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By

* Pastor Drue Freeman MBL *

publication of:

Village Ministries

International
www.villageministries.org
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(vkum ? 6;48)

First Print

January, 2003

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9
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pmapmifjzpfvm&ef t"duuJGjym;rIwpfck½Sdonf/ pm½GufESihf rSifü wefcdk;r½Sdyg/
10
odaYk omf pm½GuEf iS fh rSiaf emufrmS ½Sad om wefc;kd onf vlwb Ykd 0ü oD;jcm;ajymif;vJ
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k avsmuf wefc;kd
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tcsuf vJGoGm;Edkifonf/
c/ /or®musrf;pmudk zGJUpnf;ykH
1/ t"dutydkif;ESpfydkif;
usrf;pmonf "r®a[mif;? "r®opf[lí (2) rsdK;½Sdonf/
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usrf;pmawmfNrwfonf bk&m;ocif\ y#dnmOfawmfyifjzpf\/ y#dnmOf[lonf
tzJYG wpfzYGJ odrYk [kwf wpfO;D wpfa,mufu tNcm;tzGUJ odrYk [kwf wpfO;D wpfa,muf
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2/ "r®a[mif;usrf;\ jcm;em;uJGjym;rIig;rsdK;
"r®a[mif;usrf;udk atmufygtwdkif; tydkif;BuD;(5)rsKd;jzifh cGJNcm;Edkifonf/
(u) Torah odkYr[kwf Pentateuch [kac:aom ynwfw&m;rsm; jyXgef;
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xm;onhf usr;f (5)apmif- urÇmOD;usr;f ? xGuaf jrmuf&musr;f ? 0wfjyK&musr;f ?
awmvnf&musrf;? w&m;a[m&musrf;/
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&mZ0if csKyf'kwd,? {Z&rSwfpm? ae[rdrSwfpm? {owm0w¬K/
(*) ysKd UvuFm (5) apmif- a,mb0w¬K? qmvHusr;f ? okwu
Hå sr;f ? a'oemusr;f ?
a½Smvrkeo f cD si;f /
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tem*wåu
d sr;f ? a,&rdjrnfwrf;pum;? a,Zausvtem*wåu
d sr;f ? 'Ha,v
tem*wåud sr;f /
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*wådusrf;? tmrkwftem*wådusrf;? MoA'dtem*wådusrf;? a,me0w¬K? rdu©m
tem*wåu d sr;f ? em[Ht
k em*wåu
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f em*wåu
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usrf;? [*¾Jtem *wådusrf;? Zmc&dtem*wådusrf;? rmvcd tem*wådusrf;/
3/ "r®opfusrf;\ tydkif;BuD;(3)rsdK;
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24? rmuk? 13? vkum? 21) yg0ifMuNy;D ? ya&mzufusr;f wdw Yk iG f Mo0g'pmrsm;vnf;
yg0if \ (Asm'd w f ? 2-3)/ pmapmif w d k i f ; onf rd r d q d k v d k & if ; tqH k ; xd w d k i f
az:jycsuw f t
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usrf;\tydkif;BuD; (3) rsdK;jzpfonf/
(u) "r®opfusrf;onf &mZ0ifjyKusrf; (5) rsdK;ESihf tpcsDxm;onf- róJ? rmuk?
vkum? a,m[ef? wrefawmf0w¬K/
(c) &mZ0ifjyKusrf;wdkYudk Mo0g'pmapmif (21) usrf;u aemufrSvdkufvmonf-
a&mr Mo0g'pm? 1aum&dEKÅ 2aum&dEKÅ ? *vmwdMo0g'pm? {zufMo0g'pm? zdvyd dÜ
Mo0g'pm? aumavmoJMo0g'pm? 1oufomavmedwf? 2 oufomavmedwf?
12
1wd armaoMo0g' pm? 2 wdarmaoMo0g'pm? wdwMk o0g'pm? zdavrkeMf o0g'pm?
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Mo0g'pm? 2 ayw½kMo0g'pm? a[jAJMo0g'pm? ½Sif,mukyfMo0g'pm? ½Sif,k'
Mo0g'pm/
(*) ya&mzufpmapmif (1) usrf;- Asm'dwfusrf;/
tydkif; 3
ordkif;taxmuftxm;ESihf
jcHKiHkoHk;oyfjcif;
usrf;pmudk a&;om;olvlaygif;wdkYonf acwfumvMum½SnfpGm wpfOD;ESihfwpfOD;
toGifrwlonhf taetxm;rS jyKpka&;om;cJhMuygaomfvnf; twGif;usus
euf½Idif;pGm qDavsmfqufpyfrI&SdaomaMumifh tvGefwifhw,fí toa&½Sdaom
bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfjzpfaMumif; xif½Sm;vSayonf/
tajccHusus az:jyaomjzpf&yfw\ Ykd tusKd ;vu©Pmwdu Yk kd tm½Hpk u
kd o
f ;kH oyfjcif;jzihf
vlYordkif;\ rxif½Sm;aomt&mwdkYxuf xif½Sm;ay:vGifjcif;wdkYtm;jzihf tHhbG,f
OD;wnf aY½Gvsm;aomjzpfpOfwdkYudk awGYjrifMu&onf/ t"dujzpf&yfwdkYudk Munhfí
tHbh ,
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f rdik ;f jzpf&yfw\
Ykd ed'gef;tpESifh ed*;kH tqH;k xdwikd f oH;k oyfMunhrf w S Ef ikd o
f nf/
&mpkESpfrsm; tvdkuf tawG;tac:ynm½SifwdkYar;vmMuonf/ ]]vl (uREfkyf) wdkY
bmaMumihf þae&mü a&muf½SdaeMu&ygoenf;¿}} [laom ar;cGef;twGuf
½Sif;vif;aomtajzudk tjrwf&Muayonf/
atmufygtaMumif;t&monf jcKH io kH ;kH oyf&mtaMumif;wpfct
k jzpf yHo
k iG ;f az:jy
jcif;omjzpfonf/ uREfkyfwdkYonf rdrdwdkYb0wpfavsmufvHk;udk wdusaocsmrIü
14
xm;½Sdí tcsdefukefvGefap&ygrnf/ ,ckrSm uREfkyfwdkY aY½SarSmufü bk&m;ocif
csrwS xf m;aom ordik ;f 0iftajccHtcsut
f vufwrYkd S avhvmMu&rnf/ aemufyikd ;f
wGiv f nf; bk&m;ocif\ xl;uJjrihjf rwfí qDavsmpf yftyfonfh tMuH tpnfawmf
udk jrifawGYMu&rnf/
u/ jzpfpOfrsm;udk az:jyjcif;
1/ zefqif;jcif;
or®musr;f pmonf aumif;uifajrBu;D udk bk&m;ocifzefqif;aMumif; az:jycsuEf iS fh
urÇmOD;usr;f wGif tpcseD 'd gef;ysKd ;xm;onf (urÇm? 1;1?2ay 3;6)/ Asm'dwu
f sr;f wGif
aumif;uifopfEiS fh ajrBu;D opfay:vmbdYk rlvzefqif;jcif;t&monf ysuq f ;D oGm;&
aMumif; az:jyxm;onf (Asm'dwf? 21-22)/
2/ pmwef\ykefuefjcif;
vludk rzefqif;rDuwnf;u pmwefonf bk&m;ocifudk pdefac:bdkY&ef qefYusif
ykefuefcJh onf (a[? 14;12-14? a,Z? 28)/ þa½S;OD;ykefuefrItaMumif;onf
vGefpGm½IwfaxG; eufeJí usrf;pmüyg½Sdae&m qefYusifrI tusOf;tusyf jyóem
onfvnf; tvG,fwul em;vnfEdkifaomt&mwpfckrSm pmwefESihf bk&m;ocif
&ifqikd wf ukd yf o
GJ nf vlukd rzefqif;cifu (Asm? 12) jzpfcyhJ gaomfvnf; ,ckxq d uf
í jzpfygG ;aeaMumif;yifjzpfonf/ pmwef\ qefu Y siwf ukd cf u
kd rf o
I nf aumif;uif
opfESihf ajrBuD;opf rzefqif;ciftcsdef c&pfawmfajrBuD;ay:rSm tESpf 1000
tkyfpdk;NyD;csdefü tqHk;owf &vdrfhrnf (Asm? 20;7-10)/
3/ ajrBuD;ESihfvl
bk&m;ocifESihf pmwefjzpfyGg;aom ppfyJGwGif vlygvm&jcif;udk rod&aomfvnf;
xdkqefYusifrIxJ ajz½Sif;bdkY jzpfEdkifayonf/ ajrBuD;udk vlwdkYtajcusaexdkif&ef
bk&m;ocifjyifqifay;xm;onf (urÇm? 1;2-2;3/ yHo k @mefr½S[d al om a0g[m&
onf a[jAJpum; TOHU (t"dyÜg,frSm? tajcusaexdkifjcif;uif;rJh) rSvmNyD;
vGwvf yfv[m a0g[m&onf a[jApJ um; MOHU (t"dygÜ ,frmS ? vlO;D a& ta&
twGuf vH;k 0r½Sjd cif;) pum;vk;H rS vmjcif;jzpf\/ jyóemrSm usL;ausmo f jl zpfaom
15
pmwefonf bk&m; ocifukd qufí pdeaf c:vsu½f o dS nf/ bk&m;ocifonf pmwef
udk tESpfwpfaxmif tusOf;cspOf (c&pfawmf ajrBuD;ay:rSm tESpfwpfaxmif
tkypf ;kd aom MILLENNIAL KINGDOM ac: rdavedacwf umv (Asm'dw?f 20;1-
3)twGif; ajrBuD;udk vlwdkYtwGuf pHkvifjcif; ½Sdapawmfrlrnf
(a[&Sm,? 60-66)/
4/ yxrESihf aemufqHk;tm'H
yxrvltm'Honf zefqif;awmfrljcif;tm;vHk;udk tkyfpdk;bdkY cefYxm;onf (urÇm?
1;28?2;4-25)/ olYudk {'ifO,smOfrSmxm;NyD; pdkufysdK;jcif;udk vkyfaponf/
aemufqHk;tm'H jzpfonfh c&pfawmf (1aum? 15;45) onf tESpfwpfaxmif
umvtwGuf OD;aqmif tkyfpdk;oltjzpf ay:aygufvm&rnf (Asm'dwf? 20;4)/
c&pfawmfrSvGJí ay:xGufvmaom vlom;rsm;wGif jynfhpkHaomolr&Sdawmh/
ud,
k af wmfwpfyg;wnf;om pHv
k ifaom t½Sit
f jzpf aemufq;kH ay:xGuv f mrnfo
h l
jzpfonf/
5/ pmwefudk qifETJwdkufcdkuf&aom vlwdkY\ppfyJG
{'ifO,smOfü tm'Honf ]]usq;kH }} aomtcgwGif þavmuudk pd;k rd;k aom pmwef
vufatmufoYkd a&mufomG ;&onf (urÇm? 3? a,m? 12;31? 16;11)/ aemufyikd ;f
wGif bk&m;ocifonf rdavedugvrpcifrmS yif pmwefukd c&pfawmf\ ajcawmf
atmufodkY a&mufapawmfrlrnf (Asm? 20;1-3)/
6/ vlom;xkwpf&yfvHk;ESihf oufqdkifcHpm;apjcif;
bk&m;ocifonf vlut kd jypfoYkd usa&mufomG ;apygaomfvnf; vlom;tm;vH;k ESifh
oufqidk jf cif;udk jzpfapawmfrcl ohJ nf/ urÇmOD;usr;f 4 rS 10 wGif vl\emcHrrI &Sjd cif;
tjypfaMumihf a&vTr;f rd;k zsuq f ;D í vlom;rsm; pD&ifjcif;cH&aMumif;udk awG&Y onf
(urÇm? 6;1-13)/ ab;'PfBu;D umv (7) ESpt f Ny;D a,½Ic&pf<uvmaom tcgwGif
vnf; vlom;tm;vHk;ESihf oufqdkifjcif;udk bk&m;ocifjzpfapawmfrltHk;rnf/
udk,fawmfonf vlom;rsm;udk ]]odk; (,HkMunfol)}} ESifh ]]qdwf (r,HkMunfol)}}
[lí cJGjcm;awmfrlrnf jzpfonf (róJ? 25;31-46)/
16

7/ AgAkvkef
a&vTr;f rd;k jcif;tNy;D wGif vlO;D a&xyfrrH sm;jym;vmonfEiS t
fh rQ bk&m;ocifEiS afh 0;pGm
touf½Sifí rSm;aomvrf;udk vdkufMujyefonf/ AmAkvkef&JwdkufBuD;udk rdrdwdkY
udk,fudk u,fwifjcif;a&mufpdrfhiSg wnfaqmufMuavonf (urÇm? 11)/ xdkodkY
tvGejf rihaf om &Jwu kd Bf u;D aqmufxm;vQif aemufwpfBurd f bk&m;ocif a&vTr;f
rdk;í zsufqD;jcif;rS vGwfajrmufEdkifMurnf[k xifcJhMuonf/ xdkodkY &JwdkufBuD;
wnfaqmufjcif;tkwjf rpf\ tajccHoabmrSm ]]vlom;0g'}} yifjzpfonf/ vlonf
bmomw&m; odkYr[kwf pD;yGg;a&;tm;jzifh rdrdudk,fudk u,fwifEdkifonf[laom
t,l0g'yifjzpf\/ xdkt&mrsdK;udk ,HkMunfvufcHjcif;onf urÇmhbmoma&;
pepftm;vkH;udk tajccHjcif;jzpfonf/ vlonf rdrdudk,fudk ru,fwifEdkifaMumif;
c&pf,mefrsm;uom ,HkMunfMuí vlonf u,fwif½Sif vdktyfvmayjyD/ tcsdKU
aom vlom;0g'Dt,ltqwdo Yk nf touf½iS af om bk&m;udk qefuY siaf om tae
txm;rsKd ;ESifh usr;f pmudk udik q f v GJ mMuonf/ xdtk ,l tqrsKd ; ,aeYwikd ½f adS eonf
(a[&Sm? 47) (a[Z? 26-27)/ bk&m;ocifonf xdkAmAkvkeftzJGYtpnf;rsdK;udk
ab;'PfBuD; umvtwGif; ESdrfeif;awmfrlrnf (Asm? 17-18)/
8/ £oa&v
AmAkvek &f w J u
kd Bf u;D rS vltaygif;wdo Yk nf bmompum;trsKd ;rsKd ;Nzihf uJjG ym; vGipfh if
cJMh uNy;D aemuf bk&m;ocifonf tmjA[Huakd c:í £oa&v[kac:aom vlrsKd ;Bu;D
wpfct k wGuf wm0ef,w l nfaqmufaponf (urÇm? 12)/tmjA[H\ tHb h ,
G ef rd w
d f
vu©Pm om;jzpfaom £Zuf? ajr;jzpfaom ,mukyfwdkYrSaeí ar½Sd,ocif
qif;oufvmrnfhtaMumif; *wdxm;awmfrlcJhonf (urÇm? 22;1-18? 28;14)/
£oa&v vlwo Ykd nf ½kyx
f u
k ;kd uG,jf cif;"avhtwGuf rdrw d eYkd ,fajrrS urÇmtESYH
ysUH yGg;a&muf½o dS mG ;cJMh uygaomfvnf; bk&m;ocifonf olwu Ykd kd qufí wnf½adS eap
cJhonf/ ab;'PfBuD;umv tNyD;rSm £oa&vwdkYonf tvGeftHhMobG,ftjzpf
jyefípkrdcJhMuNyD; rdavedEdkifiHawmfü aumif;BuD; cHpm;Mu&rnfjzpfonf
(róJ? 24;29-31)/
17

9/ c&pfawmfay:vmjcif;taMumif;rsm;
c&pfawmf yxrtBurd af y:vm&jcif;onf &mZ0ifvrf;aMumif;twGuf bk&m;ocif
\ tMut H pnfawmftwdik ;f rSeu f efwud saomtcsed üf jzpfay:cJo
h nf (1wd? 2;6)/
c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;jzpfaom róJ? rmuk? vkumESihf a,m[efwüYkd c&pfawmf\ arG;zGm;
jcif;? omoemjyKjcif;? taocHjcif;? oN*Kd vjf cif;ESihf ½Sijf yefxajrmufjcif; ponht f MhH o
bG,o f rdik ;f jzpf&yfwu Ykd kd qDavsmqf ufpyfr½I pdS mG wifqufxm;onf/ a,½Ic&pfonf
(a[½Sm,? 53) rSm BudKwifya&mzufjyKxm;onhftwdkif; ]]'ku©qif;&JcHaom
tapcHuRe}f } uJo h Ykd ½Si;f vif;pGm xif½mS ;cJo
h nf/ c&pfawmf 'kw,d tBurd f ay:vm
&jcif;onf ab;'PfBu;D umvtNy;D &eforl sm;udk atmifjrifNy;D þurÇmajray:rSm
ajccsí rdavedEikd if aH wmfwnfaqmufjcif;jzpfonf
(Zmc&d? 14;1-8? Asm'dwf? 19;11-19)/
10/ omoemawmfudk qefYusifjcif;
{0Ha*vdw&m;onf c&pfawmf\ vlxkrsufjrifomoemjyKjcif;taMumif;udk
wihfw,fpGm yHkaz:ay;onf (róJ? rmuk? vkum? a,m[ef)/ c&pfawmf\
omoemonf olwpfyg;\trIudk aqmif½u G jf cif;wpfrsKd ;jzpfonf (róJ? 20;28)/
þodaYk om omoemonf ud, k u
hf ,
kd u
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f kd olwpfyg;
udk;uG,fvm&ef odrf;oGif;olwnf;[laom tefwdc&pf (ysufpD;jcif;\om;)
omoemESihf vHk;0qefYusifonf (2ouf? 2;1-12? Asm'dwf? 6-16)/
11/ toif;awmf
c&pfawmf ½Sijf yefxajrmufNy;D crnf;awmf\ vuFsmbufüxdik af ebdYk aumif;uif
bHok Ykd wuf<uoGm;Ny;D aomtcg c&pfawmf\ taocHí tjypfvw T jf cif;w&m;udk
vlwt Ykd m; tESt
YH jym;a[mMum;oufaocH&ef toif;awmfukd ]]a½G;xkwcf efx
Y m;}}
cJhonf (wrefawmf0w¬KrS wrefawmfrsm;)/ ]]vlrsdK;wumwdkYtm; wynhfjzpfap
jcif;}}onf toif;awmf\ wm0efjzpfonf (róJ? 28;18-20)/ okd;oli,f
r*FvmaqmifyJG0ifcsdef a&mufonftxd xdktrIudk aqmif½Guf&onf
(1ouf? 4;13-18? 1aum? 15;50-58? Asm'dwf? 19;7-10)/
18

c/ /tusOf;csKyf
az:jycJoh nft h wdik ;f c&pfawmfay:vmonft h aMumif;w&m;rsm;udk *½kjyKMuaom
tcg tHMh obG,yf pkH rH sm; ay:xGuv f mjcif;udk awG&Y onf/ wdrjf rKyaf eaom t&mrsm;
zGi[fh vmNy;D vlo
Y rdik ;f aMumif;vnf; ay:vGix f if½mS ;vmonf/ atmufygZ,m;wGif
yHkaz:xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ eHygwfrsm;udk twlwuG ,SOfwJGjcif;jzihf bk&m;ocif\
tMuHtpnfawmfudk jcHKiHkoHk;oyfxm;jcif;taMumif;udk oifawGY&rnf/
1/ aumif;uifESifh ajrBuD;udk zefqif;jcif; (urÇm? 1;1? 2ay? 3;6)/
2/ pmwefyxrykefuefjcif; (a[½Sm? 14;12-14? a,Zausv? 28)/
3/ vltwGuf urÇmajrBuD;udk jyifqifjcif; (urÇm? 1;2-2;3)/
4/ yxrtm'H\ acgif;aqmifjcif; (urÇm? 2;4-25)/
5/ vlonf pmwefvufatmufa&mufjcif; (urÇm? 3)/
6/ vlom;xkwpf&yfvHk; oufqdkifcHpm;&jcif; (urÇm? 4-10)/
7/ AmAkvkefwnfaqmufjcif; (urÇm? 11)/
8/ £oa&vudk ac:íaumif;BuD;ay;jcif; (urÇm? 12)/
9/ c&pfawmf yxray:vmjcif; (róJ? rmuk? vkum? a,m[ef)/
10/ c&pfawmf\ omoem (róJ? rmuk? vkum? a,m[ef)/
11/ toif;awmfudk a½G;ac:jcif; (wrefawmf0w¬K)/
11/ toif;awmford ;f qnf;jcif;
(1ouf? 4;13-18? 1aum? 15;50-58)/
10/ tefwdc&pf\ omoem (2ouf? 2;1-12? Asm? 6-16)/
9/ c&pfawmf 'kwd,ay:vmjcif; (Asm? 19;11-19)/
8/ £oa&v wpfzefpkpnf;í aumif;pm;jcif; (róJ? 24;29-31)/
7/ AmAkvkefpepf zsufodrf;jcif; (Asm? 17-18)/
6/ vlom;xkwpf&yfvHk; oufqdkifcHpm;&jcif; (róJ? 25;31-46)/
5/ pmwefudk bk&m;ocifESdrfESif;jcif; (Asm? 20;1-3)/
4/ 'kwd,tm'H\ acgif;aqmifjcif; (Asm? 20;4)/
3/ vlwdkYtwGuf urÇmajrBuD;pHkvifjcif; (a[½Sm,? 60-66)/
2/ pmwef'kwd,ykefuefjcif; (Asm? 20;7-10)/
1/ aumif;uifopfESihf ajrBuD;opf (Asm? 21-22)/
tydkif; 4
tcsdefouú&mZftvdkuf
jcHKiHkoHk; oyfjcif;
usrf;pmavhvmvdkufpm;aeoltaejzifh jzpf&yfwdkYudk tpDtpOftwdkif;? tcdsef ?
ouú&mZfwEYkd iS o
hf rdik ;f qdik &f mtjzpftysurf sm;ESihf qufE,
G af eonfwu Ykd kd odem;vnf
oifhonf/ bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfü t"dujzpf&yfwdkYtMum; qufpyf
aeaom tcsdefumvudk em;vnf&rnfjzpfNyD; usrf;pmü tcsdefumv ouú&mZf
wdo
Yk nf tvGet f rif; ta&;Bu;D vSaMumif; owdxm;&rnfjzpfonf/ þoifcef;pm
ü tcsed u
f mvouú&mZf ok;H rsK;d udk az:jyaqG;aEG;oGm;ygrnf/ yxr 10 csuo f nf
usrf;pmü t"dujzpf&yfBuD;rsm;udk tusOf;tm;jzifh wpfcsufpD\ ta&;BuD;ykHudk
az:jyxm;\/ 'kwd,ouú&mZfaz:jycsufu "r®a[mif;usrf;rS t"du tajccH
usaom jzpf&yfwu Ykd kd az:jyxm;Ny;D xdt k aMumif;t&mrsm;udk cGNJ crf;pdwNf zm wifjy
xm;\/ aemufqkH;wwd,pm&if;rSm "r®opfrS jzpfpOfrsm;yifjzpfonf/
ouú&mZfudk ]]bDpD}} (B.C.) [kaz:jyxm;vQif ]]c&pfawmfrwdkifcif}} uESpfrsm;udk
az:jyxm;jcif;jzpfNy;D ? at'D (A.D) [kaz:jyxm;vQif c&pfawmfay:Ny;D aemufyikd ;f
ESprf sm;udk qdv
k o
kd nf/ bDpo D nf t*Fvyd pf um;vk;H Before Christ udk twdak umuf
ok;H xm;jcif;jzpfNy;D ? at'DrmS vufwifpum;vk;H Anno Domini udk tok;H jyKxm;jcif;
jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocif\ESpf the year of the Lord [kt"dyÜg,f&ygonf/
tajccHusaom usrf;pmüygonfh jzpf&yftusdK;ESihf olwdkYü jzpfysufaom tcsdef
20
umvtaMumif; avhvmod½&dS ef &nf&,
G yf gonf/ az:jyxm;aom aeY&ufumv
wdkYonf EIwfuywfawmftwdtusem;vnf&ef tajccHxm;onf/
u/ /t"dujzpf&yfwdkYESihf jzpfysufcsdefrsm;
1/ tm'Husqif;csdef (3898 bDpD)
bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfarG;zGg;jcif; tusdK;vu©PmESifh vlom;rsdK;quf
taMumif;em;vnf&jcif;onf uREykf w f t
Ykd wGuf 3898 bDpüD jzpfonf/ vlusqif;
csed f jzpfygonf/ usr;f pmtwdik ;f od&aomtcsed o f uú&mZfonf uREykf w
f t
Ykd pjyK&m
tcsuf tvufraS eí pwifvyk af qmif&ef enf;vrf;wpfcjk zpfonf/ a½Smvrke\ f
4 ESpaf jrmuftcsed f (aemufyikd ;f avhvmjcif;) taMumif;aqG;aEG;aomtcg tpOD;
tcsdefudk uREfkyfwdkY jyefwGufEdkifMuayrnf (3&m? 6;1)/ t"dujzpf&yfBuD;rsm;\
uGmNcm;csdefwdkYudk usrf;pmuay;xm;\/ usrf;pmvmtcsdefouú&mZfrsm;udk jyify
ordkif; taxmuftxm;rsm;ESifh wdkufMunfhEdkifonf/
2/ aem{acwf a&vTrf;rdk;csdef (2242 bDpD)
urÇmOD;usr;f (5) \ vlom;rsKd ;qufuv kd u
kd v
f Qif tm'Husqif;csed rf S a&vTr;f rd;k csed f
onf ESpfaygif; 1656 ESpf½SdaMumif; awGY&onf/ þodkYjzihf uREfkyfwdkYonf 2242
bDpDtcsdefudk &vdkufonf/
3/ tmjA[Hudk *wday;csdef(1875 bDpD)
(urÇmOD;usrf;? 11;10-26) t& vlom;rsdK;qufudk vdkufjcif;jzihf a&vTrf;rdk;tNyD;
tmjA[Honf ESpo f uú&mZf 292 ESpf odrYk [kwf tm'Haemuf 1948 ESpw f iG f arG;zGg;
aMumif;awG&Y onf/ þtaMumif;onf tmjA[Hukd 1950 bDpw D iG f arG;zGm;aMumif;
wGucf su&f onf/ (urÇmOD;usr;f ? 12;4) t& bk&m;cif\ *wdawmf&½Scd sed ?f tmjA[H
y#dnmOfzJGYcsdefonf olYtouf 75 ESpf½Sdcsdefjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumihf *wdawmfonf
1875 bDpDü jzpfaMumif;awGY&onf/
4/ £oa&vwdkY\ xGufajrmufjcif; (1445 bDpD)
urÇmOD;usrf; 12 rS 50 txd tmjA[HrS qif;oufaygufzGm;aom rsdK;quf
21
taMumif; wdkuf½dkufaz:jyxm;onf/ ,mukyf\ om;orD;rsm; (tmjA[H\ajr;)
wdo
Yk nf tJ*w
k Kå jynf uRet
f jzpfa&muf½v
dS mMuonf (xGu?f 1)/ bk&m;ocifonf
arma½Stm;jzihf olwdkYudk tJ*kwåKuRefrS vGwfapcJhonf/ wrefawmfaygvku
tmjA[Hü *wdxm;csdef rS ynwfawmfay;csdeftxd ESpfaygif; 430 ½Sdonf[kajym
xm;onf (*v? 3;17)/ þtcsed u f mvaMumihf tm'Haemufyikd ;f ESpaf ygif; 2378
odkYr[kwf 1445 bDpD [kod&onf/
5/ a½Smvrkef\ 4 ESpfajrmuftcsdef (965 bDpD)
a½SmvkESihf 'g0d'ftNyD; £oa&vwdkY\wwd,rif;qufonf a½Smvrkefjzpfonf/
xGuaf jrmuf&mtcsed rf S a½SmvrkeAf rd mefawmfwnfaqmufcsed o
f nf ESpaf ygif; 480
½SdaMumif; (3"r®&mZ0if? 6;1) ü awGY&onf/ þtaMumif;aMumihf 965 bDpD
odkYr[kwf tm'Haemufydkif;ESpfaygif; 2858 tcsdef[k wGufcsufEdkifonf/
uREykf w
f o Ykd nf tjcm;ordik ;f rSwwf rf;rsm;rSaeí a½Smvrke\ f pwkwaå jrmufEpS u f kd
wGu, f El ikd o
f nf/ xdjYk yif tmjA[H\ *wdawmfa&vTr;f rd;k jcif;? tm'HEiS fh xGuaf jrmuf
&m usr;f txd aemufojYkd yefvnfwu G cf suNf y;D tcsed u
f mvtwdtuswu G ,f El ikd f
onf/
6/ ajrmufydkif;EdkifiHawmfusqif;jcif; (721 bDpD)
a½SmvrkefaoqHk;NyD; £oa&vwdkYonf ]]ajrmufydkif;EdkifiHawmf}} odkYr[kwf
£oa&v ESihf ]]awmifydkif;EdkifiHawmf}} odkYr[kwf ,k'[lí 2 ydkif;uJGoGm;onf/
ajrmufydkif;EdkifiH £oa&vonf bDpD 721 wGif tm½I&dtifyg,modkY usqif;
oGm;onf/
7/ awmifydkif;EdkifiHawmfusqif;jcif; (586 bDpD)
awmifydkif;EdkifiHawmfjzpfonfh ,k'onf AmAkvkeftifyg,matmufodkY bDpD 586
wGif usa&mufoGm;NyD; bDpD 516 wGif olwdkYXmaeodkY jyefra&mufcifESpfaygif; 70
Mum tpGefYypfcHMu&onf/
22

8/ c&pfawmfarG;zGm;jcif; (1 bDpD)
u,fwif&Sif<uvmcJhNyD;aemuf aemufxyf ESpfaygif; (600)cefYMumonftxd
(B.C)ESifh (A.D)&ufpGJrsm;udk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmrIonf pHepfusejcif;r&SdcJhyg/ (A.D)ESifh
(B.C)wdo Yk nf ol\arG;aeYwiG f tajcwnfíom twnfjyK&efvykd gonf/ odaYk omf
toif;awmf taejzifh (&Sifvkum? 1;5)ü awGU&aom ,k'jynfudktpdk;&ol
a[½k'rf if;Bu;D \ pd;k pHcsed u
f kd rSm;,Gi;f ud;k um;rdjcif;aMumifh ]]aeYp?JG &ufp}JG } owfrw
S f
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cdkifrmwnfwefYvsufaejyDjzpfaMumif;udk trsm;oabmwl qkH;jzwfNyD;aemuf
a,½Ionf ]]B.C.1}}odrYk [kwf ]]B.C.2}}wGif zGm;jrifjcif;cH,al wmfral Mumif; wpfnD
wpfñGwfwnf; qkH;jzwftwnfjyKcJhMuav\/
aemufxyfowdjyK&eftcsurf mS *sLvD,efjyu©'ed f (uREyfk w f oYkd ;Hk pGaJ eaom jyu©'ed )f
t& Zefe0g&D 1&ufaeYukd ESpo f pfaeY&uftjzpf owfrw S x f m;aomfvnf; *sL;wd\ Yk
jyu©'ed f onf pufwifbmudk ESpo f pftjzpf owfrw S jf cif;yifjzpfygonf/ xdu k o
hJ Ykd
aom uGm[csufaMumifhyifvsif ]]B.C.1}} okdYr[kwf ]]B.C.2}}? ]]B.C 966-
965}} [lonfh NcKiH o
Hk wfrw
S &f ufprJG sm;udk uREyfk w
f Ykd ok;H pG&J jcif;udk oabmayguf&ef
jzpfygonf/
9/ c&pfawmf\taocHjcif;?oN*dKvfjcif;?½Sifjyefxajrmufjcif;
(32-33 at'D)
usrf;pmudk uRrf;usifoltrsm;pku c&pfawmf\ taocHjcif;? oN*dKvfjcif;ESifh
&Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;wdo
Yk nf at'D 32-33 tMum;jzpfco
hJ nf[k vufcMH uonf/
10/ usrf;pmtkyf\aemufqHk;pmapmif (96 at'DD)
a&mr{u&mZf 'drk w
D eftyk pf ;kd csed f wrefawmfa,m[efukd ywfru
k Re;f ü csKyaf ESmifxm;
&m usrf;pmjynhfpHkapaom aeY&ufumvudk jzpfaponf (Asm? 22;18-19)/
23

c/ /"r®a[mif;usrf;pmrsm;\ ESpfouú&mZfwGufcsufjcif;
1/ tm'HrSa&vTrf;rdk;jcif;txd (3898-2242 bDpD) (urÇm? 1-5)/
2/ a&vTr;f rd;k jcif;rS tmjA[Hukd *wdxm;csed t
f xd (2242-1875 bDpD)
(urÇm? 6-12)/
3/ tmjA[Hukd *wdawmfay;csed rf S xGuaf jrmuf&mtxd (1875-1445
bDpD) (urÇm? 12-50? a,mb0w¬K)/
4/ xGufajrmuf&mcsdefrS a½Smvrkef\ 4 ESpfajrmuftxd
(1445-965 bDpD)

