College Magazine 2009

Jain S.*, Bhowmick M., Pandey G.K., Dubey B.K. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar,BHEL Bhopal - 462021

ABSTRACT Microsphere which are matrix system containing the drug throughout the structure are potential candidate for oral controlled release. Methacrylate copolymers (Eudragit RS) have received increased attention for preparing sustained dosage forms because of their inertness, solubility in relatively non-toxic solvents and availability of resins with different propertie. Metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent, which improves glucose tolerance in type -2 diabetes. Biological halflife of metformin is 1.5-1.6hr. and the main site of its absorption is proximal small intestine. Present investigation describes the formulation and development of sustained drug delivery system of Metformin. Polymethacrylate microspheres containing Metformin were prepared in four different drug to carrier ratio F1(1:0.5), F2(1:1), F3(1:3) and F4(1:3) by using spherical crystallization technique. The prepared microspheres were characterized for particle size, particle shape, flow property, percentage yield, drug entrapment, stability studies, In-vitro drug release. The shape of microspheres was found to be spherical by scanning electron microscope. The size of microsperes was found to be ranging 45.2 µm to 224.6µm. All formulation showed good flow property in terms of angle repose. Percentage yield and entrapment efficiency was in the range of 79.11, 87.15% and 82.31,95.16% w/w respectively. No appreciable difference was observed in the extent of degradation of product during 60 days in the microspheres which were stored at various temperatures.

OMRE R.K.*; SAHU R.; PANDEY G.K.; BHOWMICK M.; DUBEY B.K. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar,BHEL Bhopal - 462021

ABSTRACT Much research has been ongoing in the quest to find an ideal system for drug delivery within the human body. Drug delivery is a very important aspect of medical treatment. The effectiveness of many drugs is directly related to the way in which they are administered. Unfortunately, this can make it very difficult to select the proper drug delivery system. Some therapies require that the drug repeatedly administered to the patient over a long period of time, or in specific amounts at a time in order to maximize drug effectiveness. It is of a great advantage to find a drug delivery device that is capable of controlled, pulsatile or continuous release of a wide variety of drugs and other therapeutics that can be safely implanted inside the body. This device is less complex and much more dependable than the devices that attempt to control drug release rate (i.e. electromechanical or polymer systems). The microchip can be created by general microfabrication techniques and can also be self-contained, which eliminates the need for patient or doctor intervention. The proposed device described (assuming one dose per day) can last over a year; however, the delivery abilities do depend on patient need.

Nitrous oxide has been shown to modify protein function by nitrosylation and nitrotyrosination.. Rajvaidhya S. Huntington s disease. Bhowmick M. and ischemic brain injury. In this poster. In addition to its physiologic functions it can convert into highly reactive and toxic molecules that readily react with cellular component of the body like proteins. inhibit mitochondrial respiratory complexes. Nitrous oxide was already reported as neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide is produced from L-arginine by different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING .462021 ABSTRACT Recent studies revealed that nitric oxide act as a key mediator of neurodegeneration in numerous diseases of the nervous system. neuromodulator and mediator of blood vessel dilation.*. contribute to glutamate excitotoxicity. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis..BHEL Bhopal . and mobilize zinc from internal stores. including Parkinson s disease. Dubey B. DNA.K TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. The free radical activity of Nitric oxide can cause cellular damage through a phenomenon known as nitrosative stress. we discuss the evidence for each of these mechanisms in different neurodegenerative diseases and propose future directions for research of the role of Nitric oxide in neurodegeneration. Prajapati N.NITROUS OXIDE: ENHANCER OF NEURODEGENERATION OF THE BRAIN Ankit B. and lipids to alter their function. participate in organelle fragmentation. Alzheimer s disease.

Dubey B. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.K.BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT Most scientists and governments say they agree that animal testing should cause as little suffering as possible. some claim they are not true alternatives since simulations use data from prior animal experiments and cultured cells often require animal derived products. or to obtain more information from the same number of animals. suffering or distress. not subject to this criticism. in which the basic behaviour of drugs is assessed using human volunteers receiving doses well below those expected to produce whole-body effects Dietary Antioxidant During Cancer Chemotherapy . involve the use of humans for skin irritancy tests and donated human blood for pyrogenicity studies.Chaturvedi Aditi*. Khare Salaj. However. such as serum. Jha Urmilesh. are guiding principles for the use of animals in research in many countries: Reduction refers to methods that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals. Other alternatives. and enhance animal welfare for the animals still used. Another alternative is so-called microdosing. Others say that they cannot replace animals completely as they are unlikely to ever provide enough information about the complex interactions of living systems. Two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture techniques and in silico computer simulation. Replacement refers to the preferred use of nonanimal methods over animal methods whenever it is possible to achieve the same scientific aim. The "three Rs" first described by Russell and Burch in 1959. and that alternatives to animal testing need to be developed. Refinement refers to methods that alleviate or minimize potential pain.

Antioxidants can reduce or prevent many of these side effects. Basedia Deepak. may also contribute. such as inhibition of topoisomerase II or protein tyrosine kinases. which depend on rapid proliferation of cancer cells for optimal activity. TIT College Of Pharmacy .. Certain side effects. are not prevented by antioxidants. Oxidative stress reduces the rate of cell proliferation. ROS cause or contribute to certain side effects that are common to many anticancer drugs. activities beyond their antioxidant properties.K.462021 ABSTRACT Several studies suggest that dietary supplementation with antioxidants can influence the response to chemotherapy as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents.BHEL Bhopal . Dubey B. ROS also contribute to side effects that occur only with individual agents. such as alopecia and myelosuppression. Dhakar Kahar. however. and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. i. such as doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.Dhakar Suresh.e. and that occurring during chemotherapy may interfere with the cytotoxic effects of antineoplastic drugs... Ahmed K. such as gastrointestinal toxicity and mutagenesis. cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Pathak Brijesh Rajvaidhya Saurabh. Administration of antineoplastic agents results in oxidative stress. the production of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dubey B. VALIDATION: AN INTEGRAL PORTION OF QUALITY SYSTEM Sharma Ankita. Antioxidants detoxify ROS and may enhance the anticancer effects of chemotherapy. and agents that interfere with these side effects may also interfere with the anticancer effects of chemotherapy. For some supplements. and for some supplements the protective effect results from activities other than their antioxidant properties.K. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. Prajapati N.

