
54
55
56
Customer Service Center (CSC)
57
58
The CSC is an entity where service provider representatives receive telephone calls from
59
customers wishing to subscribe to initial wireless service or request a change in the
60

TR-45 Wireless NRM 7 Network Entities


TSB100-A

1
customer’s existing service. The CSC interfaces proprietarily with the OTAF to perform
2
network and MS related changes necessary to complete the service provisioning request.
3
4
Data Circuit Equipment (DCE) 5
6
A termination that provides a non-ISDN user-network interface (e.g., ITU-T [CCITT] 7
V series, ITU-T [CCITT] X series). 8
9
10
Delivery Function (DF) - [Intercept]
11
12
The DF is an entity that is responsible for delivering intercepted communications to one
13
or more collection functions.
14
The DFs typically include: 15
16
• the ability to accept call contents for each intercept subject over one or more 17
channels from each Access function. 18
19
• the ability to deliver call contents for each intercept subject over one or more
20
channels to a Collection function as authorized for each law enforcement agency.
21

• the ability to accept information over one or more data channels and combine that 22

information into a single data flow for each intercept subject. 23


24
• the ability to filter or select information on an intercept subject before delivery to 25
a Collection function as authorized for a particular law enforcement agency. 26
27
• the optional ability to detect audio in-band DTMF digits for translation and 28
delivery to a Collection function as authorized for a particular law enforcement 29
agency. 30
31
• the ability to duplicate and deliver information on the intercept subject to one or
32
more Collection functions as authorized for each law enforcement agency.
33

• the ability to provide security to restrict access. 34


35
36
Emergency Service Message Entity (ESME) 37
38
The ESME routes and processes the out-of-band messages related to emergency calls. 39
This may be incorporated into selective routers (also known as Routing, Bridging and 40
Transfer switches), public safety answering points, emergency response agencies, and 41
Automatic Location Information (ALI) data base engines. The structure of the Emergency 42
Service Network is beyond the scope of this TSB. 43
44
Emergency Service Network Entity (ESNE) 45
46
The ESNE routes and processes the voice band portions of the emergency calls. This is 47
composed of selective routers (also known as Routing, Bridging and Transfer switches), 48
public safety answering points and emergency response agencies. The structure of the 49
Emergency Service Network is beyond the scope of this TSB. See J-STD-036. 50
51
52
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
53
54
The EIR is an entity that is the register to which user equipment identity may be assigned
55
for record purposes. The nature, purpose, and utilization of this information is an area for
56
further study.
57
58
59
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Network Entities 8 TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
Home Agent (HA)
2
3
The HA is an entity that:
4
5 • authenticates Mobile IP registrations from the MS.
6
7 • redirects packets to the foreign agent component of the PDSN, and optionally
8 receives and routes reverse packets from the foreign agent component of the
9 PDSN.
10
11
• may establish, maintain and terminate secure communications to the PDSN.
12
• receives provisioning information from the AAA Function for users.
13
14 • may assign a dynamic home IP address.
15
16
Home Location Register (HLR)
17
18
The HLR is the location register to which a user identity is assigned for record purposes
19
such as subscriber information (e.g. Electronic Serial Number (ESN), Mobile Directory
20
Number (MDN), Profile Information, Current Location, Authorization Period).
21
22
23 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
24
25 The ISDN is defined in accordance with the appropriate ANSI T1 Standards.
26
27
Intelligent Peripheral (IP)
28
29
The IP is an entity that performs specialized resource functions such as playing
30
announcements, collecting digits, performing speech-to-text or text-to-speech conversion,
31
recording and storing voice messages, facsimile services, data services, etc.
32
33
34 Intercept Access Point (IAP)
35
36 The IAP is an entity that provides access to the communications to, or from, the
37 equipment, facilities, or services of an intercept subject.
38
39
Interworking Function (IWF)
40
41
The IWF is an entity that provides information conversion for one or more WNEs. An
42
IWF may have an interface to a single WNE providing conversion services. An IWF may
43
augment an identified interface between two WNEs, providing conversion services to both
44
WNEs.
45
46
47 Local Position Determining Entity (LPDE)
48
49 The LPDE facilitates determination of the position or geographical location of a wireless
50 terminal. Each LPDE supports one or more position determining technologies. Multiple
51 LPDEs using the same technology may serve the coverage area of an Mobile Position
52 Center (MPC) and the multiple LPDEs each using a different technology may serve the
53 same coverage area of an MPC. Local-PDEs (LPDEs) reside at the Base Station (BS).
54 See J-STD-036 for details regarding the LPDE.
55
56 Managed Wireless Network Entity (MWNE)
57
58 A WNE or any specific network entity having Operations System wireless management
59 needs, including another Operations System.
60

