PROJECT REPORT ON ³NGOs AND INCREASE IN EMPLOYMENT´

Submitted To: Aradhan Albert Submitted By: Priya Mudgal Submission Date: 15/05/10

Poornima School of Management, Jaipur

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1

I Priya Mudgal, would like to thank all those who have helped and inspired me during the course of time of this project without which the successful completion of the project would not have been possible. Right from the first stage of the project till the end part in conceiving, designing and developing this project, we owe a lot too many people.

Our special thanks go to Ms. Aradhan Albert, our faculty Guide, who has constantly been helping us during the project. She has been continuous source of motivation, support & very helpful for us. Her knowledge and expert guidance made the way easy & learning towards a successful ongoing project. Last but not the least I am also thankful to our College, Poornima School of Management, Jaipur for providing me all facilities and helping us to carry out my project.

Priya Mudgal

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PREFACE

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and increase in employment
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. But the term NGO encompasses a vast category of groups and organizations. NGOs are ³private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development.´ Basic motive of this study is to understand the role of NGOs in providing the jobs to the public, there importance and role towards nation, and its contribution to our Economy. The main objective of this project is to assess and compare the overall effect of NGOs on employment, role of NGOs, their working style, responsibilities and importance towards nation growth, contribution of NGOs in Indian Economy and there future plans, and to study and know the various types of NGOs present in India. The methodology of the study is through exploring secondary data i.e. various websites, articles from magazines and news papers, books were used for collecting secondary data. The main limitation of the study was that it is restricted to only secondary source and inadequate time was the major constraint during the whole project.

As NGO is a very huge topic researchers has divided the whole study in some of the few aspects like History of NGOs in India, Types of NGOs, Roles and responsibilities of NGOs, NGOs and Employment, NGOs and Indian Economy, NGOs and Indian Future and in last some key statistical data are highlighted. According to the whole study it can be concluded that, NGOs which will provide the technological, financial and organizational resources, while also providing millions of employment opportunities for rural and tribal communities.

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Today about 1.5 million NGOs work in India in activities like religious, social services, education, field of sports and culture etc.

NGOs are resolving many issues in differing sectors or on specific problems such as conflict resolution, social development, human rights, gender, education, clean water, land mines, etc. NGOs have responded to government¶s socioeconomic development agenda over the years. NGOs contribution towards employment is nearly 2-5% and is increases steadily over a period of time, as government of India is continuously supporting them. According to the one survey(Society for Participatory Research in Asia, PRIA) 73.4% of NGOs have one or no paid staff, although across the country more than 19 million person work as volunteers or paid staff at an NGO. Government as initiated to give various projects (Calcutta environment improvement project, Western Transport Corridor, National Highway Sector II etc) to NGOs due to that development in rural and employment opportunity is increases day by day.

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INDEX
TABLE OF CONTENTS

SR. NO. 1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 5 6

PARTICULARS Executive Summary Research Methodology Core Study Introduction Concept Recent Developments Findings Analysis Limitation Recommendation Conclusion Bibliography

PAGE NO. 1 3 4 4 7 18 40 43 45 46 48 50

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and increase in employment
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. But the term NGO encompasses a vast category of groups and organizations. NGOs are ³private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development.´ The study was restricted to only secondary source and the availability of information from various articles. It covers majorly NGO¶s role in providing employment, its importance and function, and contribution towards Indian economy.

The main objective of this project is to assess and compare the overall effect of NGOs on employment, role of NGOs, their working style, responsibilities and importance towards nation growth, contribution of NGOs in Indian Economy and there future plans, and to study and know the various types of NGOs present in India. The methodology of the study is through exploring secondary data i.e. various websites, articles from magazines and news papers, books were used for collecting secondary data.

As NGO is a very huge topic researchers has divided the whole study in some of the few aspects like History of NGOs in India, Types of NGOs, Roles and responsibilities of NGOs, NGOs and Employment, NGOs and Indian Economy, NGOs and Indian Future and in last some key statistical data are highlighted. According to the whole study it can be concluded that, NGOs which will provide the technological, financial and organizational resources, while also providing millions of employment opportunities for rural and tribal communities.

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Today about 1.5 million NGOs work in India in activities like religious, social services, education, field of sports and culture etc.

NGOs are resolving many issues in differing sectors or on specific problems such as conflict resolution, social development, human rights, gender, education, clean water, land mines, etc. NGOs have responded to government¶s socioeconomic development agenda over the years. NGOs contribution towards employment is nearly 2-5% and is increases steadily over a period of time, as government of India is continuously supporting them. According to the one survey(Society for Participatory Research in Asia, PRIA) 73.4% of NGOs have one or no paid staff, although across the country more than 19 million person work as volunteers or paid staff at an NGO. Government as initiated to give various projects (Calcutta environment improvement project, Western Transport Corridor, National Highway Sector II etc) to NGOs due to that development in rural and employment opportunity is increases day by day. NGOs need to change there working style, From protest to pro-action, Building citizen democracy, Forming alliances across social movements, Distinguishing between activist and service provider NGOs. NGO sector ± Government joint taskforces for information exchange need to be improved. Also establishment of openness, trust, respect and mutual confidence should be developed.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
Title of the Study: NGOs and Increase in Employment  Duration of the Project: week 1) Submission of the blue print for studies. Week 2) Submission of the abstract & finalization of abstract. Week 3) Collection of secondary data . Week 4) Selection & preliminary assessment & final completion of secondary data. Week 5) Finalization of report.  Objective of the Study: The main objective of our project is:  To assess and compare the overall effect of NGOs on employment.  Role of NGOs, their working style, responsibilities and importance towards nation growth.  Contribution of NGOs in Indian Economy and there future plans.  To study and know the various types of NGOs present in India.  Type of Research:  Research Approach: Descriptive research  Scope of the Study:  The study was restricted to only secondary source and the availability of information from various articles. It covers majorly NGO¶s role in providing employment, its importance and function, and contribution towards Indian economy.  Limitation of Study:  The study was restricted to secondary data only, no market research is involved hence real time picture can¶t be shown.  Inadequate time was the major constraint during the whole project.

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CORE STUDY

INTRODUCTION
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted, non-governmental organization created by natural or legal persons with no participation or representation of any government. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. Unlike the term "intergovernmental organization", "nongovernmental organization" is a term in general use but is not a legal definition. In many jurisdictions, these types of organization are defined as "civil society organizations" or referred to by other names. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. But the term NGO encompasses a vast category of groups and organizations. NGOs are ³private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development.´

The Objective
For bridging the data gap and improving information availability we are committed to develop and establish an ideal medium for the Participation and exchange of a trusted and accurate source of quality information.

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History
National NGOs go back to antiquity. International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at least 1839.[4] Rotary, later Rotary International, was founded in 1905. It has been estimated that by 1914 there were 1083 NGOs.[5] International NGOs were important in the anti-slavery movement and the movement for women's suffrage, and reached a peak at the time of the World Disarmament Conference.[6] However, the phrase "non-governmental organization" only came into popular use with the establishment of the United Nations Organization in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United Nations Charter[7] for a consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member states²see Consultative Status. Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation. International treaties and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization were perceived as being too centred on the interests of capitalist enterprises. Some argued that in an attempt to counterbalance this trend, NGOs have developed to emphasize humanitarian issues, developmental aid and sustainable development. During the second half of the 19th century, nationalist consciousness spread across india and self-help emerged as the primary focus of sociopolitical movements. Numerous organizations were established during this period, including the Friend-in-Need Society (1858), Prathana Samaj (1864), Satya Shodhan Samaj (1873), Arya Samaj (1875), the National Council for Women in India (1875), and the Indian National Conference (1887).