(u) xGuaf jrmuf&musr;f (q) ½ko0w¬K


(c) 0wfjyK&musr;f (Z) 1"r®&mZ0if
(*) awmvnf&musr;f (ps) 2"r®&mZ0if
(C) w&m;a[m&musr;f (n) 3"r®&mZ0if 1-5
(i) a,m½IrSwfpm (#) qmvHusrf;
(p) w&m;olBuD;rSwfpm (X) 1 "r®csKyf
5/ a½Smvrke\
f 4 ESpaf jrmufraS jrmufyikd ;f ESiafh wmifyikd ;f Edik if aH wmfrsm;
usqif;jcif; (965-586 bD p D)
u/ 3"r®&mZ0if 6-22 ps/ a,me0w¬K
c/ 4"r®&mZ0if n/ tmrkwftem*wådusrf;
*/ 2"r®csKyf #/ a[ma½Stem*wådusrf;
C/ okwåHusrf; X/ rdu©mtem*wådusrf;
i/ a'oemusrf; !/ a[½Sm,tem*wådusrf;
p/ a½SmvrkefoDcsif; ¡/ em[Hktem*wådusrf;
q/ Moy'dwf P/ aZzedtem*wådusrf;
Z/ a,mvtem*wådusrf; w/ [AuúKwftem*wådusrf;
24
6/ AmAkvkefEdkifiHodkY odrf;oGif;cH&jcif; (586-516 bDpD)

u/ a,&rdtem*wåu d sr;f
c/ a,&rdjrnfwrf;pug;
*/ a,Zausvtem*wåu d sr;f
C/ 'Ha,vtem*wåu d sr;f
7/ odrf;oGif;jcif;cH&NyD;tcsdef (516-400 bDp)D
(u) {Z&rSwfpm (*) Zmc&dtem*wådusrf;
(c) ae[rdrSwfpm (C) [*¾Jtem*wådusrf;
(i) rmvcdtem*wådusrf;
*/ /"r®opfusrf;\ ESpfouú&mZfwGufcsufjcif;
"r®opfusrf;rsm; rIwfoGif;cH&jcif;twdkif; a&;om;olwdkY\ tusdK;oufa&mufyHk
vu©Pmrsm;udk atmufygtwdkif; ½IjrifoHk;oyfEdkifygonf/
1/ c&pfawmf\ oufawmfpOfESihf a½S;OD;toif;awmfordkif;aMumif;
(55-85 at'D)

(u) róJ (C) a,m[ef


(c) vkum (i) wrefawmf
(*) rmuk
2/ toif;awmftwGuf Mo0g'pmrsm; (46-85 at'D)
u/ ½Sif,mukyf Z/ zdavrkef P/ a[jAJ
c/ *vmwd ps/ {zuf w/ 1ayw½k
*/ 1oufomavmedwf n/ augavmoJ x/ 2ayw½k
C/ 2oufomavmedwf #/ zdvdyÜd '/ ½Sif,mukyf
i/ 1aum&dEÅK X/ 1wdarmao "/ 1a,m[ef
p/ 2aum&dEÅK !/ wdwk e/ 2 a,m[ef
25
q/ a&mr ¡/ 2wdarmao y/ 3 a,m[ef
3/ ya&mzufjyKjcif; (96 at'D)
u/ Asm'dwu
f sr;f
tydkif; 5
usrf;pmavhvmbdkY jyifqifjcif;
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uREfkyfwdkY tm; rdwfqufay;NyD; (tydkif; 3) rnfonfhtcsdefwGifjzpfysufcJhaMumif;
tpDtpOftvdkuf avhvmcJhMuNyD;jzpfonf (tydkif; 4)/ usrf;pmtaMumif;udk
wpfpw Hk pfO;D onf igwdtYk m; ]]rnfonft h csed }f } wGif jzpfysucf ahJ Mumif; ar;vmygu
tajccHoabmw&m; uREfkyfwdkY&Sif;jyEdkifawmhrnfjzpfygonf/ usrf;pmudk odem;
vnfatmif &SmazGMu&onfh tavsmuf ar;cGe;f rsm;udk ajzMum;aomtcgwGiv f nf;
]]or®mw&m;udk rSeu f efpmG ydik ;f jcm;wwfjcif;iSg q&morm;jzpfatmif}} rdru d ,kd u
f kd
jyifqifMu&rnfjzpfygonf/ igwdkYü&Sdonfh ar;cGef;rsm;udk bk&m;&Sifonf olYxH
,laqmifvm&ef tvdkawmf&Sdavonf (róJ? 7;7-8)/
usrf;ydk'fwdkif;twGuf t"duar;&rnfh ar;cGef;yHkpHrsm;onf rnfol? rnfonhf
taMumif;? b,ftcsed ?f b,fae&m? tb,faMumih?f tb,fuo hJ Ykd [líjzpfonf/
ar;cGe;f rsm;udk pOf;pm;&mwGif t"dutaMumif; 2 rsKd ;udk c&pf,meftoufwmESifh
oufqikd Nf y;D pdwx
f rJ mS rSwo
f m;&rnf/ c&pfawmfEiS fh uk,
d w
f ikd x
f ad wG&Y ef wd;k wuf
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touf½Sif&rnfenf; (a,m[ef? 7;17)/
u/ /usrf;ydk'fwdkif;twGuf t"duar;cGef;aNcmufrsdK;
1/ rnfolenf;¿
27
þar;cGef;udk ar;&jcif;rSm rnfolu ajymoenf;? rnfolYudk qdkvdkoenf;[lí
em;vnfbjYkd zpfonf/ Oyrmtaejzihf (urÇm? 22;2) wGif bk&m;ocifu tmjA[Hukd
olo
Y m;tm; ,Zfyal Zmfcikd ;f jcif;jzpfonf/ þae&mü bk&m;ocifonf wpfpw kH pfO;D
tm;jzihfr[kwfbJ tmjA[Hudk wdkuf½dkufpum;ajymonf/ EIwfuywfpum;udk
em;axmifaom uREykf w f Ykd vnf; tjcm;oltwGut f rdeu
Yf kd wpfqifch H em;axmifae
&rnf r[kwfyg/
2/ rnfonhftaMumif;enf;¿
az:jyxm;aom tjzpftysuftaMumif;&if;ESihf oufqdkifonf (Asm'dwf? 5) wGif
c&pfawmfukd od;k oli,f[k &nfñeT ;f onf/ þ&nf½, G cf suo
f nf c&pfawmfukd tarT;
pkwzf mG ;ajcav;acsmif;owå0g[k qdv k jkd cif;r[kwb
f J tjypftwGuf ,Zfyal ZmfcjH cif;
taMumif;udk qdkvdkonf (a,m? 11;29)/
3/ b,ftcsdef¿
usrf;pmu &nfñTef;onhftwdkif; tcsdefumvESihfoufqdkifonf/ OyrmtaeESihf
tmjA[Honf rdrd\ESr0rf;uJGudk pHkbufjcif;trIrSm arma½S\ynwfray:rSD
vufquf jcif;aMumihf xdktrIonf tjypf½Sdaomt&m[k rowfrSwfEdkifaMumif;
em;vnfEdkifonf/ ynwfw&m;ray:cif tjypf[lí rxif½Sm;yg (a&mr? 4;15)/
xdkYaMumihf aqGrsdK;awmfol tcsif;csif;pHkbufaom tmjA[HtrIudk tjypf[k
r,lqEdik yf g/ tcsed u
f mvESifh twd tus pyfqikd rf u
I kd cH,jl cif;jzifh em;vnfoabm
aygufjcif;rsm; &½Sdvmayrnf/
4/ b,fae&m¿
usrf;pmü a&;xm;onhftwdkif; yx0Dtaetxm; ,Ofaus;rIqdkif&mwdkYESihf
oufqdkif onf/ usrf;pmü uREfkyfwdkYonf ]]a,½k½SvifodkYwdkif}} [k tBudrfBudrf
awG&Y onf/ vlraI &; xH;k wrf;trsKd ;rsKd ;wdüYk ]]odw
Yk ikd }f }? ]]a&mufonhwf ikd }f } [kygvmvQif
ajrmuft&yfodkY c&D;jyKjcif;[k em;vnf&onf/ usrf;pm\ qdkvdkcsifonhfoabm
&nf½, G cf surf mS ae&ma'otñTe;f xuf wGucf sujf cif;udk od½b dS jYkd zpfonf/ a,½I
onf *gvdvJrSxGufí a,½k½SvifodkY[kqdk&mü udk,fawmfonf awmift&yfodkY
c&D;jyKygaomfvnf; rdrcd &D;pOfukd tay:ydik ;f odYk a&GUvsm;oGm;&onfukd qdv k ykd gonf/
28

5/ tb,faMumihfenf;¿
tajz&&ef rvG,fulaomoabmESihf oufqdkifonf/ tjcm;usrf;ydk'fwdkYudk
,SOwf zGJ wfNy;D rS tajzudk awGEY ikd o
f nf/ (a[½Sm,? 7;14) udk zwfjcif;jzihf tysKd unm
0rf;rS om;a,musmF ;udk zGg;jrifNy;D xdo k m;udk {rmaEGv[krnS &fh rnf/ þusr;f yd'k tf &
xGufay:vmaomar;cGef;rSm tb,faMumihf tysdKunmrS arG;&oenf;[laom
tcsuyf ifjzpfonf/
uREykf wf o
Ykd nf tajz½SmMunhaf omtcg (a&mr? 5) wGif tm'HtjypfaMumihf vlom;
tm;vHk;tjypf tusdK;qufudk cH&onf/ tm'Htm;jzihf vlwpfOD;qDü tjypfADZ
yg½Sad eonf/ c&pfawmfü avmuDocif½v dS Qiv
f nf; tjypfAZD olüY ygOD;rnf/ þtrI
udpötwGuf tajzrSm tjypfa<u;ay;qyfbdkY c&pfawmfü tjypfuif;pifaom
t&nftcsi;f ½S&d efvo kd nf/
6/ tb,fodkYenf;¿
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vrf;avQmufoenf;[kar;vQif 0dnmOfawmfudk trSDjyKí vrf;avQmufonf[k
ajz&rnf (vkum? 4;18)/ vlü vGwv f yfpmG a½G;cs,cf iG afh y;xm;vQif bk&m;ocif
onf ordik ;f ausmif;udk rnfox
Ykd ed ;f csKyo
f enf;/ þar;cGe;f udk ajz&ef rvG,u f al omf
vnf; aemufydkif;wGif aqG;aEG;rnf/
c/ /rdrdtwGuf t"dujzpfaomar;cGef;ESpfck
1/ c&pfawmfESihf eD;uyf&if;ESD;pGm rdwfo[m,zGJUjcif;twGuf
rnfodkY wnfaqmufoenf;?
þtcsuo f nf uREykf w
f aYkd r;Edik af om t"duar;cGe;f wpfcjk zpfonf/ c&pfawmfEiS fh
qufqaH &;Bu;D xGm;&ef usr;f pmavhvmjcif;jzihf &&Sad omtodw&m;udk ,HMk unfjcif;
ESihftwl wpfvHk;wpf0wnf; ½Sdae&rnf (a[jAJ? 11;6)/ EIwfuywfawmfonf
trSm;uif;NyD; tm;udk;avmufonf[k ,HkrSwf&rnf/ ocifbk&m;ESihf qufqHjcif;
tusdK;onf udk,fawmf\ arwåmü tjrpfwG,fNyD; vlUtodw&m;ESihf rqdkifyg/
wrefawmf aygvku ({zuf? 3;14-19) wGif &Sif;vif;pGmaz:jyxm;ygonf/
29
]]aumif;uifay:ajrBuD;ay:rSm½Sdaom wtdrfaxmifvHk;wnf;[laom
om;awmf taygif;wd\ Yk tcsKytf jcm jzpfawmfral om igwdo Yk cifa,½Ic&pf\
crnf;awmf aY½rS mS igonf 'l;axmufí qkawmif;avh½\ dS / qkawmif;aom
tcsufrlum; 0dnmOfawmftm;jzihf oifwdkY\ twGif;vludk cGeftm;ESihf
jrjJ rcH ikd cf efaY pí ,HMk unf jcif;tm;jzihf c&pfawmfonf oifw\ Ykd pdwEf v
S ;kH txJü
usdef;0yfawmfrlrnftaMumif; bkef;awmf<u,f0jynhfpHkjcif;ESihf nDavsmfpGm
oifwdkYtm; ay;oem;awmf rlí arwåmü pdkufysdK;jcif; wdkufjrpfvnf;
uswnfjcif;½So d jzihf oifwoYkd nf oef½Y iS ;f oltaygif;wd\
Yk enf;wl teHtvsm;
teuftjrihfwdkYudk ydkif;jcm;í odjcif; iSm4if;? udk,fnmPfESihfrodEdkifaom
c&pfawmf\ arwåmawmfukd odem;vnfjcif; iSm4if;? oifwo Ykd nf wwfprG ;f Edik f
ojzihf bk&m;ocif\ jynhfpHkawmfrljcif; ½SdorQESihftnD jynhfpHkMuygrnf
taMumif;? igonf qkawmif;avh½Sd\}}
bk&m;ocif\ EIwu f ywfawmftaMumif;udk uREykf w f \
Ykd todynmwd;k wufboYkd m
avhvmNyD; bk&m;ocifxHESifh tNcm;oklrsm;tay: cspfjcif;arwåm wdk;yGg;vmjcif;
r&Syd grl (rmuk?12;29-31)? igwdo Yk nf armufrmaxmifvmT ;jcif;rQomjzpf\ (1aum?
8;1)/ oDMoavmf*st D aMumif;udk vlom;rsm;teuf toduRr;f qk;H jzpfonfh aygvku
(2aum? 12;1-4) ]]ud, k af wmfukd odEikd jf cif;iSg}} (zd? 3;10) [k ol\ tBu;D rm;qk;H
aom vdt k ifqE´ukd az:jycJ\ h / aygvkonf zg&d&w JS pfa,muftaejzifh todOmPf
ynmt& vdu k af vQmufcbhJ ;l oljzpfNy;D ? c&pf,mefwpfa,muftaejzifrh l touf&iS f
aom bk&m;&SifESifh rdwfo[m,zGJUEdkifa&;udkom pl;pdkufvdkufpm;ayawmhonf/
bk&m;&Sif\ *wdawmfrsm;udkom &SmBuHNyD; ,kHMunfvdkufyg/ xdktcg oifonf
]]aus;Zl;awmfü wd;k yGg;Ny;D ocifa,&Ic&pfawmfukd odjcif;üvnf; wk;d wufvmrnf}}
(2ay?3;18) jzpfonf/
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uREykf w
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f pfc\
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k &kd if;udk em;vnfonfEiS w
hf jyKd ief uf
aeYpOftoufwmü rnfodkYtokH;jyK&rnfudk em;vnf&rnfjzpfonf/ þoabm
w&m;udk (a[NAJ? 12;1-3) u vSypGmaz:jyxm;NyD; ti,f 1 ESifh 2 wdkYu þodkY
qdx
k m;ygonf/
30
]]xdaYk Mumif?h þrQavmufrsm;pGmaom oufaotaygif;wdo Yk nf igwdu Yk kd 0ef;&H
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h u S w f wf
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pkHvifawmfrlaom ocifa,&Iudk aphaphaxmuf&IMuukeftHh/ xdkocifonf
rdrad &SUüxm;aom 0rf;ajrmufjcif;taMumif;aMumif?h &Suaf Mumufaomt&mudk
rrSwfbJ vuf0g; uyfwdkifü cHNyD;rS? bk&m;ocif\ yv’ifawmfvufsmbufü
xdik af eawmfr\ l /}}
a[NApJ mapmifukd a&;om;olu þusr;f yd'k Ef pS cf w k iG f tajy;jyKd ijf cif;toufwmudk
ykHaz:xm;jcif;jzpf\/ &yfMunfhaeolrsm;u (tcef;BuD; 11 rS ol&Jaumif;rsm;)
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f iG f &yfapmifah eol
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cHEdkifpGrf; tjynfh&Sdayonf/
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Ykd oufwmtwGuf ti,fEpS cf u k kd
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aomolr[kwf/ igwdkYcH&onfenf;wl? trsKd;rsKd;aom pkHprf;aESmifh,Sufjcif;wdkYudk
cHbl;aomol jzpfawmfrl\/ odkY&mwGif 'kp&kduftjypfESifh uif;vGwfawmfrl\}}
(a[NAJ? 4;15)/
31

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bk&m;ocifü tajz½SdaMumif; *wdawmf½Sdygonf (1aum?13;12)/
tcef; 2

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½IjrifokH;oyfjcif;
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or®musrf;pmtkyf wpftkyfjcif;pDukd NcKHikHí avhvmokH;oyfjcif;rSm bk&m;ocif\
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taMumif;t&mrsm;ukd odjrifum a,bk,stm;jzifh em;vnfoabmaygufMu
&ygonf/ uGsEkfyfwkdY onf bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfukd ykdítcsdefMumMum
avhvmygu xkdor®musrf; pmukd uREkfyfwkdY ykdíykdí od&Sdem;vnfvmMurnfrSm
xif&Sm;odomvSygonf/ okdYaomfvnf; þoifcef;pmavhvmjcif;ukd csOf;uyfí
teD;uyfavhvm&mwGif uREyfk w f oYkd nf yxrBu;D rm;aom ykyH ef;csu D m;csyu f dk awGU&Sd
&ef &SmazGavhvm&ygonf/ okrYd o S m uREyfk w
f o
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csurf sm;ukd pepfwusjrifEidk Mf uygrnf/ tcef;Bu;D 1 wGif or®musr;f pmwpfcv k ;Hk ukd
txufrS ½Ijrifo;Hk oyfjcif;yg0ifygonf/ uREyfk w f o Ykd nf usr;f pmwpftyk jf cif;pDwUdk ukd
tjrifus,jf zifh NcKiH aHk vhvm&ef tenf;i,frQ omjzifh þtcef;ukd tpjyKygonf/
34

"r®a[mif;ESifh "r®opfusrf;wkdUukd EIdif;,SOfjcif;


c&pfawmfonf or®musr;f pmtky&f o dS rQtm;vk;H wk\
Yd arQmv
f ifjh cif;ESihf t"duOD;wnf
csut f aMumif;&if;yifjzpfygonf/ c&pfawmfonf or®musr;f pm&So d rQtm;vk;H wk\
Yd
t"duOD;wnfcsuf taMumif;&if;jzpfaMumif;ukd Budrfzefrsm;pGm olukd,fwkdif
zGifhqkdxm; ygonf/
1/ (&SifróJ? 5;17) ü ]]ynwådusrf;? tem*wådusrf;rsm;ukd zsufy,fjcif;iSg
igvm onfr[kwf/ jynhfpHkapjcif;iSg igvmownf;}} [k rdefYawmfrl\/
2/ uk,d af wmfonf {armufNrKd Uodo
Yk mG ;&mvrf;ü wynfah wmfEpS Of ;D wkEYd iS t
hf wl
oGm; awmfrlonfukd &Sifvkumonf uREkfyfwkdYtm; a[mMum;cJhonfrSm?
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teufukd &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyawmfrl\/
3/ xkaYd emuf uk, d af wmfonf xkad eYnaecif;üyifvQif wynfah wmfq,fyg;wkYd
tm; rdeaYf wmfro l nfudk (vkum? 24;44-47) wGif &Siv f u k monf uREyfk w
f Ydk
tm; a[majymonfrmS ? ]]arma&S\ ynwåu d sr;f pmü4if;? ya&mzufw\ Ydk
usrf;pmü4if;? qmvHusrf;pmü4if;? ighukd&nfrSwfí a&;xm;orQaom
tcsuw f o Ydk nf jynhpf &kH rnf[k igonf oifwEYdk iS t
hf wl&adS epOftcg? oifwYdk
tm; a[majymaom taMumif;t&mwkdYum;? þtaMumif;t&m
aywnf;[k rdefYawmfrl\/ xkdtcg usrf;pmukd em;vnfapjcif;iSg wynfh
awmfw\ Ydk OmPfuzdk iG ahf wmfrl vQi?f þodu
Yk sr;f pmvm\/ þodcYk &pfawmf
onf taocHí oHk;&ufajrmuf aomaeYü aojcif;rSxajrmuf&rnf/
c&pfawmf\ tcGifhtm;jzifh aemifw w&m;ESifh tjypfvTwfjcif;w&m;ukd
a,½k½SvifNrdKUrSpaom vlrsKd;wumwkdYtm; a[majym&rnf}}
4/ (&Siaf ,m[ef? 5;39 ESihf 40) wkw Yd iG f a,½Ionf *sL;vlrsK;d wkEYd iS hf pum;ajym
qkd&mü a,½IrdefYawmfrlonfrSm? ]]usrf;pmtm;jzifh xm0& toufukd&
rnf[k pdwxf ifEiS hf oifwoYdk nf usr;f pmukd aphaphMunf½h MI u\/ xku d sr;f pm
yif ig\ oufaojzpf\/}}
35
xkt f sr;f ? 19;10) üvnf;? ]]ya&mzufa[maom pum;csuo
Yd jyif? (Asm'dwu f abm
onf a,½I\ oufaojzpfownf;}} [k uREkfyfwkdYtm; ajymqkd\/ wpfenf;qkd&
aomf or®musr;f pm&So d rQtm;vH;k wküYd &Sad om ya&mzufjyKjcif;\ oabmobm0ESifh
&nf&G,fcsuf taMumif;&if;wkdYrSm a,½Ic&pfawmf\taMumif;ukd zGifhjyzkdY&efyif
jzpfygonf/ vlom;(tm'H)\ jypfrmS ;jcif;aMumifh vkt d yfvmaomt&mrSm c&pfawmf
omvQijf zpfaMumif; "r®a[mif;ESihf "r®opfusr;f wk\ Yd t"duOD;wnfcsuf taMumif;
&if;yifjzpfí uREkfyfwkdY onf olUtm;jzifhomvQif xm0&toufESifh <u,f0aom
toufwmukd &&SdEkdifMuonf jzpfaMumif; odomxif&Sm;vSygonf
(a,m[ef? 10;10)/
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ar&S d , u,f w if & S i f o nf <uvmawmf r l í
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- c&pfawmftwGuf tajccHtkwfjrpf ya&mzuf? ,Zfyak &m[dw?f &Sib


f &k ifEiS hf olonf
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f &k iftjzpf pk;d pHawmfrjl cif;rwkid rf DS vlom;wkYd
- c&pfawmftwGufjyifqifjcif;
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© if;&J
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ya&mzufjyKjcif;
awmfrrl nfh taMumif; ukd "r®a[mif;usr;f ü wif
- c&pfawmftm;arQmfvifhjcif;
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I m;jzifh <uvmawmf
owif;aumif; xif&Sm;azmfjyjcif; rlNy;D jzpfaom u,fwif&iS \
f owif;pum;awmfudk wrefawmf
0x¬Kü txift&Sm;jyoazmfxkwfygonf/

tcsdefumvMumjrifhpGmuwnf;u <uvmrnfhtaMumif;
wrefawmf us,fjyefYjcif; arQmv
f ifah pmifph m;&aom u,fwif&iS ?f ol\ yk*Kd¾ vjf zpfjcif;ESihf
vkyfaqmifcsufwkdYtaMumif;ukd ajymjyygonf/

&Sif;vif;csuf c&pf,mefwo Ydk nf þavmuxJü c&pfawmf\ oHwrefwpfO;D


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d odk nf rSm? ]]ig;tky}f } [líjzpfygonf/ xku d sr;f wkrYd mS ynwåu
d sr;f rsm;[lívnf;
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aoqHk;jcif;taMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/ þusrf; ig;usrf;wkdYonf c&pfawmf
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bk&m;ocifonf £oa&vvlrsK;d wko Yd nf "r®a[mif;usr;f ukd xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smuf
vmaomvlrsKd;? *wdawmfESifhqkdifaom y#dnmOfw&m;ukd vufcH&&Sdol? ar&Sd,\
trsKd;tEG,fpkrsm;jzpfvmcJhMuygonf (a&mr? 3;2? 9;1-5)/
37

urÇmOD;usrf;
(tptOD;ESifhqkdif&musrf;)
usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
arma&Sonf þusr;f ukd a&;om;cJyh gonf/ Genesis [laom a0g[m&pum;vH;k \
qkv
d &dk if;rSm? ]]tptOD;}} [lí jzpfNy;D Septuagint [laom a[NApJ may "r®a[mif;
usr;f ukd *&dbmomjzifh bmomjyefqadk ompmtkyrf S qif;oufvmjcif; jzpfygonf/
a&;om;cJhonfhckESpf
1450-1410 bDpDjzpfygonf/
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taMumif;&if;rSm aumif;Bu;D r*FvmESihf udseq f jJ cif;tr*Fvm taMumif;jzpfaMumif;
ukd ay:vGix f if&mS ;apygonf/ {'ifO,smOfxüJ uJo h yYkd if emcHjcif;ESihf ,HMk unfjcif;
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csuftaMumif;&if;rSm £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYonf tmjA[HESifh tmjA[H\ y#dnmOf
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zGifhajymay;ygonf/ urÇmOD;usrf;ü usrf;pmtm;vHk;wkdY\ t"duusaom
38
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39

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40
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(c) £Zmuf (*wdawmfESifh qkdifaomcspfom;) (24;1-26;35)/
(*) ,mukyf (taumufBuHjcif;ESifh ukd,fpdwfpifMu,fjcif;) (27;1-36;43)/
(C) a,moyf ('ku©qif;&JcHjcif;ESifh csD;ajrSmufbkef;toa&xif&Sm;jcif;)
(37;1- 50;26)/

xGufajrmuf&musrf;
(a&G;EIwfu,fwifjcif;qkdif&musrf;)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
arma&Sonf þusr;f ukd jyKpak &;om;cJyh gonf/ Exodus [laom a0g[m&pum;vH;k
onf *&da0g[m&pum;vHk; EXODOS rSqif;oufvmaom vufwifpum;vHk;
jzpfNyD;? xkdusrf;ukd Greek Septuagint [kac:aomusrf;odkY bmomjyefqkdaom
olwkdYuay;aom usrf;emrnfjzpfygonf/ xdkpum;vHk;\ qkdvkdjcif;rSm exit
]]xGufcGgoGm;jcif;}} [líjzpfygonf/
a&;om;cJhonfhckESpf
1450-1410 bDpDjzpfygonf/
OD;wnfcsuftaMumif;t&mESifh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
xGuaf jrmuf&musr;f ü xif&mS ;atmifjrifaom OD;wnfcsut
f aMumif;t&m ESprf sK;d
41
&Sdygonf/ (1) a&G;EIwfu,fwifjcif;ukd yócgyGJü yHkazmfzGifhjyxm;ygonf/ (2)
tD*spjf ynf uReb
f 0rS u,fvw T jf cif;onf tD*spjf ynfrS xGucf mG vmNy;D ? yifv,feu
D dk
jzwfausmfoGm; jcif;ü awGUjrif&ygonf/
tD*spfjynfü ESpfaygif;ESpf&mxufrenf; BuD;xGm;wkd;yGm;vmNyD;onfhaemufykdif;ü
bk&m;ocif a&G;EIwaf wmfral om vlrsK;d awmf? £oa&vvlrsK;d wkt Yd m; tD*spjf ynfrS
a&G;EIwfu,fwifawmfrljcif;ESifh ynwfawmfukd ay;awmfrljcif;taMumif;wkdYukd
xGuaf jrmuf&musr;f ü azmfjyxm;ygonf/ xku d sr;f ü arma&SarG;zGm;vmjcif;? ol\
taMumif;ESifh olUtm; £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYukd tD*spfjynfuRefb0rS OD;aqmifí
*wdawmfEiS qhf idk af om wkid ;f jynfjzpfonfh cgemefjynfoYkd ykaYd qmif&ef bk&m;ocif\
ac:awmfrljcif;taMumif;wkdYukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/ yócgyGJtwGuf odk;oli,f
tm;jzifh om;OD;ukd 'Pfcwfjcif;tygt0if uyfqkd;BuD;q,frsKd;wkdYjzifh edrdwf
vu©PmjyKum ac:xkwv f mNy;D ? yifv,feu D dk jzwfausmv f mjcif;jzifh bk&m;ocif
onf tD*spfjynfü &Sdaom zga&mbk&if&SdorQwkdYxuf ykdrkdíwefckd;BuD;awmfrljcif;
oufoufomr[kwfbJ pMum0#mwpfckvHk;ukd tpkd;&awmfrlaom bk&m;ocif
a&G;EIwuf ,fwifjcif;ESihf zGijhf yxif&mS ;awmfral om bk&m;ocif ]]Yahweh}} jzpfawmf
rlaMumif; rdrdvlwkdYtm; xif&Sm;jyoawmfrlcJhjcif;jzpfygonf/
£oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYonf yifv,feDukd jzwfausmfvmcJhNyD;? oJuEåm&awmxJokdY
0ifa&mufvmonfESifh bk&m;ocifonf olwkdYtm; ol\ajzmifhrwfjcif;qkdif&m
ynwfawmfw&m;ukd ay;awmfrlNyD;? olwkdYonf rdrdb@mawmfukd ykdifqkdifaom
vlrsKd;jzpfí EkdifiHawmfESifhqkdifaom ,Zfyka&m[dwftrsKd;? wpfyg;aomtrsKd;om;
wkdYtm; oufaoxlrnfh oefY&Sif;aom vlrsKd;awmfjzpfaMumif;ukdyg bk&m;ocif
xkwaf zmfí rdeaYf wmfrcl yhJ gonf (xGu?f 19;4-7)/ ynwfawmf q,fyg;tygt0if
þoef&Y iS ;f aom ynwfawmfw&m;onf bk&m;ocif\ oef&Y iS ;f jcif;ukd azmfjyawmf
rlí olwo Ykd nf bk&m;ociftm; tb,foYdk cspMf u&rnftaMumif;? wpfa,mufEiS hf
wpfa,muf rnfocYdk spMf u&rnf taMumif;wku Yd dk oGeo
f ifxm; ygonf/ xkt
Yd jyif?
bk&m;ocif\ oefY&Sif;jcif;yg&rDrS azmufjyefrSm;,Gif;aom olrsm;wkdYonf
bk&m;ocifay;awmfrlaom tjypfvTwfjcif;ukd tb,fokdYaomenf;tm;jzifh
42
&&SMd u&ef vkt
d yfaeMuonfuv dk nf; azmfjyxm;ygonf/ þt&mwkt Yd m; wJawmf?
,Zfyal Zmfjcif;rsm;ESihf 0wfjyK&mESiq
hf idk af om ,Zfyak &m[dwf jzpfjcif;t&mrsm;wküYd
axmufyahH y;awmfrcl yhJ gonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
arma&S? tm½kef? rD'D,H? zga&mbk&ifwkdYjzpfygonf/
xGufajrmuf&musrf;ü c&pfawmftm;½Ijrif&jcif;
xGufajrmuf&musrf;wGif c&pfawmftm; wkduf½kdufya&mzufjyKjcif; ryg0ifaomf
vnf;? u,fwif&Siftm; yDjyifxif&Sm;aom o½kyfazmfcsufrsm;&Sdygonf/ arma&S
onf c&pfawmftm; yHpk o H ½kyaf zmfjcif;jzpfygonf/ arma&Sonf ya&mzufwpfyg;
jzpfouJhodkY c&pfawmfonf ya&mzufjzpfawmfrl\ (w&m;a[m? 18;15)/ olwkdY
ESpfOD;pvHk;wkdYrSm aqGrsKd;om;csif;wkdYtm; a&G;EIwfu,fwifaomolrsm;jzpfMuí
oli,fb0üyif tEå&m,fMum;ü a&muf&cdS MhJ uNy;D ? tjcm;aomolwt Ydk m; tapcHz&Ydk ef
rdrw
d \ Ydk wefc;dk ukd jyefvnfíxkwaf zmfcMhJ uum jzefajzolrsm;? ynwfw&m;ukad y;
aomolrsm;ESifh a&G;EIwfu,fwifaom olrsm;jzpfcJhMuygonf/
yócgyGJrSm tjypfuif;pifaom bk&m;ocif\ okd;oli,ftjzpf c&pfawmftm;
txl;yHkaqmifaom t&myifjzpfygonf (a,m? 1;29?36? 1aum 5;7)/
yGJawmfckESpfrsKd;wkdYwGif wpfckjcif;wkdYrSm u,fwif&Siftm; yHkwlazmfaomt&mrsm;
jzpfMuygonf/ xGufajrmuf&musrf;üyifvQif? AwådZHcHjcif;onf uREkfyfwkdYtm;
c&pfawmfEiS t hf wl ol\taocHawmfrjl cif;? oN*KØ vaf wmfrjl cif;ESihf &Sijf yefxajrmuf
awmfrljcif;wkdYESifh qufpyfaeMuaMumif; &Sifaygvkazmfjyxm;ygonf
(1aum? 10;1-2? a&m? 6;2-3)/
rEérkefYESifh a&onfvnf; c&pfawmftm; yHkaqmifxm;ygonf
(a,m? 6;31-35? 48-63/ 1aum? 10;3-4)/
wJawmfonfvnf; u,fwif&iS t
f m; yg0ifonfh t&m0w¬Kypön;f ? ta&mif? toH;k
43
taqmifrsm;? tpDtpOfjyKcsufrsm;ESifh xkdae&mü ,ZfylaZmfjcif;jyK&onfrsm;jzifh
o½kyfazmfvsuf yHkaqmifxm;ygonf (a[NAJ? 9;1-10;18)/
,Zfyak &m[dwBf u;D onfvnf; c&pfawmf\ yk*Kd¾ vjf zpfjcif;? trIaqmif&u
G jf cif;rsm;ukd
&Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm t&dyt
f a,mifziG jhf yjcif;jzpfygonf
(a[NAJ? 4;14-16? 9;11-12? 24-28)/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ tD*spfjynfrS a&G;EIwfu,fwifjcif; (1;1-18;27)/
(u) uRefjyKcH&jcif; (tckdif;tapcH&jcif;) (1;1-12;32)/
(c) uRejf yKc&H jcif;rSvw
G af jrmufjcif; (taoG;ESiw
hf efc;dk awmftm;jzihf a&G;EIwf
u,fwifjcif;) (12;33-14;31)/
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2/ bk&m;ocifxHawmfrS Asm'dwfawmfay;jcif; (19;1-40;38)/
(u) ynwfawmfw&m;ukd ay;awmfrljcif; (19;1-24;18)/
(c) wJawmfukd wnfaxmifzGJUpnf;jcif; (25;1-31;18)/
(*) ynwfawmfw&m;ukd csKd;azmufjcif; (32; 1-34;35)/
(C) wJawmfukd wnfaqmufjcif; (35;1-40;38)/
wJawmfykH\zGJUpnf;ykH (a,bk,sykHpHjzpfygonf)
oef&Y iS ;f &mXme toefY&Sif;qkH;Xmeawmf
aMu;0g
rD;ckH y#dnmOf
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Y m
aygif;
tifwkH ylaZmf
,Zfyv’if aowåmawmf
rkeEYf iS yhf al Zmf&myv’if
44

