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Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 382, 2002, pp. 18–21. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol.

382, No. 1, 2002, pp. 138–141.

Original Russian Text Copyright © 2002 by Ostroumov.


Biodiversity Protection and Quality of Water:

The Role of Feedbacks in Ecosystems
S. A. Ostroumov
Presented by Academician D.S. Pavlov April 15, 2001

Received May 16, 2001

V.I. Vernadsky pointed out that “the living matter in bivalves, without adding the tested substance to the
the biosphere plays a fundamental and active role, and water).
in exercising its power it is in no way comparable with
anything else, with any other geological factor.” [1]. The data obtained agree with the results of the stud-
Finding concrete evidence that support this statement ies where the ability of some other chemical substances
still remains an important aspect in the study of ecosys- and mixed chemical preparations to exert the same
tems, including aquatic systems. To reach a sustainable influence on benthic [4–8] and planktonic [9] organ-
use of water resources, we have to maintain a proper isms was demonstrated. The new results, together with
self-purifying potential of water bodies, which sustains the previous data [4–9], are useful for analysis of the
the water quality that is necessary for the consumption feedback between the self-purification potential of water
of water as a useful resource [2]. To maintain the self- bodies and the maintenance of their biodiversity [2].
purification potential under the conditions of anthropo- One of the key prerequisites for protecting biodiver-
genic stress, analysis of the factors that are the main sity is habitat maintenance (see, e.g., [10–12]). The
prerequisites for the maintenance of water quality in main part of the aquatic organism’s habitat is water of
water bodies is necessary; the analysis must include a sufficiently high quality, i.e., water with a certain set
consideration of connections between these factors. of parameters that characterize its purity and ability to
The goal of this work is to contribute to better be a proper environment for organisms. Many parame-
understanding of the connections between biodiversity ters of natural water (for example, the abundance/num-
maintenance, water quality, and sustainable use of water ber of suspended particles etc.), in their turn, depend on
resources, taking into account new results of my own the number of aquatic organisms and their functioning,
studies, as well as the concept referred to as “the inhibi- including their filtering activity. The filtering activity
tory analysis of interactions between organisms” [3]. reaches 1–10 m3/day above 1 m2 of the bottom of fresh-
water and marine water bodies (data by different
Using the approach based on the inhibitory analysis authors, see [13]) and takes part in the formation of
of interactions among organisms [3], we carried out water quality and habitats for many species. Thus, the
some new experiments to study the influence of several filtering activity is one of the prerequisites for the main-
chemical substances on the ability of bivalves to filter tenance of biodiversity of aquatic organisms in actual
water and to remove unicellular organisms from it. The ecosystems. For the purposes of our analysis, it is
method was described in [2]. The conditions of the important that the total filtering activity in actual eco-
experiments are given in Tables 1 and 2. The bivalves systems depends on at least three factors.
were grown at the aquaculture farm of INBUM NANU.
The experiments allowed us to obtain new information First, the total filtering activity depends on the total
on the ability of chemical substances that can pollute quantity of filtering organisms. The latter is made up of
the aquatic environment to inhibit the efficiency of the quantity of populations of various species of filter-
removal of the suspension of unicellular organisms feeders. In ecosystems, the set of species of filter-feed-
from the water (Tables 1, 2). The quantitative estima- ers may include various species of the pelagic and
tion of the effect on the efficiency of removal of the sus- benthic zones, including some representatives of the
pension from water (EER) was calculated as the ratio of groups mentioned in Table 3.
the optical density in the experimental beaker to the Second, the filtering activity of invertebrates
optical density in the control beaker (the variant with depends on the concentrations of suspended matter in
the water. With an increase in the suspension concen-
tration, the rate of filtration may decrease [14, 15].
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Vorob’evy Third, the filtering activity depends on the degree of
gory, Moscow, 119899 Russia pollution of water by chemical pollutants, as was

00018$27.00 © 2002 MAIK “Nauka /Interperiodica”


Table 1. Effects of the detergent IXI (20 mg/l) on the optical density (OD550) of the suspension of S. cerevisiae during its
filtration by marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis
Control 1 Control 2
Period of Period of time Experiment
(with mussels, (without mussels,
measurements from the beginning (+detergent) A/B, %
without detergent) without detergent)
(ordinal number) of incubation, min A
1 3 0.30 0.24 0.31 125
2 8 0.24 0.18 0.30 133
3 25 0.15 0.06 0.27 250

Table 2. Effects of the detergent Deni-Automat (DA, 30 mg/l) on the change of the optical density (OD550) of the suspension
of S. cerevisiae during its filtration by oysters Crassostrea gigas

Period of mea- Period of time Experiment Control 1 (with oysters, Control 2 (without
surements (or- from the beginning (+detergent) without detergent) oysters, without detergent) A/B, %
dinal number) of incubation, min A B C
1 2 0.26 0.17 0.33 153
2 10 0.15 0.01 0.31 1500
3 40 0.11 0.001 0.32 11000

shown, for example, in our studies on bivalves ([2–7] by the arrows going from the left to the right (for con-
and new results obtained in this work) and rotifers [9]. venience, they can be called links of the first type) and
The links between biodiversity maintenance and the links marked by arrows going from the right to the
some parameters of aquatic ecosystem are shown in a left (feedbacks, which a reverse relative to the links of
simplified way in the figure; arrows indicate the influ- the first type). It is important that the links of the first
ence of some parameters (factors) on other factors. type and feedbacks form cycles that can facilitate desta-
As can be seen from this schematic diagram, the bilization of the system when the filtering activity
links can be divided into two classes: the links marked decreases.