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Types of NGOs
NGO type can be understood by their orientation and level of co-operation. NGO type by orientation
y y y y

Charitable orientation; Service orientation; Participatory orientation; Empowering orientation;

NGO type by level of co-operation
y y y y

Community- Based Organisation; City Wide Organisation; National NGOs; International NGOs;

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CONCEPT
Income Tax benefits for NGOs:
Yes, income received by any religious or charitable trust, any other fund or institution established for religious or social purpose is not taxable provided the income is applied for the objects of the organisation. However, to get exemption under Income Tax, it is essential for NGOs to register themselves with Income Tax Authorities. Income Tax Benefits to Donors People donating to these religious and charitable organisations also get an exemption of the amount of donation. The amount donated is either 100 percent or 50 percent exempt. The percentage of exemption differs for different organisations and is specified by authorities.

Grants in aid from the Govt. of India:
Govt. of India allocates the grants in aid for carrying out the specific programmes as well as for block general purposes. These grants are made out to voluntary organisations who are involved in implementing these programmes. Grants-in-aid has been defined as the sum which a superior authority assigns to an inferior authority. For allocation of the financial resources, the Govt. of India has framed General Financial Rules for deciding the right agency. By and large the rules and conditions governing these specific schemes flow from the grants-in-aid rules mentioned in these schemes of the various ministries and departments. Some of these rules and conditions are given below: 1. The organisations / institution/ agency should be registered under an appropriate act such as Societies Registration Act, 1860, Charitable Trusts Act, Cooperative Societies Act or under any law in force.

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2. The organisations seeking funds should be a recognised and reputed one; its work should be reported satisfactory by the concerned department of the State Govt. or the U. T. administration. 3. It must be a properly constituted broad based Managing /Executive Committee with its powers , duties and responsibilities clearly defined and laid down in a written constitution. 4. It should have been engaged in social welfare /development activities for a minimum period of 3 years oprior to seeking the grant. 5. The programmes and services of the voluntary organisations should be open to all irrespective of caste , creeed and religion. 6. The organisations must be financially sound. It must have facilities , research, personnel and experienced staff for undertaking activities for which grant is allocated. 7. It should not be a profit oriented body benefitting any specific individual or a group of individuals. 8. The grantee organisations must execute a bond, that it will abide by all the conditions of grant, failing which the grant shall be refunded. 9. Grantee agency must accept the right of grantor to inspect the aided agency at any time in order to study its working and to ensure proper utilization of grants. 10. Agency should be able to generate its own resources including the contributions from the community. 11. Grant should not be utilised for purposes other than those for which it issanctioned. 12. Agencies should have certain methods and procedures relating to budgets, accounting and audit of the grants sanctioned. 13. The institutes shall maintain separate accounts of the programmes for which the grant is received, distinct from the accounts of its normal activities. 14. The payment of grant may be stopped or earlier grants recovered if the grantor is not satisfied with the utilisation of funds for the stated objectives. 15. The grantee agency should submit the duly audited accounts as and when required. 16. The grantee organisations should submit the progress reports as specified in the relevant scheme.

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17. The grant organisations should maintain an account with a bank or a post office in the name of the institutions , to be operated by at least two office bearers. 18. The grantee organisations are prohibited from handing over the funds and the implementation of the programmes to another organisations. 19. The accounts should be audited by a Chartered Accountant or a govt. authority within two months from the close of the financial year. 20. Grants shall not be allocated for the same purposes if already financed by some other deptt. of the Central Govt. 21. Unspent balance of the grant should be refunded at the close of the year. 22. The agency must guarantee that the assets acquired out of the grants funds shall not be sold, dispossessed or alienated, encumbered, mortgaged at any time for purposes other than those for which grant is sanctioned. A record of such assets should be maintained by the grantee in the form prescribed by the grant-giving agency. There are various schemes sponsored by the various central Government ministries such as Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Ministry of Human Resources Development. The applicant voluntary organisations applying for such grants in aid should file these through the relevant state level department. The recommendations made by these departments shall be considered while sanctioning these grants.

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Schemes sponsored by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Shashtri Bhawan, New Delhi for NGOs:
Name of the scheme Purposes and the eligibility

1. Scheme for Welfare of The main purposes of the scheme is to rehabilitate destitute children children in need of care and as normal citizens of the country. The scheme seeks to provide Protection individualized and personal care to destitute children with the help of institutional and non institutional care. The scheme is implemented through registered voluntary ( national level) organisation. 2. Scheme for Foster Care The objective of the scheme is welfare of the destitute children by Services providing the homely atmosphere to those who become destitute at an early age. It is made available to reputed V.O. working in the field of promoting foster care services in India. 3.Organisational assistance The objective is to provide assistance to voluntary organisations with to Voluntary social welfare a view of developing their organisational efficiency. organisations 4. Scheme for Assistance to The main objective is to assist needy physically handicapped persons disabled purchases aids/appliances The eligible are the individuals who are physically handicapped. 5. Grants in aid for The projects are intended to help in finding the solutions to the on problems of the handicapped and facilitate their effective persons for in procuring quality and modern aids and appliances that can promote

/fittings/of their physical rehabilitation.

sponsoring rehabilitation handicapped

research of

the rehabilitation .The projects under this sponsoring shall be of an applied nature and result and action oriented.

6. Scheme of assistance to The scheme seeks to provide financial assistance mainly for

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organisations for disabled developing services in the area of prevention of disabilities, early persons detection and intervention ; education , training and rehabilitation.

7.Assistance to Voluntary This scheme is jointly promoted by the Govt. of India and UNICEF. It agencies for prevention, seeks projects of non governmental organisations having a focus on

detection and management preventive and early detection of disability among children. Projects of Childhood disabilities. eligible for this assistance would include community and family based rehab. programmes for disabled children; efforts aimed at creating awareness among families and community leaders ; innovative programmes of training in early detection /intervention methods for families etc. 8.Grants in aid rules for The scheme provides assistance for conducting research in the field of sponsoring research social welfare, social policy and social development. Priorities with in these broad areas will be given to projects of an applied nature keeping in view plan policies and prgs. 9. Grants in aid rules for Grants are provided for publications of studies and documentation in sponsoring publications 10. Grants in aid the field of social welfare and policy development. for The Ministry also provides financial assistance for organising workshops /seminars which will help disseminate research findings, identify problems areas , discuss problems and identify research needs etc. in the broad field of social welfare , social policy and social development. 11. Grant-in-aid rules for The scheme aims at supporting action oriented studies on problems of supporting projects (Tribal scheduled tribes particularly in the field of economic development for Development) of all India generation at or Inter state nature necessary data to improve formulations and

Workshops / seminars

implementations of tribal developmental prgs.