Dubey B.BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT Validation study is an essential part of GMP and should be conducted in accordance with predefined protocols .K. The objectives of validation of a new product is to ensure that the product can consistently be made in compliance with all CGMP requirements.. Khare Salaj.They are applicable to manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and medical devices.Processes and procedures should be established on the basis of a validation study and undergo periodic revalidation to ensure that they remain capable of achieving the intended results .90 (Code for Federal Registration .Processes and procedures should be conducted in accordance with predefined protocols .USFDA).The purpose of validation is To determine the contents of the typical validation program To examine the contents of the typical variety To critically access or assess the value of these components To propose methods advantageous from the perspectives of both cost and performance. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES Jha Urmilesh.Post Piplani.Anand Nagar.BHEL .The guidelines for process validation are issued under the CFR section 10. to ensure that all quality systems are in place to guarantee consistently high quality. Process validation elements and concepts should be considered as per FDA acceptable guidelines .

it becomes even more critical to explore diverse methods of design. optimization. Monoclonal antibodies are quickly becoming key resources in the therapeutic.Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT An antibody is produced by a single clone of cells (specifically. a single cell and the progeny of that cell. and in vivo diagnostics. Monoclonal antibodies can be produced in large amounts in the laboratory and are a cornerstone of immunology. diagnostic and drug discovery fields. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF LANSOPRAZOLE Bhawsar V.*. This article will provide researchers with key updates on important developments in the monoclonal antibody field covering generation. Bhowmick M.. a single clone of hybridoma cells) and therefore a single pure homogeneous type of antibody.462021 .K TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. production and application of technologies to provide the antibodies needed. Dubey B. drug discovery research. The term "monoclonal" pertains to a single clone of cells. With the phenomenal growth in the market for monoclonal antibodies. BHEL Bhopal .

*.05%w/v). Percentage entrapment was found to decrease on increasing the concentration of HPMC.1 N HCL (pH 1. It has short plasma and elimination half life.Bhowmick M. such as an inability to restrain and localize the drug delivery system within desired regions of gastro intestinal tract and the highly variable nature of gastric emptying process.Dubey B.. NANOROB OTS: MEDICINE OF THE FUTURE Rathore Y. Various attempts have been made to prolong the retention time of the dosage form in the stomach. bulk density.02 % Tween.1 N HCL containing 0. The drug release rate was tested in 0. used in the treatment of ulcer and reflux oesophagitis. angle of repose.ABSTRACT The design of an oral controlled drug delivery system should be primarily aimed at achieving more predictable and increased bioavailability of drugs. However. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.8 containing Tween 80 (0. Lansoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor.S. Srivastava A.BHEL Bhopal . Pandey G.K. Gastro retentive dosage forms have potential for oral use as controlled drug delivery system and an attempt was made to prepare a device that remains buoyant in the stomach contents due to its lower density than that of gastric fluids. The formulation containing EC:HPMC (9:1) demonstrated favorable in vitro floating and in vitro release rate characteristics. In the present study. particle shape.02% w/v) or phosphate buffer pH 6. porosity. the development process is precluded by several physiological difficulties. in vitro floating behavior and for in vitro drug release. Floating microspheres containing Lansoprazole was prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method using various ratios of Eudragit RS 100 (ES) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). drug entrapment. Machines constructed at the molecular level (nanomachines) may be used to cure ...K. The Prepared floating Microspheres were characterized for particle size. FT-IR study confirmed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. The floating ability was tested in 0.462021 ABSTRACT This application of Nanotechnology to the field of medicine is commonly called as nanomedicine.2) containing Tween 20 (0. percentage yield. compressibility. true density.

respirocyte. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. Nanorobots are Nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human body against pathogens.the Neutraphiles.chromallocyte and many more. and sweeping up foreign particles for various organs to break down or excrete. Rajvaidhya Saurabh. Dubey Abhijeet. The idea to built a Nanorobot comes from the fact that the body s natural nanodevices .microbivores.the human body of its various ills. Some such example can be pharmacyte. Dubey B. attacking and eating invading microorganisms.BHEL Bhopal .K. The proposed application of nanorobots can range from common cold to dreadful disease like cancer. Lymphocytes and White blood cells constantly rove about the body repairing damaged tissue. Nanorobotics is emerging as a demanding field dealing with miniscule things at molecular level. .462021 . A REVIEW ON IMMUNOMODULATOR HERBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS Jain Nidhi.

K Dubey TIT COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. Some of the important drugs having the immunomodulatory activity are Echinacea. with a proven advantage and favorable benefit-to-risk ratio. In fact. Ginseng. MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES Pushpa anand*. Ginseng. shows that worldwide spending on research and development of nano-technology is in excess of $8 billion . Mithun Bhowmick. Many herbs and other substances are used by cultures around the world to nourish and support immunity and protect us from a multitude of disease causing micro-organisms.ABSTRACT The immune system is a well-organized and well regulated system and any disturbance may lead to the development of Immune diseases. Ashwagandha is considered to be an adaptogen. BHOPAL M. Echinacea has Immunostimulatory properties to target both non-specific and specific immune function.Tripti Tiwari. Garlic is an immune modifier and Aloe posses the immunomodulatory effects. science and engineering has seen a rapid increase in interest for materials at the nano-scale. animal studies and clinical studies made on that plant. The present review is focused on the medicinal plants which have Immunomodulatory effects based on the chemical constituents present in that particular plant. Many synthetic drugs are available to treat Immune disease but they have adverse effects. the Asian herb stimulates the immune resistance to infection. 2000. Ashwagandha.Shagufta Khan. statistical data from Lux Research. Nano-materials have attracted such a strong . The United States government alone is spending over $1 billion annually .P ABSTRACT Since the beginning of this century.B. Inc. Aloe and Garlic.

