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INTRODUCTION

Objectives The purpose of the experiment was to measure strains along a rectangular axis surrounding a point on a cantilever beam. The principal stress and strain could thus be calculated, where they will be compared with the stress calculated from the flexure formula for the beam. Background & Theory In a general biaxial stress or strain field, three strains along different axes at the same point must be measured to determine the principal strains and stresses with strain gages. For the purpose of this experiment, the rectangular axis was only used to demonstrate how the method can be used. The stress field on the surface of a beam is uniaxial, but the stress and strain at any point varies with an angle about a determined point. The axes are spaced using multiples of , i.e. such as /4 for 45°. An integral array of strain gages intended for simultaneous multiple strain measurements about a point is known as a rosette. For the purpose of the experiment, the rectangular rosette was used. The principal strain in a rectangular rosette can be calculated using the formula:

I p ,q !

I1 I 3 1 s 2 2

I 1 I 2 2 .

in/in (cm/cm) 1 . strains measured along corresponding axes of rosette elements. in/in (cm/cm) 3= 2. p.I 2 I 3 2 (1) where: 1.q = algebraically maximum and minimum principal strains. respectively.

The principal stresses can be calculated by substituting the principal strains from Eq. (1) into the biaxial expressions for Hooke¶s Law: Wp ! E .

I p v I q 1 v2 E .

psi (Pa or N/m2) v = Poisson¶s ratio E = modulus of elasticity. respectively.I q v I p 1 v2 Wq ! (2) Where: W p. psi (Pa or N/m2) II.q= algebraically maximum and minimum principal stresses. S/N: 0140432: Figure 1. P-3500 Strain Indicator 2 . y EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES P-3500 Strain Indicator.

Flexor Machine 3 .y Aluminum Alloy Beam: Figure 2. Aluminum Alloy Beam y Flexor Machine: Figure 3.

Then the strain indicator amplifier was balanced. where the weights were hung on the free end of the beam. leaving the other leads connected. leaving the other leads connected. The balance control of the strain indicator was adjusted until the readout was precisely zero. the instrument was set to RUN. Next. and the reading on the indicator display was noted. The first reading for the strain Gage Element 1 was recorded as 0µ .The cable lead from Gage Element 3 (#5) was connected to the P+ binding post and the strain indicator was turned on. The exact weight P was noted. The load P was then measured using a stress value of W = 15000 psi. The balance controls were not adjusted. PROCEDURE First the distance from the center line of the rosette to the loading point on the free end of the beam (L) was measured.III. The calculated load P was then applied. the independent Gage Element 2 was (#4) disconnected for the P+ binding post. This time the balance controls were not adjusted. equating to the initial reading for Gage 3. With the strain indicator turned off. the strain indicator was turned off. equating to the initial reading for Gage 2. as well as the indicated strain for Gage Element 3. One of the leads was connected to from the flexor (#1) to the S-binding post of the strain indicator. and the reading on the indicator display was noted. the independent lead was connected from the Gage Element 1 (#3) to the P+ binding post of the strain indicator. the independent Gage Element 1 was (#3) disconnected for the P+ binding post. Another lead was connected from the flexor (#2) to the D-120 binding post of the strain indicator. the cable lead from Gage Element 2 (#4) was connected to the P+ binding post and the strain indicator was turned on. With the beam unloaded. Next the width (b) and thickness (t) of the beam were measured using a micrometer. The calibrated loading screw was backed and inserted into the flexor with the gaged end in the clamp. with the gage on the top surface. With the strain indicator turned off. and the gage factor was set to the value given on the strain gage. Finally. and the Gage Element 3 (#5) was replaced with Gage Element 2 (#4). The strain indicator was turned 4 . Leaving the load on the beam. The lead wires from the rosette were connected to the binding posts of the flexor as shown in Appendix A.

122 in The load P was found to be: 3. For the Strain measurements. where it was within an acceptable range of the initial reading for the gage.075 for Element 2. Finally. but the actual load was: 3.67773 lbf. using a gage factor of 2. DATA MEASURED & CALCULATED The beam dimensions were found to be: Length: 10. and 2. and the strain indicator readout was read. IV.060 for Element 3.02 in Thickness 0.75 lbf. Gage Element 2 (#4) was replaced with Gage Element 1 (#3).060 for element 1. the counterclockwise angles between Gage 1 axis and lateral and longitudinal beam axis were measured using a protractor.on and the indicated strain was recorded. Strain Measurements Gage 1 2 3 Initial Reading 0 -145 326 Final Reading 968 1223 383 Strain 968 1368 57 5 . the readings can be found in table 1: Table 1. The strain indicator was then turned on and the indicated strain was noted.32 in Width: 1. 2. The load was then removed from the beam. while the strain indicator was off.

While To summarise. can be found in Appendix B. was found to be 14968 psi.0004 µ 1481. all values calculated can be found in table 2: Table. step by step.5µ . W L.206 µ Thus using the values found for A and B.7µ -456.30822.q W L = 14968 psi 0 = 30°& 12° Note that all calculations.30822 W p = 15408.qwas found to be 30°& 12°. p= p and q were found to be: 1481.7 µ v = 0. Flexure Formula ( W L/E) x 106 = 0.5 psi W q = 0. For principal stress. 2 Summary Rosette Analysis p= q= p.5 psi W q = 0. W p and W q were calculated and found to be: W p= 15408.For the computation of principal strains. B = 969. was found to be 0.7 µ .0169 psi p.7 µ Possion¶s ratio. the following was determined: A = 512. q= -456. . v .0169 psi The maximum principle stress.0014µ ( v W L/E) x 106 =0.

the values found were in an acceptable range when compared to theoretical values. thus showing how a rosette is a powerful tool when used to calculate stress in 2-D planes. 7 .V. CONCLUSION In conclusion.

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