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Schemes sponsored by the Ministry of Human Resource Development Shashtri Bhawan , New Delhi for Human Empowerment by Govt of India:
12. Scheme of assistance for The scheme seeks to provide suitable accommodation in construction/ extension of Hostel healthy environment for the working women and day care buildings for working women centres. with a day care centre 13.Scheme for short stay homes for women and girls 14.Scheme women¶s for setting up The main objective is to rehabilitate destitute women through

training vocational trainings and residential care.

centres/institutes for rehab. of women in distress 15.Scheme assistance for to organisational The scheme seeks to support and help the V.O. for women and voluntary children to maintain their central offices, a vital input in the

organisations for women and running of their activities. child development 16.Scheme programmes through Balwadis and Day care centres for pre school children in the age group of 3 to 5 years. 17.Scheme for assistance to V.O. Promotion of adult education and eradication of mass illiteracy working in the field for adult education 18. Scheme of assistance to V.O. Early Childhood education programmes for early childhood education of Nutrition The programme seeks to provide supplementary food for children in the age of 3-5 years and envisage that it would form a basis for the development of other services like health, education and welfare.

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(Universalisation of education)

Schemes sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi
1. Scheme for improvement of The scheme seeks to provide the medical care to rural and high health services density urban slums for expansion and improvements of existing nursing facilities. 2.Schemes for sanctioning grants- The scheme seeks to promote intensive and extensive education in-aid for promoting the of the public and motivate them to donate the blood.

voluntary blood donations camps 3.Grants to Under graduate The scheme seeks to provide the financial assistance with a

college of Indian Systems of view to improve the standard of education in the undergraduate Medicines and Homeopathy run ISM and homeopathy colleges for the purchase of lab. by the V.O. 4.Grants-in-aid to the equipment and setting up of the book banks. V.O. The scheme seeks to encourage V.O. to take up the family

engaged in the Family welfare welfare programmes by running the Family welfare centres. programmes

Other schemes sponsored by various ministries Concerned Department /Board National Wasteland Development Board Lok Nayak Scheme for Grant The objective under this scheme is to bring under productive of Financial uses the wastelands in the country through a massive Scheme Purposes

assistance to V.O. programme of afforestation and trees planting. The major steps include identification of lands, motivation of villagers, assisting the villagers wither as a group in obtaining tres

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Bhawan, Delhi

New

rights on lands etc. The Board shall emphasis on the issues relating to laying of nurseries, forestry and pasteur development activities and development of culturable wasteland including

improvements of land . National Fund for Scheme for rural The Govt. accords highest priority to programmes of rural Rural Development (Department Rural development) Krishi New Delhi Bhawan Projects qualifying for these assistance: -construction and maintenance of rural link roads -construction and maintenance of drinking water projects -construction and maintenance of hospitals and dispensaries -establishment of rural industries and animal product units for generating employment in rural areas for Development development for attaining the objectives of increasing agricultural production, creating employment, eradicating poverty and bringing overall improvement in the rural economy.

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Indian Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can be set up under various Indian laws: Registered Societies
Society¶s registration Act, 1860 is a central act for registering not-for-profit organizations. Almost all the states in India have adopted (with modifications, if any) the central Act for creating state level authorities for registering various types of not-for-profit entities.. According to the act any seven persons who subscribe to the Memorandum of Association (MOA) can register a society.

Public Trust
Public trust can be created for public charitable purposes. There is no All India Level Act for setting up public charitable trusts. Some of the states in India has enacted the Public Charitable Trust Act, while most states in India does not have a trust act. An NGO can be created only under a public trust act.Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan have independent state level public trust acts. States like West Bengal and Bihar, do not have any act to register a public trust.

Private Trust
A private trust, created under and governed by the Indian Trusts Act of 1882, aims at managing assigned trust properties for private or religious purpose. A private trust does not enjoy the privileges and tax benefits that are available for public trusts or NGOs.

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Non Profit Companies (Section 25)
Conferring of corporate personality to associations that promote cultural and charitable objectives, but exempting them from the operation of some cumbersome requirements (which are essentially for regulation of business bodies but are difficult for compliance by non-profit companies), are the noteworthy features that are provided under the companies act, 1956.

Co-operative Societies
In India, cooperative societies are regarded as instruments to mobilize and aggregate community effort to eliminate layers of middlemen in any product or service supply chain hence resulting in greater benefit sharing for the grassroot farmer, worker or artisans.

Multi-State Co-operative Societies (MACTS)
The Multi-state Co-operative Societies Act, 2002 which substitutes the earlier statute of 1984, facilitates the incorporation of cooperative societies whose objects and functions spread over to several states. The act provides for formation of both primary (with both individual and institutional members) and federal cooperatives (with only institutional memberships).

Trade Unions
Trade union means any combination , whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen or between employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business, and includes any federation of two or more Trade Unions.

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS:
Azad India Foundation
Bihar is a land much in need of social welfare and Ngos in Bihar are lending a helping hand. One NGO in Bihar is Azad India Foundation. Having started with a focus on activities like nonformal education and vocational training centers for women, this NGO in Bihar has expanded its horizon to Literacy Programmes in Bihar, National Institute of Open Schooling, Women Empowerment Programmes in Bihar, Formation of Self-Help groups, Rural Employment programmes and Community welfare Measures. This is one Bihar NGo that believes in taking facilities of education and welfare measures to the interiors of rural Bihar.

In last seven years thier activities have broadened in the fields of female literacy, formal education for children, nonformal education, rural employment, income generating skills, SHG formation, community health and awareness programmes on various social issues. The activities reach out to poor and marginalized women, adolescents and disadvantaged and marginalized children from rural and urban areas of Kishanganj district. AIF's journey owes much to the unstinting support of a large number of friends, supporters and well-wishers. The first criticism is levelled against the money the NGOs waste. Nothing could be more further from the truth. Indian NGO¶s actually suffer from shortage of funds. They struggle to raise the appropriate amount of funds. Even if the funds are raised, shortage does remain. We need NGOs in India because our population is huge and it is not economically viable for the government to take on the task of caring for the entire populace. Hence the term nonGovernmental Organizations. The function of Indian NGOs, are not narrowed down to the care of orphans but it runs the gamut from new housing to natural disaster relief and rehabilitation.

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One of its functions can be raising the standard of living of the people. It is no secret, the economic status of our country. We are ranked among the low-income fast growing countries (according to the UNIDO resort 2009). Low income amounts to low standard of living. Therefore, we see that Indian NGOs take it upon themselves to bring about changes in people¶s lifestyles. A great contributor to standard of living is the diet, sanitation and health facilities people enjoy. In our country, dismal sanitation is a scab on the face of our civil authorities. NGOs help people improve their sanitation condition by raising money to help them, help the poor people build new toilets. NGOs in India should be and are assisted in these endeavors. Indian NGOs do provide education. In our quality education deprived country, NGOs in India are a ray of light. The Human Development Index (HDI) done by the UNDP ranks our country a dismal 134 out of 170 odd countries. Two of the variables taken into consideration are Longevity and Education. India has a large number of primary school drop-outs. This would contribute to the dismal rank. So an NGO has its job cut out i.e. the Indian NGOs working at this problem have their job cut out. A couple of NGOs in India have taken it upon themselves to run a program wherein the children covered under their scheme avail of free education. These Indian NGOs find it the hardest to raise the required funds So it would seem unfair to say that India does not need any NGOs. The government has also been very cooperative to its NGOs. India provides its statistics for any survey, though of late the government has been most unwilling to do so in particular fields. However, our country does not rank among Iraq, Iran, Zimbabwe, Somalia, Taiwan, which are countries that indulge in µStatistical Invisibility¶. So in conclusion I would recommend the functioning of NGOs in India as it would only enhance the status of our economy.

