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When guests are staying in a guestroom their primary concern is a comfortable sleep. A well
made bed plays a huge role in contributing to the comfortable sleep of the guests. The bed should
also look attractive and appealing and this will depend on the design and neatly finished
appearance of the bed.

Beds consists of following parts:-
 Frame-On which the mattresses and bases are positioned- this is usually a rectangular,
metal or wooden framework. Some frames also have raised edges where the mattresses fit
in but this makes the bed-making difficult.
 Base- Can be of open coiled springs, wire mesh, solid wood, laminated wood strips to
provide resilience and support and on the base the mattresses are placed.
 Mattress- Lies above the base and provides comfortability and resilience to the bed.
 Headboard- Made of painted and polished wood or upholstered type. The headboards
are not part of bed and are mounted on the walls behind bed. The height of the
headboards should be 30-45 cm above the mattress. These prevent the wall from getting
soiled when guests sit on the beds.
 Footboard- Made of wood, metal and lower in height than the headboard at the foot side
of the bed.


 Platform frames/ Box frames -Made from wood. They provide the bed springs and
mattresses with a platform or box on which to rest. While platform frames are raised off
the floor by feet, box frames lie tight to the floor.
 Metal frame:-Consists of frames made with iron angles and wrought iron frames.

 Base springs:- Springs add resiliency and durability to the bed. They are made by joining
the wire springs or coils together and covering them with padding. The types of spring
construction are:-
 Box Springs- The coils are made of steel, covered with a pad and are mounted on
wooden frame. The fabric which covers the spring and padding is known as TICKING. It
acts as a shock absorber, gives a cushioning effect.
 Metal coil springs- These are arranged in two layers. The springs on the bottom are
tightly coiled for good support. The top springs are loosely coiled for resilience. Metal
coil springs also come in single layers with metal bands criss- crossing the surface to
form a semi closed surface on which the padding or upholstered base lies.
 Flat bed springs- Strips of metal attached lengthwise to a frame with helical hooks(small
coils with hooks on both ends).Found mostly in rollaway beds.

B.Sc in Hotel Management

Sem 2- Beds & Mattresses Page 1 of 6
March, 2019

These may be firm, medium firm, very firm. An ideal mattress should give support and comfort
to the body.
Types of mattresses:-
 Interior Sprung mattresses- It has an inner layer of springs and padded with layers
made of cotton, coiled hair, rubber, plastic foam which is covered with a strong ticking.
 Rubber/ Latex mattress- These are made of latex, synthetic rubber. The rubber is
whipped into foam and set in a semi liquid state and poured into a mould, where it is
shaped and set.
 Solid stuffed mattress- The mattresses are filled with padding made of animal hair,
cotton, wool coir or flock and are covered with a ticking. These are prone to attack by
moths and other pests and are highly absorbent. They also sag easily and have to be
turned regularly. For these reasons hotels have replaced these mattresses.
 Plastic Mattresses- These are made from plastic foam. These are non absorbent and
resistant to attacks by moths and pests. But these can catch fire easily.
 Water Mattresses – These resemble interior sprung mattresses in appearance. Well
designed ones have water filled cells in the centre of the mattress.
 Orthopedic Mattresses – It is designed to support the joints, back and overall body.


 Firmness
 Construction
 Size
 Softness
 Support
 Appearance
 Ticking
 Padding

 Single Beds- Bed assigned to one person. Size- 100x200cm (3ft3inx6ft5inches)
 Double Bed- Bed assigned to two persons- 135x190 cm (4ft6 inchesx6ft 3inches)
 Queen Bed- Bed assigned to two persons but smaller in size than king size beds but
larger than double beds.
165x200 cm (5ft6inx6ft6in)
 King Bed- Bed assigned to two persons and larger than king size bed-180x200cm
 California King- Bed which has more length than the king size bed-180X210 cm