TR-45 Wireless NRM 9 Network Entities


TSB100-A

1
Message Center (MC)
2
3
The MC is an entity that stores and forwards short messages. The MC may also provide
4
supplementary services for Short Message Service (SMS).
5
6
Mobile Equipment (ME) 7
8
A MS without a UIM. The ME is only capable of accessing the network for a locally 9
defined service configuration (e.g., emergency services, service center). 10
11
12
Mobile Position Center (MPC)
13
14
The MPC selects a PDE to determine the position of a mobile station. The MPC may
15
restrict access to position information (e.g., require that the MS be engaged in an
16
emergency call or only release position information to authorized network entities).
17
18
Mobile Station (MS) 19
20
A wireless terminal used by subscribers to access network services over a radio interface. 21
MSs include portable units (e.g., hand-held units), units installed in vehicles, and 22
somewhat paradoxically, fixed location MSs. The MS is the interface equipment used to 23
terminate the radio path at the subscriber. A MS is a ME with a programmed UIM. 24
25

Mobile Switching Center (MSC) 26


27

The MSC switches circuit mode MS originated or MS terminated traffic. An MSC is 28

usually connected to at least one BS. It may connect to the other public networks 29

(PSTN, ISDN, etc.), other MSCs in the same network, or MSCs in different networks. 30

The MSC may store information to support these capabilities. 31


32
33
Mobile Terminal 0 (MT0) 34
35
A self-contained data capable ME termination that does not support an external interface. 36
37

Mobile Terminal 1 (MT1) 38


39

A ME termination that provides an ISDN user-network interface. 40


41
42
Mobile Terminal 2 (MT2) 43
44
A ME termination that provides a non-ISDN user-network interface (e.g., ITU-T [CCITT] 45
V series, ITU-T [CCITT] X series). 46
47
Number Portability DataBase (NPDB) 48
49
The NPDB is an entity which provides portability information for portable Directory 50
Numbers. 51
52
53
Operations System Function (OSF)
54
55
The OSF is defined by the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) OSF (see
56
ITU M.3100). OSF functions include Element Management Layer (EML), Network
57
Management Layer (NML), Service Management Layer (SML), and Business
58
Management Layer (BML) functions spanning across all operations systems functions
59
60

Network Entities 10 TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
(e.g., Fault Management, Performance Management, Configuration Management,
2
Accounting Management, and Security Management.
3
4
5 Over-The-Air Service Provisioning Function (OTAF)
6
7 The OTAF is an entity that interfaces proprietarily to CSCs to support service
8 provisioning activities. The OTAF interfaces with the MSC to send MS orders necessary
9 to complete service provisioning requests.
10
11
Packet Control Function (PCF)
12
13
The PCF is an entity in the radio access network that manages the relay of packets
14
between the BS and the PDSN.
15
16
17 Packet Data Network (PDN)
18
19 A PDN, such as the Internet, provides a packet data transport mechanism between
20 processing network entities capable of using such services.
21
22 Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN)
23
24 The PDSN routes MS originated or MS terminated packet data traffic. The PDSN
25 establishes, maintains, and terminates link layer sessions to MSs. The PDSN may
26 interface to one or more BSs and may interface to one or more PDNs.
27
28
29
Position Determining Entity (PDE)
30
31
The PDE facilitates determination of the position or geographical location of a wireless
32
terminal. Each PDE supports one or more position determining technologies. Multiple
33
PDEs using the same technology may serve the coverage area of an Mobile Position
34
Center (MPC) and the multiple PDEs each using a different technology may serve the
35
same coverage area of an MPC. See J-STD-036 for details regarding the LPDE.
36
37 Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
38
39 The PSTN is defined in accordance with the appropriate ANSI T1 Standards.
40
41
42
Service Control Point (SCP)
43
44
The SCP is an entity that acts as a real-time database and transaction processing system
45
that provides service control and service data functionality.
46
47 Service Node (SN)
48
49 The SN is an entity that provides service control, service data, specialized resources and
50 call control functions to support bearer-related services.
51
52
Short Message Entity (SME)
53
54
The SME is an entity that composes and decomposes short messages. A SME may, or
55
may not be located within, and be indistinguishable from, an HLR, MC, VLR, MS, or
56
MSC.
57
58
59
60