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Top 10 NGO - India

y 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Help Age India - Rank 1 Sargam Sanstha - Rank 2 Smile Foundation - Rank 3 Give India Lepra Society Udaan Deepalaya Uday Foundation Karmayog

10. Pratham

Sargam Sanstha
Sargam is a social and cultural Non Governmental and nonprofit making organization working for more than last 2 decades to improve the quality of society and life of children. Society is like a stew. If you don¶t keep it stirred up, you get a lot of scum on top. A first grader should understand that her or his culture isn¶t a rational invention; that there are thousands of other cultures and they all work pretty well; that all cultures function on faith rather than truth; that there are lots of alternatives to our own society. We put our best because Cultural relativity is defensible, attractive. It¶s a source of hope. It means we don¶t have to continue this way if we don¶t like it. To overcome the problems and fight against ills in the society, we organize social events and programs to promote and improve education, skill, quality of humans. Our Professionals even

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help them learn Dance, Drama, Painting, and other cultural activities to bring out the hidden talent within them.

Smile Foundation

As a Social Venture Philanthropist, Smile Foundation promotes and catalyses universal education among underprivileged children, create the process to embrace these children into mainstream in a sustained manner, facilitate them to emerge as productive assets, and set the foundation for nation building.

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The NGO sector in India

Let us turn, then, to the activities of the NGOs ² one of the two main forces organising the WSF in India. In Appendix I, we have discussed Ford Foundation's activities at length because of its role as funder of the WSF, and also as a case study of foreign funding. The broad pattern displayed by the Ford Foundation holds for the entire NGO sector in India. There are a number of sincere individuals working in NGOs or associated with NGOs. Many such persons are moved by a desire to reach some immediate assistance to needy people. Seen in specific contexts, they do in fact reach some relief to sections of people. Without questioning the commitment and genuineness of such individuals, our concern here is to point to the broader political significance of the NGO institutional phenomenon. The 1980s and 1990s witnessed an extraordinary proliferation of foreign-funded NGOs in India: according to the Home Ministry, by the year 2000 nearly 20,000 organisations were registered under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act, though only 13,800 of them submitted their accounts to the government as required.1 Total foreign funds received by these organisations rose from Rs 3,403 crore in 1998-99 to Rs 3,925 crore in 1999-2000 to Rs 4,535 crore (about $993 million) in 2000-01. Indeed the extraordinary proliferation of NGOs serves imperialism in a variety of ways. 1. NGOs, especially those working to provide various services ² health, education, nutrition, rural development ² act as a buffer between the State and people. Many States find it useful to maintain the trappings of democracy even as they slash people's most basic survival requirements from their budgets. NGOs come to the rescue by acting as the private contractors of the State, with the benefit that the State is absolved of all responsibilities. People cannot demand anything as a right from the NGOs: what they get from them is 'charity'. Till the 1980s, NGO activity in India was limited to 'developmental' activities -- rural uplift, literacy, nutrition for women and children, small loans for self-employment, public health, and so on. This continues to be a major sphere of NGO activity ² in 2000-01, Rs 970 crore, or 21

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per cent of the total foreign funds, was designated for rural development, health and family welfare; other 'developmental' heads would have added to this figure. But in what context are these 'developmental' activities taking place? In the basic context of enormous, conscious suppression of development. Under the guidance of the IMF and World Bank, successive Indian governments slashed their expenditure on rural development (including expenditure on agriculture, rural development, special areas programme, irrigation and flood control, village industry, energy and transport; the figures are for Centre and states combined) from 14.5 per cent of GDP in 1985-90 to 5.9 per cent in 2000-01.5 Rural employment growth is now flat; per capita foodgrains consumption has fallen dramatically to levels lower than the 1939-44 famine; the situation is calamitous. Were expenditure by Centre and states on rural development to have remained at the same percentage of GDP as in 1985-90, it would not have been Rs 124,000 crore in 2000-01, but Rs 305,000 crore, or more than two and a half times the actual amount. In comparison with this giant spending gap, the sums being spent by NGOs in India are trivial. But, by their presence, the notion is conveyed all round that private organisations are stepping in to fill the gap left by the State. This is doubly useful to the rulers. The political propaganda of 'privatisation' is bolstered; and, as said before, people are unable to demand anything as their right. In effect, NGO activities help the State to whittle down even the existing meagre social claims that people have on the social product. Thus NGOs are multiplied fastest where State policies ² usually as part of an IMF/World Bankdirected policy ² are withdrawing basic services such as food, health care, and education. The greater the devastation wreaked by the policy, the greater the proliferation of NGOs sponsored to help the victims. (Indeed, before the US prepares to invade a country, it funds and prepares leading NGOs to provide 'relief' after it has rained destruction. Thus in the second half of 2002 NGOs began cutting their spending on, and manpower deployed in, still-devastated Afghanistan -- as part of their preparation to join the US caravan to Iraq.) 2. In the course of recruiting their manpower, the NGOs give employment and a small share of the cream to certain local persons. These persons might be locally influential persons, whose influence and operations then benefit the NGO. Or they might be vocal and restive persons,

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potential opponents of the authorities, who are in effect bought over. In either case, NGO employment, although tiny in comparison with the levels of unemployment in third world countries, serves as a network of local political influence, stabilising the existing order. 3. In the field of people's movements, 'activist' or 'advocacy' NGOs help to redirect struggles of the people for basic change from the path of confrontation to that of negotiation, preserving the existing political frame. The World Bank explains in its "Report on Development" (cited above) its political reasons for promoting NGOs. It says: "Social tensions and divisions can be eased by bringing political opponents together within the framework of formal and informal forums and by channeling their energies through political processes, rather than leaving confrontation as the only form of release."7 Thus ever since the early seventies Andhra Pradesh, a state with a strong tradition of revolutionary movements, has witnessed a massive proliferation of NGOs, and is indeed among the states receiving the maximum foreign NGO funds today.

Today, about 1.5 million NGOs work in india (i.e., nonprofit, voluntary citizens¶ groups organized on a local, national, or international level). This includes temples, churches, mosques, gurudwaras (sikh place of workshop), sports associations, hospitals, educational institutions, and ganeshotsav mandals (temporary structures set up to house Ganesh festival celebrations). Most NGos in india are smal and dependent on volunteers. According to a survey conducted by society for Participatory research in Asia (PRIA), 73.4% of NGos have one or no paid staff, although across the country, more than 19 mil ion persons work as volunteers or paid staff at an NGo.5 the PRIA survey also reveals that 26.5% of NGos are engaged in religious activities, while 21.3% work in the area of community and/or social service. About one in five NGos works in education, while 17.9% are active in the fields of sports and culture. only 6.6% work in the health sector.

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The NGO sector of India Statistics 
Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) play a vital role in the development of Indian society.  The NGO sector¶s extensive grassroots connection and involvement in various social service provision make it a potential ally for the governments in reforming out-dated public policies.  In India, unfortunately the public policy making process essentially excludes the µpublic¶ and is carried out by politicians in power with the assistance of elite bureaucrats.  The NGO sector, representing various classes of people and interests, plays a surrogate role by engaging in public policy making.  While it is hard to predict the total number of NGOs operating in the country due to the lack of systematic records, according to estimates there are between 1.2 million ± 1.5 million NGOs operating currently .  A great majority of the NGOs are small and about three-fourths of all NGOs are run entirely by volunteers or a few part time employees. About 13% of the NGOs have between 2 ± 5 employees; about 5% have between 6 ± 10 employees and only about 8.5% (one in every 12) NGOs employ more than 10 people.  In spite of the limitations in their size and resources, NGOs in the area of environment, health, education, peace, human rights, consumer rights and women's rights provide convincing examples of the power of the sector¶s action in social change.  NGOs are registered as trusts , societies , or as private limited non profit companies , under Section-25 of Indian Companies Act, 1956. Section 2(15) of the Income Tax Act gives them tax exemption.  Foreign contributions to non-profits are governed by Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA, 1976) regulations and the Home Ministry.  Two theoretical explanations for the growth of the NGO sector:

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1. The Market Failure theory: NGOs emerged to provide services that the public sector cannot or will not provide, and services for which the for-profit businesses cannot get sufficient return on their investment.  2. The Contract Failure theory: NGOs were created to provide services where the parties who want them offered were not in a position to provide these services themselves. These parties were donors or well wishers of the clients receiving the services.