Table 3. Biodiversity of organisms that are involved in water filtration sensu lato

Blocks of the
Organisms of freshwater ecosystems Organisms of marine ecosystems

Pelagial Protista (infusoria, heterotrophic Protista; Rotatoria; among Coelenterata–Rhizistomida; larvae of Nemertini,
(plankton, Mastigophora); Rotatoria; Polychaeta, Sipunculoidea, Phoronoidea, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa; larvae of
nekton) Cladocera; Copepoda; larvae molluscs, larvae of copepods (Copepoda); larvae of Cirripedia, larvae of
of some Insecta; Pisces (some Echinodermata; larvae of Hemichorda; Euphausiida; Mysida; some
representatives) representatives of Decapoda (Macrura); Tunicata (Class Appendiculariae;
Class Salpae; Pyrosomida); Pisces (some representatives)

Benthal Protista (infusoria; heterotrophic Protista; among Ctenophora—attached ctenophors Tjalfiella; Spongia
(benthos) Mastigophora); Spongia (Porifera); (Porifera); Hydrozoa; some of Actinozoa (Gorgonaria), some representatives
Bryozoa; Mollusca (Bivalvia); of Pennatularia, rare Actinaria (for instance, Metridium); some of Polychaeta;
larvae of some Diptera; larvae Bryozoa; Brachiopoda; Kamptozoa (synonym Entoprocta); Phoronida;
of Trichoptera; larvae of some Sipunculida; Pterobranchia; Acrania; Mollusca (Bivalvia, and some repre-
mayflies sentatives of Gastropoda); some representatives of Amphipoda (for instance,
Corophiidae); Cirripedia; Echinodermata: Crinoidea, some of Ophiuroidea,
some of Asteroidea (family Brisingidae), some of Holothuroidea (such as
Psolus; Tunicata (Class Ascidiae)

Note: In the table the examples of large taxons are indicated, of which some representatives participate in water filtration and in the remov-
ing of seston from it. The table is not intended to be all-embracing and comprehensive. I thank Prof. V.V. Malakhov for advice.



The above arguments emphasize the primary role of

Filtering Water purity biodiversity protection in the maintenance of the self-
activity and quality purification potential of water bodies and sustainable
use of water resources. The feedback between water
Abundance and quality and biodiversity is not limited by the fact that,
the state of populations
of filter-feeders for protection of biodiversity, it is necessary to maintain
the quality of water. As was demonstrated above, the
opposite is also true: to maintain the water quality, it is
necessary to protect the functionally active biodiversity
Protection of of water ecosystems. In other words, protection of the
biodiversity Maintenance (protection)
of habitats functionally active biodiversity of aquatic organisms in
a water body is a method (and an indispensable one) of
Connection and mutual cross-influence of some parameters purity maintenance in this ecosystem. This strengthens
of aquatic ecosystems and processes that are important in the arguments which give priority to the protection of
protecting their self-purification potential. biodiversity and its functional activity: this is not only
an ethical imperative, but also an economic necessity.
The figure shows clearly that biodiversity protection
is both a prerequisite and a consequence in the system ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
of interconnections of the factors. On the one hand, I thank V.D. Fedorov, T.I. Moiseenko, V.V. Mala-
biodiversity protection is a prerequisite for the mainte- khov, and other researchers at Moscow State University
nance of the proper filtering activity, purity and quality and research institutes of the Russian Academy of Sci-
of water, and the conservation of the habitats. On the ences for valuable comments on some issues dealt with
other hand, water purity and habitat maintenance are in this work. I am also grateful to the researchers at
indispensable for biodiversity protection. Therefore, the Institute of Biology of Southern Seas (National
biodiversity protection and water quality conservation Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) G.E. Shul’man,
is a single dual task with two-way feedbacks. At the G.A. Finenko, Z.A. Romanova, V.I. Kholodov,
same time, when speaking about biodiversity, it is nec- A.V. Pirkova, A.Ya. Stolbov, and A.A. Soldatov for
essary to stress the importance of not only filter-feed- kindly providing me with the molluscs and technical
ers, but other groups of organisms as well. assistance; and I thank P. Wangersky, J. Widdows, and
N. Walz for consultation.
The latter is proved by the following example. On This study was supported by the Open Society Sup-
the one hand, to protect the populations of freshwater port Foundation (project no. RSS 1306/1999).
fish, it is necessary to maintain the quality and purity of
water in the habitats of fish. On the other hand, the fol-
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