TR-45 Wireless NRM 11 Network Entities


TSB100-A

1
Terminal Adapter (TA)
2
3
An entity that converts signaling and user data between a non-ISDN and an ISDN
4
interface.
5
6
Terminal Adapter m (TAm) 7
8
An entity that converts signaling and user data between a non-ISDN and an ISDN 9
interface. 10
11
12
Terminal Equipment 1 (TE1)
13
14
A data terminal that provides an ISDN user-network interface.
15
16
Terminal Equipment 2 (TE2) 17
18
A data terminal that provides a non-ISDN user-network interface (e.g., ITU-T [CCITT] 19
V series, ITU-T [CCITT] X series). 20
21

User Identity Module (UIM) 22


23

The UIM contains subscription information such as the NAM (Number Assignment 24

Module) and may contain subscription feature information. The UIM may be integrated 25

into the ME or the UIM may be removable. 26


27
28
Vehicle 29
30
The Vehicle is an entity in which the ME may be installed. The Vehicle may provide 31
power, audio, antenna connections to the ME along with a control and user data gateway 32
to vehicle based data networks. 33
34

Visitor Location Register (VLR) 35


36

The VLR is the location register other than the HLR used by an MSC to retrieve 37

information for handling of calls to or from a visiting subscriber. The VLR may, or may 38

not be located within, and be indistinguishable from an MSC. The VLR may serve more 39

than one MSC. 40


41
42
Voice Message System (VMS) 43
44
The VMS stores received voice messages, data messages (e.g., email), or both message 45
types and supports a method to retrieve previously stored messages. A VMS may also 46
support (on a Directory Number basis) notification of the presence of stored messages and 47
notification of a change in the number of voice messages, data messages, or both message 48
types that are waiting retrieval. 49
50
Wireless Network Entity (WNE) 51
52
A Network Entity in the wireless Collective Entity. 53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Network Entities 12 TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
2 2.1.2 Reference Points
3
4
The Um reference point is the only reference point that is by definition a physical
5
interface. The other reference points are physical interfaces if network entities on either
6
side of them are contained in different physical devices.
7
8 An interface exists when two Network Entities are interconnected through exactly one
9 Reference Point.
10
11
12
Reference Point A
13
14
Reference Point A is the interface between the BSC and the MSC. See IS-2001.
15
16 Reference Point A i
17
18 Reference Point Ai is the interface between the IP and the PSTN, plus the interface
19 between the MSC and the PSTN [ESNE], plus the interface between the SN and the
20 PSTN. See ANSI-93.
21
22
23
Reference Point A b i s
24
25 Reference Point Abis is the interface between the BSC and the BTS.
26
27
Reference Point A quater
28
29
Reference Point Aquater is the interface between the PDSN and the PCF. See IS-2001.
30
31
32 Reference Point A quinter
33
34 Reference Point Aquinter is the interface between the BSC and the PCF. See IS-2001.
35
36
37
Reference Point A t e r
38
39
Reference Point Ater is the BS to BS interface. See IS-2001.
40
41 Reference Point B
42
43 Reference Point B is the interface between the MSC and the VLR. See ANSI-41.
44
45
46
Reference Point C
47
48
Reference Point C is the interface between the MSC and the HLR. See ANSI-41.
49
50 Reference Point D
51
52 Reference Point D is the interface between the VLR and the HLR. See ANSI-41.
53
54
55
Reference Point d
56
57
Reference Point d is the interface between an IAP and the DF. See J-STD-025.
58
59
60