NGO Sector ± Government Relations 
In the initial years after independence, there was some attention given towards the NGO sector by the Central Government mainly because most of the NGOs were Gandhian in nature.  It was not until 1980 (Sixth Five Year Plan 1980-1985), the government identified new areas in which NGOs as new actors could participate in social development.  During the next five FYPs, the government has increasingly recognized the NGO sector¶s vital role and has provided increasing levels of funding. In the past two decades, all levels of the government have increased their engagements with the sector .

Role of NGOs in Public Policy Making 
Since the late 1970s, the NGO sector has been playing a steadily increasing and active role in influencing government policies that affect the society.  Poverty Alleviation  Of the nation¶s nearly 1.1 billion inhabitants, an estimated 350-400 million live below the poverty line mainly due to illiteracy and poor health.  Since 1980, many NGO groups across the country have taken an alternative µsocial action¶ approach by politicizing the issue of poverty, directly challenging many of the social programs established by the government and eventually shifting the policy base.  Women¶s Movement

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The worst of all social injustices and inequalities had been the way Indian women were subjected to multiple forms and contexts of domination.  Since 1970s women¶s movement began to take shape, gradually shifting emphasis from the critique of gender inequality to issues like gender discrimination at the work place, unequal wages and the domestic labor. NGOs such as SEWA have played dominant roles in women¶s economic independence.  Among the most significant policy development that these NGOs were able to achieve was the introduction of 33% reservation for women in local, village-level elections.  Environmental Conservation  The major and most visible effort, till date, of the NGO sector in influencing environmental policy in the country has been ³Narmada Bachao Andolan´  Spearheaded by a few NGOs, this became a genuine people¶s movement and gained support from environmental NGOs from around the world.  The success of the movement resulted in the creation of new policies on environmental conservation, resettlement and rehabilitation.  AIDS Prevention  In the last two decades, the spread of HIV/AIDS has taken on an epidemic proportion. Yet, the Indian government allocated only $38.8 million between 1999 and 2005 for HIV/AIDS prevention programs.  Numerous dedicated NGOs have emerged to provide excellent services in HIV/AIDS awareness education, prevention and research.  Realizing the critical need for these NGOs and their services, the government invited them to participate in developing health policies related to HIV/AIDS. Currently these NGOs play an active role by providing policy guidelines as well as delivering government funded services to HIV/AIDS patients.  Disaster Management  The NGO sector has always been in the forefront in providing recovery, relief and rehabilitation after natural calamities and disasters such as floods, droughts, earthquakes and epidemics.

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The government considered this role of NGOs as secondary to the public sector¶s disaster management policies and procedures.  The sector¶s enormous response in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami convinced the government to seek assistance from NGO groups in developing, coordinating and implementing new disaster management policies .

Emerging as a political 'alternative'

Naturally, this school of post-modernism implies that no single political force can represent the common long-term interests of all sections of the people in a country. Along the same lines, NGOs and various funded intellectuals in India have since the early 1980s advanced the notion of a "non-party political process". It is this understanding that lies behind the World Social Forum's hypocritical bar on the participation of political parties. If the bar on political parties were in order to allow mass organisations and mass movements to occupy centre stage, one could understand the rationale. In fact it is to the contrary. Political parties actually do take part in the WSF, appearing as 'individuals' ² as can be seen by the leading role of PT in the Brazil WSF meets, and the droves of parliamentarians who attended those gatherings. The point here is the ideological concept that post-modernists/NGO theorists strain hard to propagate: Namely, that any single political force aiming to represent all sections of the people amounts to an imposition on the tapestry of different groups or ways of being. Indeed, for those who run the existing order, it is vital to ensure the absence of any coherent political force which can integrate the myriad sections in opposition against that order. While NGOs thus oppose the concept of a single political party leading various sections of the people, they themselves are emerging as a single political force in their own right. They have unanimity on most issues. Their explicitly political activities span a wide range of social sections: they run organisations of women, adivasis, dalits, unorganised workers, fishermen, and slumdwellers; they also run organisations for the protection of the environment, cultural

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organisations, and human rights organisations (indeed, much admirable work in providing relief to the victims of the Gujarat massacres, and documentation of the crimes there, has been done by NGOs). Till now, however, NGOs by and large have not been treated as a legitimate political force by the traditional mass organisations ² the trade unions, peasant unions, student organisations, women's organisations. And it continues to be the case that the mass organisations command much greater capacity to mobilise masses of people. Through platforms such as the World Social Forum now, NGOs are being provided an opportunity to legitimise themselves as a political force and expand their influence among sections to which they earlier had little access.

NGOs, Indian Government and Opportunities:

1. Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan - SSA
Focus : Universalization of Elementary Education in India for children. SSA is also commonly known as 'Each One Teach One' and is a flagship programme of the Government of India. The aim of the programme has been to make elementary education compulsory and free for children in the age group of 6 - 14, especially girls. SSA is also concerned with other important factors related to education including better infrastructure in schools, maintaining an adequate number of teachers, provision of clean drinking water and clean toilets etc.

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2. Nanhi Kali
Focus: Issues concerning the Girl Child. Based in Mumbai, Nanhi Kali is a project that is aimed at providing education to the underprivileged Indian girl child thereby, providing her a chance to become independent, self reliant and confident. Nanhi Kali project is managed by Naandi Foundation and K.C. Mahindra Educational Trust.

3. Project Crayons
Focus: underprivileged and physically challenged orphan children Project Crayons stands for Child Rehabilitation And Youth Oriented Nationwide Services charitable trust in Malad (W) Mumbai and works towards the upliftment of the orphan children nationwide.

4. Nischay Girls School
Focus: Education of under privileged girls A noble project called 'Nischay' that provides literacy to girls below the poverty line. The venture aims not only to educate but also impart them upon necessary skills so that they are gainfully employed in future. The venture has received a tremendous response from the targeted population. A humble beginning of a few girls at its founding in November 2004 the NischayGirls School has an enrolment of 500 plus! Girls who were initially timid, unsure and hesitant are now changed individuals. They now look confident and sure, can speak and are enthusiastic to undertake any school activity.

Free education to all these girls is imparted from nursery to grade 8. All possible help is given by way of books, stationery, shoes, woolens and also the conveyance facility. The project has a well qualified faculty of nineteen teachers. Besides academic achievement, Nischay has sought to bring all around development to the girls via physical education, sports, art, music dance and

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computer literacy.