Dubey B.K. The potential for nano-technology is immensely diverse with potential applications in the fields of electronics. Drug coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be drawn to the site that needs the drugs with a magnetic field. association of signs and symptoms. and waste management . and discuss current research for application of these particles. rate of progression. Magnetic nanoparticles is used as targeted drug delivery. and magnetic properties resulting from their quantum size. Such particles commonly consist of magnetic elements such as iron. biomedical devices.BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT Parkinson s disease is characterized by heterogeneity of clinical presentations.Magnetic nanoparticles are a class of nanoparticle which can be manipulated using magnetic field. Nanomaterials could be utilized to design nano-transistors. Khare Salaj. and for the creation new age weapons and armor for military applications . CLINICAL PREDICTORS IN PARKINSON S DISEASE Jha Urmilesh. Two courses were identified which differed in the characteristics at . and response to therapy. describe some of the methods used to characterize magnetic particles. Within the field of nano-materials under worldwide research is the subset of magnetic nano-materials. the particles range from 1 to 100 nm in size and may displaysuperparamagnetism. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. These particles have been the focus of much research recently because they possess attractive properties which could see potential use in catalysis biomedicine magnetic resonance imaging data storage and environmental remediation The physical and chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles largely depend on the synthesis method and chemical structure. and more efficient materials for a greater range of applications than achievable by bulk materials today. energy applications. nano-technology has the potential to offer new. military uses. Ultimately. to develop and deliver medicines for locally treating diseases and ailments within the body. In most cases. electronic. This paper will discuss the bottom-up synthesis of magnetic nano-particles via thermal decomposition of metal-carbonyl complexes. The aim of this prospective 5-year study was to evaluate whether clinical features at onset were predictive of the subsequent progression. inexpensive.interest because of the physical. nickel and cobalt and their chemical compounds.

Predictive models based on these clinical characteristics have a good sensitivity in indicating a slow disease progression but are not reliable in indicating a rapid evolution.Prajapati N.K. less evident lateralization of signs. NEEDLE FREE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY Shukla V*. lateralization of motor signs. predominance of bradykinesia rigidity and gait disturbance.BHEL Bhopal .For example diabetics-accepted. . Dubey B.Post Piplani. This process is an ongoing reality of daily life .Namdeo V. but always with the hope that something new will replace the ritual of needle insertion to overcome the problems related to needle based injections.Kamal Ahmed. Our results confirmed that PD is clinically heterogeneous and specific patterns of onset seem to be associated with different rates of disease progression. There is one technology that has received considerable attention during the past few years and that offers all of the sought after benefits is Needle Free . Rapid course presented older age.462021 ABSTRACT Needle free technology offers the very obvious benefit of reducing patients concern about the use of needle.onset.K. especially those suffering from chronic disease requiring injectable products two or three times a day. and absence of gait disturbance.For some. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. Slow course was characterized by earlier age at onset. rest tremor.

high presuure jet of insulin.K.S.This technology was first described in 19th century in France . The mhi-500 injects insulin by using a fine .The condition can occur at any age but is rare in infants.It is not a single compound but made of two claasical components-the bluish black Chlorophyll-A and dark green Chlorophyll-B.Post Piplani. is reported . This jet then penetrates the tissue . chlorophyll is a proven pigment of life. CHLOROPHYLL-AS POTENT ANTIOXIDANT Dhakar Brijmohan. Green Gold or Plant Blood . Since then the demand had increased considerably .Gupta Amit . depositing the insulin in the subcutaneous layer. Dubey B. It lowers cholesterol and blood pressure and reduces platelet aggregation. in1960s. an antioxidant.462021 ABSTRACT Call it by any name.The new device is expected to give a boost to the therapy.Chlorophyll is the most important plant pigment amd a real life force that nature uses to explode plants into greenery. Green tea guards against catrdio vascular disease in many different ways. Rajvaidhya S. when the French company H Galante-manufactured an apparatus for aquapuncture . as needle phobia was one of the reasons preventing insulin use on a wider scale.It was first commercialized in the U.BHEL Bhopal . Prajapati N.Biojects needle free injection technology works by forcing liquid medication at high speed through a tiny orifice that is held against the skin. Its epigallocatechin gallate.Injection Technology(NFIT).Mhi-500is the novel needle fre insulin delivery system which offers benefits for all those involved in diabetes care and also for those involved in the management of clinical waste. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.This create an ultra fine stream of high pressure that penetrates the skin without using a needle.Jain Gaurav.

Symptoms -In pigs produces fever. candy and in formulations for skin health and glow. It is used in treating diabetic foot ulcer. Kumar P*. H3N2.. Chaudhary P.Transmission is through direct contact between infected and uninfected animals and also to people who work with poultry and swine. body aches. pig flu) is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. sugars and starch.K. headache. Chlorophyll has been used in folk medicine as a deodorizer. is believed to be linked to high disease and cancer.BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT Swine influenza (also called swine flu. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of Tamiflu (oseltamivir) or Relenza (zanamivir) for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses. It is effective for those suffering from halitosis(bad breath) and can be used for a freshening gargle. The known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1. sore throat. and H2N3. Oseltamivir: An antiviral drug that slows the spread of influenza (flu) virus between cells in the body by stopping the new virus from chemically . Chlorophyll is a colouring agent in products such as soaps . B.. cough. be at least 100 times more effective than Vitamin-C and 25 times more effective than Vitamin-E at protecting cells and DNA from damage. constipation and hemhorrhoids used to neutralize the acidifying stimulating of excess protein . In humans include fever. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. sneezing. H3N1. chills and fatigue. Dubey TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. SWINE INFLUENZA-A ZOONOSIS Sharma V.S. coughing.Post Piplani. Dushyant barve. lethargy. Treatment -The U. difficulty breathing and decreased appetite.

fiower and natural occurs in forests of Gujrat.which are yet known in which around 17 varieties are found in demand and production.fibers a valued gift of nature .It is an annual herb with tubers. A DIVYA AUSHADHI Raikwal l. Barve D.p.BHEL Bhopal .Glycerides..Traditionally it is used as health tonic aphrodisiac.. These article provide the complete information about this drug.mainly emphosis on its uses. immunomodulator and also in treatment of .Pandey S.which is beneficial for the individuals health as well as wealth . TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. Zanamivir: Neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment and prophylaxis of Influenza virus A and Influenza virus B. SAFED MUSLI.belonging family liliaceae.It contain many phytoconstituants of pharmaceutical important including Saponine..K. Dubey B.arthritis.462021 ABSTRACT Sofed musli.the root of chlorophytum borivillianum.m.cutting ties with its host cell.There are around 256 varieties of chlorophytum in the is used in many preparation of ayurveda.*.leaf.from ancient and presenting getting allopathic consideration too.and maharastra state.