0wfjyK&musrf;
(oefU&Sif;jcif;qkdif&musrf;)
pma&;olESifhusrf;trnf
þusrf;ukd arma&Sa&;om;cJhygonf/ 0wfjyK&musrf;[laom trnfemrukd
Septuagint ac:*&d"r®a[mif;usrf;rS qif;oufvmí qkdvkd&if;rSm? ]]relating to
the Levites}} ]]av0dtrsKd;ESifhpyfqkdifjcif;}} [líjzpfygonf/ av0dtrsKd;wkdYrSm
£oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYay:ü bk&m;trIukdjyK&ef bk&m;ocifa&G;aumufawmfrlaom
,Zfyak &m[dwrf sm;jzpfMuygonf/ 0wfjyK&musr;f wGif bk&m;ociftm; 0wfjyKu;dk
uG,&f mwGif ,Zfyak &m[dwrf sm; taejzifh olwjYdk yKvyk af qmif&u
G &f rnfh trIt&m
rsm;pGmwku
Yd dk bk&m;ocif nTeMf um;ay; aomtm;jzifh ay;awmfral om ynwfw&m;
rsm;pGmwkyYd g0ifygonf/
a&;onfhckESpf
1450-1410 bDpDjzpfygonf/
OD;wnfcsuftaMumif;t&mESifh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
(0wfjyK&musr;f ? 11;45) ü ]]igonf oef&Y iS ;f aomaMumih?f oifwo Ydk nf oef&Y iS ;f jcif;&Sd
&Murnf}} [kred aYf wmfrx l m;ygonf/ £oa&vvlrsK;d wkt Yd m; (1) bk&m;ociftm;
tb,fuJhodkY 0wfjyKukd;uG,f&rnf/ bk&m;ocifESifhtb,fuJhodkY oGm;vm&rnfh
taMumif;ESihf (2) £oa&vvlrsK;d wko Yd nf ,Zfyak &m[dwt f rsK;d [lí ac:awmfrl
jcif;wGif tb,fuo hJ Ykd jynhpf akH pMu&rnftaMumif;wku Yd dk Bu&H ,
G v
f suf oGeo f ifxm;
ygonf/ 0wfjyK&musrf;\ BuD;rm;aom OD;wnf&nf&G,fcsuf taMumif;&if;rSm
oefY&Sif;jcif;yif jzpfygonf/ oefY&Sif;apjcif;onf wpfpHkwpfOD;tm; pifMu,f
apjcif;\ tusK;d qufjzpfyg onf/ oef&Y iS ;f awmfral om bk&m;ociftm; ,Zfyal Zmf
jcif;ukd tajcjyKvsuf ,Zfyka&m [dwfwpfOD;\ Mum;0ifjzefajzrItm;jzifhomvQif
45
csO;f uyfciG &hf ydS gonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
arma&SESifh tm½kefwkdYjzpfygonf/
c&pfawmftm; 0wfjyK&musrf;üjrifawGU&jcif;
xGuaf jrmuf&musr;f ESix
hf yfwx
l yfrQyif c&pfawmf\ yHpk o
H @mefo½kyaf zmfjcif;rsm;
ukd 0wfjyK&musrf;üvnf; taxmuftxm;&Sdygonf/
,ZfylaZmfjcif;qkdif&mig;rsKd;wkdYtm;vHk;rSm c&pfawmf\ yk*¾Kdvfjzpfjcif;? vkyfaqmif
awmfrl csu?f ol\tjypfuif;pifaom toufwm? uREyfk w f o Ydk nf bk&m;ocifEiS hf
rdwfo[m, jyKEkdifMu&rnftaMumif;? crnf;awmf\ tvkdawmfxJü qufuyf
tyfESHawmfrljcif;wkdY tm;vHk;ukd ukd,fpm;jyKxm;ygonf/
,Zfyka&m[dwfrif;onf c&pfawmftm; ukd,fpm;jyKxm;onfrSm tvGefxif&Sm;
ay:vGifaMumif; 0wfjyK&musrf;ü awGU&ygonf/
yGaJ wmfcEk pS rf sK;d wdrYk mS vnf; u,fwif&iS t
f m; uk,
d pf m;jyKyakH zmfjcif;rsm;jzpfaMumif;?
uk, d af wmf\pHv k ifjcif;? tpm;xk;d taocHawmfrjl cif;? aojcif;rS &Sijf yefxajrmuf
awmfrl jcif;ESifh tjypfajz&m,ZftwGuf vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;wkdYtaMumif;udk
uREkfyfwkdYtm; oGefoifxm;ygonf/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ ,ZfylaZmfjcif;qkdif&m ynwfw&m; (1;1-17;16)/
(u)bk&m;ocifxHawmfokdY csOf;uyf&ef (1;1-7;38)/
(c) ,Zfyak &m[dwrf sm;twGuf (8;1-10;20)/
(*) oef&Y iS ;f pifMu,fjcif;qkid &f m (11;1-15;33)/
(C)vlrsKd;awmfESifhqkdif&m tjypfajz&eftwGuf (16;1-17;16)/
46
2/ oefY&Sif;jcif;qkdif&m ynwfw&m; (18;1-27;34)/
(u)bk&m;ocif\ vlwkdYtwGuf (18;1-20;27)/
(c) bk&m;ocif\ ,Zfyka&m[dwfrsm;twGuf (21;1-22;33)/
(*) 0wfjyKukd;uG,fjcif;ü (23;1-24;23)/
(C)cgeefjynfxJü (25;1-26;46)/
(i) usdefqkdjcif;qkdif&mrsm;ü (27;1-34)/

awmvnf&musrf;
(oJuEå&awmü rsufpdvnfvrf;rSm;jcif;)

pma&;olESifhusrf;trnf
þusr;f udk arma&Sa&;om;cJyh gonf/ ,if;trSew f &m;udk þusr;f tcef;Bu;D 1ESihf
tcef;Bu;D 26 wdt
Yk & odemawmifEiS hf armbvGijf yifwiG f £oa&vvlrsK;d awmfw\ Ykd
ta&twGupf m&if;udk arma&Su, kd w
f ikd f pm&if;jyKpck jhJ cif;jzifh oufaojyEdik yf gonf/
a&;om;cJhaomckESpf (145-1410 bDpD)
c&pfawmfray:rD ESpaf ygif; 1450-1410 okrYd [kwf 1450-1410 bDpt
D wGi;f [k
cefrY eS ;f onf/
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
awmvnf&musrf;ü £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYonf tajccHa,bk,stm;jzifh tESpf
40eD;yg; oJuEå&awmxJü rsupf v
d nfvrf;rSm;cJMh uaomtcsed üf vlO;D a& trnf
47
pm&if; a&wGufvmcJhMuygonf/ trSefpifppf wpfq,fhwpf&ufom Mumrnhf
c&D;onf 38 ESpf wkdifwkdif 'ku©qif;&JcH&aom c&D;Murf;wpfckjzpfvmcJh&ygonf/
tb,faMumifq h adk omf £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\
Yd r,HMk unfjcif;ESihf pum;em;raxmif
jcif; aMumifhjzpfygonf/ awmvnf&musrf;ü bk&m;ocif\ *wdawmfrsm;ukd
r,HMk unfEidk jf cif;\ raumif;aom tusK;d qufrsm;ukd azmfjyxm;ygonf (a[NA?J
3;16-4;2)/ xkt Yd jyif awmvnf&musr;f onf uREyfk wf tYdk m; bk&m;ocif\ vlwYdk
onf xkduJhodkY ]]awmxJü}} rsufpdvnfvrf;rSm;aom b0tawGUtBuHKrsm; uJhodkY
aom tajctaersm;ü raeMu&ef oGeo f ifxm;ygonf/ uREyfk w f \
Ydk toufwm
rsm;ü vrf;nTefcsufyHkyef;csDum;csyfukd a&;qGJNyD; a&G;cs,fxm;Mu&efjzpfygonf/
þtaMumif;ukd aemufykdif;ü a,½Itm;jzifh Oyrmay; azmfjyygvdrfhrnf/
awmvnf&musrf;ü azmfjyxm;onfh tjcm;ta&;BuD;aom OD;wnf&nf&G,fcsuf
taMumif;&if;rSm bk&m;ocifonf rdrv d w
l t Ydk m; qufvufí *½kpu dk af pmifah &Smuf
awmfrlaMumif; awGU&Sd&ygonf/ olwkdYonf tBudrfBudrftzefzef r,HkMunfjcif;?
awmfveS yf ek u
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tHhzG,faom edrdwfvu©Pmtrlt&mrsm;tm;jzifh axmufyHhay;awmfrlcJhygonf/
olonf xko d wl t
Ydk m; a&? rEérek EYf iS hf iH;k iSurf sm;ukd csay;awmfrcl yhJ gonf/ £oa&v
vlrsKd;wkdYonf olUtm; tBudrfBudrfqE´jyNiD;wGm;Muum olUukd qefYusifawmfvSef
ykefuefcJhMuaomfvnf; bk&m;ocifonf olwkdYtm; qufvufí cspfawmfrlNyD;?
tjypfrsm;ukdvnf; vTwfawmfrlcJhygonf/
t"duyg0ifolrsm;
arma&S? tm½kef? rD'D,H? a,m½I? umvuf? AmvufwkdYjzpfMuygonf/
c&pfawmftm; awmvnf&musrf;üjrif&yHk
awmü a>rukd ajrSmufxm;ouJhodkY c&pfawmfESifh oltm; vuf0g;uyfwkdifay:ü
½ku
d x
f m;jcif;ukd tjcm;rnfonfah e&mürQ &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm yHak zmfrnfrxifyg
(awmvnf? 21;4-9? a,m? 3;14)/
48
£oa&vvlrsK;d wk\
Yd a&iwfjcif;ukad jyapcJah omausmufrmS c&pfawmfudk yHak qmif
aom ausmufyifjzpfygonf (1aum? 10;4)/
aeYpOfESifhtrQ ay;awmfrlcJhaom rEérkefYrSm aumif;uifrSqif;<uawmfrlaom
toufrkefY wnf;[laom c&pfawmfukd yHkazmfjcif;jzpfygonf (a,m? 6;31-33)/
rk;d wdrEf iS rhf ;D wkid o
f nf c&pfawmf\ vrf;jyykaYd qmifawmfrjl cif;ukd yHak zmfjcif;jzpfNy;D ?
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aemufq;kH taejzifh tqif;eDaom EGm;rysKo
d nfvnf; c&pfawmftm; yHak qmifxm;
apjcif; jzpfygonf (awmvnf? 19)/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
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(u) vlwkdY\ taNctaeESifh vlOD;a&a&wGufjcif; (1;1-4;49)/
(c) bk&m;ocif\ ynwfawmfrlcsufESifh vlwdkYtm; oefY&Sif;apjcif;
(5;1-9;14)/
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2/ rsKd;pOfqufvla[mif;rsm;\ rSm;,Gif;jcif; (11;1-25;18)/
(u)vrf;wpfavQmufvkH; wif;wdrfauseyfrIr&SdEdkifjcif; (11;1-12;16)/
(c) ynwfawmfudk r,HkMunfEkdifMujcif; (13;1-14;45)/
(*) xm0&bk&m;ocifxHawmfrS qHk;rawmfrljcif; (15;1-25;18)/
3/ rsKd;pOfqufvlopfrsm;tm; jyifqifjcif; (26;1-36;13)/
(u)£oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYtm; jyefvnfpnf;½kH;jcif; (26;1-27;23)/
49
(c) ,ZfylaZmfjcif;rsm;ESifh uwdopömjyKjcif;qkdif&m pnf;urf;owfrSwfjcif;
(28;1-30;16)/
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d jf yefvnfowfrw
S af y;jcif; (31;1-36;13)/

w&m;a[m&musrf;
(ynwfw&m;ukd jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif;)

pma&;olESifhusrf;trnf
þusr;f ukd arma&Sa&;om;jyKpck yhJ gonf/ t*Fvyd b f mom Deuteronomy [laom
a0g[m&pum;vHk;onf Septuagint ac: *&d"r®a[mif;usrf;rS qif;oufvmNyD;
qkdvkd&if;rSm? ]]ynwfw&m;ukd 'kwd,tBudrfay;jcif;}} [líjzpfygonf/ 17;18 ü
ygaomtcsuu f dk ]]þynwfw&m;tm; xyfwu l ;l ,ljcif;}} [lí bmomjyefq&dk rnfh
tpm; vTrJ mS ;bmomjyefqjdk cif;jzpfygonf/ Deuteronomy rSm 'kw, d ynwfw&m;
r[kwfyg/ odeawmifay:ü ay;awmfrlaom rl&if;ynwfw&m;ukd jyefvnf
oHk;oyfí tus,fcJsUjcif;jzpfygonf/
a&;om;cJhonfhckESpf
1410 bDpD/
OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
oifonf rarhavsmrh nftaMumif; owdEiS ahf pmifah &Smufavmh/ £oa&vvlrsK;d wkYd
onf awmü ESpaf ygif;av;q,f rsupf v d nfvrf;rSm;vmcJMh uNy;D aemuf *wdawmfEiS hf
qkid af om jynfawmfxo J 0Ydk ifz&Ydk ef tvGeef ;D uyfvmjyjD zpfygonf/ olwo Ydk nf jynf
awmf odrYk 0ifr?DS bk&m;ocifonf olwt Ykd wGuf rnfojYkd yKawmfrcl ahJ Mumif;? olwo Ykd nf
bk&m;ocif\ oefY&Sif;aomvlrsKd;awmfjzpfaMumif;ESifh EkdifiHawmfESifhqkdif&m ,Zf
50
yka&m[dwf trsK;d jzpfMuaMumif; jynfawmfü tajcjyKvsuf &yfwnfí touf&iS f
aeEkdifMu&ef olwkdY\ pGrf;tifrsm;ukd wnfNrJapEkdifrnfh tvGefta&;BuD;aom
bk&m;ocif\ oef&Y iS ;f awmfral om ynwfw&m;ukd olwt Ykd m; jyefvnfí owday;
EId;aqmf&ef vkdtyfvsuf&Sdygonf/ (okdYr[kwfygu bk&m;ocifonf rnfokdYaom
trIukd jyKawmfrlcJhaMumif;? olwkdYonf rnfokdYaom vlrsKd;jzpfMuaMumif;ukd olwkdY
arhaysmufomG ;Ekid yf gonf (w&m;a[m? 4;1-8)/ þtaMumif;&if; OD;wnf &nf&, G f
csuftjyif uav;oli,fwkdYtm; bk&m;ocifukd cspfí emcHMu&rnftaMumif;
tvGefta&;BuD;NyD; vkdtyfaom t&mrsm;ukdvnf; þusrf;ü txl;jyKazmfjy
xm;ygonf/
w&m;a[m&musr;f Deuteronomy onf £oa&vvlrsK;d wkEYd iS q hf idk af om bk&m;
ocif\ y#dnmOfw&m; (tcef;BuD; 29)? a,m½Itm; acgif;aqmifopftjzpf
ceft
Y yfjcif; (tcef;Bu;D 31) ESihf arma&Stedpaö &mufjcif; (tcef;Bu;D 34) ponfwu Ydk dk
topfwzef jyefvnfpwifjcif;jzifh tqHk;owfoGm;cJhygonf/
t"duyg0ifolrsm;
arma&SESifh a,m½IwkdYjzpfygonf/
w&m;a[m&musrf;ü a,½Itm;jrif&ykH
]]oif\ bk&m;ocifxm0&bk&m;onf oif\ trsK;d om;csi;f wkt Yd xJü igESiw hf al om
ya&mzufwyg;ukd oifhtbkdY ay:xGef;apawmfrlrnf/ xkdya&mzuf\ pum;ukd
em;axmif&rnf}} [lí 18;15 ü arma&StqkdjyKazmfxkwfcsufrSm c&pfawmftm;
t&Sif;vif;qHk; yHkazmfxm;jcif;wpfckjzpfygonf/ xkdYtjyif? arma&Sonfvnf;
c&pfawmf\ yHkukdaqmifxm;ygonf/ c&pfawmfomvQif jynhfpHkaprnfjzpfaom
&mxl;oHk;rsKd;jzpfonfh ya&mzuf (34;10-12)? ,Zfyka&m[dwf (xGuf? 32;31-
35)ESihf &Sib
f &k if (arma&Sonf &Sib
f &k ifr[kwaf omfvnf; olonf &Sib f &k ifuo hJ Ykd
£oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYukd tkyfpkd;cJhygonf? 33;4-5)tjzpfarma&SudkjrifEdkifonf/
51
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef; (1;1-5)/
2/ orkdif;aMumif;ukd jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif; (1;6-4;43)/
(u)odeawmifrS uma'&SAmet&yfodkY (1;6-18)/
(c) uma'&SAmemt&yfü (1;19-46)/
(*) uma'&SAmemt&yfrS armbjynfodkY (2;1-23)/
(C)a,mf'efjrpfta&SUykdif;ukd odrf;ykdufjcif; (2;24-3;20)/
(i) acgif;aqmifrIukd ajymif;vJjcif; (3;21-29)/
(p) y#dnmOfw&m;ukd tusOf;csKH;jcif; (4;1-43)/
3/ ynwfw&m;ukd jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif; (4;44-26;19)/
(u)ed'gef; (4;44-49)/
(c) ynwfawmfq,fyg; (5;1-33)/
4/ ynwfw&m;ukd cH,lusifhoHk;jcif; (6;1-11;32)/
(u)ynwfw&m;ukd oGefoifyg (6;1-25)/
(c) cgemefjynfukd odrf;ykdufjcif; (7;1-26)/
(*) xm0&bk&m;udk atmufarhowd&yg (8;1-20)/
(C)ukd,fusifhw&m;aMumifh ajzmifhrwfjcif;ukd z,f&Sm;yg (9;1-10;11)/
(i) aumif;BuD;ay;jcif;odkYr[kwf usdefjcif;ukd a&G;yg (10;12-11;32)/
5/ ynwfw&m;\ aemufqufwGJ (12;1-26;19)/
(u)xHk;wrf;pavhESifhqkdifaom ynwfw&m; (12;1-16;17)/
52
(c) tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifhqkdifaom ynwfw&m; (16;18-20;20)/
(*) vlrIa&;ESifhqkdifaom ynwfw&m; (21;1-26;19)/
6/ y#dnmOfw&m;ukd vufcHjcif; (27;1-30;20)/
(u)cgemefjynfü y#dnmOfw&m;ukd twnfjyKjcif; (27;1-28;68)/
(c) ygvufpwkdif;ü y#dnmOfw&m;ukd wnfaxmifjcif; (29;1-30;20)/
7/ acgif;aqmifolajymif;vJjcif; (31;1-34;12)/
(u)arma&Sonf a,m½IESifh £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYukd wm0efay;cefYtyfjcif;
(31;1- 13)/
(c) bk&m;ocifonf £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYukd wm0efay;cefYtyfawmfrljcif;
(31;14-21)/
(*) ynwdåusrf;ukd tyfESHwnf&Sdapjcif; (31;22-29)/
(C)arma&S\oDcsif; (31;30-32;47)/
(i) arma&Stedpaö &mufjcif; (32;48-34;12)/

owdjyK&efOD;wnf&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;\
tusOf;csKyf
urÇmOD;usr;f vlrsK;d wkt
Yd m;a&G;cs,af wmfrjl cif;
xGuaf jrmuf&musr;f vlrsKd;awmftm; a&G;EIwfu,fwifjcif;
0wfjyK&musr;f vlrsK;d awmftm; oefY&Sif;pifMu,fapjcif;
awmvnf&musr;f vlrsK;d awmftm; vrf;jynTefMum;jcif;
w&m;a[m&musr;f vlrsKd;awmftm; oGefoifqHk;rjcif;
tykdif; 2

&mZ0ifusrf;rsm;

ed'gef;
"r®a[mif;usr;f tykid ;f wpfrsK;d pDwo Ydk nf c&pfawmf\taMumif; tao;pdww f u
d spmG
oD;oefOY ;D wnfneT x f m;Muygonf/ a,m½Irw S pf mrS {owm0w¬Konf £oa&v
vlrsK;d wk\
Yd taMumif;ukd rSww f rf;wifaom 'kw, d tykid ;f jzpfygonf/ þusr;f rsm;ü
£oa&vvlrsK;d wko Yd nf r,HMk unfjcif;? emrcHjcif;wkaYd Mumifh jynfawmfudk tarGcMH u
&mrS jynfESif'Pfay;cH&jcif;? jynfawmfukd qHk;½IHcH&jcif;wkdYukd csKHiHkxm;ygonf/
þusr;f wpfq,fEh pS u f sr;f wko
Yd nf tESpf 800 twGi;f £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\ Yd cgemef
jynfudk odr;f yku d jf cif;? tarGcjH cif;? w&m;olBu;D rsm;\ tkypf ;dk jcif;? &Sib f &k ifrsm;ukd
wnfaxmifjcif;? £oa&vEkid if u H dk ajrmufyidk ;f ESiahf wmifyidk ;f [lí Ekid if aH wmf ESpjf crf;
uGJoGm;jcif;? ajrmufykdif;EkdifiHukd tm½I&d “Assyria” vlrsKd;rsm;u odrf;oGm;jcif;?
awmifyidk ;f Ekid if uH dk AmAkvek v f rl sK;w
d u Ydk zrf;qD;odr;f oGm;jcif;? ae[rdEiS hf {Z&wku Yd o
hJ Ykd
aom vlwkdY\ acgif;aqmifrIatmufü a,½k&SvifNrdKUodkY jyefvmMujcif;ponfh
54
taMumif;rsm;ukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/
þusr;f wko
Yd nf ar&S,
d wnf;[laom c&pfawmf<uvmrnft h aMumif;ukd atmuf
azmfjyygtwkdif; uREkfyfwkdYtm; jyifqifazmfjyay;xm;ygonf/

ordkif;0ifusrf;rsm;teufrS c&pfawmftwGufjyifqifjcif; 3
a,½IrSwfpm vlrsKd;awmftwGuftarGcH&majrudk bk&m;ociftkyfpdk;jcif;taMumif;
w&m;olBuD;rS ydkifqdkif&jcif;ESifhvlrsKd;awmftzdkY jzpfpOfrsm;udk þ&mZ0ifusrf;rsm;
w½ko0w¬K 'ku©zdpD;rIrsm;awGUBuKH&jcif; jyqdkonf (1405-1043bDpD)
1 &m ordkif;0ifEdkifiHudkwnfaxmifNyD;jcif; ya'o&mZf&iS b
f &k ifwt
Ykd yk pf ;kd aom
2 &m EdkifiHawmfcsJUxGifjcif; acwfjzpfonf/
3 &m (1-10) EdkifiH\bkef;BuD;jcif; þordkif;0ifusrf;pmrsm;onf
3 &m (11-22) EdkifiHuGJjym;jcif; £a&vrif;qufwdkYtaMumif;ESifh
4 &m (1-17) ajrmufzufEdkifiH,dk,Gif;jcif; ywfoufNyD; pwifwnfaxmifjcif;rS
4 &m(18-25) awmifzufEdkifiH,dk,Gif;jcif; tpjyKí vlrsKd;awmfwpfckvkH;ysuf
5 &m AdrmefawmftwGuf jyifqifjcif; okOf;oGm;&aombDpD586umv
6 &m AdrmefawmfysufpD;jcif; jzpf&yfrsm;udk az:jyonf/

pZ&rSwpf m Adrmefawmfjyefvnf jyefvnfxlaxmifjcif;udktxl;jyK


wnfaqmufjcif; az:jyaomþusrf;pmrsm;onf
ae[rdrSwfpm a,½k&SvifNrKdUawmf vlrsKd;awmf£oa&v\ tpdwf
jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif; tydkif;tcsKdU tcsKyftaESmifb0rSm
{owm0w¬K vlrsKd;awmftm; tumtuG,f tESpf ]70}MumjrifhNyD;rS ZmwdajrodkY
ay;jcif; jyefvm&ykHudk rSwfwrf;wifxm;
onf/ (605-536 bDpD)
55