Nischay also imparts multifarious practical training to its students in many disciplines like:Mehndi/Henna application, Chocolate making, Candle/Diya making, Painting, Handicrafts, Cookery classes (use of modern gadgets viz gas stove oven etc.), Tailoring and embroidery, Self grooming classes - the list is continually increasing. The money earned by the Nischay girls by the sale of these products is deposited into a Fixed Deposit Account; keep thus inculcating earning and the habit of saving from a young age. You have to see it to believe that the frightened, coy and shy girls of yester years have become completely changed individuals. They appear confident and self dependent with an altogether changed perception and mindset. They have a vision stars in their eyes and they aspire to become teachers, pilots, engineers and nurses!

5. SARD - Society for All Round Development
Focus: Empowerment of minorities This non profit organization works towards providing education, training and health services to girls and women. Their programs are designed to provide the necessary infrastructure and training required to set up and sustain different projects. INDCARE - Integrated National Development Center For Advancements Reforms & Education Focus: Upliftment of under privileged.

6. AIWC - All India Women's Conference Focus: Social & Economic Issues Based out of New Delhi, the AIWC is a Women's Voluntary organisation founded in 1927. Some of the issues handled include Child Marriage, Women's Property Rights etc.

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7. Deepalaya
Focus : Education for children and economically deprived. Based in New Delhi, Deepalaya works towards providing training, education and learning.

8. Anjani Foundation
Focus: Causes of the needy, Poverty and Hunger Issues. This is a not for profit, non Government organisation that works towards issues of hunger and poverty which are plaguing our nation.

9. Save The Children Focus: Empowerment of children and women.

10. The Akanksha Foundation
Focus: Less privileged children The Akanksha Foundation is a not-for-profit organization with a mission to impact the lives of less privileged children, enabling them to maximize their potential and change their lives. Akanksha works primarily in the field of education, addressing non formal education through Akanksha centers and formal education through Akanksha schools. Akanksha currently run 60 centers and 4 schools in Mumbai and Pune, and plans to expand its school initiative in the next few years- serving over 3,500 children with a team of 700 staff, teachers and volunteers.

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In one of the article of Wiley Inter Science, today about 1.5 million NGOs work in India in activities like religious, social services, education, field of sports and culture etc. NGOs have responded to government¶s socioeconomic development agenda over the years. From the survey of Annual Review ± A Non Profit Science Published by Willium F Fischer concerned with the growing numbers, changing functions, and intensifying networks of nongovernmental organizations which have had significant impacts upon globalization, international and national politics, and local lives. Studies of these changes illuminate understandings of translocal flows of ideas, knowledge, funding, and people; shed light on changing relationships among citizenry, associations, and the state; and encourage a reconsideration of connections between the personal and the political. NGO India says that all Good NGO, India spend heaps of money for helping the sufferers in distress! Apart from the betterment of the human beings there are many NGOs, in India which work for saving the natural bodies like Plants, rivers etc. Even at times of natural calamities such in the recent times when so many people had suffered due to the Tsunami, many Indian NGOs took care of the problem. NGOs contribution towards employment is nearly 2-5% and is increases steadily over a period of time. NGO in India: A Cross Sectional Studies - claim that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in India meaningfully contributed to the development-oriented initiatives, including empowerment of women and economically weaker sections of workers, and ends with the recommendation that the NGOs themselves needed to be strengthened by a code of ethics for better impact on society. About one thousand NGOs, including socio-cultural organizations, such as arts clubs, total literacy program, and cultural promotion groups, in the southern state of Kerala were successful in achieving economic and social development goals to enrich the quality of life, and the state government appreciated their efforts by offering funds. Likewise, the governmental support to the SEWA, the most celebrated women's private empowerment organization in India, "could successfully lobby the government in favour of women in the informal sector,"

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In one of the article of Times of India dated Feb 20, 2010 says the truth is that India desperately needs India NGOs to support its government in improving the lifestyle of the people soon. Though there are many criticisms saying that they are wasting the money they raise on their own requirements and not for executing welfare programs, this cannot be concluded to be the truth. The truth is that the NGO in India suffer a lot to raise funds for running the programs. As India is a large country and the as the population is huge, it may not be practically possible for the government to take care of all the activities, and the country definitely needs the support of the NGO in India to take care of the rest. These India NGOs run various free educations in India, welfare programs for women and many other programs that would help them in getting improving their life styles. They even develop many programs that would offer employment opportunities for the poor people. Basically, what they do is, they teach them how to earn money and show them various ways to do that rather than directly giving them money. Apart from all these, they run several funds raising programs and events that would help them in raising funds for running all these welfare programs. Besides that, they also request the public to come forward and help them with their time and money to run these programs successfully.

NGOs and Empowerment
There are already government programs for building roads, improving watersheds, etc. And NREGA is funding very similar activities. Therefore, either NREGA is just a different name for these programs, or it is giving more funds to these programs. Essentially, it is not doing anything really different, and it is not trying to solve the major problems of corruption and bad planning with which all government programs suffer. Instead, it complicates program management by adding an extra parameter of giving job cards to people to guarantee 100 days of employment per year. All of this sounds pretty much like a broken record. Bad policies, bad management, missing channels of accountability, inadequate transparency, ignorant people who do not question authority... This somehow brought our discussion to a very abstract level of what an ideal governance structure should look like. In general, systems decentralized politically and

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administratively all the way to the Panchayats, with transparency in their functioning, would work much better. Decentralization has however been very slow to come about. An ambitious self-employment scheme for employment of at least one hundred unemployed rural youths in the age group of 18 to 37 years is under way in Nagaon district Nagaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. Overview The district headquarters are located at Nagaon. The district occupies an area of 3831 km and has a population of 2,315,387 (as of 2001). ..... Click the link for more information..

Sponsored by the Nagaon branch of Asom Surakhya Aikya Mancha, a non-political voluntary organisation, in collaboration with the Central Committee, Asom Surakhya Aikya Manch, Guwahati and State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD SIRD Support Instrumentation Requirements Document SIRD Southern Institute for Rural Development SIRD Summer Institute on Research Design SIRD Survey of Industrial Research and Development SIRD Supersites Integrated Relational Database ), initially one hundred unemployed boys and girls boys and girls

mercurialisannua. from the rural areas of Puranigudam, Chalchali, Kampur, Kathiatoli, Dakhinpat and Borkola areas in Nagaon will be selected under the scheme. The selected beneficiaries having education upto Class VIII level will be divided into groups comprising five members. The different trades and enterprises, which will be made available to them, include integrated farming Integrated farming (or integrated agriculture) is a system of agricultural techniques developed in France in 1993 by FARRE (Forum de l'Agriculture Raisonnée Respecteuse l'Environnement). , contract farming, cultivation techniques for off-season vegetable production, agricultural product business formalities and scope, vermicompost technology and organic farming, nursery techniques for planting materials and practical trainings on nursery management, general management of a profitable diary, processing of diary product, planning

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and management of integrated farming, rearing techniques and drainage, development in sericulture sericulture: see silk; silkworm , modernisation in production systems in sericulture, modernisation in production system in handloom, technological innovations in agro-processing sector planning and management of agro-processing unit, practical training of organic farming, training on weaving of quality fabrics by using loom and accessories, production of value-added eri muga and mulbery items, mechanised Adj. 1. mechanised - using vehicles; "motorized warfare" mechanized, motorized

mobile - moving or capable of moving readily (especially from place to place); "a mobile missile system"; "the tongue is...the most mobile articulator"

2. ..... Click the link for more information. reeling and spinning of yarn, cane and bamboo craft, carpentry, electrician, plumber, horticulture, floriculture floriculture

Branch of ornamental horticulture concerned with growing and marketing flowers and ornamental plants, as well as with flower arrangement. Because flowers and potted plants are largely produced in plant-growing structures in temperate climates, floriculture is , fishery, agroclinics, power tiller for improved agriculture, small-scale business, etc.