B.Sc in Hotel Management

Sem 2- Beds & Mattresses Page 2 of 6
March, 2019

o Crib/Baby Cots- These consists of a mattress on a spring base and sides are attached to
this to prevent the child falling from the bed. Small sized sheets and rubber sheets are
made by linen room for these types of beds.
o Rollaway Beds/Zed Beds- Zed beds get their names from their three part folded frame
resembling the letter Z. These are movable beds and have wheels. These generally have
thin latex foam mattress that rests on base of stretched springs attached to a rectangular
frame and can be easily folded.
o Sofa Beds- These provide extra seating by day and a bed by night. A wooden slatted
base combined with an interior spring mattress is there which can be slided inside the
sofa in the daytime.The duvets, pillows are stored in cupboards.
o Murphy Beds/Sico Beds- These beds fold up into the wall and undersides give the
impression of bookshelf, wardrobe or a cabinet. These beds are in rooms which are sold
twice in 24 hours. The room can be sold for meeting in day and as bedrooms in night.
o Bedboards- These are not extra beds, but they help in making the bed as a hard bed.
These are pieces of wood (generally plywood) as wide as the bed, and as long the bed,
which are placed between the base and the mattress.
o Adjustable Bed is a bed that can be adjusted to a number of different positions.
o Vibrating Bed where the mattress vibrates for duration of time.
o Water Bed is a bed where the mattress is filled with water.
o Air Bed uses an air inflated mattress, sometimes connected to an electric air pump and
having firmness control.
o Box Bed is a bed having the form a large box with wooden roof, sides and ends.
o Platform Bed is a mattress resting on a solid, flat raised surface.



i)Check for loose headboards
ii) Check bed wheels and castors whether broken or not.
iii) Check sagging and tears in mattresses and ticking and vacuum the bases and mattresses
iv) Turn interior sprung mattresses every three months as per labels.
v) Check the dust ruffles and wash it periodically


The term bedding may be applied to all the bedclothes placed on the bed, such as blankets, quilts,
eiderdowns, pillows, and all other bed linen, such as sheets and bedspreads.

 Sheets: Pure cotton sheets are available, but hotels prefer a polyester cotton blend or
percale sheets. In the standard method of bed making, two plain sheets and one crinkle
sheet are required per bed. Crinkle sheets are also called night spreads, snooze sheets or
third sheets. They are typically made of seersucker weave and some may have light
patterns too.

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Sem 2- Beds & Mattresses Page 3 of 6
March, 2019

 Pillowcases: These are of the same fabric as sheets. Pillowcases that match the fabric and
pattern used in the bedspreads are called shams. Pillowcases are of the size of the pillow.
Pillow covers are put inside the cases.
 Mattress Protectors: These are also called mattress pads. They may be in the form of
quilted, felt, vinyl or rubber pads. They have a two fold function – they protect the
mattress from stains and spills and provide a padded layer between the guest and the
mattress for greater comfort.

 Bedspreads: These are also called counterpanes. They usually have attractive patterns.
There are two main type of bedspreads – fitted bedspreads and larger throw-over spreads.
Fitted spreads fit snugly at the corners of the bed, whereas throw over spreads are
allowed to drape in folds and cascades over the foot and corners of the bed.

 Dust Ruffles: A dust ruffle is a pleated or gathered decorative fabric skirting that extends
around the sides and foot of a bed, covering the mattress and the frame of the bed.

 Pillows and Bolsters: The best and most expensive pillows are filled with down. Others
have a mixture of down and feathers, and some are filled with man made fibres, kapok
(cotton like fibre). Foam pillows are suitable for people allergic to dust and feathers.
Bolsters are elongated pillows used on settees, divans and beds.

 Blankets: These are available in different sizes to fit all standard beds. Wool blankets are
soft, warm and wear well. Sometimes an under blanket is also provided in hotels termed
as bed pads. Electric blankets are also available nowadays.

 Duvets, eiderdowns, and quilts: Duvets or continental quilts give warmth without
excessive weight or the restricting tucked in feeling of ordinary bed linen. A duvet is
made of light but bulky material sewn between two layers of cloth. Many hotels use a
duvet with a duvet cover. The warmth of a duvet is measured in ‘togs’ the average duvet
having a rating of 10.5 togs and the warmer ones have higher togs.
 Eiderdowns are exclusive quilts filled with down feathers from the eider duck.
 Quilts are generally placed under the fold of the top sheet to keep them clean and avoid

 Runners: A piece of cloth put at the foot of the bed for enhancing the appearance of the