a,m½IrSwfpm
(tarGcHjcif;ESifh odrf;ykdufjcif;)
usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
þusr;f ukd a,m½Ia&;om;cJyh gonf/ þusr;f onf yxr"r®a[mif;usr;f ig;usr;f
wkEYd iS rhf wl? arma&S\ vufaxmufa,m½I\trnfudk wrlx;l jcm;pGm oH;k pGx J m;yg
onf/ a,m½I\ rlvyxremrnf&if;rSm Moa&SjzpfNyD; (awm? 13;8? w&m;a[m?
32;44) qkdvkd&if;rSm? ]]u,fwifjcif;}} [líjzpfygonf/ odkYaomfvnf;? oJuEåm&
awmxJü rsufpdvnfvrf;rSm;aeMupOf arma&Sonf ol\emrnfukd a,[dk½I
]]Yehoshua}}[lírSnahf v\/ qkv d &dk if;rSm]]bk&m;ocif“Yahweh” onf u,fwif
jcif;jzpf\}} [líjzpfygonf (awmvnf? 13;16)/ a,m½Ionf a,[k½d t I rnfudk
twkdcsKH;jcif;jzpfygonf/ a,m½Ionf oloQKdtjzpfoGm;cJh&mwGif &efolrsm;ukd
atmifEidk jf cif;? jynfawmfudk tarGcjH cif;t&mrSm xm0&bk&m;\ wefc;dk awmftm;jzifh
omjzpfí vlom;wk\ Yd uRr;f usirf ?I nmPfynm? wefc;dk aMumifrh [kwyf g[k ya&m
zufjyKjcif;qkdif&m yg0ifajymqkdjcif;ay:ü tajcjyKíay;xm;ygonf/ tb,f
aMumifq h adk omf? a,m½Ionf urÇmay:ü ppfzufqidk &f mwGif tBu;D rm;qH;k atmifjrif
aom olwpfO;D jzpfNy;D ol\OmPfynmESihf ppfzufqidk &f muRr;f usirf rI sm;rSm uREyfk f
wkdY\ u,fwifjcif;taMumif;jzpfawmfrlaom xm0&bk&m;xHawmfrSomvQif
vmcJhygonf/ £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYtm; olwkdY\ &efolrsm;ay:ü atmifjrifjcif;?
odr;f yku d Ef idk jf cif;ESihf jynfawmfudk tarGcaH pjcif;wkrYd mS xm0&bk&m;ocif uk, d af wmf
wkdifrS jzpfygonf/
usrf;a&;onfhckESpf
1400-1370 bDpD/
56
OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
jynfawmfut dk arGcjH cif;? odr;f yku
d af tmifEidk jf cif;ESihf cGaJ 0jcif;wkrYd mS a,m½Irw S pf m\
OD;wnfonfh &nf&, G cf sut f aMumif;&if;jzpfygonf/ a,m½Irw S pf monf £oa&v
vlrsK;d wkaYd y:ü bk&m;ocif *wday;awmfrcl o hJ nft h wkid ;f bk&m;ocif\ opöm&Sjd cif;
wkdYukd xif&Sm;azmfjyjcif;jzpfygonf (urÇm? 15;18? a,m½I? 1;2-6? 21;43-45)/
a,m½IrSwfpmwGif rSwfwrf;wifxm;aom tjzpftysufrsm;rSm &Hzef&Hcgjzpf
ay:wwfaom aMumufrufzG,f&maumif;onfh trIta&;&SdorQwdkYtm;vHk;ukd
qefYusifNyD; rdrdvlrsKd;wkdYay:ü bk&m;ocif\ txl;ukd,fpm;jyK &yfwnfay;jcif;
jzpfygonf/ tmjA[HEiS pfh m&mwko Yd nf £Zufuadk rG;zGm;Ny;D ckv d pkH &mNrKd Ursm;ESit
hf wl
jynfawmfudk tarGc&H rnft h aMumif;qkid &f m bk&m;ocif\ *wdawmfrsm; jynfph v kH m
jcif;rSm bk&m;ocifjyKawmfral om trIomjzpfNy;D ? vlom;rsm;taejzifh rnfoyYdk if
BudK;pm;ae&aomfvnf; b,fawmhrSrjzpfEkdifaom trIBuD;vnf; jzpfygonf
(a&mr? 4)/
t"duyg0ifolrsm;
a,m½I? &m[yfESifh umvufwkdYjzpfygonf/
c&pfawmfukd a,m½IrSwfpmü jrif&yHk
þusr;f ü ar&S, d ESiphf yfvsO;f í c&pfawmftaMumif;ukd wku d ½f u
dk af zmfjyjcif; r&Sad omf
vnf; u,fwif&iS t f m; yHo
k m"ursm;pGmjzifh azmfjyxm;ygonf/ a,m½Ionf c&pf
awmf\ yHak qmifonfudk tvGet f a&;Bu;D aom tcsuEf pS cf sujf zifjh rifEidk yf gonf/
yxr? ol\ trnfemrjzpfaom a,m½Ionf a,[d&k \ I twkcd sK;H jzpfí t"dygÜ ,frmS
]]bk&m;ocifonf u,fwifjcif;jzpf\}} ]]Yahweh is Salvation}} [líjzpfygonf/
xkdemrnfrSm *&dbmompum;vHk; a,½I[laom trnfemrESifh xyfwlxyfrQ
t"dygÜ ,f&ydS gonf/ a,m½I[al omemrnfrmS trSepf ifppf (wrefawmf0w¬K? 7;45)
üac:aom a,½I[líyifjzpfygonf/ 'kwd,? a,m½Ionf £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYukd
OD;aqmifNy;D olw\ Ydk *wdawmfEiS q hf idk af om jynfawmfwnf;[laom cgeefjynfudk
57
tarGcjH cif;t&mü c&pfawmf\ vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;ukd yHak qmifxm;jcif;jzpfygonf
(a[NA?J 4;8)/ þt&mrSm uREyfk w f o
Ydk nf c&pfawmf\txJü ,HMk unfjcif;tm;jzifh
Nidrfoufjcif;okdY0ifpm;jcif;ukd o½kyfazmfyHkaqmifxm;ygonf/ a,m½Ionf trSef
pifppf ]]rsm;pGmaomom;wdu Yk dk u,fwifí bke;f pnfprd pf pH m;&mod}Yk } ykaYd qmifawmf
rlaom u,fwif&Sif\ yHk&dyfyifjzpfyg onf (a[NAJ? 2;9-10)/ a,m½Ionfvnf;
xm0&bk&m;ocif\ Akv d rf LS ;tm;jzifh awGUqHck ahJ wmfr\l (5;13-15)/ þt&mrSm
c&pfawmfonf vlUZmwdukd rcH,lrSD xif&Sm;ay:vmjcif;jzpfaMumif; c&pöwkdzJeD
“Christophany” [kac:NyD; a,m½I\ &efolwkdYbufü aeaomolr[kwfaMumif;?
a,m½Itm; oGefoifzkdY&ef <uvmawmfrl aMumif; oHo,uif;pifvSygonf/
aemufqHk;taejzifh? &m[yf\ BudK;eD (2;21)onf c&pfawmf\ taoG;awmfESifh
taocHawmfrljcif;jzpfygonf (a[NAJ? 9;19-22)/ þwpfyg;trsKd; trsKd;orD;
jynfhwefqmronf bk&m;ocif\ BuD;rm;aom wefckd;awmf jzifh jyKawmfrlaom
taMumif;t&mrsm;ukMd um;í ,HMk unfjcif;odaYk &muf&u dS m olvQKw
d u
Ydk dk 0Suxf m;cJah v
jy/D a,&dacg NrKd U ysupf ;D oGm;cJah omtcg u,fwifjcif;okaYd &muf&cdS jhJ y/D c&pfawmf\
rsKd;EG,fpm&if;ü awGUjrif&ygonf (róJ? 1;5)/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ cgemefjynfukd0ifa&mufwkdufckdufjcif; (1;1-5;12)/
(u)a,m½Itm; vTJtyfawmfrljcif; (1;1-9)/
(c) a,m½Ionf vlwkdYtm; trdefYay;jcif;ESifh olwkdY\wkefYjyefrI (1;10-18)/
(*) a,&dacgNrdKUukd wkdufckdufodrf;ykdufjcif; (2;1-24)/
(C)a,m'efjrpfukd jzwfausmfjcif; (3;1-17)/
(i) jrpfukdjzwfausmfjcif; trSwfw&txdrf;trSwf (4;1-24)/
(p) vlwdkYtm; qufuyftyfESHjcif; (5;1-12)/
2/ cgemefjynfukd odrf;ykdufjcif; (5;13-12;24)/
58
(u)atmifjrifjcif;\ tajctae - bk&m;ocif\ppfAdkvf (5;13-15)/
(c) tv,fA[kdcsufü wyfpcef;csjcif; (6;1-8;35)/
(*) awmifykdif;ü wyfpcef;csjcif; (9;1-10;43)/
(C)ajrmufykdif;ü wyfpcef;csjcif; (11;1-15)/
(i) atmifjrifrIrsm;ukd jyefvnfoHk;oyfjcif; (11;16-12;24)/
3/ cgemefjynfukd cGJa0,lMujcif; (13;1-21;45)/
(u)vlrsKd;EG,fpkckESpfckESifh wpf0ufwkdY\ tarGcHjcif; (13;1-33)/
(c) umvuftwGuf tarGcHjcif; (14;1-15)/
(*) vlrsKd;EG,fpkukd;ckESifh wpf0ufwkdY\ tarGcHjcif; (15;1-19;48)/
(C)a,m½ItwGuf tarGcHjcif; (19;49-51)/
(i) ckdvIHp&mNrdKUrsm; (20;1-9)/
(p) av0dtrsKd;twGufNrdKUrsm; (21;1-45)/
4/ ed*kH;csKyf (22;1-24;33)/
(u),Zfyv’ifwkdYtm; qefYusifwm;qD;&efBudK;pm;jcif; (22;1-34)/
(c) a,m½I\ rSmMum;a[majymjcif; (23;1-24;28)/
(*) a,½Itedpaö &mufjcif; (24;29-33)/
59

w&m;olBuD;rSwfpm
azmufjyefjypfrSm;jcif;oHo&m?
w&m;pD&ifjcif;ESihfa&G;EIwfu,fwifjcif;
usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;\trnf
xHk;wrf;pOfvmt& þusrf;onf &SarGva&;om;cJhonf[kqkd\/ odkYaomfvnf;
þusr;f ukd a&;om;olrmS taotcsm rod&yg/ w&m;olBu;D umvü &SarGvonf
wpfcsKUd aomtykid ;f rsm;ukd a&;om;cJ[
h ef&ydS gonf/ ya&mzuf emoefEiS hf *'fwo
Ydk nf
tcsuftvufrsm;ukd wnf;jzwfMu&ygrnf (5&m? 29;29)/
a[NAaJ 0g[m&pum;jzifh qkzd w J if;rf ]]Shophetim}} [líjzpfNy;D t"dygÜ ,frmS ? ]]w&m;
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60
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yifjzpfygonf (11;27? 8;23)/
usrf;ukda&;onfhckESpf
1050-1000 bDpD/
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a,m½IrSwfpmESifh w&m;olBuD;rSwfpmwkdYMum;ü uGJjym;jcm;em;csufrSm £oa&v
vlrsK;d wko
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61
bk&m;ocifonf em;axmifum a&G;EIwu f ,fwifawmfral Mumif;ukd w&m;olBu;D
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uJhodkYaom oHo&mvnfjcif;ukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/
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ygonf/
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f &k iftjzpf aqmif&uG f
jcif;wkdYukd o½kyfazmfxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/
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62
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kd rD;,m;vlrsK;d wk\
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u,fwifjcif; (3;7-11)/
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f ,fwifjcif;
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tm;jzifh a&G;EIwfu,fwifjcif; (4;1-5;31)/
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f rl sK;d wk\
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63
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tjcm;usrf;rSm {owm0w¬Kjzpfygonf/
usrf;a&;onfhckESpf
1050 bDpDjzpfonf/
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64
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onfvnf; 0ifa&mufEkdifonfjzpfaMumif; tcsufjy odomapcJhygonf/ 5
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66
(u)aemrdtm;jzifh tBuHay;jcif; (3;1-4)/
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bdow d af y;av\/ odaYk omfvnf;? bk&m;ocifonf apmvkrif;ukd y,fcscyhJ gonf/
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tpm;xkd;&ef &SarGvonf bk&m;ocif nTefMum;awmfrlonfhtwkdif; 'g0d'fukd
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oljzpfí £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\ Yd &Sibf &k if jzpfvmcJyh gonf/ usr;f \aemufq;kH ykid ;f rSm
remvkd0efwkdaom apmvkrif;ESifh bk&m;ukd cspfaom bk&m;ocif\ vl'g0d'fwkdY
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68
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pepftyk pf ;dk jcif;onf wnfNird cf idk rf mrI&v dS mcJyh gonf/ tb,faMumifq h adk omf vlwYdk
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bk&m;ocifonf £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYtm; &Sifbk&ifukday;awmfrl&ef tBuHtpnf
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bk&m;ocifay;awmfrlaom &Sifbk&ifukd a&G;cs,fvkdMuygonf/ apmvkrif;onf
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remvkd 0efwjdk cif;ü cufxefNy;D ? rduk rf jJ cif;ESihf ud,k uf siw hf &m;üraumif;ay/ 'g0d'u f
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69
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ya&mzuf&aS rGv? emcHrrI &Sad om apmvkrif;ESihf od;k xde;f uav;'g0d'w
f jYdk zpfygonf/
c&pfawmftm; "r®&mZ0ifyxrapmifü jrif&jcif;
&SarGvonf c&pfawmfudk pdw0f ifpm;zG,f yHak qmifxm;aomolwpfO;D jzpfygonf/
olonf za&mzufwpfyg;jzpfonf/ ,Zfyka&m[dwfjzpfonf/ olonf &Sifbk&if
rjzpfcahJ omfvnf; &Sib
f &k ifrsm;tkypf ;dk vm&rnfh vlrsK;d awmfudk bk&m;ocif toH;k jyK
awmfrljcif;jzifh w&m;pD&ifcJhygonf/
ar&S,d onf ]]qDv;l bdow d af y;aomol}} [lít"dygÜ ,f&ydS gonf/ &SarGvonf or®m
usr;f pmESiq
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wmxJü awGUjrif&ygonf/ olonf AufvifNrKd Uü arG;zGm;cJyh gonf/ od;k xde;f wpfO;D
jzpfcyhJ gonf/ £oa&vvlrsK;d wkaYd y:ü tkypf ;dk aomoljzpfygonf/ 'g0d'rf if;ESiq hf idk f
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(u)apmvktm; a&G;cs,fcefYxm;jcif; (9;1-12;25)
70
(c) apmvkrif;tm; jiif;y,fcH&jcif; (13;1-15;35)/
3/ 'kwd,&Sifbk&if 'g0d'frif;BuD; (16;1-31;13)/
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d yd af y;awmfrjl cif; (16;1-23)/
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(17;1-58)/
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(u)'g0d'fonf zdvdwådvlrsKd;wkdY\ tapcHwpfOD;jzpfvmjcif; (27;1-28;2)/
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71

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a&;om;olESifh pyfvsOf;í aqG;aEG;csufukdMunfhyg/
usrf;ukda&;om;onfhckESpf
1010 bDpDESifh aemufykdif;jzpfygonf/
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
£oa&vvlrsK;d wk\ Yd Ekid if aH wmfonf trSejf yKd uaJG Mumif; rnforYkd Q ryg&Scd ahJ omfvnf;
"r®&mZ0if'w k , d apmifonf £oa&vEkid if aH wmfonf apmvkrif;usq;kH Ny;D aemufrS
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tjypf'pk ½ku d rf sm;jzpfonfh olUr,m;ukd jypfrmS ;jcif;? olUtoufuo dk wfjcif; ponfh
tjypfwkdYaMumifhcH&aom 0rf;enf;ylaqG;? aMuuGJp&mjzpf&yfrsm;ESifh olUrdom;pk
tay:wGif omru wpfrsKd;om;vHk;wkdYtay:ü oufa&mufaom qkd;usKd;quf
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taMumif;&if;rSm 'g0d'frif;pkd;pHjcif;ü ay:xGufvmaom ]]tjypfw&m;onf 'ku©
qif;&Jjcif;ukd tb,fuo hJ Ykd atmifjrifum ajymif;vJaponft h aMumif;}} tusO;f csK;H
í azmfjyxm;ygonf/ Ekid if aH wmfonf apmvkrif;vufxufü wnfaxmifvmcJNh y;D ?
'g0d'frif;tm;jzifh wkd;csJUvm cJhygonf/ apmvkrif;\ EkdifiHonf £oa&v vlrsKd;
wktYd m; w&m;olBu;D rsm;wkjYd zifh tkypf ;dk jcif;tcsed uf mvrS wnfNird rf u I dk ay;cJyh gonf/
okdY&mwGif 'g0d'frif;\ pkd;pHjcif;rSm wkd;yGm;jcif; odkYr[kwf wkd;csJUus,fjyefYapjcif;odkY
a&muf&SdvmcJhygonf/ or®musrf;pmü £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdY\ acgif;aqmifrsm;
72
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'kw,
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t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
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c&pfawmftm; "r®&mZ0if'kwd,apmifü awGUjrif&yHk
'g0d'rf if;Bu;D onf oljypfrmS ;rdcahJ om tjypf'pk ½du
k rf sm;rSwyg; olonf £oa&v
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bk&m;ocifonf 'g0d'f\ y#dnmOfukd c&pfawmfay:xGef;awmfrlonfhwkdifatmif
vHk;vHk; vsm;vsm;jynfhpHkap&ef wnfNrJapawmfrlygonf/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
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h if;ckid rf mvmjcif; (5;7-6;23)/
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73

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tvkdawmfokdYrvkdufjcif;onf EkdifiHawmfukd tb,fokdY jydKuGJysufpD;apaMumif;udk
azmfjy&efjzpfygonf/ vlrsK;d awmfw\ Ydk <u,f0csr;f omjcif;rSm olw\ Ydk acgif;aqmifrI
atmufü opöm&Sjd cif;ESihf £oa&vvlrsK;d wkEYd iS jhf yKaom bk&m;ocif\ y#dnmOfonf
vlwdkYay:ü wnf&Sdygonf/ "r®&mZ0ifwwd,apmifonf þ&Sifbk&ifwkdY\
taMumif; t&mwpfcw k nf;uko d m rSww f rf;wifjcif;r[kw?f bk&m;ocif\ ynwf
awmfw&m; okrYd [kwf or®mw&m;ay:ü &Sib f &k ifw\Ydk opömapmifo h jd cif; twkid ;f
twmay:ü rlwnf vsu&f adS Mumif;ukv d nf; azmfxw k af y;ygonf/ þusr;f onf
trSefpifppf? ]]ajzmifhrwf jcif;w&m;onf jynfom;wkdYukd csD;ajrSmufwwf\/
'kp½kduftjypfrlum;? jynfom;rsm; wkdYukd ½Iwfcswwf\}} (okwåH? 14;34) [laom
pum;ukd o½kyaf zmfxm;ygonf/ bk&m;ocif\ y#dnmOfw&m;ay:ü opömrJjh cif;
onf tiftm;qkwf,kwfvmapjcif;ESifh uRefjyKcHjcif;odkY a&mufapcJhygonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
a&Smvrke?f a,a,maAmif? a,[dak Amif? {vd,ESihf {vdqm? tm[yfEiS hf
a,,sabv/
c&pfawmfukd "r®&mZ0ifwwd,apmifü awGUjrif&yHk
'g0d'rf if;Bu;D uJo
h yYkd if a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D onfvnf; "r®a[mif;usr;f wGif c&pfawmf\
o½kyfukd tBuD;rm;qHk;azmfaqmifaomoljzpfí ar&Sd,onf tem*wfwGif
ajrBu;D ay: ü pk;d pHawmfrrl nft h aMumif;ukv d nf; yHak qmifxm;ygonf/ a&Smvrkef
rif;BuD;onf txl;ojzifh ol\ausmfMum;rIbkef;toa&? <u,f0csrf;omjcif;ESifh
*kPfjyKcsD;rGrf;jcif; wkdYonf ajrBuD;ay:ü c&pfawmfEkdifiHawmftaMumif; &SdorQ
76
tm;vH;k ukd ajymqkad zmfjyjcif; jzpfygonf/ a&Smvrkeo
f nf olü Bu;D rm;aom OmPf
ynmtm;jzifh c&pfawmfukd yHkazmfvsuf&Sdygonf/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ EkdifiHawmfpnf;vHk;nDnGwfjcif;? a&Smvrkefrif;BuD;\ tESpfav;q,f pdk;pH
awmfrljcif; (1;1-11;43)/
(u)a&Smvrkef xD;eef;wufvmjcif; (1;1-3;1)/
(c)a&Smvrkefrif;BuD;\ ÓPfynm (3;2-4;34)/
(*)a&Smvrkef\ Adrmefawmf (5;1-8;66)/
(C)a&Smvrkefrif;\ ausmfMum;jcif; (9;1-10;29)/
(i)a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D \tm;enf;qkw,
f w
k v
f mjcif;ESihf usqif;jcif; (11;1-43)/
2/ EkdifiHawmfESpfjcrf;uGJjcif;? yxrtESpf&Spfq,ftwGif; EkdifiHawmfESpfck
(12;1-22;53)/
(u)Ekid if aH wmfEpS jf crf;uGjJ ym;apjcif;taMumif;&if; (12;1-24)/
(c) £oa&vjynfü “JeroMoam” pkd;pHjcif; (12;25? 14;20)/
(*) ,k'jynfü “RehoMoam” pkd;pHjcif; (14;21-31)/
(C),k'jynfü “Abijam” pkd;pHjcif; (15;1-8)/
(i) ,k'jynfü “Asa” pkd;pHjcif; (15;9-24)/
(p) £oa&vjynfü ”Nadab” pdk;pHjcif; (15;25-31)/
(q)£oa&vjynfü “Baasha” pdk;pHjcif; (15;32? 16;7)/
(Z) £oa&vjynfü “Elah” pkd;pHjcif; (16; 8-14)/
(ps) £oa&vjynfü “Zimri” pkd;pHjcif; (16; 15-20)/
(n)£oa&vjynfüf “Omri” pkd;pHjcif; (16;21-28)/
77
(#) £oa&vjynfü “Ahab” pkd;pHjcif; (16;29-22;40)/
(X) ,k'jynfü “Jehoshaphat” pkd;pHjcif; (22;41-50)/
(¡) £oa&vjynfü “Ahaziah” pkd;pHjcif; (22;51-53)/

"r®&mZ0ifpwkwåapmif
(vlpkuGJí jyefYusJoGm;jcif; - tjypfw&m;\ wyfrufjcif;aMumifh
0rf;enf;idka<u;jcif;jzifh tqHk;owfoGm;jcif;)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
"r®&mZ0ifwwd,ESifh pwkwåapmifwkdYrSm rlvyxrü usrf;wpftkyfwnf;om
jzpfaomfvnf;? zefw;D yHck si;f rSm jcm;em;uGjJ ym;ygonf/ "r®&mZ0ifwwd,apmifudk
a&;om;olESifh pyfvsOf;í aqG;aEG;csufukd jyefMunfhyg/
usrf;ukda&;om;cJhonfhckESpf
550 bDpDcefYjzpfygonf/ "r®&mZ0ifwwd,apmifüMunfhyg/
"r®&mZ0ifpwkwåapmifonf {vd,ESifh ol\ wynfh{vdqmtaMumif;ukd
qufvufí ajymjyygonf/ xkt Yd jyif ]]ESpEf ikd if t
H aMumif;}} ukyd g azmfjyxm;ygonf/
£oa&vEkid if H jzpfonfh ajrmufyidk ;f Ekid if EH iS hf ,k'Ekid if jH zpfonfh awmifyidk ;f Ekid if w H Ydk
taMumif; tjzpftysufrsm;ukd rSwfwrf;wifxm;um aemufqHk;wGif £oa&v
Ekid if u
H dk tm½I&d vlwo Ydk rd ;f yku
d jf cif; (722 bDp)D ESihf ,k'jynfudk AmAkvek v f rl sK;d wku
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d o f mG ;Muonftxd azmfjyxm;ygonf/ ESpEf ikd if pH vH;k ü&Sad om
ya&mzufwo Ydk nf olwt Ydk m; aemifwr&vQif bk&m;ocifonf tjypf'Pfcwfí
ysufpD;aprnftaMumif; owday;xm;cJhMuygonf/
Ekid if aH wmfxüJ tjypf'pk ½du
k u
f dk wyfrufarmpGmjyKjcif;jzifh 0rf;enf;aMuuGJ ikad <u;
78
jcif;jzifh ed*kH;csKyfoGm;aMumif; "r®&mZ0ifpwkwåapmifü oGefoifxm;ygonf/
"r®&mZ0ifyxrESifh 'kwd,apmifwkdYwGif vlrsKd;awmfay:xGef;vmNyD;? "r®&mZ0if
wwd,apmifwiG f ESpjf crf;uGJ oGm;aMumif;ESihf "r®&mZ0ifpwkwaå pmifü tkypf u k uJG m
jyefu Y soJ mG ;jcif;taMumif;wkYd yg&Syd gonf/ bk&m;ocif\ vlwo Ykd nf ya&mzufrsm;
tm;jzifh ESpftwefMumtoem;cH awmif;yefvmMuNyD;aemuf bk&m;ocifonf
oem;awmfrv l suf aemufq;kH wGif ol*wd ay;awmfro l nft h wkid ;f qH;k ryJjh yif awmfrl
\/ tb,faMumifhqkdaomf þusrf;wkdYrSm rlvyxr usrf;wpftkyfomjzpfí
"r®&mZ0ifwwd,ESihf pwkwaå pmifwrYdk mS wlnaD om yef;wkid &f MdS uygonf/ opömrJjh cif;
(bk&m;ocif\ ynwfw&m;udk emrcHjcif;) onf bk&m;tkyfcsKyfonfhpepfukdyif
ajymif;jyefveS o f mG ;onfwh idk af tmif bk&m;ocif\ 'Pfcwfq;kH ryJjh yifjcif;ukd cH&yg
aMumif; tqkyd gusr;f wko Yd nf uREyfk w f t
Ydk m; oGeof if xm;ygonf/ ESpEf idk if v H ;kH wkrYd mS
jyKd vyJ supf ;D oGm;cJyh gonf/ tb,faMumifq h akd omf &Sibf &k ifrsm;wko Yd nf Ekid if aH wmfudk
ajzmifhrwfpGm tkyfcsKyf&ef ysufuGufMuaomaMumifh bk&m;ocif\ or®w&m;ukd
tm½kjH yK*½kpu dk Mf u&ef oGeo f ifq;kH rjcif;jzpfygonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
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c&pfawmftm; "r®&mZ0ifpwkwåapmifü ½Ijrif&yHk
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vkyfaqmifESifhjcif;jzpfygonf (róJ? 11;14? 17;10-12? vkum? 1;17)/
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uREyfk w
f t
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79
wif;rmjcif;wkdYukd txl; jyKxm;ygonf/ {vdqmonf bk&m;ocif\
aus;Zl;awmf? cspfjcif;arwåmESifh u½kPmMuifemw&m;&Sdjcif;wkdYukd
azmfxw k af y;jcif;tm;jzifh owday;jznfph yG f xm;ygonf/ {vdqmonf
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"r®&mZ0ifwwd,apmif "r®&mZ0ifpwkwåapmif
'g0d'frif;ESifh tpjyK\/ AmAkvkef&Sifbk&ifjzifh tpysKd;\/
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azmufjyefrSm;,Gif;jcif;rsm; wkd;yGm;vmaMumif;ukd rSwf azmufjyefrSm;,Gif;jcif;wkdY\ qkd;usKd;aemufqufwGJ
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uJhodkY rSm;,Gif;ysufuGuf cJhaMumif; azmfjy\/
ya&mzuf{vd,jzifh rdwfqufed'gef;ysKd;\/ ya&mzuf{vdqmESifh rdwfqufay;\/
xm0&bk&m;ocif\ pdwf&Snfonf;cHawmfrljcif;ukd tjypfw&m;aMumifh bk&m;ocif\ tjypf'Pfay;jcif;
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t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ ESpfjcrf;uGJoGm;onfh EkdifiHawmf (1;1-17;41)/
(u)£oa&vEkdifiHü tmcZdpkd;pHjcif; (1;1-18)/
(c) £oa&vEkdifiHü ,a[m&H (a,m&H) pkd;pHjcif; (2;1-8;15)/
1/ {vd,tm; aumif;uifodkY ac:aqmifoGm;jcif; (2;1-11)/
2/ {vdqm\ trIawmftpjyKjcif; (2;12-25)/
3/ ,a[m&H\ armbjynfodkY c&D;ESifjcif; (3;1-27)/
4/ {vdqm\ trIawmf (4;1-8;15)/
(*) ,k'jynfü ,a[m&Hpkd;pHjcif; (8;16-24)/
(C),k'jynfü tmcZdpkd;pHjcif; (8;25-29)/
(i) £oa&vEkdifiHü a,[kpkd;pHjcif; (9;1-10;36)/
(p) ,k'jynfü tmovdpkd;pHjcif; (11;1-16)/
(q),k'jynfü a,m&Spkd;pHjcif; (11;17-12;21)/
(Z) £oa&vjynfü a,mcwfpkd;pHjcif; ( 13;1-9)/
(ps) £oa&vjynfü ,a[m&Spkd;pHjcif; (13;10-25)/
(n),k'jynfü tmrZdpkd;pHjcif; (14;1-22)/
(#) £oa&vjynfü a,a&maAmifpkd;pHjcif; (14;23-29)/
(X) ,k'jynfü MoZdpkd;pHjcif; (15;1-7)/
(!) £oa&vjynfü Zmc&dpkd;pHjcif; (15;8-12)/
(¡) £oa&vjynfü &Sv’KHpkd;pHjcif; (15;13-15)/
(P)£oa&vjynfü are[ifpkd;pHjcif; (15;16-22)/
81
(w)£oa&vjynfü ayu[dpkd;pHjcif; (15;23-26)/
(x)£oa&vjynfü ayumpkd;pHjcif; (15;27-31)/
(') ,k'jynfü a,moHpkd;pHjcif; (15;32-38)/
(") ,k'jynfü tmcwfpkd;pHjcif; (16;1-20)/
(e) £oa&vjynfü a[ma&Spkd;pHjcif; (17;1-41)/
(1) £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYtm; wkdufckdufacsrIef;jcif; (17;1-6)/
(2) £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdY\ tjypf'kp½kdufrsm; (17;7-23)/
(3) £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdY jydKuGJjyefYusJjcif; (17;24-41)/
2/ rjydKuGJbJusef&Sdaeao;aom ,k'jynf (18;1-25;30)/
(u)a[Zudrif;\ pkd;pHjcif; (18;1-20;21)/
(c) rema&Srif;\ pkd;pHjcif; (21;1-18)/
(*) tmrkefrif;\ pkd;pHjcif; (21;19-26)/
(C)a,m&Sdrif;\ pkd;pHjcif; (22;1-23;30)/
(i) a,mcwfrif;\ pkd;pHjcif; (23;31-33)/
(p) a,m,udrfrif;\ pkd;pHjcif; (23;34-24;7)/
(q)a,acgedrif;\ pkd;pHjcif; (24;8-16)/
(Z) aZ'udrif;\ pkd;pHjcif; (24;17-25;21)/
(1) AmAkvkefwkdY\ ykefuefjcif;ESifh AdrmefawmfysufpD;oGm;jcif;
(24;17-25;10)/
82
(2) AmAkvkefjynfokdY wwd,tBudrfzrf;qD;odrf;oGm;jcif;ukd cH&jcif;
(25;11-21)/
(ps) olwpfyg;\ BuK;d ukid jf cif;ukcd &H aom a*'vd\ tkypf ;dk jcif; (25;22-26)/
(n)a,acgedonf AmAkvkefjynfrS vGwfajrmufvmjcif; (25;27-30)/