Prime Ministers Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) (Coordination with Arunachal Pradesh NGO)
Prime Ministers Employment Generation Programme will be a Central Sector Scheme to be administered by the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, MoMSME. At the State level, the Scheme will be implemented through State KVIC Directorates, State Khadi and Village Industries Boards and District Industries Centres and banks. The objectives of this scheme are, I. To generate employment opportunities in rural as well as urban areas of the country through setting up of new selfemployment ventures or projects or micro enterprises. II.

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To bring together widely dispersed traditional artisans or rural and urban unemployed youth and give them selfemployment opportunities to the extent possible, at their place. III. To provide continuous and sustainable employment to a large segment of traditional and prospective artisans and rural and urban unemployed youth in the country, so as to help arrest migration of rural youth to urban areas. IV. To increase the wage earning capacity of artisans and contribute to increase in the growth rate of rural and urban employment

Rural employment guarantee scheme for NGOs by Indian Government:
The Union rural development ministry is all set to hire NGOs as "Lok Sevaks" in each gram panchayat for better implementation of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme. Though the move would ensure work for about 300,000 NGOs in the country, small NGOs would be excluded because of the financial eligibility criteria set by the ministry. According to the qualification norms spelt out by the ministry, Lok Sevaks should have annual turnover of over Rs 20 lakh in the previous year and should have accounts audited by a chartered accountant. Said Manoj Rai, director of NGO PRIA, which works on issues related to devolution of power besides the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, or MGNREGA: "This would work only if big NGOs subcontract work to smaller ones." According to sources in the ministry, separate funds may be found to pay the NGOs in the 300,000-odd gram panchayats in the country as the six per cent administrative costs cannot suffice for this. The Lok Sevak will work with the district programme co-ordinator and will cover not more than four blocks. An NGO to be eligible for selection should have been operating for a minimum of two years. Lok Sevaks will be selected by a selection committee at the state level under the leadership of the secretary (dealing with MGNREGA), with members including a nominee of the

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rural development ministry, a representative each from CAPART, NIRD and state government and an NGO.

Policies that facilitate the elderly:
National policy on older persons
The Government of India announced a National Policy on Older Persons in January, 1999. This policy provides a broad framework for inter-sectoral collaboration and cooperation both within the government as well as between government and non-governmental agencies. In particular, the policy has identified a number of areas of intervention -- financial security, healthcare and nutrition, shelter, education, welfare, protection of life and property etc. for the well being of older persons in the country. Amongst others the policy also recognizes the role of the NGO sector in providing user friendly affordable services to complement the endeavours of the State in this direction. While recognizing the need for promoting productive ageing, the policy also emphasizes the importance of family in providing vital non formal social security for older persons. To facilitate implementation of the policy, the participation of Panchayati Raj Institutions, State Governments and different Departments of the Government of India is envisaged with coordinating responsibility resting with the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.

National Council for Older Persons
A National Council for Older Persons (NCOP) has been constituted by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment to operationalise the National Policy on Older Persons. The basic objectives of the NCOP are to
y Advice the Government on policies and programmes for older persons y Provide feedback to the Government on the implementation of the National Policy on

Older Persons as well as on specific programme initiatives for older persons
y Advocate the best interests of older persons y Provide a nodal point at the national level for redressing the grievances of older persons

which are of an individual nature

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y Provide lobby for concessions, rebates and discounts for older persons both with the

Government as well as with the corporate sector
y Represent the collective opinion of older persons to the Government y Suggest steps to make old age productive and interesting y Suggest measures to enhance the quality of inter-generational relationships. y Undertake any other work or activity in the best interest of older persons.

There are 39 members in the council. A seven-member working group has also been constituted from amongst the members of NCOP. The Working Group has so far held two meetings to discuss ways and means to achieve its objectives.

Old age and income security
The Ministry has also launched a project called "Old Age Social and Income Security (OASIS)". An Expert Committee is constituted under the project. The first reports of the Committee and the existing income security instruments available to older persons have been comprehensively examined. The report also contains detailed recommendations for enhancing the coverage, improving the rate of returns and for bringing about a qualitative improvement in the customer service of Public Provident Fund, the Employees Provident Fund, the Annuity Plans of LIC, and UTI etc. The recommendations of the Committee are being examined by the Ministry of Finance for further action. Meanwhile, Phase II of the project is looking at the pension and gratuity schemes of the central government and old age pension provided under National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP). At the core of the second phase of project OASIS, however, lies the designing of a new, fully funded, contributory pension programme for the balance (uncovered) workersincluding casual/contract workers, self-employed, farmers etc.

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Findings: 
According to a study by Charities Aid Foundation (India) and Voluntary Action Network of India, Rs 2571 crore of foreign funding entered India in 1997-98, for distribution to 6,700 organisations. In 2000, this went up to Rs 4000 crores, besides Rs 200 crore from government agencies and another Rs 200 crore from corporate sources. In 2000-2001, NGOs in India received a foreign grant of Rs. 4535.23 crores of rupees of which most are given for rural development, Health Care and Family Welfare and Disaster mitigation and relief. But if you look for a proportionate visibility, it is not there.  Most of the NGOs claim to work for poverty eradication, as per a survey, India has about 340 million people as its labour force, of which only about 30 million are organized. Which leaves over 300 million in the unorganized sector, the bulk of which is agricultural labour. A large number of the unorganized labour is composed of dalits, women and adivasis. Consequently, most of them find their expression through the social movements they are allied to; which may be of the environmental, adivasi, peasant or dalit kind. And increasingly, these movements have had to deal with issues related to globalization in the last fifteen years.  Government as initiated to give various projects (Calcutta environment improvement project, Western Transport Corridor, National Highway Sector II etc) to NGOs due to that development in rural and employment opportunity is increases day by day.  NGOs contribution towards employment is nearly 2-5% and is increases steadily over a period of time, as government of India is continuously supporting them.  According to the one survey(Society for Participatory Research in Asia, PRIA) 73.4% of NGOs have one or no paid staff, although across the country more than 19 million person work as volunteers or paid staff at an NGO.  Today about 1.5 million NGOs work in India in activities like religious, social services, education, field of sports and culture etc.  NGOs contribution towards employment is nearly 2-5% and is increases steadily over a period of time.