Dubey S.A majority of the drug delivery studies using drug-loaded erythrocytes are in the preclinical phase.Removal of RES iron overload. Dubey B. and can be loaded with a variety of biologically active compounds using various chemical and physical methods. asparginase and adriamycin have been successfully delivered by erythrocytes. separating erythrocytes from plasma. Antineoplastic drugs such as methotrexate. Bhowmick M. and resealing the resultant cellular carriers. Upon reinjection. including the liver.462021 ABSTRACT Erythrocytes (RBCs) have potential carrier capabilities for the delivery of drugs.K TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. spleen. entrapping drug in erythrocytes. these carriers are called resealed erythrocytes. Erythrocytes have been extensively studied for their potential carrier capabilities for the delivery of drugs and drug-loaded microspheres. biodegradable. Removal of toxic agents and Delivery of antiviral agents are some other applications of resealed erythrocytes.BHEL Bhopal .Such cells could be used as circulating carriers to disseminate a drug within a prolonged period of time in circulation or in target-specific organs. bleomycin...RESEALED ERYTHROCYT E: AS A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY CARRIER Tiwari S. the drugloaded erythrocytes serve as slow circulating depots and target the drugs to a reticuloendothelial system (RES). Biopharmaceuticals. therapeutically significant peptides .. and lymph nodes. Hence. Erythrocytes are biocompatible. Such drug-loaded carrier erythrocytes are simply prepared by collecting blood samples from the interested organism.Resealed erythrocytes have applications in fields of human and veterinary medicine. possess long circulation half lives. The overall process is based on the response of these cells under osmotic conditions.

throughout the world to become over more valuable as sources of new drug leads.. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.Preliminary chemical examination shows the presence of a flavonoids compound.BHEL Bhopal .K.462021 ABSTRACT Natural products today are most likely going to continue to exist and grow. The higher activity of leaves extract may be due to synergistic effect of flavonoids present in the drug. for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. Tephrosia purpurea of family Leguminoceae is a shrab distributed in moist places throught country. Dubey B. This is because the degree of chemical diversity found in natural products is broader than that from any other source and the degree of novelty of molecular structure found in natural products is greater than that determined from any other sources. antigens and vaccines. are among the recently focused pharmaceuticals for being delivered using carrier erythrocytes.the work is quite progressive and will be submitted in another paper. The crude drug may be of antihistaminic value which is to be established xperimentally. rotenoids. Also it .N. flavonoids. nucleic acid-based biologicals. Spleen and Kidney disorder. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF NATURAL PRODUCTS OF FAMILY LEGUMINOCEAE Patel R. Extract of this plant shows hepatoprotective activity in the drug which is due to presence of flavonoid active principles. Tephrosia purpurea has been used for centuries in the Indian traditional medicines. Phytochemical investigations on this plant have shown the presence of coumarins. It is considered beneficial for Liver.and proteins. flavanones and isoflavonones.

The delivery of the drug can be improved by varying the frequency of administration of the medication or the retention time of medication in contact with the surface of the eye. Khare Salaj. Poor bioavailability of drugs from ophthalmic dosage forms is mainly due to the precorneal loss factors which include tear drainage. the cornea is the tissue which has no blood supply. Experimental studies suggest that Tephrosia purpurea extract is antiulcer. RECENT ADVANCES IN OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS Jha Urmilesh. . effectively 1% or even less of the instilled dose is ocularly absorbed. Dubey B. Due to these physiological and anatomical constraints only a small fraction of the drug. For instance.BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT The eye has special attributes that allow local drug delivery and non-invasive treatment of disease. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. development in the ocular drug delivery system. Various approaches being used to improve the corneal penetration of a drug molecule and delay its elimination from the eye are discussed in details in the present review.K. whereas choroid and ciliary processes are highly vascularized and exhibit very high blood flow.has the property to cure all types of wounds. transient residence time in the cul-de-sac. which makes understanding disease pathogenesis and ophthalmic drug delivery challenging. This review is an attempt to focus on the recent findings. but it is also a highly complex and unique organ. antitumor and anticarcinogenic. and the relative impermeability of the corneal epithelial membrane. A major problem in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of an optimal drug concentration at the site of action. insufficient absorption.

DEN-3. and medications that exacerbate this risk should be avoided at all costs. gum bleeding. discarded tyres.Dengue: Prevention and Management Jha Urmilesh. As with other viral infection bed rest and increased fluid intake are crucial. and DEN-4). It is a domestic breeder and breeds in water containers.M. but antigenically distinct. Dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are caused by one of four closely related. Khare Salaj. DEN-2. Bleeding manifestations (e. ecchymosis. The majority of cases are acquired locally (99%).K. virus serotypes (DEN-1. epistaxis. The virus develops in the mosquito for about 8 to 10 days where the virus migrates to the salivary glands. Pleural effusion.Dubey .K. Precaution: The drugs to be avoided are NSAIDs and aspirin. and overhead tanks. Hypoalbuminaemia).BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT Dengue infection is endemic in tropical countries with new cases reported throughout the year. of the genus Flavivirus. melena) . coconut shells.Thrombocytopenia (<100 X109/L) with Evidence of increased capillary permeability (Haematocrit increased by >20% above baseline. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.Nema. along with any other medication that has a thinning effect on the blood or can cause increased risk of bleeding. The dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus or arbovirus.heametemssis. The Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Aedes aegypti) becomes infected when it feeds on an infected host that has viraemia. Symptoms: High fever . Blood transfusions can also be necessary because of the increased bleeding that is often found in dengue patients. SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES Y.g. Bleeding is already a huge risk factor for those suffering from dengue fever.B. Aedes aegypti is a day-biting species with increased biting activity for 2 hours aftersunrise and several hours before sunset. usually during the time of the fever. Treatment: Treatment generally focuses on relieving the symptoms that are caused by the infection. Dubey B.Bhowmick. petechie.

ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF FICUS RACEMOSA LINN. and subsequent bioavailability of drugs entrapped. Dhangar Rajkumar. microparticles and their polymeric counterparts for various application routes since the early 1990s due to their advantages. Martin Pankaj Rajvaidhya Saurabh. These have been reported to be an alternative system to emulsions.TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. Their storage stability is also increased. Altering surface characteristics by coating SLN with hydrophilic molecules improves plasma stability and biodistribution.BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT Solid lipid nano particle are colloidal carrier system for the delivery of drugs. liposomes. Dubey B. Singh Bheem. Various research groups have also increasingly focused on improving their stability in body fluids after administration by coating of particles with hydrophilic molecules such as poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) derivatives. .K.Post Piplani.

The result shows that the aqueous extract possesses wormicidal activity and thus. However .462021 ABSTRACT The crude extracts of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) were evaluated for activity using adult earthworms. NUTRACEUTICLS THE DIABETES CONNECTION Katre Vipin *. the effects were comparable with that of 3% piperazine citrate. the bark extract of Ficus anthelmintic racemosa exhibited a dose- dependent inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and evoked responses to pinprick. TIT College Of Pharmacy .TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. may be useful as an antelmintic.BHEL Bhopal . With higher doses (50 mg/ml of aqueous extract).there was no final recovery in the case of worms treated with aqueous extract in contrast to piperazine citrate with which the paralysis was reversible and the worms recovered completely within 5 hr.K. Ahmed Kamaal. Jain Gaurav. Jain Neha. Dubey B.

leaves. and stem of the plant have all been used to make diabetes decoction.g.462021 ABSTRACT Nutracueticals find their application in all spheres of medicine. arginine. Momordica charanita (bitter melon or karela) is commonly used traditional remedy for diabetes in India. The fruits. Dubey B. TIT College of Pharmacy . Rajvaidhya Saurabh. to maintain a healthy heart. Nutracueticals are different from dietary supplement. It is believed to contribute hypoglycemic activity. Trigonella fornum-graecum (fenugreek or methi): it contains some of the Amino acids. It decreases both fasting and postprandialblcod glucose levels. Much of the hypoglycemic activity is due to inhibitory effect of mucilaginous fiber on glucose absorption. and in weight loss. which act as Insulin Scoretogogues e. phytochemicals to protect the immune system.Anand Nagar. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON WINTERGREEN OIL. 4-hydroxy isoleucine. Asia. deceased intestinal glucose absorption and increased muscle glycogen synthesis. Nutraceutical are represented for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of meal or diet. increased glucose uptake and utilization by peripheral tissues. as memory enhancers. Fenugreek has been shown to improve dyslipidemia in subject with diabetes. and America. as antidiabetics.K. Dhakar Suresh. It acts via both pancreatic and extrapancreatic mechanisms with decreased hepatic glucose output. Jain Nidhi. BHEL Bhopal . Africa. they are a blend of pharmaceutical and nutritional characteristics. They not only supplement diet but also aid in the prevention and disorder.

carminative. The principal constituent of wintergreen oil is methyl salicylate (methyl-2-hydroxy benzoateC8H8O3=152. India (central and eastern Himalayas. distributed in North and South America.K. anti-inflammatory. which is now produced synthetically and is dispensed when wintergreen oil is prescribed or demanded. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. anticancer. Bhowmick M. This review attempts to encompass the available literature on Gaultheria procumbens with respect to its pharmacognostic characters. phytochemistry and summary of its various pharmacological activities and clinical effects. Wintergreen oil is used as analgesic. Pandey G.. etc.462021 ABSTRACT . antiseptic. Asia and Australia... Omre R. aromatic shrub. (Ericaceae) is a much branched. evergreen. traditional uses.462021 ABSTRACT Wintergreen oil obtained by the steam distillation of the leaves and fruits of the Gaultheria procumbens Linn.1). Khasi hills and hills of South India).. THE EFFECT OF GASTROINTESTINAL MICROFLORA CHANGE ON THE RESTING BEHAVIOUR OF SOCIALLY GROUPED SWINE Rawat B.K. stimulant.Anand Nagar.K.BHEL Bhopal .BHEL Bhopal . procumbent. antispasmodic. Dubey B.*. counter irritant. diuretic. Raghuwanshi A.K. Other aspects such as toxicology and precautions of wintergreen oil are also discussed.

genetic disorders can . There were no clinical signs of diarrhea. Resting behaviour was unaffected. Pigs were housed in 21 groups of three. It was analysed for aggression. Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies. although heat pad use decreased. Contrary to expectations.The aformentioned research to determine if an intestinal microflora change leads to behavioural alterations by the individual pigs or their penmates. the penmates and pigs in control pens received placebo doses. nosing.BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT Genes are the basic physical. In 11 treated groups one of three pigs received three doses of ampicillin.K. the frequency of aggressive behaviour performed was significantly higher in ampicillin-dosed pigs compared to their untreated penmates and the average of pigs in the control pens. This study shows that an intestinal microflora shift can alter social behaviour in the absence of clinical signs. Gene therapy Jha Urmilesh. functional and biological unit of heredity. When genes are altered so that the encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal function. Dubey B. however a microbiological analysis on fecal samples showed significant changes on day +3 relative to dosing. Khare Salaj. and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1). TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. formerly known as swine flu. abnormal and resting behaviour.

BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT The Inflammatory bowel disease comprises of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine. it is one of the most promising and active research fields in medicine. Although the field of gene therapy has experienced significant setbacks and limited success. Gene therapy is the genetic modification of cells to prevent. and (iii) immunotherapeutic approaches involving genetic vaccines or pathogen-specific lymphocytes. This inflammatory response is most likely made possible by defects in both the mucosal immune system and the barrier . It is further possible that combinations of such mentioned approaches will be used simultaneously to inhibit multiple stages of the life cycle of the infectious agent.K. and catalytic RNA moieties (ribozymes). RNA decoys. including antisense DNA or RNA. Approaches to gene therapy for infectious diseases can be divided into three broad categories: (i) gene therapies based on nucleic acid moieties. The relevance of gene therapy to medical practices will increase and it will become important for physicians to understand the basic principles and strategies that underlie the therapeutic intervention. Dubey B. Khare Salaj. alleviate or cure genetic diseases. RECENT ADVANCE S IN PATHOGENESIS OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE Jha Urmilesh. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.result. It is being investigated as an alternative treatment for a wide range of infectious diseases. (ii) protein approaches such as transdominant negative proteins and single-chain antibodies.

In the present seminar. although the precise role of the bacteria in the disease manifestations remains unclear. The significance of genetic factors in the development of IBD and the genetic loci which have been implicated through genome wide searches are discussed. the etiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is still illusive. OTC medicines as a treatment for cough. Ahmed Kamaal .H.T. Many health practitioners recommend non-prescription. Jain Gaurav . In despite intensive research. Several Herbal drugs .function of the intestinal epithelium. The commensal bacterial flora appears to be a critical element. T. Dubey B.K.B.E. attempt was made to delineate the advances in pathogenesis regarding the immune mediators of intestinal inflammation responsible for IBD.Jain Neha. Codiene and phenylpropanolamine Toxicity: The principal codeine toxicity clinical manifestations are respiratory depression and obtundation. This information has led to new therapeutic approaches for IBD. College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.I. A view of clinical findings and the adverse effects of the synthetic molecules promptly suggest the need of an effective and safe herbal formulation. particularly in regards to Crohn's disease. Current investigations promise to yield fresh insights in these areas. HERBAL WAY OF TREATING COUGH Katre Vipin *.L Bhopal-462021 ABSTRACT Acute cough due to upper respiratory tract infection is a common symptom.

Vasaka consist of fresh. Singh Bheem. of which the major components are Eugenol.are useful in treatment of cough with either absolutely no side effect or very mild and minimal side effect in isolated cases that too after prolonged use. Mulethi: It consists of the dried roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn belonging to the Family Leguminosae and is commonly known as liquorice.462021 ABSTRACT Modern Biotechnology provides a useful interface for any researcher who is working in the traditional boundaries of chemistry. mathematics and molecular biology.It includes aspects of computer science. Tulsi is consists of the dried leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn belonging to the Family Labiatae and is commonly known as Holy Basil. The leaves also contains a-carotene and ursolic acid. With the help of biotechnology we can create . Eugenol has been largely respomsible for the therapeutic potentials of tulsi.K. Rajvaidhya Saurabh. It is a well known plant in indigenous system of medicine and is used for its beneficial effect.BHEL Bhopal . It is used in the treatment of asthma. Dubey B. flowers and fruits of Adhatoda species are extensively used to treat cold. Biotechnological research and development are moving at a very fast rate.The present Biotechnology innovations are promising towards development of food security and health management. RECENT ADVANCE S IN BIO-TECHNOLOGY Sahu Manoj. particularty in bronchitis. acaryophyllene and a-elemene. chronic bronchitis and asthma. bronchitis and chronic cough and as a demulcent. engineering or biochemistry. mature leaves of Adhatoda zeylanica Media and Adhatoda vasica Nees belonging to the Family Acanthaceae. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. medical Biotechnology and Bio-informatics. software engineering. It contain essential oil. The leaves.The subject has assumed greatest importance in recent years in the development of agriculture and human health. Singh Sanjay. dried. The drug consists of the glycyrrhizin as the principal constituent.Main areas of biotechnology are environmental Biotechnology. biology. cough.

animals and fish.novel genes and genotypes of plants. PUROHIT A. gene banking and the marine natural products.The poster gives information of the current progress and thrust areas in the use of synthetic hormones in.BHOWMICK M. completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.B.462021 ABSTRACT The aim of the present investigation was to formulate. RAO N.*.The application of Biotechnology in the pharmaceutical sector is a relatively recent practice. molecular biology and transgenesis. production of monosex. Its duration of action is short with relatively shorter half-life (~1 hr) hence the dosing frequency is high...In the present investigation polymers tried were Ethyl cellulose. SAHU M. reduces to one half due to first pass effect. uniparental and polyploid individuals. Although it is rapidly. Eudragit RL 100 and Eudragit NE 30D in some films Polyvinyl pyrrolidone was added as hydrophilic polymer. The films were prepared by solvent casting ...BHEL Bhopal .DUBEY. Dibutyl phthalate added acted as a plasticizer. Acrycoat RL 100. Repaglinide is an oral insulin secretagogue of the meglitinide class used in the treatment of type II diabetes. Biotechnology in aquaculture nutrition and health management. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF TRANSDE RMAL PATCHES OF REPAGLINIDE TRIPATHI A. Cellulose acetate. design and evaluate Repaglinide transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) that would provide continuous dosing of Repaglinide at constant and controlled rate upto predetermined period of time. its bioavailability is low.K TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.

Skin cancer . environment etc. infection. heredity. folding endurance. The polymeric films were thin. in-vitro permeation study. Rajvaidhya Saurabh. Causes may include sunburn. thickness uniformity. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. The top layer of skin is called the epidermis which is in direct contact with environment. light. fat. SKIN CANCER Ahmed Kamaal.technique. It mainly affects metaphase stage of cell division. and vitamin D. Skin cancer can only be diagnosed biopsy in which doctor removes cells or tissues from the affected area and examine under a microscope.K. It also stores water. Basal cell carcinoma can be manifested into malignant in later stage. Skin is composed with mainly two layers and several kinds of cells. content uniformity. Like other cancer skin cancer is manifested by abnormal growth of cells.BHEL Bhopal . Dubey B. flexible and transparent in nature. uniform. tensile strength and percent elongation at break.462021 ABSTRACT Skin acts as protecting of body which protects the body against heat.The dried polymeric films were evaluated with respect to weight variation. interaction studies and stability studies. and injury.