&mZ0ifcsKyfyxrapmif
(AdrmefawmftwGuf jyifqifjcif;)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
&mZ0ifcsKyf (&mZ0ifcsKyyf xrESihf 'kw, d apmifEpS cf pk vH;k wkrYd mS rlvyxrü wpftyk f
wnf;omjzpfonf/ rnfoal &;cJah Mumif; oufaotaxmuftxm;r&Syd g/ okaYd omf
vnf; *sL;vlrsK;d wk\ Yd xH;k wrf;pOfvmt&? {Z&jzpfEidk zf , G &f \ dS / usr;f wpftyk v f ;kH ü
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taMumif;&if;rsm;ukd toHk;jyKcJhNyD;? aemufqHk;wGif wnf;jzwfaomol\ pdppf
wnf;NzwfomG ;aMumif;ukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/ trsK;d rsK;d aom tajcjyK taMumif;&if;
rsm; jzpfMuonfh &SarGv (5&m? 29;29) ? a[&Sm, (6&m? 32;32) ESihf tjcm;aom
olrsm; (6&m? 9;29? 12;15? 20;34? 33;19) tm;jzifh rSww f rf;wifaom ya&mzuf
jyKjcif;qkid &f m usr;f wkyYd g0ifygonf/ okaYd omfvnf; ]],k'ESihf £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\ Yd
&Sifbk&ifrsm;usrf;}} [lí txl;oD;oefYtajcjyKac:qkdxm;ygonf (6&m? 16;11?
25;26)/ usr;f toGm; tvmt& ,Zfyak &m[dwq f idk &f m a&;om;jcif;jzpfonf[k
,lqEkid yf gonf/ tb,faMumifq h adk omf? Adrmefawmf? ,Zfyak &m[dwq f idk &f m? 'g0d'f
rif;rsK;d EG,pf m&if;? awmifyidk ;f Ekid if ,H 'k jynftaMumif;wku Yd dk tjyif;txef OD;wnf
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83
wnfaqmufjcif;ESihf qufuyftyfEjHS cif;qkid &f m &mZ0ifcsKyrf sm;tm;jzifh axmufcH
oabmwlaomaMumifjh zpfygonf/
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wlnDaomumvtwGif; vTrf;NcHKxm;Muaomfvnf; &nf&G,fcsufjcif;rSm tvGef
uGmjcm;vSygonf/ xkdYaMumifh usrf;a&SUaemuftoGm;tvmonf wlnDaomtcg
xkt
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orkid ;f wGif 0dnmOf a&;qkid &f mtaMumif;rsm;ukd ykrd í kd zGijhf yay;jcif;omjzpfygonf/
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[lí qkvd ydk gonf)/ £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\ Yd orkid ;f taMumif;ukd tm'HrpS í AmAkvek f
jynfü uRet f jzpf zrf;qD; odr;f oGm;jcif;aeY&ufwidk af tmif Cyrus onf uRejf yKzrf;
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wpfckuJhokdYjzpfygonf/ 12
Septuagint ac:*&dbmomjzifh "r®a[mif;usr;f ukd bmomjyefqadk omusr;f ay:vm
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nTef;qkdxm;ygonf/ Chronicles]]&mZ0ifcsKyf}}[lí acgif;pOfay:vm&jcif;rSm
Jerome u ol\ Latin Vulg-ate Bible (at'D 385-405) wGif ay;xm;cJhjcif;
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85
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aAoa&SbESihf O&d,uJo
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xif&Sm;ausmfMum;aomolrsm;udkvnf; azmfjyxm;ygonf/
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(u) tm'HrSpí tmjA[Hxd (1;1-27)/
(c) tmjA[HrSpí ,mukyfxd (1;28-54)/
(*) ,mukyfrSpí 'g0d'frif;xd (2;1-55)/
(C)'g0d'frif;rSpí uReftjzpfzrf;qD;ac:aqmifoGm;jcif; (3;1-24)/
(i) vlrsKd;EG,fpkwpfq,fhESpfyg;wkdY\ rsKd;pOfqufpm&if; (4;1-8;40)/
(p) a,½k&SvifNrdKUü aexkdifjcif; (9;1-34)/
(q)apmvkrif;\ rdom;pkpm&if; (9;35-44)/
2/ 'g0d'fay:xGef;jcif;ESifh bdodufay;jcif; (10;1-12;40)/
(u)apmvkrif;\ usqHk;jcif; (10;1-14)/
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86
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3/ 'g0d'frif;\ pdk;pHjcif; (13;1-29;21)/
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(15;1-29)/
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d ifqE´? 'g0d'rf if;\
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d rf pJ mG oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,al pjcif; (21;1-30)/
(C)'g0d'frif;onf Adrmefawmfwnfaqmif&ef jyifqifjcif; (22;1-23;1)/
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87
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4/ a&Smvrkefrif;BuD;xD;eef;qufcHjcif;ESifh 'g0d'frif;BuD;tedpöa&mufjcif;
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jyKpkxm;aMumif; ]]{Z&rSwfpm}} [lí ac:a0:orkwfaMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/
acwfopfa[NAu J sr;f ü {Z&rSwpf mESihf ae[rdrw S pf m[lí ykid ;f jcm;um oD;oefpY D
cGJxm;ygonf/ xkdYtjyif Josephus a&S;a[mif;*sL;vlrsKd;orkdif;ynm&SifwpfOD;ESifh
Jerome (Latin Vulgate ukd a&;om;jyKpkol) wkdYuvnf; {Z&rSwfpmESifh ae[rd
rSwfpmrSm usrf;wpftkyfwnf;omjzpfaMumif; vufcHcJhMuygonf/
usrf;ukda&;om;cJhonfhckESpf
457-444 bDpDjzpfygonf/
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
&mZ0ifcsKyfusrf;'kwd,apmifü *sL;vlrsKd;wkdYonf AmAkvkefjynfü uRefjyKzrf;qD;
ac:aqmifomG ;jcif;rS jyefvmMuum Adrmefawmfudk jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif;orkid ;f
aMumif; rSww f rf;rsm;jzifh ed*;Hk csKyo
f mG ;jcif;ukd {Z&onf qufvufí jyefajymjyjcif;
jzpfonf[k orkid ;f aMumif;qkid &f m½Iaxmift h & awGUjrifEidk yf gonf/ 0dnmOfa&;&mESihf
Mo0g'a&;&m½Iaxmifrh MS unhaf omf bk&m;ocifonf ya&mzufrsm;tm;jzifh rdeaYf wmf
rlcJhonfhtwkdif; ol\ vlrsKd;awmfwkdYonf tESpfckESpfq,f uRefjyKcH&NyD; aemuf
*wdawmf jynfojYdk yefvmMuaMumif; bk&m;ocifonf *wdawmfudk tb,foYdk jynfph kH
apawmfrl aMumif;wku Yd dk {Z&onf azmfjyxif&mS ;ap\/ &mZ0ifcsKyf usr;f rsm;wGif
{Z&tm; ,Zfyak &m[dww f pfyg;uJo h yYdk if Adrmefawmf\ ta&;Bu;D aomt&mrsm;ESihf
vlrsKd;awmfpk wkdYonf bk&m;ocif\ vlrsKd;awmfpktaejzifh 0wfjyKukd;uG,faom
toufwmrsm;ukd azmfjycsuf&Sdygonf/ yg;&Sm;&Sifbk&if Cyrus (uk½k) \ trdefY
xkwfjyefcsufjzpfaom uRefjyKzrf;qD;jcif;cHcJhMu&aom olwkdYtm; jyefoGm;&aom
tcGiahf y;aMumif;ygonfh pD&ifcsuw f jYdk zifh tpjyKxm;ygonf/ vlwo Ydk nf pdwt
f m;
xufoefpmG jzifh Adrmefawmfudk jyefvnfwnfaqmufMu\/ okaYd omfvnf; ajrmuf
ykdif;EkdifiHrSm &efolrsm;aMumifh 18 ESpfwkdifwkdifMuefYMumcJh&ygonf/ aemufqHk;wGif
Darius \ trdex Yf w
k jf yefcsut f m;jzifh olwo Ydk nf tNy;D owfomG ;cJ&h ygonf ({Z&
1-6)/ uRejf yKc&H jcif;rS jyefvmaom {Z&onf vlrsK;d wk\ Yd 0dnmOfa&;&m toufwm
94
ukd jyKjyifajymif;vJay;jcif;ESihf vlrsK;d awmftm; oGeo
f ifay;aMumif; tcef;Bu;D 7-
10 wkdYü azmfjyxm;ygonf/
OD;wnfonfhtaMumif;&if;rSm aZ½kAaAvESifh {Z&wkdY\ Ekd;aqmfrIatmufü
jyefvmMu aom uRejf yKzrf;qD;jcif;ukd cHcMhJ u&onfh olw\ Ydk 0dnmOfa&;&m? usi0hf wf
a&;&mESihf vlraI &;&mESiq
hf idk af om jyefvnfjyKjyifajymif;vJay;jcif;wkt
Yd aMumif;ukd
twkdcsKH;í jrifEkdifygonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
uk½k (uRefjyKcH&aom ,k'vlrsKd;wkdYtm; jyefvmMu&ef trdefYxkwfjyefaom yg;&Sm;
&Sifbk&if)? {Z& (,Zfyka&m[dwfESifh usrf;jyKq&m)? a,m½I (,Zfyka&m[dwfrif;)
ESifh aZ½kAaAvwkdYjzpfygonf/
c&pfawmfukd {Z&rSwfpmü awGUjrif&yHk
'g0d'rf if;ESiq
hf idk af om y#dnmOfw&m;awmfudk apmifah &Smufxed ;f odr;f jcif;jzifh 'g0d'\ f
om;awmfar&S, d rsK;d qufpm&if;ukd apmifah &Smuf&ef bk&m;ocif\ *wdawmfrsm;ESihf
tnD bk&m;ocifonf ol\vlrsK;d awmfwt Ydk m; rdrw
d w
Ydk idk ;f jynfoYdk jyefvnfyaYdk qmif
um jyKjyifxed ;f odr;f jcif;tm;jzifh bk&m;ocifonf rdr*d wdawmftm; qufvufí
tb,f uJhokdY apmifhxdef;awmfrlaMumif;ukd {Z&ESifh ae[rdwkdYonf xif&Sm;pGm
azmfjyMuygonf/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ jyefvnfjyKjyifxdef;odrf;jcif;? aZ½kAaAvOD;aqmifrIatmufwGif a,½k&Svif
NrdKUodkY yxrtBudrfjyefvmMujcif; (1;1-6;22)/
(u)uk½k\ trdefYawmfxkwfjyefjcif; (1;1-11)/
(c) vlwkdYtm; emrnfpm&if;aumuf,ljcif; (2;1-70)/
(*) Adrmefawmfwnfaqmufjcif;ukd tpjyKjcif; (3;1-13)/4
95
(C)qefYusifrIrsm; (4;1-24)/
(i) wnfaqmufjcif;ukd jyefvnfvkyfaqmifjcif; (5;1-6;12)/
(p) Adrmefawmfwnfaqmufjcif;ukd NyD;pD;oGm;jcif; (6;13-22)/

2/ vlrsK;d awmftm; jyefvnfpnf;½k;H zGUJ pnf;jcif;? {Z&OD;aqmifraI tmufü jyefvm


Mujcif; (7;1-10;44)/
(u) a,½k&SvifNrdKUokdY jyefvmjcif; (7;1-8;36)/
(c) a,½k&SvifNrdKUtm; Edk;Mum;apjcif; (9;1-10;44)/

ae[rdrSwfpm
(NrdKUudkjyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif;)
usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
ae[rdrSwfpm 1;1wGif ]][mcvdom; ae[rd pum;[lrlum;}} [lí az:jyojzifh
þusr;f udk ae[rda&;om;aMumif; usr;f okawoDrsm;u,HMk unfMuonf/ odaYk omf
tcsKd UtcsKd Uaom taxmuftxm;rsm;tm;jzifh þusr;f udk ]{Z&}u a&;om;onf?
]ae[rd}\ rSwfpkrsm;ESifh tqdkrsm;udk {Z&u ]ae[rd}rSwfpmtrnfudk oHk;pGJí
az:jyonf[k tcsKd Uusr;f pmynm&Sirf sm;u qdak v\/ rnfoq Ykd akd p ynm&Sit f rsm;pk
taejzifh ae[rd\ yk*Kd¾ vaf &;qdik &f m rSwcf surf sm;rSm awGU&onfh NrKd Uawmf a,½k
&SvifodkY jyefvnfvma&mufrI rSwfwrf;rsm; (1;1-7;73? 12;31-13;31) t&
ae[rdudk,fwdkif a&;om;onf[k oabmwlnDcJhMuygonf/
usr;f pmudw k pfapmifwnf; awGUjrif&aomfvnf; xdu k sr;f \ 'kw, d ydik ;f udk ]ae[rd}
rSwfpmtjzpf cGJjcrf;onf/ ae[rdonf ]{Z&} ESifh acwfjydKif yk*¾dKvfBuD;vnf;jzpf?
ay&odbk&if\ xHawmfrSm pyspf&nfudk qufo&onfh zvm;awmf0efvnf;
96
jzpfcahJ vonf/ ]ae[rd} trnf\ t"dygÜ ,frmS ],ma0bk&m;ocifonf ESpo
f rd í
hf
pdwfcsrf;omapjyD} [lí jzpfygonf/
usrf;udka&;om;cJhonfhckESpf
aemufco H rdik ;f jzpfpOftaxmuftxm;rsm;t& {Z&ESihf ae[rd rSwpf mrsm;udk 445
bDpD ESifh 425 bDpDtwGif;rSm a&;om;cJhaMumif; em;vnfEdkifygonf/
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
uRejf yKzrf;qD;ac:aqmifomG ;&mrS jyefvmcJMh uaom *sL;vlrsK;d wk\ Yd orkid ;f aMumif;ukd
ae[rdrw S pf mü qufvufí azmfjyxm;ygonf/ ae[rdonf tmwaZ&Zfrif;Bu;D
vufxufyg&Se;f eef;awmfü &Sib f &k if\ zvm;awmfuidk af om &mxl;ukpd eG NYf y;D ? a,½k&S
vifNrdKUü tkyfpkd;aomoljzpfvmum vlwdkYtm; a,½k&SvifNrdKU½kd;ukd jyefvnfjyKjyif
wnfaqmufjcif;wGif OD;aqmifcyhJ gonf/ {Z&ESiahf e[rdonf wpfcsed w f nf; wpf
acwfwnf;rSm touf&iS af ecJMh uygonf (ae[rd? 8;2? 9)/ olwEYdk pS Of ;D pvH;k wkrYd mS
bk&m;ocif\ vlrsm;jzpfcMhJ uNy;D ? jcm;em;aom pGr;f &nfwpfrsK;d pDjzifh xm0& bk&m;
ociftwGuf trIxrf;&Gufí zrf;oGm;jcif;rS jyefvmaomolwdkYtm; bmoma&;
qkdif&mü jyefvnf wnfaqmufjyKjyifjcif;trIukd aqmif&GufaepOf? ae[rdonf
omreftqifrh Qomae&aomfvnf;? Ekid if aH &;ESiq hf idk af om trIta&;ü a,½k&v S if
NrKd U½k;d ukd jyefvnf wnfaqmuf&mwGif OD;aqmifaomtkycf sKyo f t l jzpf pGr;f aqmif
vsu&f adS eygonf/ bk&m;ocif\ vlwo Ydk nf zrf;oGm;odr;f oGm;jcif;ukcd &H mrS rdrwd Ydk
jynfokdY jyefvmaomtcg bk&m;ocif\ vufawmfukd ae[rdonf xif&Sm;pGm
azmfjy&ef a&;om;cJyh gonf/ ae[rdonf aZ½kAaAvOD;aqmifraI tmufü yxr
tBudrfjyefoGm;MupOf tESpfukd; q,fhav;ESpfwkdifwkdif vkyfaqmifí rNyD;cJhaom
tvkyu f dk ol\OD;aqmifrjI zifh &ufaygif; av;q,fEh pS &f uftwGi;f Ny;D pD;oGm; cJMh u
ygonf/ olwkdYonf ,HkMunfjcif;tm;jzifh emcHMuaomaMumifh qefYusifykefuefrI
jzpfay:vmorQwkdYtay:ü atmifEkdifaomtcGifh ukd &&SdcJhMuygonf/ 18
97
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
ae[rd? tmwaZ&Zfrif;BuD;? {Z&ESifh Sanballet
c&pfawmfukd ae[rdrSwfpmü awGUjrif&jcif;
c&pfawmfonf jyefvnfjyKjyifxed ;f odr;f jcif;qkid &f m oljyK&rnft h rIawmfudk jyKawmfrl
Ekid rf nft
h aMumif; olü jrifrh m;aomtcGi&hf mxl;ukd vkv d v
dk m;vm;ESihf pGevYf w
T af wmf
rlcahJ Mumif;ukd ae[rdonf yHw k ol ½kyaf zmfaqmifxm;ygonf/ xkt Yd jyif? tmwaZ&
rif;Bu;D \ xkwjf yefaomtrderYf mS 'Ha,v\ &ufoufcEk pS q f ,fywfudk azmfaqmif
aomESpu f dk tpjyKínTejf yNy;D ? tao;pdwu f susazmfjyjcif;r&Sad om tcdseMf um;0ifí
aESmif, h u S f jzwfawmufNy;D ? ar&S, d jyefvnf<uvmawmfrjl cif;ukd tpjyKazmfjyxm;
ygonf ('H? 9;25-27)/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ NrdKU½kd;ukd jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif; (1;1-7;73)/
(u)jyefvnfwnfaqmufzkdY&ef jyifqifjcif; (1;1-2;20)/
(c) jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif; (3;1-7;73)/
2/ vlrsKd;awmfukd jyefvnfípkpnf;jcif; (8;1-13;31)/
(u)y#dnmOfawmfw&m;ukd topfwpfzefEdk;Mum;vmapjcif; (8;1-10;39)/
(c) y#dnmOfw&m;awmfukd vlwkdYtm; vkdufemapjcif; (11;1-13;31)/
98

{owm0w¬K
(bk&m;ocif\ vlrsKd;awmftm; uG,fumay;jcif;)
usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
þusr;f udk rnfoal &;om;cJah Mumif; t&dyt f >rufrQ ray;cJyh g/ odaYk omfvnf; rnfol
rqkd þusr;f ukd a&;om;cJah omolonf yg&Se;f ,Ofaus;rI"avhx;kH pHudk aumif;rGepf mG
odaomoljzpfygrnf/ rSww f rf;&So d rQ (azmfjyjcif;) wko Yd nf xkad e&mü tjzpftysuf
rsm;ukd rsujf rifu, kd af wGUjzpfaomolu a&;om;zG,jf zpfaMumif; rSwo f m;cJMh u\/
okjYd zpfí xko
d rl mS *sL;vlrsK;d jzpfEidk zf , G &f m&Syd gonf/ {Z& okrYd [kwf ae[rd a&;om;cJh
jcif;jzpfrnf [k wpfcsKUd wkuYd xifrw S cf MhJ uygonf/ odaYk omfvnf;? xk, d q
l csut f jrif
19
ukd tao;pdwf twdtusazmfjyaom taxmuftxm; r&Sdygacs/
þusr;f onf a[NAeJ mrnftm;jzifh [m'gpfq[laomtrnfudk yg&Se;f emrnf Ester
{owm [líajymif;vJjcif;jzpfNy;D ? qkv
d &dk if;rSm ]]Mu,fyiG }hf } [líjzpfaom emrbGUJ ukd
ay;tyfjcif;cH&aom txl;yg0ifo½kyaf qmifo\ l emrnfudk tpGjJ yKí þusr;f ukd
{owm[kac:ygonf/
usrf;ukd a&;om;cJhonfhckESpf
{owm0w¬Kü jzpfysurf rI sm;rSm {Z&rSwpf mtcef;Bu;D ajcmufEiS hf ckEpS w
f MYdk um; aZ½kA
aAvOD;aqmifí yxrtokwfjyefvmjcif;ESifh {Z&OD;aqmifí 'kwd,tokwf
jyefvmjcif;ESpcf w
k MYdk um;ü jzpfysuv
f maom taMumif;t&mrsm;jzpfygonf/ {owm
0w¬Kukd 470 ESifh 465 bDpDMum; aZ&Zfrif;pdk;pHaom aemufqHk;ykdif; (10;2-3)
okdYr[kwf? ol\om; tmwaZ&Zf (464-424 bDpD) \ pkd;pHaomtcsdefü
a&;om;chJjcif; jzpfygonf/
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
{owm0w¬Kü yg&Se;f &Sib
f &k if aZ&Zfonf acsmarmvSyaom *sL;trsK;d orD;wpfO;D ukd
99
ol\ rdzk&m;tjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufcJhaomorkdif;aMumif;ukd ajymjyygonf/
[mref onf *sL;vlrsK;d tm;vH;k wku
Yd dk owfNzwfuyG rf su&f ef BupH nfí pDraH omtcg?
bk&ifr{owm\ OD;&nf;awmfarmf'uJonf {owmtm; olr\ vlrsKd;pkukd
u,fwif&ef aoG;aqmiftultnDawmif;cHcyhJ gonf/ olr\ toufudk t&JpeG Yf
aomtm;jzifh olronf &Sib f &k ifxaH wmfü t,lc0H ifí *sL;vlrsK;d wku Yd dk u,fq,f
cJyh gonf/ bk&m; ocif\ emrawmfudk rxnfx h m;onfu h sr;f rSm þusr;f wpfcw
k nf;
omvQif jzpfyg onf/ þusr;f \ t"duOD;wnfonfh &nf&, G cf sut
f aMumif;&if;rSm
bk&m;ocifonf rdrdvlrsKd;awmfpktm; olwkdY\ Murf;wrf;cufcJaomumvESifh
nSif;yef;ESdyfpufaom tcsdeftcgüvnf; r,pulnDí axmufyHhu,fEIwfawmf
rlaMumif;ukd xif&Sm;azmfjy&ef jzpfygonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
{owm? [mref? armf'uJ tma&T½k (a[NAb
J momjzifh yg&Se;f &Sib
f &k iftm; ac:a0:
onfph um;vk;H )
c&pfawmfukd {owm0w¬KüawGUjrif&yHk
{owmonf olr\ vlrsKd;rsm;u,fwifjcif;&&SdzkdY&eftwGuf vkdvkdvm;vm;jzifh
taocH zkdY&ef rdrdudk,fukd qufuyftyfESHjcif;ESifh olwkdYtwGuf ukd,fpm; t,lcH
0ifay;oltjzpf aqmif&u G jf cif;wkt
Yd m;jzifh c&pfawmf\ yko
H @mefawmfudk o½kyaf zmf
xm;jcif;jzpfyg onf/ xkt Yd jyif? bk&m;ocifonf þvlrsK;d awmftm;jzifh ar&S,d ukd
ay;awmfrlrnf jzpfonfESifhtnD *sL;vlrsKd;wkdYay:ü tb,fuJhodkY qufvufí
Munfh½IaxmufyHhawmf rlaMumif;ukd uREkfyfwkdYawGUjrifEkdifygonf/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ *sL;vlrsKd;wkdYtwGuf tEå&m,fBuHK&jcif; (1;1-3;15)/
(u)yg&Sef;wdkY\ ½I&Sefee;fawmfü {owmtm; bk&ifrtjzpf a&G;cs,fcH&jcif;
(1;1-2;23)/
100
(c) *sL;vlrsKd;wkdYtm; qefYusifNyD; [mref\ yl;aygif;BuHpnfrI (3;1-15)/
2/ *sL;vlrsKd;wkdYtwGuf {owm\qHk;jzwfcsuf (4;1-10;3)/
(u)*sL;vlrsKd;wdkYtwGuf {owm\qHk;jzwfcsuf (4;1-5;14)/
(c) [mref\ EdSrfESif;jcif; (6;1-7;10)/
(*) tma&T½kESifh armf'uJwkdY\ trdefYxkwfjyefcsuf (8;1-17)/
(C)*sL;vlrsKd;wkdY\ &efolrsm;ay:ü atmifEkdifjcif; (9;1-19)/
(i) yk&yGJaeYrsm; (9;20-32)/
(p) armf'uJ\ atmifjrifausmfMum;jcif;ESifh tjrifhqHk;aom&mxl;ukd &&Sd
aMumif; aMunmjcif; (10;1-3)/
tydkif; 3
uAsmtvuFmqkdif&musrf;rsm;
ed'gef;
avhvmoHk;oyfNyD;cJhaom yxrwpfq,fhckESpfusrf;rsm; (ynwdåusrf;rS &mZ0if
usr;f rsm;) jzpfMuonfh urÇmOD;usr;f rS ae[rdwrf w S pf mtxd usr;f wkw Yd iG f "r®a[mif;
wpfcv k ;kH \ orkid ;f aMumif;ukd NcKH ix
kH m;ygonf/ useaf omtykid ;f usr;f rsm;tm;vH;k
jzpfMuonfh uAsmtvuFmusr;f rsm;ESihf ya&mzufqidk &f musr;f rsm;wko Yd nf xku d sr;f
wpfq,fch Ek pS f usr;f wküYd ygaom orkid ;f aMumif;rsm;ESihf tH0if*iG u
f sjzpfaeygonf/
a&SUqufí azmfjy rnfh uAsmtvuFmqkid &f musr;f rsm;wko Yd nf yxrig;usr;f wküYd
yg0ifaom tcef;wpfcsKdUukd NcHKiHkxm;ygonf/ Oyrm? a,mb0w¬K? qmvHusrf;?
okwåHusrf;? a'oemusrf;ESifh a&SmvrkefoDcsif;rsm;jzpfMuygonf/ xkdusrf;wkdYukd
avhvmoH;k oyfjcif;rjyKrDS þusr;f ig;usr;f wküYd yg0ifaom tusiphf ½ku d yf idk ;f qkid &f m
rsm;wkdYukd uREkfyfwkdYrSwf,lMu&ygrnf/
]]uAsmtvuFm}} [laompum;vH;k onf xku d sr;f wk\
Yd zGUJ pnf;yHpk eH rlemukd nTejf yae
aMumif; avhvmaomolrsm;onf &Si;f vif;pGm em;vnfoabmayguf&ef vkt d yfyg
onf/ xkdusrf;wkdYrSm vlom;wkdY\ tawG;tac:oufoufjzifh jzpfay:vmjcif;
r[kwfyg/ þusrf;wkdYonf vlom;wkdY\ trSefpifppfawGUBuHK&aomt&mrsm;udk
o½kyfazmfa&;om; jcif;jzpfygonf/
102
awmfpyfqufEG,fyHkrsm;
uREyfk wf aYdk vhvmNy;D jzpfaom &mZ0ifusr;f wpfq,fch Ek pS u f sr;f wkrYd mS &mZ0iforkid ;f
aMumif;ESihf oufqikd jf cif;&So d nfenf;wl uAsmtvuFmESiq hf idk af om ig;usr;f wko
Yd nf
vnf; tawGUtBuKH yidk ;f qkid &f musr;f rsm;jzpfygonf/ xku d sr;f wku Yd wpfO;D wpfa,muf
ESifhqkdifaom tjzpftysufrsm;ukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/ &mZ0ifusrf;wdkYonf vlrsKd;
awmfESifh pyfqkdifíazmfjyonfhenf;wl uAsmtvuFmqkdif&musrf;wkdYonfvnf;
xkvd rl sK;d wk\
Yd pdwcf pH m;jcif;qkid &f m oabmxm;rsm;ukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/ &mZ0if
usr;f wküYd a[NAv J rl sK;d EG,pf w
k t
Ydk aMumif;yg0ifcyhJ gonf/ uAsmtvuFmusr;f wdüYk
vlom;wkdY\ pdwfESvHk;oabmwdkYukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/
uAsmtvuFmwkdYonf "r®a[mif;usrf;wkdYESifhomqkdifaom uAsmtvuFmrsm;
r[kwyf g/ xku
d sr;f wkw
Yd iG f aemufyidk ;f ü uREyfk w
f aYdk wGUjrifMu&rnfjzpfaom usr;f a&;
aomolwkdY\ yHkwlo½kyfazmfjcif;rsm;ukd BuD;rm;us,fjyefYpGm azmfjyxm;ygonf/
"r®a[mif;usrf;onf £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYESifhywfoufí olwkdY\ ta&;ygaom
usi0hf wfw&m;wk\
Yd ½Iaxmift h jrif okrYd [kwf bk&m;ocifa&G;aumufawmfral om
olrsm;jzpfaMumif;ESifhqufEG,fNyD; t"dutykdif;av;ykdif; cJGjcm;xm;ygonf/
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d \
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d ay:ü jynfph v
kH mrnfh £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\
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103
twkdif; ½IjrifoHk;oyfEkdifygonf/
1/ a,mb0w¬K - 'kuq
© if;&JcjH cif;tm;jzifh aumif;Bu;D r*Fvmrsm;ukd cHpm;&&Sjd cif;
2/ qmvHusrf; - qkawmif;y|emjyKjcif;tm;jzifh csD;rGrf;jcif;
3/ okwu
Hå sr;f - txH;k tzGUJ awmf (ynwfw&m;) tm;jzifh OmPfynm&&Sjd cif;
4/ a'oemusrf; - jzpf&yfrSefrsm;tm;jzifh or®mw&m;&&Sdjcif;
5/ a&SmvrkefoDcsif; - yl;aygif;nDnGwfjcif;tm;jzifh 0rf;ajrmufjcif;
a[NAJuAsmtvuFmwkdY\ tcsdefumvtykdif;tjcm;rsm;?
"r®a[mif;usr;f wpfavQmufü a[NAu J AsmvuFmrsm;ay:vmonfEiS t hf nD uAsm
vuFm qkid &f m pmayta&;tom;wkEYd iS q
hf idk af om tajccHtcdseu
f mv tykid ;f tjcm;
oHk;ykdif; &&Sdygonf/
1/ bkd;ab;bDbifESifhqkdifaom acwfumv - a,mb0w¬K (1750
bDpDtwGif;)
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bDptD wGi;f )
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(*) a'oemusrf; - vltkdwpfOD;\ 0rf;enf;aMuuGJjcif; (950 bDpD
twGif;) 20
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ar&Sd,wnf;[laom c&pfawmfonf or®musrf;pmwpfckvHk;\ ESvHk;tajctjrpf
tv,fA[kjd zpfawmfral Mumif;ukd azmfjycJNh y;D jzpfygonf/ c&pfawmfudk vuf0g;uyf
104
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jcif;? 0rf;enf;aMuuGJjcif;ESifh &SifjyefxajrmufawmfrlaMumif; owif;taMumif;
pdw½f yI af xG; vsu&f adS om {armufNrKd Uodo Yk mG ;onfh wynfah wmf ESpaf ,mufwt Ydk m;
&Sijf yefxajrmuf awmfrjl yjD zpfaom u,fwif&iS o f nf olwEYkd iS thf wl ab;csi;f ,SOí f
avQmufvmNy;D or®musr;f pmü olUtaMumif;a&;xm;orQwu Ydk dk &Si;f vif;zGijhf yay;
awmfrcl yhJ gonf (vkum? 24;27)/ xkaYd emufyidk ;f ü olonf wynfah wmf wpfq,fh
wpfyg;wkx H Ykd xif&mS ; ay:vmaomtcg ]]wpfzefred aYf wmfro
Yd o l nfum;? arma&S\
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rnf[k igonf oifwEYdk iS t hf wl &Spd Of oifwt Ydk m; a[majymaom taMumif;t&m
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d m;jcif;jzif?h uAsmtvuFmusr;f rsm;ESiq hf idk af om
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pyfqidk af om olw\ Ydk tjrifudk aumif;rGepf mG &&Szd v Ydk tdk yfygonf/ þtcsurf sm;ESihf
qkid af om aemfref*;D pvm (Norman Geisler) qko d o l nf atmufygtwkid ;f a&;om;
cJyh gonf/
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ü c&pfawmftwGuf jyifqifjcif;ukjd yKum uAsmtvuFmusr;f onf vlwYkd
\ESv;kH om;xJü c&pfawmftwGuf ae&mvkt d yfaeaMumif;ukd zGijhf yay;yg
onf/c&pfawmf\toufwmüjynfhpHkawmfrlonfhtaMumif;ukd olwkdY
onftwdtvif;azmfjyxm;jcif;ESix hf w
k af zmfírajymaomfvnf;oabm
aygufNy;D jzpfjcif;ESpcf pk vH;k wkjYd zifv
h nf;aumif;?od&v dS suaf omfvnf;aumif;?
rod&SdvsufESifhaomfvnf;aumif; wkdufwGef;Muygonf/}} 21
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xm;ygonf/ c&pfawmfEiS hf yl;aygif;rdwo
f [m,zGUJ jcif; vkt
d yfonfudk qmvHusr;f ü
azmfjyxm;ygonf/ c&pfawmfü OmPfynmvkdtyfaMumif;udk okwåHusrf;ü azmfjy
105
xm;ygonf/ vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; auseyfESpfodrfhrIvkdtyfaMumif;ukd a'oemusrf;ü
azmfjyxm;ygonf/ c&pfawmfEiS thf wl yl;aygif;vsuf cspjf cif;arwåm vkt
d yfaeonf
ukd a&SmvrkefoDcsif;ü azmfjyxm;ygonf/

a[NAJuAsmtvuFm
a[NAJuAsmtvuFm\ oabmobm0
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rSwo f m;jcif;wku
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J AsmtvuFmwkrYd mS MoZmouf
a&mufrI&Sd&eftwGuf? tjcm;aom p½dkufvu©Pmrsm;ay:ü rSDckdygonf/ Oyrm
om"ursm; (uGJjym; jcm;em;jcif;wdkYukd EIdif;,SOfazmfjyjcif;) rSm or®musrf;pmESifh
qkid af om uAsmtvuFmwdüYk ta&;ygqH;k aom p½ku d v
f u©Pmjzpfygonf/ a[NAJ
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106
uAsmtvuFmrsm;onfEidI ;f ,SOaf zmfjyaom awG;awmcsurf sm;ukd Oyrm wifajrmuf
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29;1)/
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taMumif;rsm;ukd taotcsmod&í dS t"dygÜ ,fouf0ifem;vnfap&ef jzpfygonf/
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xJrSm zHk;tkyfawmfrlyg}} [lí awmif;avQmufyg\/ þae&mü bk&m;ocifonf
trSefpifppf iSufwpfaumif r[kwfyg/ odkYaomfvnf;? rdcifiSufonf ol\ iSuf
108
uav;udk umuG,f apmifhrouJhodkY bk&m;ociftm; xdkodkYjyKvkyfyg&ef 'g0d'fu
awmif;avQmufjcif;jzpfygonf (qmvH? 91;4)/