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The governmental support to the SEWA, the most celebrated women's private empowerment organization in India, "could successfully lobby the government in favour of women in the informal sector,"  The truth is that the NGO in India suffer a lot to raise funds for running the programs. As India is a large country and the as the population is huge, it may not be practically possible for the government to take care of all the activities, and the country definitely needs the support of the NGO in India to take care of the rest.  The 1980s and 1990s witnessed an extraordinary proliferation of foreign-funded NGOs in India: according to the Home Ministry, by the year 2000 nearly 20,000 organisations were registered under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act, though only 13,800 of them submitted their accounts to the government as required.1 Total foreign funds received by these organisations rose from Rs 3,403 crore in 1998-99 to Rs 3,925 crore in 1999-2000 to Rs 4,535 crore (about $993 million) in 2000-01.  Under the guidance of the IMF and World Bank, successive Indian governments slashed their expenditure on rural development (including expenditure on agriculture, rural development, special areas programme, irrigation and flood control, village industry, energy and transport; the figures are for Centre and states combined) from 14.5 per cent of GDP in 1985-90 to 5.9 per cent in 2000-01.5 Rural employment growth is now flat; per capita foodgrains consumption has fallen dramatically to levels lower than the 193944 famine; the situation is calamitous. Were expenditure by Centre and states on rural development to have remained at the same percentage of GDP as in 1985-90, it would not have been Rs 124,000 crore in 2000-01, but Rs 305,000 crore, or more than two and a half times the actual amount.  A great majority of the NGOs are small and about three-fourths of all NGOs are run entirely by volunteers or a few part time employees. About 13% of the NGOs have between 2 ± 5 employees; about 5% have between 6 ± 10 employees and only about 8.5% (one in every 12) NGOs employ more than 10 people.  Realizing the critical need for these NGOs and their services, the government invited them to participate in developing health policies related to HIV/AIDS. Currently these

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NGOs play an active role by providing policy guidelines as well as delivering government funded services to HIV/AIDS patients.  NGOs are also providing jobs to elders via help of NGOs and providing source of income, nearly 1.5 lacs people are benefited by this scheme.  NGOs are also providing jobs to the poor people with the help of govt. Though the move would ensure work for about 300,000 NGOs in the country, small NGOs would be excluded because of the financial eligibility criteria set by the ministry. According to the qualification norms spelt out by the ministry, Lok Sevaks should have annual turnover of over Rs 20 lakh in the previous year and should have accounts audited by a chartered accountant.  Schemes sponsored by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Shashtri Bhawan, New Delhi for NGOs providing employment to lot of poor people.  Also NGOs are providing jobs to elder people with help of govt scheme, nearly 1.5 lacs are getting benefit of this scheme.

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Analysis:

NGO Sector¶ Strengths
Indian NGO sector¶s major strengths include:  strong grassroots links;  field-based development expertise;  the ability to innovate and adapt;  process-oriented approach to development;  participatory methodologies and tools;  long-term commitment and emphasis on sustainability;  cost-effectiveness.

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NGO Sector¶ Weaknesses
Indian NGO sector¶s major weaknesses include :  limited financial and management expertise;  limited institutional capacity;  low levels of self-sustainability;  isolation/lack of inter-organizational communication and/or coordination;  small scale interventions;  Lack of understanding of the broader social or economic context.

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Limitation: 
As against the common public perception, NGOs are struggling everyday for funds, infrastructure and many other requirements to carry out their work. We must think of contributing to them individually to strengthen them.  When the government or society fails to deliver services properly or ensure human rights fairly, individuals who have experienced, observed or thought about it set about trying to correct the situation. This is how an NGO (non-governmental organisation) is born!

NGOs are not anti-government
Even though the term NGO may imply so and there is a common perception that NGOs are anti-government, it is not so. Rather these organisations function in a set-up that is independent of government. In fact, many NGOs depend on government for space to conduct their activities, implement various government schemes and programmes, and also receive funds and grants from government for their own projects.  Even NGOs involved in advocacy and activism are very clear that they are against a particular issue or step taken by the government, and would like to work with government to resolve that and find a solution that works for all concerned.  NGO representatives are often included in government committees and panels wherein they contribute to making policy recommendations and having positive long term impact.  Furthermore, NGOs often depend on corporates for partnerships to fund and implement their projects, and corporates are quite reluctant to partner with anti-establishment organisations.  Hence, being anti-government or anti-establishment is not a step that a sensible NGO usually adopts.

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Recommendation:

y

Need for shifts in the following areas, in order to improve job opportunities and NGOs working style :  1. From protest to pro-action  2. Building citizen democracy  3. Forming alliances across social movements  4. Distinguishing between activist and service provider NGOs

y

Improving the NGO sector±Government relations :  NGO sector ± Government joint taskforces for information exchange.  Standardizing and simplifying administrative procedures that both sides thoroughly understand and accept.  Establishment of a small but active trouble-shooting desk, perhaps in the office of the Prime Minister, which is both the first point of contact and buffer between NGOs and the government  Establishment of openness, trust, respect and mutual confidence.

y

Need for further research :  India has a vibrant and fast growing NGO sector , but unfortunately its role in the society, issues and solutions are little understood by the country¶s social scientists due to lack of awareness, interest, and research.

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It is paramount that in the upcoming years, social scientists involve in extensive research on all aspects of the NGO sector ± especially on management practices, network governance, NGO± government linkages and the sector¶s role in the public policy making process.

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Conclusion:
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted, non-governmental organization created by natural or legal persons with no participation or representation of any government. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. Unlike the term "intergovernmental organization", "nongovernmental organization" is a term in general use but is not a legal definition. In many jurisdictions, these types of organization are defined as "civil society organizations" or referred to by other names. The main objective of our project is to assess and compare the overall effect of NGOs on employment, role of NGOs, their working style, responsibilities and importance towards nation growth, and contribution of NGOs in Indian Economy and there future plans. NGOs contribution towards employment is nearly 2-5% and is increases steadily over a period of time, as government of India is continuously supporting them. According to the one survey(Society for Participatory Research in Asia, PRIA) 73.4% of NGOs have one or no paid staff, although across the country more than 19 million person work as volunteers or paid staff at an NGO. Today about 1.5 million NGOs work in India in activities like religious, social services, education, field of sports and culture etc. NGOs contribution towards employment is nearly 25% and is increases steadily over a period of time. The governmental support to the SEWA, the most celebrated women's private empowerment organization in India. A great majority of the NGOs are small and about three-fourths of all NGOs are run entirely by volunteers or a few part time employees. About 13% of the NGOs have between 2 ± 5 employees; about 5% have between 6 ± 10 employees and only about 8.5% (one in every 12) NGOs employ more than 10 people. NGOs are struggling everyday for funds, infrastructure and many other requirements to carry out their work. Even though the term NGO may imply so and there is a common perception that NGOs are anti-government, it is not so. Rather these organisations function in a set-up that is

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independent of government. Even NGOs involved in advocacy and activism are very clear that they are against a particular issue or step taken by the government. NGOs are also providing jobs to elders via help of NGOs and providing source of income, nearly 1.5 lacs people are benefited by this scheme. Also providing the jobs to poor people of villages.

NGOs need to change there working style, From protest to pro-action, Building citizen democracy, Forming alliances across social movements, Distinguishing between activist and service provider NGOs. NGO sector ± Government joint taskforces for information exchange need to be improved. Also establishment of openness, trust, respect and mutual confidence should be developed.

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Bibliography:
REFERENCE BOOKS: 1) Willium F Fischer, ³Annual Review ± A Non Profit Science´, Fourth Edition, pp.18-42. 2) Patralekha Chatterjee, ³Times of India´, Feb 20, 2010 3) R. Sooryamoorthy, K. D. Gangrade, ³NGOs in India A Cross-Sectional Study´

WEBSITES: 1) http://ezinearticles.com/?Benefits-of-Having-NGOs-in-India&id=3600533 2) http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/NGOs-to-be-involved-in-Indias-2011census/articleshow/5596618.cms 3) http://non-governmental-organizations-on-development-issues.htm 4) http://www.amaidi.org/pdf/HistoryofNGOs.pdf 5) http://www.greenwood.com/catalog/GM1954.aspx 6) http://www.indiastat.com/socialandwelfareschemes/27/socialschemes/260/assistancetong os/17925/stats.aspx 7) http://hotnhitnews.com/NGO_Movement_in_India_by_Basudev_Mahapatra.htm

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