300 crore as against the pharmaceutical industries turn over of Rs. Khare Salaj.BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT People are using herbal medicine from centuries for safety. Radiation therapy. Written records about medication dates back to post Vedic era like Ayurveda. India is a second .K. due to theirs wider acceptance that the herbal products have lesser toxic side effects and available at less affordable price. grafting. The present article deals with the measures to be adopted for the promotion and of Indian herbal products world wide. Dubey B. 14500 with a growth rate of 15%. Simple excision. These days also the herbal drugs are gaining back their popularity in Indian and world wide scenarios. pharmaceuticals . Indian forests are rich in their vegetations and biodiversity but the present share of India in global market is not up to the mark. efficacy. The annual turn over of Indian herbal medicinal industry is about Rs. Mohs micrographic surgery. food supplement . cosmetics etc increasing in both developed as well as in developing countries. 2. Herbal Medicine for Market Potential in India: An Overview Patel Ramlakhan *. Jha Urmilesh . electro-chemotherapy etc. cultural acceptability and lesser side effect. The demand for plant based medicine health products.can be treated by several methods like surgery. TIT College Of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.

academic and research groups. The annual turn over of Indian herbal industries was estimated around US$ 300 million ayurvedic medicine. B.It is based on chemical and activity profile of drug and is done in order to identify botanical source. microscopical. quality evaluation of crude drugs originating from different localities . opium alkaloids. FDA. Consumer groups. mehdi etc. There are about 8000 drug manufacturer in India but not more than 25 manufacturers can be listed as large scale manufacturers. ipeca root alkaloids.The process of evaluating the quality and purity of crude drug by means of various parameters like morphological. getting recognisation from regulatory bodies like WHO. . have reproducible specification standards for proving that medicinal plant based drugs are safe.Dubey TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.more than 150 pharmaceutical companies are engaged in the formulation of herbal drugs . standardization is a necessary factor before exporting a drug to the western countries . physical. senna derivatives.identification of herbs and medicines. effective and of standard quality.462021 ABSTRACT Herbal drugs are ethical drugs obtained from various plant sources having a therapeutic effect on the complete individual rather than treating merely the symptoms of the disease. Saurabh Rajvaidhya. The India has grate potential to be a key player as supplier of herbal products to meet the domestic demand as well as global herbal medicine supplier. STANDARDISATION OF HERBAL DRUGS Ankita Sharma.BHEL Bhopal . vinca extract. chemical and biological observations is called STANDARDISATION . cinchona alkaloids.With better standardization parameters . gudmar herb. menthol.Thus.largest producer of caster side in the world producing about 125000 tones per annum.More than 500 drugs are formulated and many more therapeutically active herbal drugs can be discovered using modern scientific parameters for standardisation. The major pharmaceutical exported from India in recent years are isabgol.K.

which require long term dosing to maintain therapeutic drug concentration. One probable approach to minimize the device associated adverse skin reactions of TDSs is to use highly biocompatible and nonantigenic biopolymers such as chitosan for their fabrication.. Drug content uniformity. These skin reactions may be elicited by the drug itself or by the materials used to fabricate the devices. The bioavailability of the drug is 40-50%. arrhythmias. BHOWMICK M. coronary heart disease. In the present investigation Monolithic matrix type transdermal drug delivery systems of Atenolol was prepared using the natural polymer.K. incompletely absorbed from GIT and the mean elimination half-life is 6-7 hours. PANDEY G.DUBEY B. Characterisation of polymeric films were performed by evaluating factors such as thickness uniformity.. This approach of drug delivery is more pertinent in case of chronic disorders. RAO N.. skin irritation test. One of the major limitations of TDDS is that sometimes it may induce an irritation or sensitization reaction of the skin. These systems are easy to apply and remove as and when desired. drug polymer interaction by FTIR. BHOPAL ABSTRACT Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) allow delivery of contained drug into the systemic circulation via permeation through skin layers at a controlled rate while bypassing first pass metabolism has accelerated Transdermal drug delivery research in the field of pharmaceutics. Weight variation. Atenolol is a 1 blocker. In-vitro permeation studies of drug loaded patch in modified Franz diffusion cell. biocompatible polymer chitosan.*. angina and to treat and reduce the risk of heart complications following myocardial infarction. such as hypertension. chitosan. This type of matrix TDDS was prepared by using Solvent Evaporation technique.The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of obtaining a prolonged. From the IR studies it is seen that there is . Patch testing of some TDDSs has revealed that some of these skin reactions are directed against the device and are not due to drugs. Moisture uptake. relatively constant effective level of Atenolol from transdermal drug delivery system using natural. Atenolol is used to treat cardiovascular diseases and conditions such as hypertension. Folding endurance.K TIT-COLLEGE OF PHARMACY.DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF MONOLITHIC MATRIX TYPE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES USING NON-ANTIGENIC AND BIOCOMPATIBLE POLYMER SAHU M.

Pandey G. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.K. Bhowmick M. These antibodies are also useful in the several serological test for detection of antigens and pathogens in quick and accurate manner.462021 ABSTRACT Through a scheme or engineered plan known as Hybridoma technology. scientists are now able to produce large quantities of immune system cells including both antibodies and lymphokines. diagnose and treat disease. Quantization the number of B-Cells & T-Helper cells is all important in immune disorders such as AIDS. .no interaction between drug and polymer.Such monoclonal antibodies. The readymade supply of these materials has not only revolutionized immunology but has also created a great impact throught medicine and pharmaceutical industry. This fusion is performed by making both cell membranes more permeable. have opened innovating approaches to prevent. This Hybridoma cell obtained retains the properties of the parent cell. These monoclonal antibodies are used to distinguish subsets of B-cells and T-cells. HYBRIDOMA TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES Dixit A.*. Dubey B.K. This technology is not only used to for basic research but also for identifying various type of Leukemia`s (blood cancer) & lymphomas and allowing doctors to tailor treatment accordingly. to attack cancer metastases.BHEL Bhopal . that is antibody secretion property of B-lymphocyte and uncontrolled division property of cancer cell. which shows that drug is compatible with polymer. INTELLIGENT BUT STILL ILLITRATES . Further work is necessary to study in vivo release characteristics. as they are formed.This technique is based on somatic cell hybridization. Kinetic study was performed and the formulation showed zero order release by diffusion mechanisim. Antibodies producing B-lymphocytes fused with myeloma cell(cancer cell) to produce a Hybridoma cell. Since this antibodies are produced by a clone of specific lymphocyte these are called as monoclonal antibodies.. These monoclonal antibodies are widely used to track cancer antigens and linked to anticancer agents.