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5;11)/ usr;f ukd a0zefaomolwu Ykd rl a,mbuk,
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109
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w&m;ukdray;rSD tvsifusaMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/ tmjA[H\ acwfumv
twGif; jzpfEkdifzG,f&Sdygonf/
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onf[k ajymqkcd hJ Muygonf/ rnfoq Ydk adk pumrl xk'd uk q
© if;&Jjcif;onf ajzmifrh wf
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bk&m;ü tjynft h 0ckv d uHI ;dk pm;&ef jzpfygonf/22 OD;wnf&nf&, G cf suf taMumif;
&if;ukd Gleason Archer qkdolu atmufyg twkdif; xda&mufpGm tusOf;csKH;í
qkcd yhJ gonf/
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jcif;a0'em ½kwfw&uf usa&mufaom ab;'ku©qkdif&mjyóem
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ocifonf olay;aom aumif;BuD;r*Fvmrsm;ukd ½kyfodrf;aomfvnf;?
110
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rwwfEkdifMuaomfvnf;? teEÅbk&m;ocifonf ol\ bkef;awmf
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jzpfonfh {vdzwf? Adv''fEiS hf aZmzmwk\ Yd ½Iaxmift h jrifudk qefu
Y sif
23
vsuf&Sdygonf/
xkt
Yd jyif þusr;f \ &nf&, G cf surf mS bk&m;ocifEiS hf pmwefMum;ü y#dyu©jzpfaom
acwfumvESihf þuJo h Ykd y#dyu©jzpfjcif;wGif 'kuq
© if;&Jc&H jcif;Mum;ü yl;aygif;aqmif
&GufqufoG,fjcif;ukd azmfjy&efjzpfygonf/ aemufqkH;wGif (a&mr? 8;28) wGif
a&;xm;aom trSefw&m;udk xif[yfay:vGifapygonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
tjypfuif;pifí ausmfMum;aom a,mb? pmwef? a,mbtm; tjypfwifaom
olrsm;jzpfMuonfh {vdzwf? Adv''f?? aZmzmESihf a,mbrdwaf qGrsm;xJrmS touf
ti,fqHk;ESifh ynmt&SdqHk;jzpfaom {vd[kwkdYjzpfygonf/
c&pfawmfukd a,mb0w¬Küjrif&yHk
a,mb0w¬Kü c&pfawmftm; enf;vrf;rsKd;pHkjzifh awGUjrifEkdifygonf/ a,mMonf
a&G;EIwfu,fwifol (19;25-27) ESifh Mum;cHvl (9;33? 33;23) wkdYukd owdjyK
apygonf/ bk&m;ocifudk vH;k vH;k vsm;vsm; ykeu
f efqefu Y sijf cif;wnf;[laom pm
wef\ tjypfwifa0zefjcif;wkdYtm;jzifh uREkfyfwkdYcHpm;aom 'ku©qif;&Jjcif;rsm;ukd
c&pfawmfü omvQif ]]tajz}} &Sad Mumif;? 'kuq
© if;&Jc&H jcif;\ eufeaJ omt&mukd
111
&Si;f vif;azmfjy ay;&ef a,mbonf wpfpw
kH pfa,mufaomoludk vkt
d yfaeaMumif;
olodcJhygonf (a[NAJ? 2;14-18? 4;15? a&mr? 8;32-34)/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef;? a,mb\ 'ku©qif;&JcH&jcif; (1;1-2;13)/
(u)a,mb\ tokdif;t0ef;ywf0ef;usifESihf ol\ tavhtx (1;1-5)/
(c) a,mb\ jyóemrsm;ESifh xkjd yóemrsm;\&if;Nrpf - pmwef (1;6-2;10)/
(*) a,mbtm; ESpfodrfhtm;ay;olrsm; (7;11-13)/
2/ rdwfaqGoHk;OD;tm;jzifh vGJrSm;pGmtm;ay;jcif;ay:ü tjyeftvSefajymqkdjcif;
(3;1-31;40)/
(u)yxrtBudrf tjyeftvSefjiif;cHkjcif; (3;1-14;22)/
(1) a,mb\ ikda<u;jcif; (3;1-26)/
(2) {vdzwf\ wHkYjyefrI (4;1-5;27)/
(3) a,mb\ wkefYjyefrI (6;1-7;21)/
(4) Adv''f\ wHkYjyefrI (8;1-22)/
(5) a,mb\ acsycsuf (9;1-10;22)/
(6) aZmzm\ wkefYjyefrI (11;1-20)/
(7) a,mb\ acsycsuf (12;1-14;22)/
(c) 'kwd,tBudrf tjyeftvSefjiif;ckefjcif; (15;1-21;34)/
(1) {vdzwf\ wkefYjyefrI (15;1-35)/
(2) a,mb\ wkefYjyefrI (16;1-17;16)/
112
(3) Adv''f\ wkefYjyefrI (18;1-21)/
(4) a,mb\ acsycsuf (19;1-29)/
(5) aZmzm\ wkefYjyefcsuf (20;1-29)/
(6) a,mb\ acsycsuf (21;1-34)/
(*) wwd,tBudrf tjyeftvSefjiif;ckefjcif; (22;1-31;40)/
(1) {vdzwf\ wkefYjyefcsuf (22;1-30)/
(2) a,mb\ acsycsuf (23;1-24;25)/
(3) Adv''f\ wkefYjyefcsuf (25;1-6)/
(4) a,mb\ acsycsuf (26;1-31;40)/
3/ {vd[k ajymMum;aompum;rsm; (32;1-37;24)/
(u)yxrrdecYf eG ;f / / bk&m;ocifonf vlwt Ydk m; qif;&Jjcif;'kur© sm;Mum;rS
oGefoifawmfrljcif; (32;1-33;33)/
(c) 'kw,
d rdecYf eG ;f / / bk&m;ocif\ w&m;rQwjcif;ESihf OmPfynmawmfudk
oufaoxljcif; (34;1-37)/
(*) wwd,rdecYf eG ;f / / oefY&Sif;pifMu,fjcif;ESifh oefY&Sif;jcif;ü wnfNrJjcif;/
(35; 1-16)/
(C)pwkwrå ed cYf eG ;f / / bk&m;ocif\ BuD;jrwfawmfrljcif;ESifh bk&m;ocif
ay:ü jypfwifjcif;ESiq hf idk af om a,mb\tjypf/ (36;1-37;24)
4/ avayGuJhokdY jyif;xefaom 'ku©qif;&Jjcif;xJrS bk&m;ocif\ xif&Sm;az:jy
awmfrljcif; (38;1- 42;6)/
(u)yxrzGijhf yawmfrjl cif; (38;1-40;5)/
(1)bk&m;ocif\ teEåwefckd;onf zefqif;jcif;ay:ü xif&Sm;vmjcif;
(38;1-39;30)/
113
(2)a,mb\ rdrdtjypfjyKrsm;jcif;ukd 0efcHjcif; (40;1-40;5)/
(c) 'kwd,tBudrfzGifhjyawmfrljcif;? bk&m;ocif\ wefckd;awmfESifh vlwkdY\
tm;enf;csuf? a,mb\ edrfhcsaom wkefYjyefrI (40;6-42;6)/
5/ aemufqHk;rdefYawmfrlcsuf (42;7-17)/
(u)vGrJ mS ;pGm ESpo
f rd t
hf m;ay;aom olwt
Ydk ay:ü bk&m;ocif\ jypfwifcsuf
(42;7-9)/
(c) a,mb\ jyefvnfxlaxmifjcif;ESifh qkv'frsm; (42;10-17)/

qmvHusrf;
(qkawmif;yXemjyKjcif;tm;jzifh csD;rGrf;jcif;)
usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
qmvHusr;f onf or®musr;f pmü t&Snq f ;kH aom usr;f wpfcjk zpfygonf/ or®musr;f
pmtkyfxJwGif us,fjyefYpGm toHk;jyKjcif;cH&aom usrf;vnf;jzpfygonf/ tb,f
aMumifqh adk omf qmvHusr;f xJü vlom;wk\ Yd b0toufwmwGif BuKH awGUorQaom
t&m tm;vHk;wkdYESifhqkdifaom vl\ ESvHk;om;taMumif;ukd ajymqkdxm;ygonf/
Budrfzefrsm;pGm NiD;wGm;ikda<u;jcif;rS qkawmif;jcif;ESifh csD;rGrf;jcif;tm;jzifh oDcsif;
qk&d aomtcGio hf Ydk ajymif;vJapygonf/ qmvHusr;f \ wpfcsKUd tykid ;f rsm;wGif usr;f ukd
a&;aomolwu Ydk dk razmfjyyg/ usr;f \ acgif;pOfrsm;tm;jzihf pma&;aomolwt Ydk m;
azmfjyay;ygonf/ usr;f a&;aomolrsm;tm; acgif;pOfrsm;tm;jzifh jyxm;onfudk
atmufygtwkdif; awGUEkdifygonf/ 24
qmvHusrf;a&;aomolrsm;
'g0d'f 73 usrf; 1? usrf; 2? 18 usrf; 3? 1 ? usrf; 4? 2? usrf; 5? 15/
tmqyf 12 qmvH 50? 73-83
aum& 12 qmvH 42-49? 84? 86? 87? 88
a&Smvrkef 2 qmvH 72? 127
arma&S 1 qmvH 90
tDoef 1 qmvH 89
114
a[NAb J mompum;ü qmvHusr;f ukd ]]cs;D rGr;f jcif;}} okrYd [kwf ]]cs;D rGr;f jcif;qkid &f musr;f
rsm;}} [lí trnfbGJUemray;ygonf/ qmvHusrf;wpfck (145) wnf;ukdom
]]cs;D rGr;f jcif;}} [laompum;vH;k jzifh trSwv
f u©Pmjyygonf/ okaYd omf cs;D rGr;f jcif;
onf qmvHusr;f \ tESpo f m&jzpfygonf/ qmvHusr;f onf aw;oDcsi;f odrYk [kwf
uAsm tvuFmrsm;jzifh pyfqkdum wl&d,moHpHkjzifh oDqkd&aom usrf;jzpfygonf/
]]qmvHusr;f }} [laom pum;vH;k onf a[NApJ um;vH;k rSvmí ]]wl&, d mBuKd ;wkuYd dk
wD;cwf&ef}} [lí qkdvkdygonf/
usrf;ukda&;aomckESpf
qmvHusrf;ü tpOfvkdufjzpfonfh ouú&mZfpm&if;onf us,fjyefYpGm awGU&Sd&NyD;?
&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;rsm;onfvnf; tajctaetrsKd;rsKd;wGif aexdkifcJh
Muaom uGjJ ym;jcm;em;onfh ajrmufjrm;pGmaom pmzwforl sm;tm;jzihf ajrmufrsm;
pGmaom pdwaf epdwo f abmxm;ESifh tawGUtBuKH rsm;ukd a&mifjyef[yfí pmzwfol
wkdY\ aeYpOf toufwmü rnfodkYtouf&Sif&rnfhtaMumif;ESifh pyfvsOf;aom
tvGet Yf vGef ta&;Bu;D onfh tcsutf vufrsm;ukd azmfjyay;ygonf/ qmvHusr;f
trsKd;rsKd;wkdY\ a&;om;aomckESpfESifh ywfoufí Gleason Archer qkdolu
atmufygtwkdif; a&;om;xm;ygonf/
]]tapmqH;k a&;om;xm;aomusr;f rSm qmvHusr;f (90) jzpfNy;D arma&Su
1405 bDpcD efw Y iG f a&;om;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ 'g0d'pf yfqadk om qmvHusr;f
rsm;rSm 1020 ESihf 975 bDpMD um;wGif a&;om;cJo h nf/ tmqyf a&;om;
aom usrf;rsm;rSmvnf; xkdtcsdefumvtwGif; jzpfEkdifzG,f&Sdygonf/
qmvH? 127 rS a&Smvrkerf if;pk;d pHonfu h mvxd 950 bDpjD zpfEidk zf , G &f ydS g
onf/ aum&\ rsKd;pOfqufESifh Ezrahites ESpfOD;wkdY\ aeY&ufukd
cefrY eS ;f &cufygonf/ olwYdk rSm uRet f jzpf zrf;oGm;jcif;rcHrDS jzpfEidk b
f , G f
&Sd\/ usrf;trnfrygaom qmvHusrf;rSm 'g0d'frif;a&;om;cJhaom
qmvHusrf;rsm;jzpfaMumif; oHo, qdkzG,fr&Sd (Oyrm 2ESifh 33)/
aemufNyD; tNcm;usrf;rsm;udk olwdkYjyefvm cJhMuNyD;onfhaemufydkif;ü
115
a&;om;cJh[efwlygonf (Oyrm 126ESifh 137)/ rnfokdYqkdapumrl
qmvHusr;f tm;vH;k wku
Yd dk cefrY eS ;f acstm;jzifh 500 bDpD xuf aemufusNy;D
a&;om;xm;aMumif; cdkifvkHaomtaxmuftxm; rawGU&yg/}} 25
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
qmvHusrf;onf uREkfyfwkdYtm; trsm;ESihfoufqkdifaom 0wfjyKukd;uG,fjcif;udk
OD;wnfonfh &nf&, G cf suaf Mumif;&if;tm;jzifh arQmvf ifjh cif;ESihf ESpo
f rd t hf m;ay;jcif;
qkid &f m owif;pum;ukd ay;ygonf/ xkt d &mrsm;rSm bk&m;ocif\ yk*K¾d vaf wmfEiS hf
vkyaf qmifawmfrcl sut f m;jzifh xm0&bk&m; aMumuf&UHG jcif;ukd jzpfapí qefu Y sif
ykeu f efjcif;rS uG,u f may;ygonf/ xkt d &mrsm;rSm £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\ Yd 0wfjyKu;dk
uG,jf cif;? ,HMk unfjcif;ESihf 0dnmOfyidk ;f qkid &f m toufwmrsm;ukd azmfjyay;ygonf/
qmvHusrf;ü bk&m;ocif\ yk*d¾Kvfjzpfjcif;? *wdawmfrsm;? tBuHtpnfrsm;ESifh
rsufarSmufawmfwkdY\tvif;ukd pMum0VmwpfckvHk;qkdif&m vlom;wkdY\ tawGU
tBuKH rsm;ESihf qkid af om bk&m;ocif\ ESv;kH om;rSeb f v
D ;l tm;jzifh uREyfk w f jYdk rifawGU
Ekid yf gonf/
qmvHusr;f ukd 150 xd pkaqmif;xm;jcif;tm;jzifh Bu;D rm;í trsK;d rsK;d aom pdwcf pH m;
rIrsm;? ywf0ef;usiftokdif;t0ef;rsm;ESifh OD;wnfonfhtaMumif;&if;rsm;ukd
jzpfay:apygonf/ þodq Yk &dk mü t"duOD;wnfonfh &nf&, G cf sutf aMumif;&if;ukd
a,bk,s aumufcsuq f , JG &l ef cufcyJ gonf/ odaYk omfvnf; qmvHusr;f tm;vH;k
wkdYwGif ,HkMunf olrsm;ESifhqkdifaom bk&m;ocif\ aumif;jrwfawmfrljcif;ESifh
aus;Zl;awmfukd wpfOD;csif;wkefYjyef&efyg0ifygonf/ rMumcPqkdovkdyif qmvH
usr;f ukd a&;aomol ud, k w f idk \
f twGi;f ykid ;f ü pdw"f mwfusqif;&aom cHpm;rIrsm;?
pk;d &dryf yl efrrI sm; odrYk [kwf bk&m;ocif\ &efow l tYkd m;jzifh qefu Y sijf cif;ukd &ifqidk f
BuKH awGU&aomfvnf; bk&m; ociftm; aus;Zl;wifjcif;? bk&m;ocif\ us,jf yefpY mG
uG,u f mr,paxmufyahH wmfrl jcif;wdu Yk dk azmfjyygonf/ odaYk omfvnf; qmvHusr;f ukd
a&;aomolonf jrnfwrf;idak <u;jcif; odUk r[kwf 0rf;ajrmufaysm&f iT jf cif; taMumif;
wku Yd dk OD;wnfa&;om;jcif; jzpfygaomfvnf;? olonf touf&iS af om bk&m;ocif
116
\ rsuaf rSmufawmfü olu, dk w
f idk f tpOftNr&J adS eaMumif;ukd ay:vGiaf tmif azmfjy
aeygonf/ þqmvH 2 uJhodkYaom bk&m;ocifukd,fawmfwkdif zGifhjyawmfrlonfh
usrf;rsm;&Sdygonf/ odkY&mwGif xkdusrf;wkdYrSm cRif;csufjzpfygonf/ 26
qmvHusrf;trsm;pkwkdYonf bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfoabmobm0ESifh
ar&S,
d <uvmrnf[al om BuKd wifarQmv f ifjh cif;qkid &f m ar&S,
d ESiyhf wfoufonfh
taMumif;t&mwkdYukd NcHKikHíazmfjyxm;ygonf/
qmvHusrf;rsm;ukd ykdif;jcm;xm;jcif;
qmvHusr;f onf trSepf ifppf usr;f ig;usr;f ukd wpftyk w f nf;jzifh jyKpxk m;\/ qmvH
150 onf cs;D rGr;f jcif;qkid &f m tm;vH;k wku Yd dk pkaqmif;í ed*;Hk csKyx
f m;onfenf;wl?
qmvHusr;f wpfcjk cif;pDwüYdk vnf; cs;D rGr;f jcif; (bk&m;ocifudk cs;D rGr;f aomoabmukd
ay:vGifapjcif;) wkdYyg0ifygonf/
Epiphanius qkdolu? ]]a[NAJbmomü bk&m;&Sdckd;jcif;ESifh qkdif&musrf;ukd tykdif;
ig;ykid ;f cGjJ cm;xm;ygaomaMumifh xku
d sr;f wku
Yd kd tjcm;aomynwåu d sr;f Pentateuch
[kac:qkd Ekdifygonf/ qmvH 1;1ü ar&Sd,onf £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdYtm; ynwåd
usrf;ukd ay;cJhygonf/ 'g0d'fonf wkefYjyefcH,laomtm;jzifh olwdkYtm; qmvH
usrf;ig;tkyfukd ay;yg onf}} [kqdkygonf/ 27
ynwådusrf; Pentateuch wkdYukd atmufygtwkdif; cGJxm;Ekdifygonf/ 28
1/ vlom;wkdYESifh zefqif;jcif;taMumif;ESifhqkdifaom qmvHusrf; (1-41) -
urÇmOD;usrf;ESifh qufEG,fonf/
2/ £oa&vvlrsK;d wkEYd iS hf a&G;EIwu
f ,fwifjcif;taMumif;ESiq
hf idk af om qmvH
usrf; (42-72) - xGufajrmuf&musrf;ESifh qufEG,fonf/
3/ 0wfjyKu;dk uG,jf cif;ESihf Adrm® efawmftaMumif;ESiq
hf idk af om qmvHusr;f (73-
89) - 0wfjyK&musrf;ESifh qufEG,fonf/
4/ ajrBuD;ay:ü uREkfyfwkdY\ c&D;oGm;vSnfhvnfjcif;taMumif;ESifhqkdifaom
117
qmvHusrf; (90-106) - awmvnf&musrf;ESifh qufEG,fonf/
5/ cs;D rGr;f jcif;ESihf bk&m;ocif\ EIwu
f ywfawmf (107-150) - w&m;a[m&m
usrf;ESifh qufEG,fonf/
qmvHusrf;\ tykdif;cGJjcm;yHkukd aemufwpfenf;jzifh Munfh½Ijcif;?
usrf; qmvHusrf;rsm; usrf;a&;ol t"duyg0ifonfhtaMumif;
(u) qmvH 1-41 'g0d'rf if; 0wfjyKukd;uG,f&moDcsif;

(c) qmvH 42-72 'g0d'fESifh aum& toem;cH&m "r®aw;

(*) qmvH 73-89 tmqyf toem;cH&m "r®aw;

(C) qmvH 90-106 trnfraocsm csD;rGrf;jcif;

(i) qmvH 107-150 'g0d'fESifh trnfrod csD;rGrf;jcif;

qmvHusrf;\ trsKd;tpm; odkYr[kwf yHkpH


þusrf;wkdY\ yHkpHerlemt& atmufwGifazmfjyaom yHkaqmifcsufrsm;rSm a,bk
,stm;jzifh vufcHzG,faom trsKd;tpm;rsm;jzpfygonf/
1/ jrnfwrf;jcif;(0rf;enf;aMuuGjJ cif;)odrYk [kwf toem;cH awmif;avQmuf
jcif;? wpfOD;csif;ESifhqkdifaom (qmvH 3) odkYr[kwf trsm;ESifhqkdifaom
(qmvH? 44)/
2/ aus;Zl;wif&jdS cif; odrYk [kwf cs;D rGr;f jcif;? wpfO;D jcif;ESiq
hf idk af om (qmv?H
30) odkYr[kwf trsm;ESifhqkdifaom (qmvH? 65)/
3/ bk&m;ocifü udk;pm;jcif; (qmvH? 4)/
4/ xm0&bk&m;tm; yv’iaf wmfay:ü wifajrmufjcif;qkid &f m "r®aw;oDcsi;f ?
a,½kpvifNrKdUESifh pyfqkdifaom qmvHusrf;rsm; (qmvH? 48)? rif;rsKd;
rif;EG,Ef iS hf pyfqidk af om qmvHusr;f rsm; (wpfcsKUd aomqmvHusr;f rsm;rSm
ar&Sd,ESifh pyfqkdifonf? qmvH? 2;110)/
118
5/ Mo0g' (oGefoifjcif;) ESifh OmPfynmESifh pyfqkdifaom qmvHusrf;rsm;
(1? 37? 119)/
6/ &nf&G,fcsuftm;jzifh a&;om;xm;onfh qmvHusrf;rsm;\ trsKd;tpm;
rsm;rSm? zefqif;jcif;qkdif&m qmvHusrf; (qmvH 8? 19)? obm0w&m;
ESifhqkdifaomqmvHusrf; (qmvH 19;104)? tBuHtpnf? txdrf;trSwf
wkuYd rdk w S rf ad paomqmvHusr;f rsm; (qmvH 111? 112? 119) xGuaf jrmuf
&mqmvH (78)? aemifw&jcif;ESifhqkdif&m qmvH (qmvH 6)? bk&m;zl;
vSnv hf nfjcif; qkid &f mqmvH (120) ESihf ar&S,
d ESiq
hf idk af om qmvHusr;f ?
aemufNyD; ar&Sd, taMumif;ESifh pyfvsOf;í ya&mzwfjyKjcif;rsm;udk
a&;om;xm;onfh qmvHusrf;rsm;rSm qmvH 2? 8? 16? 22? 40? 45? 72?
110? 118/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
wpfcgwpf&H qmvHusr;f \ trnfemrrsm;onf 'g0d'f odrYk [kwf aum&uJo h aYkd om
usrf;a&;olwkdYukd nGefjyaeaomfvnf; tajcjyKaom qmvHusrf;onf xkduJhodkY
nTefjy jcif;r&Sdyg/ bk&m;ocif\ vlwkdYonf olwkdY\ 0wfjyKukd;uG,fjcif;ESifh
xm0&bk&m;\ oGm;vmjcif;wkdYukd ykdrdkí OD;wnf&ef nTef;umazmfjyxm;ygonf/
c&pfawmfukd qmvHusrf;ü awGUjrif&yHk
ajrmufrsm;pGmaom qmvHusrf;wkdYrSm ar&Sd,ESifhoufqkdifaom usrf;rsm;jzpfNyD;
c&pf awmf\ yk*¾dKvfawmfjzpfjcif;ESifh vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;ukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/
xkt
d aMumif; t&mwku Yd dk atmufygtwkid ;f trsK;d tpm;rsm; cGjJ cm;xm;Ekid yf gonf/
1/ ar&Sd,ukd yHkpHerlemjzifh azmfjyjcif;/ þqmvHusr;f rsm;ukd ar&S, d ESiphf yf
qkdifaom qmvHusrf;rsm;[lí xif&Sm;pGm awGU&ygonf/ qmvHusrf;
a&;olwkdYrSm wpfenf;wpfvrf;tm;jzifh c&pfawmfukd yHkerlemaqmif
Muygonf (34;20? 69;4? 9)/ odkYaomfvnf; tjcm;aomusrf;csufwkdYü
xko
d aYdk zmfjyjcif;r&Syd g/ þtrIt&mü a,&SEd iS w
hf ynfah wmfwo
Ydk nf olw\ Ykd
119
tawGUtBuKH rsm;ay:ü qmvHusr;f a&;om;olwEYkd iS hf &if;ES;D pGm xdawGUrI&o dS uJoh Ykd
azmfjyxm;yg onf (Oyrm? 109;8? wref? 1;20)?
2/ yHkpHerlemESifhqkdifaom ya&mzufjyKjcif;/ qmvHq&monf olukd,fwkdif
\ tawGUtBuHKrsm;ukd azmfjyaomfvnf; a0g[m&bmompum;vHk;\
toH;k tEIe;f t& olu, dk wf idk \
f toufwmukd ausmv f eG Nf y;D c&pfawmfü
omvQif rSefuefaomorkdif;aMumif;qkdif&mrsm;ukd nTefjyygonf (22)/
3/ ar&Sd,ukd oG,f0kdufenf;tm;jzifh azmfjyjcif;/ qmvHq&monf 'g0d'f\
tdraf wmf odrYk [kwf &Sib f &k ifwpfyg;yg;ukd txl;jyKneT jf yNy;D a&;om;xm;cJh
aomfvnf; xkt d aMumif;t&mwkrYd mS aemufq;kH wGif c&pfawmf ay:üom
vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;jynfhpHkvmMuygonf (2? 45? 72)/
4/ &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGm ya&mzufjyKjcif;/ rnfonfhtjcm;yk*d¾KvfwpfOD;
odkYr[kwf 'g0d'f\om;awmf ponfjzifh ukd;um;jcif;r&dSbJ c&pfawmfukd
wkduf½kdufnTefjyxm;ygonf (110)/
5/ yv’iaf y:eef;wifjcif;/ / þqmvHusr;f wkrYd mS ar&S, d ay:ü jynfph vkH m
rnfo h cifb&k m;\ <uvmawmfrjl cif;ESihf ol\ Ekid if aH wmfudk wnfaxmif
jcif;qkdif&mtaMumif;rsm;ukd BudKwifí odjrifjcif; qmvHrsm;jzpfygonf
(96-99)/
c&pfawmfESifhpyfqkdifí twdtusjynfhpHkvmaom ya&mzufjyKjcif;rsm;?
ya&mzufjyKjcif; qmvHusrf; "r®opfusrf;csufrsm;
1/ zGm;jrifawmfrljcif; 104;4 a[NA?J 1;7
2/ edrfhcsawmfrljcif; 8;4 a[NAJ? 2;6
3/ bk&m;Zmwd 45;6 a[NAJ? 1;8
4/ trIawmfaqmif&Gufjcif; 69;9 a,m[ef? 2;17
5/ jiif;y,fcH&jcif; 118;22 a,m[ef? 21;42
6/ tyfESHjcif;ukd cHawmfrljcif; 41;9 a,m[ef? 13;18
7/ vuf0g;uyfwkdifay:ü ½kdufxm;jcif; 22 róJ? 27;39? 43? 46? vkum? 23;35
8/ &Sifjyefxajrmufawmfrljcif; 2 ESifh 16 wrefawmf? 2;27
9/ aumif;uifodkY jyefwufawmfrljcif; 68;18 {zuf? 4;8
10/ pdk;pHawmfrljcif; 102;26 a[NAJ? 1;11
120
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ usrf;pmtkyf (1)/ /0wfjyKu;dk uG,jf cif;qkid &f m oDcsi;f rsm; (qmvH? 1-41)/
qmvH? 1/ / r*Fvm&Sad om vlb
Y 0toufwmü vrf;ESpo
f ,
G f - EIwu
f ywf
awmf ESifhavmu/
qmvH 2/ / ar&S,
d &Sib f &k if - bk&m;ocifEiS hf c&pfawmftm; qefu
Y siNf y;D
yl;aygif;zGJUpnf;jcif;/
qmvH 3/ / 'kuj© yóemMum;ü Nird of ufpmG aejcif; - ab;tEÅ&m,fMum;rS
uG,u f mr,pawmfrjl cif;/
qmvH 4/ / bk&m;ocifü ckdvIHukd;pm;&ef nOD;qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 5/ / bk&m;ocif\ rsuaf rSmufawmfü ud, k af wmftay: pdwcf scv
dk HI
&jcif;ESifhqkdifaom eHeufqkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 6/ / eufeaJ om 'kuq
© if;&Jjcif;xJrS pdw0f n
d mOftm;jzifh qkawmif;
jcif;/
qmvH 7/ / ckdvIH&eftwGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 8/ / zefqif;&Si\
f bke;f wefc;d kawmfEiS h f vlom;wk\
Y d *kPo
f u
d m© usi0h f wfw&m;/
qmvH 9/ /bk&m;ocif\ ajzmifhrwfawmfrljcif;twGuf aus;Zl;wif
csD;rGrf;jcif;qkdif&m qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 10/ / raumif;aomvlwkdYtay:ü atmifEkdif&efqkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 11/ / xm0&bk&m;onf ckdvIH&mESifh uG,fum&mjzpfawmfrljcif;/
qmvH 12/ / rkom;pum;ajymaomolwt
Y d k m; qefu
Y sií
f ulnrD ,p&ef qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 13/ / 'kuq
© if;&JcaH omtcsed üf ulnrD ,p&eftwGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 14/ / vlom;wdkY\ rkdufrJjcif;ESifh qkd;oGrf;jcif;wkdYukd azmfjyjcif;/
121
qmvH 15/ / bk&m;ocifukd aMumuf&GHUaomolukd azmfjyjcif;/
qmvH 16/ / xm0&bk&m;onf oef&Y iS ;f aomolwt
Y k d wGuf ckv
d &H I mjzpfawmfrjl cif;/
qmvH 17/ / bk&m;ocif\ w&m;rQwjcif;tm;jzifh u,fwif&eftwGuf
qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 18/ / u,fwijfcif;twGuf csD;rGrf;jcif;qkdif&mqkawmifjcif;/
qmvH 19/ / bk&m;ocifonf rdrzd efqif;awmfrjl cif;trIEiS hf EIwu
f ywfawmf
tm;jzifh zGifhjyawmfrljcif;/
qmvH 20/ / &efolrsm;tay: atmifjrifjcif;twGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 21/ / xm0&bk&m;onf wefckd;BuD;aom &Sifbk&ifuJhodkY jzpfawmf
rljcif;/
qmvH 22/ / vuf0g;uyfwkdifukd o½kyfo@mefyHkazmfjcif; - pdwftm;i,f
0rf;enf;aMuuGJjcif;ESifh csD;rGrf;jcif;qmvH/
qmvH 23/ / xm0&bk&m;onf odk;xdef;jzpfawmfrljcif;ukd yHkazmfxm;jcif;
- bk&m;ocif\ aumif;jrwfawmfrljcif;qkdif&m qmvHusrf;/
qmvH 24/ / &Sifbk&if\ bkef;wefckd;ESifhqkdif&m qmvHusrf;/
qmvH 25/ / a&G;EIwuf ,fwifjcif; - vrf;jyykUd aqmifjcif;? tjypfvw
T af wmf
rljcif;twGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 26/ /a&G;EIwu
f ,fwif&eftwGuf ½k;d om;ajzmifrh wfpmG toem;cHjcif;/
qmvH 27/ /xm0&bk&m;xHawmfü aMumuf&GHUjcif;uif;rJhpGm pdwfcspGmjzifh
qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 28/ /qkawmif;csuu f kd emanmif;awmfral omaMumifh ulnrD ,p&efEiS hf
csD;rGrf;jcif;qkdif&m qkawmif;jcif; - xm0&bk&m;onf ig\
122
ausmuf jzpfawmfrl\/
qmvH 29/ / wefcdk;ESifhjynfhpHkawmfrlaom bk&m;ocif\ toHawmf/
qmvH 30/ / vkdtyfaomtcdsefumvü bk&m;ocif\ opöm&Sdawmfrljcif;
twGuf aus;Zl;wifcsD;rGrf;jcif;qkdif&m qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 31/ / nnf;jiLjcif;? toem;cHjcif;ESifh csD;rGrf;jcif;qkdif&m qkawmif;
jcif;/
qmvH 32/ / tjypfvw G jf cif;qkid &f m aumif;Bu;D r*FvmESihf bk&m;ocifü ckv
d HI
ukd;pm;jcif;/
qmvH 33/ / xm0&bk&m;ociftm; zefqif;&SiEf iS hf u,fwif&iS t
f jzpf
cs;D rGr;f jcif;/
qmvH 34/ / xm0&bk&m;ociftm; r,paxmufyahH omolEiS hf u,fwif&iS f
tjzpf csD;rGrf;jcif;/
qmvH 35/ /w&m;rQwjcif;ESih f &eforl sm;xHrS u,fwif&eftwGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 36/ /qk;d oGr;f rku
d rf aJ omolwo
Ydk nf bk&m;ocif\ cspjf cif;tMuifem
w&m;ESifh uGJjym;jcm;em;jcif;/
qmvH 37/ /xm0&bk&m;xHawmfü ckv
d t
HI em;,l&eftwGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 38/ /Bu;D av;aomtjypf0efxwk rf sm;ukd 0efcv
H suf jyefvnfausat;
jcif;&&Sd&eftwGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 39/ /vlom;wkdY\ tm;enf;csnfESJUjcif;ukd 0efcHatmufarhvsuf
qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 40/ /0rf;ajrmufjcif;ESihf jynhaf omtawGUtBuKH rsm;ESihf u,fwifjcif;
ukd arQmfvifhjcif;qkdif&m csD;rGrf;jcif;/
123
qmvH 41/ /ab;'kut
© usyt f wnf;xJrS bk&m;ocif\ aumif;Bu;D r*Fvm
rsm;twGuf csD;rGrf;jcif;/
2/ usrf;pmtkyf (2)/ /toem;cH&m "r®aw;oD;csif;rsm; (qmvH 42-72)
qmvH 42-43/ / bk&m;ociftm; awmifhwjcif;ESifh xm0&bk&m;\
u,f wifjcif;twGuf arQmfvifhjcif;/
qmvH 44/ / vlrsK;d awmfpw
k pf&yfv;kH \ ikad <u;jrnfwrf;jcif;ESihf a&G;EIwu
f ,f
wifzkdY&ef qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 45/ / 'g0d'fom;awmf\ r*Fvmaqmifjcif;oDcsif;/
qmvH 46/ / bk&m;ocifonf igwkdY\ ckdvkd&mESifh cGeftm;jzpfawmfrl\/
qmvH 47/ / xm0&bk&m;onf atmifjrifaom &Sifbk&ifjzpfawmfrl\/
qmvH 48/ / vSyaomNrdKUawmf? ZD,GefawmifxdyftwGuf csD;rGrf;jcif;/
qmvH 49/ /OmPfynmrygu <u,f0csrf;omjcif;onf tcsif;ESD;Avm
[if;vif;omjzpf\/
qmvH 50/ / aus;Zl;wifcsD;rGrf;jcif;\ ,ZfylaZmfjcif;/
qmvH 51/ / tjypf0efcHjcif;ESifh tjypfvTwfawmfrljcif;/
qmvH 52/ / <um;0gaomqkd;oGrf;rI\ qkd;,kwfrdkufrJjcif;/
qmvH 53/ / bk&m;rJhjzpfjcif;trIukd o½kyfazmfxm;jcif;/
qmvH 54/ / xm0&bk&m;onf igwk\
Yd ulnrD ,paomol/
qmvH 55/ / xm0&bk&m;onf ajzmifhrwfaomolukd axmufrawmfrl\/
qmvH 56/ / uREkfyfwkdY\ txlxyfqHk;aomaMumuf&GUHjcif;xJrS xm0&
bk&m;ukd ukd;pm;&ef/
124
qmvH 57/ / tqkd;qHk;aom pGefYvTwfty,fcHjcif;? txD;usefb0üyif
xm0& bk&m;ukd csD;ajrmuf&ef/
qmvH 58/ / ajzmifrh wfaomolwo
Ydk nf {ueftrSeq
f ak y;jcif;cH&ygvdrrhf nf/
qmvH 59/ / &efolrsm;rS a&G;EIwfu,fwifjcif;twGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 60/ / vlrsKd;awmfpktm; u,fwifjcif;twGuf qkawmifjcif;/
qmvH 61/ / tm;enf;jcif;pdwfESvHk;om;rS qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 62/ / xm0&bk&m;ukd arQmfvifhapmifhpm;jcif;/
qmvH 63/ / bk&m;ocif\ cspfjcif;arwåmukd qmiwfjcif;/
qmvH 64/ / uG,fumjcif;twGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 65/ / ajrBu;D ESiv
hf o
l m;wdt
Yk wGuf bk&m;ocif\ <u,f0awmfrjl cif;/
qmvH 66/ / bk&m;ocifjyKawmfrlaom trIawmfwkdYukd atmufarhawmf
rljcif;/
qmvH 67/ /bk&m;ociftm; cs;D rGr;f &ef vlom;taygif;wku
Yd dk ac:awmfrjl cif;/
qmvH 68/ /tzdESdyfcHaomolwkdYtwGuf bk&m;ocifonf tzjzpfawmf
rljcif;/
qmvH 69/ / bk&m;ocif\ oem;Muifemawmfrjl cif;tm;jzifh u,fwifjcif;
twGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 70/ / qif;&Jaomol? iwfrGwfaomolwdkYtwGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 71/ / acwfumvtwGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 72/ / ar&Sd,\ bkef;wefckd;tmEkabmftm;jzifh pkd;pHawmfrljcif;/
3/ usrf;pmtkyf (3)/ /toem;cHawmif;avQmufjcif;qkdif&m "r®aw;oDcsif;
(qmvH 73-89)/
125
qmvH 73/ / xm0&twGuf&nfpl;um qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 74/ / vlrsK;d awmfpt
k wGi;f qif;&J'u
k a© &mufaomtcsed üf ulnrD ,p&ef
qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 75/ / xm0&bk&m;onf w&m;rQwí ajzmifhrwfawmfrl\/
qmvH 76/ / ,muky\
f bk&m;ocifonf atmifjrifaomwefc;d kESih f jynf0h awmfrjl cif;/
qmvH 77/ /trIa&mufaomumvü bk&m;ocif\ Bu;D jrwfawmfral Mumif;
ukd atmufarhowd&yg/
qmvH 78/ / £oa&vvlrsK;d wd\
Y k orkid ;f aMumif;tm;jzifh oifcef;pmrsm;&,ljcif;/
qmvH 79/ / okd;rsm;wkdY\ pm;usufe,fajrtwGuf atmufarhowd&&ef
xm0& bk&m;ociftm; toem;cHawmif;avQmufjcif;/
qmvH 80/ / bk&m;ocif\ *½kPmawmftwGuf £oa&vvlrsKd;wkdY\
toem;cH awmif;qkdjcif;/
qmvH 81/ / xm0&bk&m;\ pum;awmfuo dk m em;axmifMu&ef £oa&v
vlrsKd;wkdY\ toem;cHawmif;qkdjcif;/
qmvH 82/ / rw&m;aom w&m;olBuD;wkdYtm; qHk;rwm;jrpfawmfrljcif;/
qmvH 83/ / £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\
Yd &eforl sm;tay: w&m;pD&if&eftwGuf
qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 84/ / bk&m;ocif\ rsufarSmufawmftwGuf av;av;eufeuf
awmifhwjcif;/
qmvH 85/ / Ekd;xrItwGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 86/ /vlrsK;d awmftay:ü aus;Zl;*½kPmawmf oGe;f avmif;&eftwGuf
qkawmif;jcif;/
126
qmvH 87/ /touf&Sifaom Zd,Gefawmifay:ü 0rf;ajrmufaysmf&Tifjcif;/
qmvH 88/ / 'ku©qif;&Jjcif;\ arSmifrdkufxJü qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 89/ / nSi;f yef;ESyd pf ufjcif;ü bk&m;ocif\ r,pjcif;ESihf uwdawmf
rsm;ukd awmif;qkjd cif;/
4/ usrf;pmtkyf (4)/ /cs;D rGr;f jcif;qkid &f m "r®aw;oDcsi;f rsm; (qmvH 90-106)
qmvH 90/ / igwk\Yd aeY&ufrsm;ukd a&wGuEf idk &f ef uREyfk w
f t
Ydk m; oGeo
f ifawmf
rljcif;/
qmvH 91/ / tjrifhqHk;aom bk&m;ocif\ uG,fum&mt&dyfatmufü
cdkvIHjcif;/
qmvH 92/ / xm0&bk&m;tm; csD;rGrf;jcif;/
qmvH 93/ / xm0&bk&m;onf bke;f wefc;dk tmEkabmfjzifh pk;d pHawmfrjl cif;/
qmvH 94/ / xm0&bk&m;onf ajrBu;D ukd w&m;pD&ifaomoljzpfawmfr\
l /
qmvH 95/ / 0wfjyKukd;uG,f&eftwGuf igwkdYukd zefqif;awmfrlaomol\
pdwfü 'l;axmufMuygpkdY/
qmvH 96/ / þavmuukd ajzmifhrwfjcif;w&m;tm;jzifh pD&ifawmfrlaom
xm0&bk&m;tm; 0wfjyKukd;uG,fMu\/
qmvH 97/ / xm0&bk&m;onf pk;d pHawmfral omaMumifh 0rf;ajrmufjcif;&SMduavmh/
qmvH 98/ / xm0&bk&m;twGuf topfaomoDcsif;jzifh oDqkdMuavmh/
qmvH 99/ / pkd;pHawmfrlaom xm0&bk&m;tm; csD;ajrmufMuukefavmh/
qmvH 100/ / xm0&bk&m;tm; 0rf;ajrmuf&iT v
f ef;jcif;jzifh trIaqmif&u
G Mf u
avmh? uk,
d af wmfonf xm0&bk&m;jzpfawmfrNl y;D aumif;jrwf
awmfr\l /
127
qmvH 101/ /oef&Y iS ;f aomtoufwmxJoYdk touf&iS &f ef qufuyftyfEHS
Muavmh/
qmvH 102/ / tm;enf;í usqif;aeaomoef&Y iS ;f olwt
Ydk wGuf qkawmif;Mu
avmh/
qmvH 103/ / xm0&bk&m;tm; aumif;BuD;ay;Muavmh? ukd,fawmf\
oem;jcif; *½kPmonf b,fawmhrS ukefqHk;jcif;r&Sdyg/
qmvH 104/ /xm0&bk&m;onf zefqif;awmfrIorQaom t&mtm;vHk;wkdY
tay:ü *½kwpkdufjzifh Munfh½Iawmfrl\/
qmvH 105/ /xm0&bk&m;\ opöm&Sad wmfral Mumif;uku
d ,fwifjcif;taMumif;
w&m;ü vkyfaqmifawmfrl\/
qmvH 106/ / xm0&bk&m;\ cspjf cif;arwåmawmfEiS hf £oa&vvlrsK;d wk\
Yd
pum;em;raxmifjcif;taMumif;ukd atmufarhowd&jcif;/
5/ usrf;pmtkyf (5)/ /csD;rGrf;jcif;qkdif&m "r®aw;oDcsif;rsm; (qmvH 107-150)
qmvH 107/ / xlxyfaom 'kuq © if;&JrrI sm;Mum;xJrS bk&m;ocif\ u,fwif
awmfrjl cif;twGuf cs;D rGr;f jcif;/
qmvH 108/ / atmifjrifjcif;twGuf cs;D rGr;f jcif;ESihf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 109/ / &eforl sm;tay:ü qefu
Y siNf y;D w&m;pD&ifjcif;rsm;onf rSeu
f ef
aMumif; oufaocHjcif;rsm;twGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 110/ / ar&S, d onf ppfatmifEidk af om ,Zfya&m[dw&f iS b
f &k ifuo
hJ Ykd
yHak zmfjcif;/
qmvH 111/ / bk&m;ocif\ opöm&Sad wmfrjl cif;tay:ü yGaJ wmfusi;f yjcif;/
qmvH 112/ / ,HMk unfjcif;\ atmifjrifjcif;/
128
qmvH 113/ / ESrd chf svsuf <uqif;vmawmfral om? cs;D ajrmufawmfrjl cif;cHonfh
xm0&bk&m;tm; cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 114/ / xGuaf jrmufjcif;twGuf cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 115/ / ½kywf rk sm;\ pGr;f tm;rJjh cif;ESihf xm0&bk&m;\ Bu;D jrwfawmf
rljcif;/
qmvH 116/ / a&G;EIwu
f ,fwifjcif;twGuf xm0&bk&m;tm; cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 117/ / vlrsK;d taygif;wkcYd s;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 118/ / xm0&bk&m;ocif\ u,fwifawmfrjl cif;qkid &f m aumif;jrwf
awmfrjl cif;twGuf cs;D rGr;f Muavm/h
qmvH 119/ / "r®usr;f pmawmfrsm;twGuf cs;D rGr;f jcif;/
qmvH 120/ / tjypfwif&Iwfcsolrsm;Mum;rS u,fwifawmfrl&eftwGuf
qk a wmif ; jcif ; /
qmvH 121/ /xm0&bk&m;ocifonf ighukd xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufaom
t&S i f j zpf a wmf r l \ /
qmvH 122/ / a,½kqvifNrKd UNird ;f csr;f a&;twGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 123/ / aus;Zl;*½kPmawmftwGuf toem;cHawmif;avQmufjcif;/
qmvH 124/ / igwkt
Yd m; ulnrD ,paomolonf aumif;uifEiS ahf jrMu;D ukd
zefqif; awmfral om t&Sijf zpfawmfr\
l /
qmvH 125/ / £oa&vvlrsK;d wkt
Yd ay: Nird o
f ufjcif;&Syd gap/
qmvH 126/ / jyefvnfxal xmifay;jcif;twGuf cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 127/ / om;? orD;wkoYd nf xm0&bk&m;xHawmfrS ay;awmfral om
qkaus;Zl;rsm;jzpfaomaMumifh cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
129
qmvH 128/ / rdom;pkonf xm0&bk&m;ociftm;jzifh aumif;Bu;D ay;awmf
rljcif;cH&yg\/
qmvH 129/ / nSi;f yef;ESyd pf ufaom olwt
Ydk wGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 130/ / bk&m;ocif\ a&G;EIwu
f ,fwifawmfrjl cif;twGuf apmifah rQmf
aejcif;/
qmvH 131/ / uav;oli,fuo
hJ Ykd xm0&bk&m;ü ckv
d u
HI ;dk pm;jcif;/
qmvH 132/ / Zdtek af wmiftm; xm0&bk&m;ocif aumif;Bu;D r*Fvmay;&ef
twGuf qkawmif;jcif;/
qmvH 133/ /nDtpfun
dk n
D w
T jf cif;tm;jzifh aumif;Bu;D r*Fvmoufa&mufjcif;/
qmvH 134/ / ntcsed üf yif xm0&bk&m;tm; cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 135/ / bk&m;ocif\ tHzh ,
G af omtrIawmfwt
Ydk wGuf cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 136/ / xm0&umvü wnfawmfral ombk&m;ocif\ *½kPmawmf
twGuf cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 137/ / uRetf jzpf zrf;qD;oGm;jcif;ukd cH&aomolwt
Ydk wGuf rsu&f nf
rsm;usqif;jcif;/
qmvH 138/ / xm0&bk&m;onf EdrS chf saomolw\
Ydk qkawmif;yxemjyKjcif;ukd
em;axmifawmfrí
l u,fwifjcif;/
qmvH 139/ / xm0&bk&m;onf uREyfk w
f u
Ydk ydk if odawmfr\
l /
qmvH 140/ / u,fwifawmfrjl cif;twGuf qkawmif;jcif;? uk,
d af wmfonf
uREyfk t
f wGuf bk&m;ocifjzpfawmfr\
l /
qmvH141/ / uREyfk \
f qkawmif;jcif;onf arT;BuKd iaf omteHu
Y o
hJ Ykd
jzpfygapaom/
130
qmvH 142/ / rnfou l rQ uREyfk t
f m; *½krpku
d af omfvnf; xm0&bk&m;onf
*½kpkdufawmfrl\/
qmvH 143/ / uG,u f mapmifx
h ed ;f awmfr&l ef qkawmif;jcif;? uREyfk t
f m; omí
jrifah omt&yfoYdk ykaYd qmifawmfryl g/
qmvH 144/ / xm0&bk&m;onf ig\ausmuf? ig\ &Jwu
dk jf zpfawmfr\
l /
qmvH 145/ / xm0&bk&m;\ Bu;D jrwfawmfrjl cif;ESihf tHzh ,
G af omtrIawmfwYdk
twGuf cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 146/ / <u,f0pGm r,pulnaD omt&Si?f xm0&bk&m;tm; cs;D rGr;f Mu
avmh/
qmvH 147/ / usK;d yJah MuuGaJ omESv;kH om;ukd use;f rmapawmfral om
xm0&bk&m;tm; cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 148/ /OmPfynmawmftm;jzifh zefqif;awmfral omt&Sif xm0&bk&m;
tm; cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 149/ /rdrv
d pl w
k t
Ydk ay:ü 0rf;ajrmuftm;&awmfral om xm0&bk&m;
tm;cs;D rGr;f Muavmh/
qmvH 150/ / xm0&bk&m;tm; cs;D rGr;f yXPmjyKMuukeaf vmh/
131