TR-45 Wireless NRM 13 Reference Points


TSB100-A

1
Reference Point D 1
2
3
Reference Point D1 is the interface between the OTAF and the VLR. See IS-725.
4
5
Reference Point D i 6
7

Reference Point Di is the interface between: 8


9
• the IP and the ISDN, 10
11
• the IWF and the ISDN, 12
13
• the MSC and the ISDN [ESNE], plus
14

• the SN and the ISDN. 15


16
See ANSI-93. 17
18
19
Reference Point E
20
21
Reference Point E is the interface between the MSC and the MSC. See ANSI-41.
22
23
Reference Point E 2 24
25
Reference Point E2 is the interface between the MPC and the ESME. See J-STD-036. 26
27
28
Reference Point E 3
29
30
Reference Point E3 is the interface between the MSC and the MPC. See J-STD-036.
31
32
Reference Point E 5 33
34

Reference Point E5 is the interface between the MPC and the PDE. See J-STD-036. 35
36
37
Reference Point E 9 38
39
Reference Point E9 is the interface between the SCP and the MPC. See IS-771. 40
41
42
Reference Point E 1 1
43
44
Reference Point E11 is the interface between the CRDB and the MPC. See J-STD-036.
45
46
Reference Point E 1 2 47
48
Reference Point E12 is the interface between the MSC and the PDE. See J-STD-036. 49
50
51
Reference Point E ? 52
53
Reference Point E? is the interface between the BS and the Local-PDE (LPDE), this 54
interface is beyond the scope of TR-45 recommendations. See J-STD-036. 55
56

Reference Point e 57
58

Reference Point e is the interface between the CF and the DF. See J-STD-025. 59
60

Reference Points 14 TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
Reference Point F
2
3
Reference Point F is the interface between the MSC and the EIR.
4
5
6 Reference Point G
7
8 Reference Point G is the interface between the VLR and the VLR. See ANSI-41.
9
10
Reference Point H
11
12
Reference Point H is the interface between the HLR and the AC. See ANSI-41.
13
14
15 Reference Point I
16
17 Reference Point I is the interface between the CDIS and the CDGP. The operations
18 supported by this interface are described in ANSI-124.
19
20 Reference Point J
21
22 Reference Point J is the interface between the CDGP and the CDCP. The operations
23 supported by this interface are described in ANSI-124.
24
25
26
Reference Point K
27
28
Reference Point K is the interface between the CDGP and the CDRP. The operations
29
supported by this interface are described in ANSI-124.
30
31 Reference Point L
32
33 Reserved.
34
35
36
Reference Point M 1
37
38
Reference Point M1 is the interface between the SME and the MC. See ANSI-41.
39
40 Reference Point M 2
41
42
Reference Point M2 is the MC to MC interface. See ANSI-41.
43
44
45 Reference Point M 3
46
47 Reference Point M3 is the SME to SME interface. See ANSI-41.
48
49
Reference Point N
50
51
Reference Point N is the interface between the HLR and the MC. See ANSI-41.
52
53
54 Reference Point N 1
55
56 Reference Point N1 is the interface between the HLR and the OTAF. See IS-725.
57
58
59
60

TR-45 Wireless NRM 15 Reference Points


TSB100-A

1
Reference Point O 1
2
3
Reference Point O1 is the interface between an MWNE and the OSF.
4
5
Reference Point O 2 6
7

Reference Point O2 is the interface between an OSF and the F. 8


9
10
Reference Point P i 11
12
Reference Point Pi is the interface between: 13
14
• the AAA and the AAA, 15
16
• the AAA and the PDN,
17
• the IWF and the PDN, 18
19
• the MSC and the PDN, plus 20
21
• the PDSN and the PDN.
22