B.Sc in Hotel Management

Sem 2- Beds & Mattresses Page 4 of 6
March, 2019


 Bed skirt (also bed ruffle, dust ruffle or valance): A decorative piece used to cover the
boxspring and legs of the bed. It fits between the mattress and boxspring and hangs to or
almost to the floor.
 Bed spread (also bedcover): A bed cover, often decorative, with sides that go to or near
the floor. Protects bedding during daytime from dust or other contamination. This does not
require a bed skirt, and was particularly popular in North America after World War II.
 Blanket (also throw): A blanket is a small covering usually used for warmth and
decoration; it's usually placed at the end of the bed.
 Bolster: A long, narrow and commonly cylindrical pillow filled with down or feathers.
Used for decoration or lumbar support when lying against the headboard.
 Boudoir pillows (or Breakfast pillows): Small rectangular decorative throw pillows.
 Comforter: A bed cover also usable like a blanket that is quilted by batting and is not
exceptionally fluffy. It is usually reversible and machine-washable. Comforters typically are
paired with a bed skirt to form a complete ensemble, as the comforter's sides only go about
halfway to the floor. (Also see "duvet").
 Drop: The vertical dimension of a bed skirt.
 Duvet: A soft flat bag traditionally filled with down or feathers, or a combination of both,
and used on a bed as a blanket. Typically not as thin as a comforter, but may be called a
"down comforter".
 Duvet cover: A decorative and protective covering for a duvet. Most duvet covers have a
button or tie closure at one end. Australians use the term doona cover rather than "duvet
 European pillow (or Continental pillow): A Euro or Continental pillow--a large square
pillow--is a decorative pillow that sits back against the headboard. These are often placed
behind the standard size pillow shams as a backdrop, or on top of standard pillows as a
coordinated set with a duvet cover.
 European sham (or Euro sham): a decorative pillow covering which fits a large 26” ×
26” pillow; also called a Continental sham.
 Feather bed: feathers contained within a fabric shell that lies on top of a mattress as a
mattress topper. The featherbed will normally have elastic straps or even have a fitted sheet
on it so that it fits over a mattress and stays in place.
 Flat sheet: The top sheet. The flat sheet is tucked in around the mattress over the fitted
sheet with the fourth side, at the head of the bed, undone. Some duvet or comforter sets do
not include a top sheet; the duvet/comforter has a cotton bottom that replaces the sheet.

B.Sc in Hotel Management

Sem 2- Beds & Mattresses Page 5 of 6
March, 2019

 Fitted sheet: This is the bottom sheet used to fit tightly over a mattress. Fitted sheets are
available in a variety of pocket depths, which refers to the thickness of the mattress. Standard
North American pocket size is 7” to 9”. Deep pocket corners are usually 10” to 13”. Extra
deep pocket corners are very generous in size, and range from 14” to as much as 22” and
used for extraordinarily high/deep mattresses.
 Mako cotton: A high grade of cotton, the long staple or long fibre of Egyptian-grown
cotton has more continuous fibres to use when creating threads or yarns. The yarn is smaller
in diameter yet stronger than other cottons. Smaller yarn means that more threads per square
inch can be used to create stronger fabrics which are lighter in weight yet breathe well. Mako
cotton is frequently used to make upscale sheets and towels, which are marketed as a luxury
 Mattress protector: Also known as a mattress pad, mattress topper, or underpad. This is
typically used underneath a fitted sheet to add comfort, protect against allergies, and protect
the mattress.
 Neck roll: Small cylindrical decorative throw pillows; used for cervical vertebrae support
or pure decoration. Neck rolls typically do not have an opening such as a zipper; they are
usually sewn closed, although some designs have an integrated opening at the ends.
 Pillow shams: Decorative coverings for pillows, often designed with trims, ruffles,
flanges, or cording. Shams are normally placed behind the pillows used to sleep on, which
would be covered with regular pillowcases.
 Pima cotton: A high grade of cotton. It has the long staple similar to Mako cotton, which
is what gives it its softness and luster, as well as its durability. Its superior characteristics
improve with wear. Pima cotton is used to make upscale sheets, towels and clothing, which
are marketed as a luxury product. Peru produces the most of the world's Pima cotton.
 Pleated: Material that is sewn in folds, like a fan.
 Sleeping Pillow: is the medium-sized rectangular pillow that you lay your head on when
sleeping. A sleeping pillow can come in many sizes such as standard (20" x 26"), Queen (20"
x 30"), or King (20" x 36") and differing firmness for back, stomach or side sleeping.
 Tailored: Fitted closely, i.e. made to fit the bed exactly.
 Thread count: The number of threads per square inch or per 10cm square in a woven
 Throw pillow: A decorative pillow that comes in numerous shapes and sizes.


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Sem 2- Beds & Mattresses Page 6 of 6
March, 2019

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