okwåHusrf;
(ynwfawmfw&m;tm;jzifh OmPfynm)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
"r®&mZ0ifwwd,apmif 4;32 t&? a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D onf okwpHå um;oH;k axmifEiS hf
"r®aw;oDcsif; (1005) ajymqkdcJhygonf/ olonf okwåHpum;vHk;rsm;ukd ol\
pmtkyx f üJ a&;om;aepOfwiG f aemufq;kH aomtcef;Bu;D rsm;ü þusr;f ukad &;aom
olrSm olwpfOD;wnf;r[kwfaMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/ okwåHusrf;ü tydkif; 3
ydkif;wkdYukd a&Smvrkefaz:jycJhonfrSm 1;1-9;18? 10;1-22;16 ESifh 25;1-29;27
wdjYk zpfMuygonf/ rnfoyYdk ifqadk pumrl okwu Hå sr;f \ aemufq;kH ykid ;f tcef; (25;1-
29;27) wko Yd nf a[Zudrif;Bu;D \ wkid yf ifjcif;tm;jzifh a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D qkawmif;
xm;aomt&mrsm; jzpfonf (25;1)/ okwåHusrf; 22;17 ü ]]ynm&Sdpum;}} ESifh
24;23ü ynm&Sdpum;rsm; [lí xyfNyD;aygif;xnfhum okwåH? 22;17-21 ü
þtcef;rsm;onf ynm&Srd sm;xHrS vmNy;D a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D uk, d w f idk rf [kwaf Mumif;
ed'gef;t& ,lq&ygonf/ tcef;BuD; 30 onf Jakeh \om; Agur ESifh 31;1-
9 onf &Sifbk&ifavarGvwkdYukd txl;oD;oefY nTefjyxm;ygonf/
okwu Hå sr;f onf qk½d ;dk pum;rsm; odrYk [kwf ed,mrrsm;udk nTejf yaom w&m;pum;
tm;jzifh usrf;trnfukd &&Sdjcif;jzpfaMumif; xif&Sm;ygonf/ okwåHpum;twGuf
a[NApJ um;vH;k ü qkv d o
dk nfrmS ]]o@mefw}l } ? ]]qifw,
l ;dk rSm;}} odrYk [kwf ]]EIid ;f ,SOf
csuf}} [líjzpfyg onf/ xkdt&mwkdYonf ta&;BuD;aom usifh0wfw&m;qkdif&m
ed,mrukd EIdif;,SOfjcif; oabmukd nTefjyygonf/ okwåHpum;onf qifwl,kd;rSm;
ynwfcsufrsm;ukd EIdif;,SOf azmfjy&mwGif A[kdjyKonfomru qefYusifbuf
wpfOD;onf ynm&SdpGm touf&Sifae Ekdif&ef usifh0wfw&m;ESifh 0dnmOfa&;&mESifh
qkdifaom oGefoifcsufrsm;ukd tusOf;csKH;í a&;xm;aomtcsufrsm;tm;jzifh
þusrf;trnfukd &&Sdjcif;jzpfygonf/
132
usrf;ukda&;om;aomckESpf
950-700 bDpD/
okwu Hå sr;f onf OmPfynmESiq hf idk af om usr;f jzpfonft h m;avsmpf mG orkid ;f aMumif;
ESihf qkid af om usr;f r[kwyf g/ £oa&vvlrsK;d wküYd nPfynmESiq hf idk af omt&mrsm;
twGuf ausmif;awmfBu;D wpfcjk zpfygonf/ a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D a&;om;cJah om okwHå
usr;f rsm;rSm oltepöra&mufrDS 931 bDpw D iG f a&;om;cJjh cif;jzpfygonf/ a[Zud
tm;jzifh qkawmif;a&;om;cJah om tjcm;okwu Hå sr;f rsm;rSm 700 bDpyD wf0ef;usiüf
a&;om;cJjh cif;jzpfygonf/
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
þusrf;\ trnfESifht"dyÜg,frSm ]]okwåHusrf;}} [lí ay;xm;onfhtwkdif; okwåH
usrf;\ t"duOD;wnfcsufESifh &nf&G,fonfhtaMumif;&if;rSm touf&SifzkdY&ef
twGuf OmPf ynmjzpfygonf/ odjYk zpfí b0toufwmtm;vH;k wküYd tjypfw&m;?
aumif;jrwfjcif;? <u,f0csr;f omjcif;? qif;&Jiwfrw G jf cif;? vQm? 0g<um;jcif;? ESrd chf sjcif;?
w&m;rQwjcif;? rdom;pk (rdbESpfyg;? om;orD;rsm;? pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;)?
&efwek jYf yefjcif;? ½ke;f uef vIy&f mS ;jcif;? cspjf cif;arwåm? ysi;f &djcif;? rdwaf qG taygif;
toif;? toufEiS hf aojcif; ponfwEYdk iS yhf wfoufí txl;oGeo f ifxm;ygonf/
okwåHusrf;rSty tjcm;rnfonfh usrf;rS aeYpOftoufwmwGif OmPfynmjzifh
touf&Sif&ef ykdívufawGUusaom usrf;rsm;r&Sdyg/
t"duusaom tajccHOD;wnfcsufrSm ]]xm0&bk&m;ukd aMumuf&GHUjcif;onf
ynm\ tcsKyt f csmjzpf\}} (1;70) yifjzpfygonf/ bk&m;ociftm; aMumuf&UG rH I
uif;rJhjcif;onf toufwmü rdkufrJjcif;odkY ykdYaqmifygonf/ xm0&bk&m;ukd
aMumuf&UHG jcif;[k qk&d mü uk, d af wmfaMumuf&UHG ½dak oav;pm;xku
d af om oef&Y iS ;f jcif;
yg&rDEiS hf wefc;dk awmf xJü &yfwnfjcif;udk qkv d ydk gonf/ wpfcsed w
f nf;rSmyif ppfreS f
aomOmPfynmonf xm0&bk&m;ukd aMumuf&UHG jcif;bufoYkd ykaYd qmifomG ;onfudk
okwuHå sr;f ü azmfjyxm;ygonf/
133
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
okwåHusrf;ukd vlwkdif;wpfOD;csif;pDtwGuf a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpf&m? rnfolwpfOD;
wpfa,mufukdrQ aocsmazmfjyrxm;yg/
c&pfawmfudk okwåHusrf;ü awGUjrif&yHk
tcef;BuD; 8 ü? OmPfynmonf yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;uJhodkY xkdol\txJü pHkvsifjcif;ukd
jrif&ygonf/ xko d rl mS bk&m;ocifjzpfawmfrNl y;D (8;22-31)? ZD0ESihf 0dnmOfa&;&m
toufw\ Ydk tajccH&if;Nrpf?(3;18? 8;35-36)? ajzmifrh wfjcif;w&m; (8;8-9) ESihf
vufc&H ,laomvlwikd ;f twGuf &&Scd pH m;Edik o f nft h &m (8;1-6? 32-35) jzpfygonf/
OmPfynmonf c&pfawmf\ yk*K¾d vaf wmfxüJ vlUZmwdudk cH,yl gonf/ ]]xked ufeJ
aom t&mü ynmb@m? OmPfb@m&So d rQwo Ydk nf 0Sux
f m;vsu&f MdS u\}} (aum?
2;3)/ ]]xkdbk&m;ociftm;jzifh oifwkdYonf a,½Ic&pfü wnfaeMu\/ xkdocif
rlum? bk&m;ocifpD&ifawmfrlonftwkdif; igwkdYü ynmrSpí ajzmifhrwf jcif;?
oefY&Sif;jcif;ESifh a&G;EIwfjcif;jzpfawmfrl\}} (1aum? 1;30? 1aum? 1;22-24)/ 29
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef;? okwHåusrf;\ &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if; (1;1-7)/
2/ OmPfynm\ toHk;tzGJUawmfrsm;? vli,frsm;twGuf okwåHpum;rsm; (1;8-
9;18)/
(u)rdbpum;udk em;axmifyg (1;8-9)/
(c) raumif;aom taygif;toif;rsm;ukd a&Smifyg (1;10-19)/
(*) nPfynm\ ac:,ljcif;ESifh tBuHOmPfawmfrsm;udk owdjyKyg
(1;20-33)/
(C)umr*kPfusL;vGefaysmfarGUjcif;ukd a&SmifMuOfyg (2;1-22)/
(i) bk&m;ocifudk ukd;pm;í Munfndkav;pm;yg (3;1-12)/
134
(p) OmPfynm\ aumif;BuD;r*Fvmrsm; (3;13-20)/
(q)olwpfyg;wkdYtay:rSm Muifemw&m;&Sdyg/ &ufa&mjcif;ukd jyKyg
(3;21-35)/
(Z) OmPfynmukd cH,lyg (4;1-9)/
(ps) qkd;aomtaygif;toif;ukd a&Smifyg (4;10-19)/
(n)txufazmfjyygtm;vHk;wkdYukd oif\ ESvHk;om;xJü okdxm;yg
(4;20-27)/
(V) azmufjyefusL;vGef;jcif;rjyKygeJY (olom;? r,m;ukd rjypfrSm;ygeYJ)
(5;1-14)/
(|) oif\ZeD; okdYr[kwf cifyGef;onftay:üopöm&Sdyg (5;15-23)/
olwpfyg;twGuf tmrcHay;jcif;ukd a&Smifyg (6;1-5)/
ysif;&djcif;ukd z,f&Sm;yg (6;6-19)/
oYlr,m;ukd jypfrSm;jcif;rS a&Smif&Sm;yg (6;20-35)/
olwpfyg;om;r,m;ukd jypfrSm;jcif;rSa&Smif&Sm;yg (7;1-27)/
(|) OmPfynmESifh rdkufrJjcif;ukd EIdif;,SOfazmfjyjcif; (8;1-9;18)/
3/ a&Smvrkefrif;BuD;\ okwåHpum;rsm; (10;1-24;34)/
(u)bk&m;ocifudk aMumuf&UHG jcif;ESihf rdu
k rf jJ cif;wdu
Yk dk EIid ;f ,SOjf yxm;aom okwåH
pum;rsm; (10;1-15;33)/
(c) bk&m;ocifEiS hf uRr;f 0ifjcif;toufwmudk wku
d w
f eG ;f Ek;d aqmfonfh okwåH
pum;rsm; (16;1-22;6)/
135
(*) tusio
hf v
D trsK;d rsK;d ESihf ywfoufaom okwpåH um;rsm; (22;17-23;35)/
(C)trsK;d rsK;d aom vlwt
Ykd aMumif;ESifh oufqidk o
f nfh okwpåH um;rsm; (24;1-34)/
4/ a[Zud\ vlrsm;u ul;,lcJhaom a&Smvrkefrif;BuD;\ okwåHpum;rsm;
(25;1-29;27)/
(u)tjcm;aomolrsm;ESihf aygif;oif;qufqaH &;ESihf ywfoufaom okwpåH um;
rsm; (25;1-26;28)/
(c) trltusifhrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh okwHåpum;rsm; (27;1-29;27)/
5/ tm*k&\ rdefYqkdcsufrsm; (30;1-33)/
(u)rdrdukd,fwkdifESifhqkdifaom pum;vHk;rsm; (30;1-14)/
(c) udef;*Pef;ta&twGufESifhqkdifaom okwåHpum;rsm; (30;15-33)/
6/ avarGv\ rdefYqkdaom pum;vHk;rsm; (31;1-9)/
&/ oDvESifhjynfhpkHaom rdef;r (31;10-31)/