K.Gupta N. .Paleriya N. harm. effectiveness and risk of medicines. the authorities have allowed a number of internationally disapproved drugs to circulate in the Indian market. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. One of the functions of the programme is to assess the benefit. rational and proper use.BHEL Bhopal . Even countries like Bangladesh banned this drug for both adults and children.Jain P. chemists and stockists have no reason not to sell them or warn users about the controversy that engulfs the medicines. also the business for production of banned drugs is booming.Dubey B. but Indian Government has turned a blind eye to the issue. In spite of several initiatives.Jain G. encourage their safe.462021 ABSTRACT India has become a dumping ground for banned drugs. and improve patient care and safety in relation to the use of medicines. Since the drugs are not banned.

. 3-The third step involved the assessment of quality of drug information services from the provider s perspective by using the guild line from the DSE/WHO Pharmacy Practice and Education in India: Current Issues and Trends . pertaining to awareness. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar.K..EVALUATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY BASED MEDICAL INFORMATION WEBSITES FOR HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS Soni R. etc.Secondly step. internet.K.. The quality of drug information services provided was assessed both from the receiver s as well as from the provider s perspective was evaluated by using the guide lines from the DSE/WHO seminar. Bhowmick M. The drug information queries during ward round.BHEL Bhopal . the quality of services provided was assess from the receiver perspective through a questionnaire compressing question.462021 ABSTRACT To evaluate the various drug information queries received. by telephone.. direct access. Pandey G. These forms were evaluated retrospectively for a period of 12 month. Dubey B. and to assess the quality of services provided by drug information center (DIC) of the pharmacy practice department.. 2. Soni R.N. Assessment and evaluation of drug information services were carried out in three step 1-The step involved retrospective evaluation of drug information request and documentation from for a period of 12 month.K. Omre R.

The pharmacy practice concept was realized with the dawn of independence in 1947. standards of education. TIT College of Pharmacy. Barve Dushyant. 1948 and the formulation of the Education Regulations in the year 1953. BHEL Bhopal 462021 ABSTRACT Pharmacy education and practice has a significant impact on the health improvements of a nation. The Pharmacy Act. pharmacists monitor the health and progress of patients in response to drug therapy and provide patient care that focuses on prevention of diseases and patient outcomes.The Chopra committee in its report recommended among others setting up of courses for training in pharmacy and prescribing minimum qualifications for registration as a pharmacist. The Bhore committee emphasized the need of government to control practice of pharmacy and provide educational facilities for licentiate pharmacists.1 1948 was the first landmark. LYOPHILIZATION Rawat Shailendra*. and report of Health Survey and Development Committee. in hospitals. and changes are being undertaken. This paper seeks to sketch the status of pharmacy practice in India vis-à-vis pharmacy education. Pharm. Dubey B. Pharmacists represent the third largest healthcare professional group in the world. In developed nations. Pharmacists work in the community. India has made rapid progress in pharmacy education over the last two decades. in addition to traditional dispensing.Jha Urmilesh. Khare Salaj.462021 . Jain Amit. Anand Nagar. Formal pharmacy education in India started (B. and then pay particular attention to the need for required actions to strengthen the curriculum and the profession.K. TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. in BHU in 1937) long before the enactment of Pharmacy Act. 1943 (Bhore committee). Dubey B.K. and accordingly educational curriculum is designed. and in other medical facilities as members of the health care team and have special responsibilities for the safe use of medicines. which came into existence in response to recommendations of Drugs Enquiry Committee (Chopra committee) constituted in 1930.BHEL Bhopal .

such as water replacement and vitrification models. combination of lyoprotectants and additives. the parameters affecting the lyoprotective effect and the techniques used in a large number of studies. Bhatere Dagendra TIT College of Pharmacy Anand Nagar. encapsulated solute/drug retention (ESR). After decades of studies in this field. have been proposed. distribution of lyoprotectant on the two sides of lipid bilayers and others. different lyoprotective mechanisms. which are the extrinsic factors affecting the stability of freeze-dried cakes. which are the key factors determining the lyoprotective effect of freeze-dried liposomes.462021 . this paper reviews the lyoprotective mechanisms. selection of lyoprotectants. Finally. drying protocols. (2) The technological factors: freezing protocols. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS Sharma Vinay*. the major areas and future potential of research on lyophilized liposomes are highlighted. Much progress has been made in developing highly stable liposomes after lyophilization based on optimization of formulation and process parameters.ABSTRACT Lyophilization is a promising approach to ensure the long-term stability of liposomes. Here. Moreover. gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature (Tm) and glass transition temperature (Tg) are selected as indicators to investigate the protective effect during this process. vesicle size. Barve Dushyant. storage conditions and others. the lipid bilayer composition. The parameters are discussed with regard to the following two aspects: (1) the formulation factors: the choice of drug. dry mass ratio of lyoprotectant to lipid.BHEL Bhopal .

ABSTRACT Somatic embryogenesis is an asexual form of plant propagation in nature that mimics many of the events of sexual reproduction. Cell suspensions can be plated onto solid media where cells grow into a callus from which plants can often be regenerated. in which somatic embryos are formed from single cells cultivated in liquid or solid medium. Also. as well as for mass propagation. . In vitro somatic embryogenesis is an important prerequisite for the use of many biotechnological tools for genetic improvement. this process may be reproduced artificially by the manipulation of tissues and cells in vitro. Some of the most important factors for successful plant regeneration are the culture medium and environmental incubation conditions.

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