See IS-835. 23
24
25
Reference Point Q 26
27
Reference Point Q is the interface between the MC and the MSC. See ANSI-41. 28
29

Reference Point Q 1 30
31

Reference Point Q1 is the interface between the MSC and the OTAF. See IS-725. 32
33
34
Reference Point R 35
36
Reference Point R is the interface between the TA and the TE2. 37
38

Reference Point R m 39
40
41
Reference Point Rm is the interface between the TE2 and the TAm plus the interface
42
between the TE2 and the MT2.
43
44
Reference Point R v 45
46
Reference Point Rv is the interface between the DCE and the TE2. 47
48
49
Reference Point R x
50
51
Reference Point Rx is the interface between the PDN and the TE2. 52
53

Reference Point S 54
55

Reference Point S is the interface between the ISDN and the TE1. 56
57
58
59
60

Reference Points 16 TR-45 Wireless NRM


TSB100-A

1
Reference Point Sm
2
3
Reference Point Sm is the interface between the TE1 and the MT1 plus the interface
4
5
between the TE1 and the TAm.
6
7 Reference Point T 1
8
9 Reference Point T1 is the interface between the MSC and the SCP. See IS-771 and
10 IS-826.
11
12
13
Reference Point T 2
14
15 Reference Point T2 is the interface between the HLR and the SCP. See IS-771 and
16 IS-826.
17
18
Reference Point T 3
19
20
Reference Point T3 is the interface between the IP and the SCP. See IS-771 and IS-826.
21
22
23 Reference Point T 4
24
25 Reference Point T4 is the interface between the HLR and the SN. See IS-771 and IS-826.
26
27
28
Reference Point T 5
29
30
Reference Point T5 is the interface between the IP and the MSC. See IS-771 and IS-826.
31
32 Reference Point T 6
33
34
Reference Point T6 is the interface between the MSC and the SN. See IS-771 and
35
IS-826.
36
37
38 Reference Point T 7
39
40 Reference Point T7 is the interface between the SCP and the SN. See IS-771 and IS-826.
41
42
Reference Point T 8
43
44
45
Reference Point T8 is the interface between the SCP and the SCP. See IS-771 and
46
IS-826.
47
48 Reference Point T 9
49
50 Reference Point T9 is the interface between the HLR and the IP. See IS-771 and IS-826.
51
52
53 Reference Point U i
54
55 Reference Point Ui is the interface between the integrated UIM and the ME.
56
57
58
59
60

TR-45 Wireless NRM 17 Reference Points


TSB100-A

1
Reference Point U m
2
3
Reference Point Um is the interface between the BS and the MS, which corresponds to
4
the air interface. 5
6
Reference Point U r 7
8

Reference Point Ur is the interface between a the Removable-UIM and the ME. See 9

IS-820, IS-839 and IS-841. 10


11
12
Reference Point U v 13
14
Reference Point Uv is the interface between a the ME and the Vehicle. See IS-788, 15
IS-789 and IS-816. 16
17
18
Reference Point V
19
20
Reference Point V is the interface between the OTAF and the OTAF. See IS-725.
21
22
Reference Point W 23
24
Reference Point W is the interface between the DCE and the PSTN. 25
26

Reference Point X 27
28

Reference Point X is the interface between the CSC and the OTAF. See IS-725. 29
30
31
Reference Point Y 32
33
Reference Point Y is the interface between a Wireless Network Entity (WNE) and the 34
IWF. See ANSI-634 or IS-658. 35
36

Reference Point Z 37
38

Reference Point Z is the interface between the MSC and the NPDB. See IS-756. 39
40
41
Reference Point Z 1 42
43
Reference Point Z1 is the interface between the MSC and the VMS. See ANSI-41. 44
45

Reference Point Z 2 46
47
48
Reference Point Z2 is the interface between the HLR and the VMS. See ANSI-41.
49
50
Reference Point Z 3 51
52
Reference Point Z3 is the interface between the MC and the VMS. See ANSI-41. 53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Reference Points 18 TR-45 Wireless NRM