a'oemusrf;
(tppftrSeftm;jzifh or®mw&m;odkUa&muf&Sdjcif;)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
a'oemusr;f ukd a&;om;cJah omolrmS a&Smvrkef (od)Yk aqmvkreG rf if;Bu;D jzpfaMumif;
taxmuftxm;ESpfck (twGif;ESifhtjyiftm;jzifh) awGUEkdifygonf/ tjyifykdif;
taxmuf txm;taejzifh? ,k'vlrsKd;wkdY\ xHk;wrf;pOfvmt& a&Smvrkefu
a&;om;xm;aMumif; rSw, f Ml uonf/ twGi;f ykid ;f taxmuftxm;t& usr;f csuf
rsm;jzifh þusrf;ukd a&;aomolrSm a&Smvrkefrif;BuD;jzpfaMumif; taxmufxm;
136
ckdifvHkpGm azmfjyxm;ygonf/ pma&;olukd,fukdif ]]'g0d'f\ om;awmf "r®a'oem
q&mjzpfaom a,½k&Svif rif;BuD; }} [lí t&ifqkH;azmfjy\ (1;1)/ xkdYaemuf
pma&;ol\ xl;qef;aomOmP yf nmtm;jzifh ud;k um;xm;ygonf (1;16)/ tvGef
trif;<u,f0csrf;omjcif; (2;7)? aysmf&TifrItwGuf tcGifhxl;rsm;pGm&&Sdjcif;?
taqmuftOD;wkd;csJUjcif; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm; (2;4-6) ponfhtm;vHk;wdkYrSm þusrf;ukd
a&;aomolonf a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D jzpfaMumif; taxmuftxm;cdik v f aHk pygonf/
þuJhodkYaom a&;rSwfom;&avmufatmif 'g0dwf\ trsKd;EG,frS wpfjcm;rnfol
&SEd ikd yf gtHeh nf;¿
a'oemusr;f \ trnfonf Septuagint rS qif;oufvmygonf/ rl&if;*&dpum;
vH;k \ t"dygÜ ,frmS ]]tpkt½k;H }} [líjzpfygonf/ a[NAaJ 0g[m&pum;\ qkv
d &dk if;
t"dyÜg,frSm ]]tpkt½kH;xJü pum;ajymqkdaomol}} odkYr[kwf a'oemq&m[lí
t"dygÜ ,f&ydS gonf/
usrf;ukda&;aomckESpf
931 bDpD/
*sL;vlrsKd;wkdY\ xHk;wrf;pOfvmt&? a&Smvrkefonf oltoufi,fpOf tapmykdif;
umv ü a&Smvrkeo f cD si;f ukd a&;om;cJNh y;D vli,fwpfO;D \ cspjf cif;arwåmaMumif;ukd
azmfxw k xf m;ygonf/ olonf vlvwfyidk ;f wd\ Yk OmPfynmESiq hf idk af om okwu
Hå sr;f
ukd ol\ toufwm&ifhusufvmNyD;rS a&;om;cJhygonf/ olonf touft&G,f
tkdrif;vmaom tcg touft&G,fBuD;aom a,musFm;wdkY\ 0rf;enf;aMuuGJ
jcif;ukd azmfjyaomtm; jzifh a'oemusr;f ukd a&;om;cJo h nf (12;1)/ "r®&mZ0if
wwd,apmif 11 ü rSww f rf;wifxm;aom a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D \ usi0hf wfw&m;ykid ;f
qkdif&m rSm;,Gif;azmufjyefjcif;tay: aemifw&jcif;ESifhqkdifaom ol\ 0rf;enf;
aMuuGjJ cif;udk rSww f rf;wifjcif; jzpfygonf/ xkaYd emuf a'oemusr;f rSm a&Smvrkef
rif;BuD; tedpöra&mufrSD (931 bDpD) ü ay:aygufvmaom ol\ EkdifiHawmf
uGJjym;jcif;taMumif;ESifh qufEG,frIrsm;ukd a&;om;xm;ygonf/ 30
137
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
tajccHusaom OD;wnfcsufrSm bk&m;ocifryg&Sdygu vlUb0onf tcsnf;ESD;
oufoufjzpfonf/ þOD;wnfcsuu f dk tus,cf sUJ aom &nf&,
G cf sut
f aMumif;&if;
av;rsKd;jzifh awGUEkdifygonf/
yxr? bk&m;ocifryg&Sdaom vlUb0toufwmonf t"dyÜg,fuif;rJhaMumif;
&SmazG xif&Sm;apygonf/ BudK;pm;tm;xkwfrIukd tajccHum pdwfcsrIukd jydKzsuf
&ef&SmcJhygonf/ olazmfjyonfrSm vlom;taygif;wkdY\ yef;wkdifrsm; odkYr[kwf
vlom;tjriftm;jzifh rSefonf[kxif&aom vrf;c&D;rsm;tm;vHk;wkdYonf ysufpD;
jcif;ESihf tcsn;f ES;D oufouf jzpfaom ol\tawGUtBuKH rsm;ukd rSww f rf;wifjcif;
tm;jzifh pmzwfy&dowfwkdYtm; bk&m;ociftwGuf aMumuf&GHUzG,faumif;aom
tEå&m,frsm;jzpfaMumif; odjrifapyg onf/ avmuaysm&f iT rf aI emufoYkd vkud pf m;jcif;
tm;jzifh aysmf&TifrI\ jynfhpHkjcif;odkY ra&mufEkdifaMumif; olazmfjyxm;ygonf/
'kwd,? uREkfyfwkdYonf ,HkMunfjcif;tm;jzifh touf&SifrIjyK&rnf/ tjriftm;jzifh
toufr&Si&f [k qkv d adk om taMumif;w&m;rsm;ukd b0toufwmü tjynft h 0
em;vnfjcif;r&Sdyg/ b0toufwmonf &Sif;jyr&Ekdifaom tjzpftysufrsm;jzifh
jynfah eygonf/ vlUb0xJü vlom;wdeYk m;rvnf oabmraygufEidk af om t&mrsm;
udk? xdef;csKyfEkdifaom t&mrsm;pGm&Sdygonf/ odkYaomfvnf; ,HkMunfjcif;tm;jzifh
bk&m; ocif\ wefckd;BuD;aomOmPfynmawmfESifh trIawmfxJü uREkfyfwkdYonf
rScD Edk idk yf gonf/ a,mb0w¬Kuo hJ yYkd if a'oemusr;f onfvnf; vlom;wd\ Yk tqk;H &Sd
jcif; (tueft Y owf jzpfjcif;) udk az:jyxm;Ny;D ? &Iyaf xG;aom trIt&mrsm;ay:ü
&Sod nfh toufwmudk vnf; em;vnf&efBuKd ;pm;oifah Mumif; a&;om;xm;ygonf/
þavmu\ toufwm? ]]aea&mifatmufü&Sdaom toufwm}} onf b0\
t"duaomhcsuu f dk vk;H 0ray;Ekid yf g/ þtcsuu f kd axmufjrifjcif;tm;jzifh vlom;
wdo Yk nf ajrBu;D ESiq hf idk af omt&mukd Munfjh cif;xuf txuft&yf bk&m;ociftm;
MunfharQmfNyD; ukd;pm;oifhayonf/
wwd,? a'oemusr;f onf okwu
Hå sr;f ü EIid ;f ,SOaf zmfjyxm;aom b0\ rSeu
f ef
138
aom tjrifrsm;ukd wifqufazmfjyxm;ygonf/ a'oemusrf;ü okwåHusrf;wGif
azmfjyouJhodkY b0taMumif;azmfjy&mwGif uGmjcm;rI&Sdygonf (okwåH? 10;16) ü
w&m;rQwjcif;onf ajzmifhrwfaomolESifh qkd;aomolwkdYESpfOD;pvHk;ay:ü
wnf&SdaMumif;qkdxm;ygonf/ okdYaomfvnf; (a'oemusrf; 8;14) ü þuJhodkY
tpOfojzifh r[kwaf Mumif;? þb0ü r[kwaf Mumif; avhvmoH;k oyfxm;ygonf/
þt&mrsm;rSm qefYusifjcif;rsm; r[kwfyg vm;/ xkdokdYr[kwfyg/ tb,faMumifh
qkdaomf okwåHusrf;onf tjypf'kp½kdufjynfhaeaom avmuBuD;xJü usqHk;wwf
aom toufwmtaMumif;udk az:jyjcif;r[kwb f J bk&m;ocif\ ed,mrrsm;ukd
azmfjyjcif;omjzpfygonf/ a'oemusr;f ürl ajzmifrh wfaomol touf&iS f wnf&dS
aMumif;? okwuHå sr;f uJo
h Ykd nTejf yxm;Ny;D aea&mifatmufü touf&iS af om vlom;
wkdY\ tuefYowf&Sdonfh &IaxmifhrSoHk;oyfjcif;onf ckdifvkH rSefuefrIr&SdaMumif;
az:jyxm;ygonf/
pwkw?å a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D azmfjyonfrmS ? vlom;wdo Yk nf rdrw
d \
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&rnft h aMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/ rnfoyYdk ifqadk p a'oemusr;f \ qkv d cdk surf mS
b0toufwmü rnfonfhtajzrQr&Sd? b0toufwmonf vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;
oH;k r& odrYk [kwf t"dygÜ ,f uif;rJjh zpfaeonf[k qkx d m;jcif;r[kwyf g/ bk&m;ocifudk
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olonf &Si;f vif;wifjyxm;yg onf/ pdwyf sujf cif;? &I;H edrjhf cif;? tv[o tcsn;f ES;D
jzpfjcif;rsm;ukd bk&m;ocifEiS hf rdwo f [m,zGUJ jcif;tm;jzifh auseyfa&mif&h J wif;wdrf
rIukd jyefvnf&&SdEkdifygonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
t"duyg0ifaomolrmS a&Smvrkerf if;Bu;D jzpfygonf/
c&pfawmfukd a'oemusrf;ü awGUjrif&yHk
vlom;wkdYonf pdwfauseyfrItjynfht0 odkYr[kwf toufESifh ykdrdk<u,f0aom
139
toufwm (a,m? 10;10? 7;37-38) wdo Yk nf toufocifa,½IEiS hf rdwo f [m,
zGJUjcif;tm;jzifhomvQif jynfhpHkapEkdifNyD; [mvm[if;vif;jzpfaom vlYb0tawGU
tBuKH rsm;onf c&pfawmftm;jzifo h mvQif &&SEd ikd af Mumif;azmfjyxm;ygonf/ vlom;
wk\ Yd ta&;Bu;D aom &nfreS ;f csurf sm;? vkt d ifqE´rsm;ESihf auseyfEpS o
f rd rhf rI sm;onf
u,fwif&Sifay:ü omvQif awGU&ygonf/
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef;? jyóemukd azmfjyjcif; (1;1-3)/
2/ jyóemudk azmfxkwfxif&Sm;apjcif; (1;4-2;26)/
(u)b0oHo&m\ tcsnf;ESD;tv[ojzpfjcif; (1;4-11)/
(c) vlom;wkdY\ OmPfynmonf tcsnf;ESD;tv[ojzpfjcif; (1;12-18)/
(*) avmuDaysm&f iT rf EI iS hf <u,f0csr;f omjcif;\ tv[ojzpfjcif; (2;1-11)/
(C)&kyf0w¬Kypönf;rsm;\ tcsnf;ESD;tv[ojzpfjcif; (2;12-23)/
(i) ed*;Hk csKy?f bk&m;ocif\ axmufyahH wmfrjl cif;ü 0rf;ajrmufjcif;ESihf wif;wdrf
a&mifh&JrI&Sdjcif; (2;24-26)/
3/ b0twGuf rajymif;vJEdkifaom bk&m;ocif\tBuHtpnfawmf (3;1-22)/
(u)vlYb0ü jzpfysufvmrnfht&mrsm;ukd BudKwifí cGcJ efrY w
S o
f m;awmfr\
l (3;1-
11)/
(c) b0\ tajctaeukd BudKwifí cGJcefYrSwfom;awmfrl\ (3;12-13)/
(*) vlom;tm;wdkYukd w&m;pD&ifawmfrl\ (3;14-21)/
(C)ed*kH; (3;22)/
4/ tcsnf;ESD;tv[ojzpfaom b0oHo&m (4;1-5;20)/
(u)raumif;rl (pmwef)\ zdpD;ESdyfpufjcif; (4;1-3)/
140
(c) yifyef;pGm vkyf&aomtvkyf\ tv[ojzpfjcif; (4;4-12)/
(*) EkdifiHa&;atmifjrifrI\ tv[ojzpfjcif; (4;13-16)/
(C)vlom;wdkY ukd;uG,frIbmom\ tv[ojzpfjcif; (5;1-7)/
(i) vlom;wdkY <u,f0csrf;omjcif;\ tv[ojzpfjcif; (5;8-17)/
(p) ed*Hk; (5;18-20)/
5/ vlUb0wpfckvHk;rSm tcsnf;ESD;tv[ojzpfjcif; (6;1-1)/
(u)<u,f0csrf;omjcif;ü auseyfESpfodrfhrIrawGUEkdif ( 6;1-2)/
(c) om;orD;wkdYü auseyfESpfodrfhrIrawGUEkdif (6;3-6)/
(*) vkyfaqmifaomvkyfief;rsm;ü auseyfESpfodrfhrIrawGUEkdif (6;7-12)/
6/ tcsn;f ES;D oufoufjzifh touf&iS jf cif;ay:ü aqG;aEG;wkid yf ifjcif; (7;1-12;8)/
(u)vlom;wdkY\ qkd;oGrf;rdkufrJrItay:ü aqG;aEG;wkdifyifjcif; (7;1-29)/
(c) bk&m;ocif\ axmufyHhjcif;tay:ü tBuHOmPfay;jcif; (8;1-9;18)/
(*) raocsmra&&maom b0toufwmtwGuf tBuOH mPfay;jcif; (10;1-
20)/
(C)tkdrif;BuD;&ifhvmaom b0toufwmtay:ü aqG;aEG;wkid yf ifjcif; (11;1-
12;8)/
7/ ed*Hk;csKyf (12;9-14)/
141

a&SmvrkefoDcsif;
(yl;aygif;aqmif&GufrItm;jzifh 0rf;ajrmufjcif;)

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f idk f azmfjyxm;ygonf
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oDcsi;f trsm;xJrS taumif;qk;H jzpfEidk yf gonf)/ ("r®&mZ0ifwwd,apmif 4;32)ü
a&Smvrkeo f nf aw;oDcsi;f 1005 cefu Y dk pyfq
f adk &;om;cJah Mumif; ajymjyygonf/
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ygonf/
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142
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Yd dk bk&m;ocif\ tjrifjzifh
yHkazmf xm;aom arwåmaw;oDcsif;jzpfygonf/
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&Sdygonf/ þtcsdefü a&Smvrkefonf rdzk&m; 60 ESifh armif;rrdóH 80 &Sd\
(6;8)/ odaYk omfvnf; ol\ aemufyidk ;f toufwmü rdz&k m;ckEpS &f mESihf armif;rrdóH
oHk;axmif &Sd\ ("r®&mZ0ifwwd,apmif 11;3)/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
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f &k if (a&Smvrke)f ESihf aum& (a,½kqvifNrKd UorD;rsm;)/
c&pfawmfukd a&SmvrkefoDcsif;ü awGUjrif&yHk
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h ,
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wifpm;í azmfjyxm;ygonf
t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ bGJUemrtrnf (1;1)/
2/ cspfjcif;arwåmouf0ifjcif; (1;2-3;5)/
(u)owkdYorD;\ awmifhwaomqE´rsm; (1;1-8)/
(c) tjyeftvSefcspfjcif;arwåm ouf0ifaejcif;ukd azmfjyjcif; (1;9-2;7)/
(*) owkdYorD;tdrfodkY &Sifbk&iftvnftywf<uawmfrljcif; (2;8-17)/
(C)owkdYorD;onf cGJcGgjcif;ukd yxrOD;qHk;jrifruffjcif; ( 3;1-5)/
3/ cspfjcif;arwåmü aygif;pnf;jcif; (3;6-5;1)/
(u)vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;r*Fvmtcrf;tem; (3;6-11)/
(c) owdkYorD;\ vSyrItay:ü csD;rGrf;jcif; (4;1-15)/
143
(*) xdrf;jrm;vufxyfjcif;ü vdkavao;r&SdjynfhpHkjcif; (4;16-5;1)/
4/ cspfjcif;arwåmü ½kef;uefvIyf&Sm;jcif; (5;2-7;10)/
(u) owkd;orD;\ cGJcGmjcif;ukd 'kwd,tBudrfjrifrufjcif; (5;2-7)/
(c) owdk;om;\ EkysKdcefYnm;rItay:ü csD;rGrf;jcif; (5;8-6;3)/
(*) owkd;orD;\ vSyrIudk csD;rGrf;jcif; (6;4-7;10)/
5/ cspfjcif;arwåmxJü &ifhusufwnfNidrfvmjcif; (7;11-8;14)/
(u) owkd;orD;onf olr\ tdrfodkYvnfywf&ef qE´&Sdjcif; (7;11-8;4)/

(c) vrf;c&D;awmfESifh tdrfodkYjyefvmjcif; (8;5-14)/


144

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aomt&mrsm;rSm xm0&bk&m;xHrS a&mufvmaom owif;pum; r[kwaf Mumif;
azmfjyygonf (w&m;? 18;20-22)/ "r®&mZ0ifyxrapmif 3;19 ü &SarGvonf
xm0&bk&m;ESit hf wl&o dS nfjzpfí ola[majymorQaom ya&mzufqidk &f m pum;
rsm;pGm tukeftpifjynfhpHkygonf (ajrodkYrusyg)/
wwd,? olwo Ydk nf £oa&vvlrsK;d wkt
Yd ay:ü uif;apmifrh sm;[lí qkx d m;ygonf
(a,Z? 3;17)/ a,Zausvonf Zdtek Nf rKd U½k;d ay:ü uif;apmifah omolwpfO;D uJo h Ykd
&yfaevsuf bmoma&;t,l0g'rSm;,Gif;aomolwkdYtm; owday;&ef wHykd;ukd
tqifoifrh w
I &f ef jyifqifaeygonf/ olonf olwt Ykd ay:ü Ekid if aH &;ESiphf pfa&;wGif
148
vrf;rSm;Muum wpfyg;aomolw\ Ykd wefc;dk rsm;ay:ü rScD jkd cif;? ½kyw
f u
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cgeefvlrsKd;wdkY\ bk&m;rsm;tm; udk;uG,fjcif;wGif yg0ifvmMujcif;rSm tEå&m,f
&Sad om bmoma&;qkid &f mvIy&f mS ;rIEiS hf yGv
J rf;obifrsm;udk qefu Y sivf suf owday;
wm;jrpf xm;ygonf/
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rsm;ESifh qufo, G rf jI yKMuum £oa&vvlrsK;d wd\Yk bmoma&;e,fy,fenf;pepf
wGif t"duusaompnf;urf;rsm;ü OD;aqmifvrf;jycJhMuygonf/ £oa&v
vlrsK;d Ekid if üH ya&mzufrsm;onf vltrsm;ESihf ajyjypfpmG qufq&H mwGif uk,
d pf m;vS,f
aqmif&Gufjcif;? odkYr[kwf NyD;ajrmufatmifaqmif&Gufjcif;? arma&S\ y#dnmOf
w&m;ESifhqkdifaomt&mrsm;ukd vlrsKd;awmfwdkYonf razmufjyef rzsufqD;rnfh
taMumif; pGJcsufwifjcif;wkdYwGif ae&m,lOD;aqmifrIjycJhMu ygonf/ 33
34
ya&mzufBuD;av;yg;wkdYtm; EIdif;,SOfjyjcif;
ya&mzufBuD;av;yg;wkdUtm; EIdif;,SOfjyjcif;
a[&Sm, a,&rd a,Zausv 'Ha,v
ya&mzuf ,k'jynfü&Sdaom ,k'jynfESifhzrf;oGm;jcif; AmAkvkefjynfü AmAkvek Ef iS hf
jyKjcif; *sL;vlrsKd;rsm; cHaom*sL;vlrsKd;rsm; zrf;oGm;jcif; wyg;trsKd;om;
cHaom*sL;vlrsKd;rsm; &Sib
f &k ifrsm;

ESifhpyfvsOf;í ,k'ESifha,½k&SvifNrdKU ,k'ESifhvlrsKd;awmfrsm; £oa&vwtdrfvHk; zrf;oGm;aom


(a,&Sm, 1;1/2;1) (a,&rd 1;5? 9-10/ 2;1-2) (a,Zausv 2;3-6/ £oa&vESifh
3;4-10?17) wyg;trsKd;om;rsm;
('H 2;36-43;9 )

Uzziah, a,m&dS Jehoiakim, Zedekiah Jehoiakim,


tkyfpkd;pOfumv Jotham Ahaz, Jehoiachia, zedekiah, (,k'&Sib
f &k if) Jehaiachi,
twGif; Hezekiah, (,k'bk&ifrsm;) Nebuchadnezzar Zedekiah
(,k'&Sib
f &k ifrsm;) (AmAkvek &f iS b
f &k if) (,k'bk&ifrsm;)
Nebuchadnezzar
(AmAkvek &f iS b
f &k if)

ckEpS f 740-680bDpD 627-585bDpD 592-570bDpD 605-536bDpD

4&m? 15-21
ordkif;rSwfwrf; &mZ0ifcsKyf'kwd,apmif 4&m? 22-25 'Ha,v? 1-6 'Ha,v? 1-6
26-30
149
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uREkfyfwkdY\ avhvmoHk;oyfcsuft& ynwfw&m;onf c&pfawmftwGuf a&G;
aumufjcif; (urÇmOD;usrf;)? a&G;EIwfjcif; (xGufajrmuf&musrf;)? oefY&Sif;apjcif;
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f eG ;f EI;d aqmfjcif;
(w&m;a[m&musr;f ) wkw Yd iG f £oa&vvlrsK;d wdu
Yk o
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(urÇm? 12;1-3? a&mr? 9;4-5) wkdYtm;jzifh tajcjyKtkwfjrpfcsonfukd azmfjy
xm;ygonf/
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e,fajrukd ay;tyfjcif;qkid &f m &mZ0ifusr;f rsm;ü azmfjyxm;ygonf (a,m½I) vlrsK;d
awmfwrYdk mS opömrJjh cif;aMumifh wpfyg;aomvlrsK;d wkt Yd m;jzifh zdEydS jf cif;? nSi;f qJjcif;
wku Yd dk cHae&ygonf/ bk&m;ocifonf olwt Ydk wGuf w&m;olBu;D rsm;ukd ay:xGe;f ap
awmfrNl y;D ? wpfyg;aom trsK;d om;wkt Yd xJü opöm&Sjd cif;ukd awGUjrif&yg onf (½ko)/
EkdifiHawmfwnfaxmifjcif;ukd a&Smvkrif;\ vufatmufü vlrsKd;awmf ukd
ay;tyfawmfrl \ ("r®&mZ0ifyxrapmif)/ xkdaemuf? 'g0d'frif;vufatmufü
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yxr)ESihf zsuq f ;D cHomG ;jcif; (&mZ0ifcsKy'f w k , d apmif) wkjYd zpfygonf/ rnfoyYkd if
qkdap bk&m;ocif\ opömw&m;awmfonf ol\ *wdawmfay:ü tpOftNrJ
wnfawmfr\ l / xkaYd Mumifh Adrmefawmf jyefvnfjyKjyifwnfaqmifjcif;tcGi&hf dS ({Z&)
NyD;? zrf;oGm;jcif;ukd cHaomolwdkYtm; jynfawmfokdY jyefvnfykdYaqmifjcif;tcGifhESifh
jyefvnfí jyKpyk sK;d axmifEidk jf cif;&SMd uygonf (ae[rd)/ bk&m;ocif\ vlwo Ykd nf
uG,u f mr,pjcif;ukd cH&onf ({owm)/ uAsm tvuFmqkdif&musrf;rsm;wGif
c&pfawmfü 0dnmOfa&;&m qE´BuD;rm;jcif;ESifh usifh0wf w&m;qkdif&m tajccH
150
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azmfjyxm;onfhtwkdif; vlrsKd;awmfpkESifhqkdifaom zGJUpnf;rItajccHrsm; wkd;wuf
jrifrh m;vmygonf/
ya&mzufqkdif&musrf;rsm;wGif c&pfawmfudk BuD;rm;pGm arQmfvifhapmifhpm;jcif;
oabmukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/ þt&mukd atmufygtwkdif;awGUEkdifygonf/
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wkoYd nf vlrsK;d awmfEiS q fh idk af om jyefvnfí wk;d yGm;wnfaxmifjcif;ukd
ar&S, d tm;jzifh jynfph rkH nftaMumif; arQmv f ifx h m;Mu\/ a[&Sm,ESihf
rdum© wku Yd <uvmrnfch &pfawmftm;jzifh vlrsK;d wumwdo Yk nf u,fwif
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dS / 'Ha,v
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vnfxal xmifjcif;&SMd urnft h aMumif; wku d w f eG ;f Ek;d aqmfxm;Muygonf/
rmvcdonf vlraI &;ESiu hf si0hf wfw&m;ykid q f idk &f mjyefvnfxal xmifjcif;ukd
azmfjyNyD; ]]w&m;awmfrif; onf temaysmufapaom tawmifwdkYESifh
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36
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þtcsuf w d k Y o nf u,f w if & S i f c &pf a wmf u d k "r® o rd k i f ; a[mif ;


wpfavQmufv;kH arQmw f cJah Mumif; oufaorsm;yif jzpfavawmhonf/
151

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xm0&bk&m;ocif\ u,fwifawmfrljcif;
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rsm;twGuf tBuHay;&ef a,½kpvifNrKdUü rif;rsKd;rif;EG,frsm;ESifh ol\tcdsefukd
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a[&Sm,onf oemc&dwfrif; tedpöa&mufaomESpf 681bDpDNyD; aemufykdif;
txdtouf&SifaMumif; odEkdifygonf/ 37
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152
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ESifh taMumif;rsm;udk tusOf;csKH;xm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf/
usrf;udka&;om;aomckESpf
740-680 bDpD/
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1/ tjypfwifjcif;?w&m;pD&ifjcif;ESiq
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(u) ,k'vlrsdK;rsm;ESifh ywfoufí (1;1-12;6)/
(1) tjypfwifjcif; (1;1-5;30)/
154
(2) ya&mzuftjzpfceft Y yfjcif; (6;1-13)/
(3) ar&Sd,<uvmjcif; (7;1-12;6)/
(c) wpfyg;trsdK;om;rsm;ESifh ywfoufí (13;1-23;18)/
(1) AmAkvkeftwGuf (13;1-14;23)/
(2) tm½I&dtwGuf (14;24-27)/
(3) zdvdwdåtwGuf (14;28-32)/
(4) armbtwGuf (15;1-16;14)/
(5) 'rmoufESifh ol\ r[mrdwf£oa&vtwGuf (17;1-14)/
(6) tDoD,kd;yD;&m;twGuf (18;1-7)/
(7) tJ*w k Kå (tD*sp)f twGuf (19;1-20;6)/
(8) AmAkvkeftwGuf (21;1-10)/
(9) {'kHjynftwGuf (21;11-12)/
(10) tma&AstwGuf (21;13-17)/
(11) a,½k&SviftwGuf (22;1-25)/
(12) [k½kjynftwGuf (23;1-18)/
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(25;1-27;13)/
(2) Edik if aH wmfwnfaxmifcsed \ f atmifyrJG sm;ESiahf umif;Bu;D rsm;
(24;1-23)/
(C) £oa&vESifh ,k'rsm;qdkif&m tem*wdårsm; (usdefqdkrIESifh aumif;BuD;
*wdrsm;) (28;1-35;10)/
(1) &Srm&dtm;usdefqdkjcif; (28;1-29)/
(2) ,k'tm;usdefqdkjcif; (29;1-31;9)/
(3) ar&Sd,<uvmjcif;ESifh EdkifiHawmftaMumif; (32;1-20)/
(4) tm½I&dwdkU a,½k&Svifudk zsufqD;rItwGuf usdefqdkjcif;
(33;1-24)/
(5) EdkifiHawmfrsm;odap&ef usdefqdkjcif; (34;1-17)/
(6) wnfaxmifrnfh EdkifiHawmftaMumif; (35;1-10)/
(i) tm½I&bd &k ifomoemp&dwt f wGut f em*wdrå sm;(36;139;8)/
155
(1) apmfum;armfum;tm½I&d (36;1-22)/
(2) bk&m;ocif\ opömawmf (37;1-7)/
(3) tm½I&d\ Ncdrf;ajcmufrI (37;8-35)/
(4) tm½I&u d akd tmifEikd jf cif; (37;36-38)/
(5) a[Zudb&k ifa&m*gpGjJ cif; (38;1-22)/
(6) a[ZudrdkufrJykH (39;1-8)/
2/ u½kPmESifhESpfodrfhjcif;tem*wdårsm; (40; 1-66 ; 24)/
(1) vlrsKd ;awmftm; a&G;EIwu f ,fwifjcif;taMumif;ESihf bk&m;ocif\
Bu;D jrwfawmfrjl cif;taMumif; (40;1-48;22)/
(2) vlrsdK;awmftm; u,fwifrnfht&SifESifh 'ku©cHpm;&aom tapcH
uReftm; u,fwifrnfhtaMumif; (49;1-57;21)/
(3) vlrsdK;awmf£oa&v\ bkef;xif&Sm;rnfhtem*wfESifh Nidrfouf
jcif;twGuf bk&m;ocif\ tpDtrH (58;1-66;24)/

a,&rdtem*wdåusrf;
(tjypfw&m;ESifh tjypfpD&ifawmfrljcif;taMumif; owday;jcif;)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
a[&Sm,tem*wdåuJhodkUyifþusrf;ü a&;olvlom;onf tb,fol jzpf
aMumif; &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyonf/ A,Frdefjynfe,f teokwfNrdKUrS [dvcd\om;
,Zfya&m[dwf a,&rda&;om;jcif;jzpfonf (1;1)/ a&;om;onf qd&k mü a,&rdu
`ru
G qf o
kd nfrsm;udk Am½kwu f ul;,l&jcif;jzpf onf/ ]a,&rd} tm;idak uR;ae&aom
ya&mzuf[k owfrw f nf (9;1,13;17) txD;useq
S Ef ikd o f efaom ya&mzuf? bk&m;
ocifu olUtm; tdrfaxmifjyKcGifhray;[k awGU&onf (16;2)/ pdk;&drfylyefol?
tm;i,fot l jzpfvnf; awG&Y avonf (1;6)/ odUk aomf qefUusirf rI sm;? ½du k yf w
k rf I
rsm;? tusO;f cH&jcif;rsm;udk cHpm;vsuf ,k'jynfBuKaH wGUvwHUå aom bk&m;ocif\
w&m;pD&ifjcif;rsm;taMumif;udk aMujimcJh avonf (11;18-23) (12;6) (18;18)
156
(20;1-3) (26;1-24) (37;11-38;28)/
þusrf;udk a&;olya&mzuftrnftwdkif; owfrSwfonf/ ]a,&rd}
qdkonfrSm ]],ma0bk&m;ocifonf pD&ifawmfrlonf}} [k t"dyÜg,foufa&muf
onf/
usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
627-585 bDpD/
a,&rdonf aZzed? [A£wf? 'Ha,v? a,ZausvwdUk ESihf wpfcwfwnf;
&Sio
f efco hJ nf/ ol\ya&mzuftrIawmfonf bDpD 626wGif pwifí 586tvGef
wGif NyD;qkH;onf/ oltrIawmfudk aZzedu qufvuf xrf;&GufcJh&onf/ bDpD
593wGif AmAkvek jf ynfü a,Zausvonf pwifí ya&mzufjyKc&hJ m a,½k&v S ifrS
]a,&rd} xufaemufusaom acwfjydKifya&mzuf [k qdkEdkifonf/ ]a,&rd} \
uG,v f eG jf cif; taMumif;rsm;udk rod&aomfvnf; ,k'wdUk qd½k ;kd t& tD*spEf ikd if t
H wGi;f
towfcH&onf[k qdkavonf (a[NAJ 11;37)/
OD;wnfonfh &nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
t"du&nf&,G cf surf sm;rSm (1) bk&m;ocif\ tjypf'Pfp&D ifjcif; taMumif;
owday;&ef (2) tu,fí ppfrSefaom aemifw&&Sdygu wkdif;jynfudk jyefí
ay;tyfrnf[laom arQmfvifhcsuf&Sdjcif;udk azmfjy&efjzpfonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
t"duyg0ifolrSm a,&rdudk,fwdkifjzpfí ol\ oGefoifrI? cHEdkif&nfowdå
ESifh ñSif;yef;ESdyfpufcH&jcif;rsm;udk azmfjyonf/
c&pfawmfudk a,&rdtem*wdåü awGUjrif&ykH
c&pfawmf\ oP²mefawmfukd a,&rdü trsKd ;rsKd ;azmfjyxm;onf/ touf
prf;a&wGif; (2;13 ESifh a,m 4;14)/ *dv'fjynfrS AmvZHyif\ tap; (8;22)?
auR;arG;aomod;k xde;f (23;4)? oefU&Si;f aomtñGe(Yf 23;5) a,a[0g aZ'ue[l
aombGJYESifh ajzmifhrwfaom t&Sif (23;6)? y#dnmOfw&m;opfudk ay;rnfbk&m;
(31;31-34)
157
þtem*wdåusrf;wGif xif&Sm;aom ar&Sd,ociftaMumif; azmfjycsuf
wpfckudk (22;28-30)wGif awGUjrifEdkifonf/ ,if;usrf;t& acgedESifh a,acged?
a,m&udrf rsdK;qufwdkUonf 'g0d'f\ &mZyv’ifrSm rxdkif&aom trdefUawmfudk
awGU&onf/ xdkUaMumifh &SifróJc&pf0if usrf; tcef; 1;1-17wGif awGUjrif&
aom c&pfawmf\ aqGawmfpOfrsd K; awmfqufyJG a&SmvrkeEf iS hf a,a,maAgifwUkd rS
wpfqifh rm&d\ cifyeG ;f a,moyfoUkd wdik af tmifa,½I\ rsKd ;qufcg&if;udk awGU&
onf/ odkUaomfa,moyfonf a,½I\ taoG;tom;ESifhqdkifaom zcif r[kwf
aomaMumifh a,moyf\ aoG;om;tjcm; om;rsm;wpfa,mufrQ 'g0d'\ f yv’iu f kd
a,½IuJhodkUrqufcH&aMumif;udk awGU&onf/ &Sifvkumc&pf0ifusrf; tcef;BuD;
(3;23-38)rSmrl rdcifBuD;rm&d\ bufrSrsdK;qufpm&if;udk awGY&NyD; 'g0d'f\om;
emoef(vkum 3;31)rS qif;oufonf[k azmfjyxm;&m a,m,udrt f m; qdck o
hJ nfh
used pf mESihf uif;vGwNf y;D rdcif&if;a,½Ionf 'g0d'\
f &mZyv’iu
f kd qufc&H aMumif;
38
tHhMozG,fawGU&avonf/
t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ a,&rdtm; qifhac:jcif; (1;1-19)/
(u) ac:qdkjcif; (1;11-10)/
(c) twnfjyKvdkufjcif; (1;1-19)/
2/ ,k'em;qif&ef tem*wdårsm; (2;1-45;5)/
(u) ,k'udk tjypfwifjcif; (2;1-25;38)/
(1) odvsufusL;vGefonf ,k'wdkUtjypfrsm; (2;1-3;5)/
(2) ,k'tm;tjypfay;jcif; (3;6-6;30)/
(3) ,k'\rSm;,Gif;aom udk;uG,frI (7;1-10;25)/
(4) ,k'\y#dnmOfudk csdK;azmufjcif; (11;1-13;27)/
(5) rdk;acgifjcif;ab;udk BuKH&rnf (14;1-15;9)/
(6) ,k'\ya&mzufudk topfxyfrHcefUtyfjcif; (15;10-16;9)/
(7) ,k'\tjypfveG u f sL;rIrsm; (16;10-17;27)/
(8) ,k'ESifh tmPmydkifaom odk;xdef;orm; (18;1-23)/
158
(9) ,k'ESifha&bl;uGJjcif; (19;1-20;18)/
(10) ,k'bk&ifrsm; (21;1-23;8)/
(11) ,k'\ya&mzuftwkta,mifrsm; (23;9-40)/
(12) ,k'wdkUtzrf;cH&jcif; (24;1-25;38)/
(c) a,&rd&ifqdkif&onfh y#dyu©rsm; (26;1-29;32)/
(1) a,&rd\ trIawmfudk ,k'wdkUwkefUjyefcsuf (26;1-24)/
(2) a,&rd\ ,k'twGuf tBuHjyKcsuf? aeAk'fcaeZmtm;tavsmh
ay;&ef (27;1-29;32)/
(*) jyefvnfjyKjyif&eftwGuf ,k'\ arQmfvifhcsuf(30;1-33;26)/
(C) a,½k&Sifvif rusqHk;rD arQmfvifhcsuf (30;1-33;26)/
(i) a,½k&SvifusqkH;jcif; (39;1-18)/
(p) usqkH;NyD;aemufjzpf&yfrsm; (40;1-45;5)/
3/ wyg;trsdK;om;rsm;twGuf tem*wdårsm; (46;1-51;64)/
(u) tJ*kwåKtwGuf (46;1-28)
(c) zdvdwdårsm;twGuf (47;1-7)
(*) armbtwGuf (48;1-47)
(C) tr®KeftwGuf (49;1-6)
(i) {'kHtwGuf (49;7-22)
(p) 'rmouftwGuf (49;23-27)
(q) tm&yfrsm;twGuf (49;28-33)
(Z) {vHjynftwGuf (49;34-39)
(ps) AmAkvek t f wGuf (50;1-51;64)
4/ ordkif;aMumif;jznfhpGufcsuf (52;1-34)
(u) a,½k&Svif\ uHMur®m (52;1-23)
(c) tcsdKUaomolrsm;\ uHMur®m (52;24-34)
159

a,&rdjrnfwrf;pum;
(pD;qif;aeonfh rsuf&nfjrpf)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf/
]a,&rdjrnfwrf;pum;} usr;f wGiaf &;ol\ trnfukd razmfjyyg/ odUk aomf
taxmuftxm;vrf;aMumif; 2ckt& a,&rd a&;om;aMumif; vufcH,kHMunf
xm;Muonf/
]jzpf&avjcif;} [lonfhtcsufrSm þusrf;\ ezl;pD;yifjzpfygonf/
,if;tcsuu f kd tcef; 1;1? tcef; 2;1 ESihf tcef;4;1 wdUk wGif xif&mS ;ay:vGiaf p\/
þusrf;\ qdkvdk&if;tcsufrsm;t& *sL;£oa&vwdkYonf ,if;udk idkauR;jrnf
wrf;jcif;rsm;usrf; (LAMENTATIONS) [k pGJrSwfcH,lMuonf/
usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
586 odkUr[kwf 585 bDpD
þusrf;onf bDpD 586ckESpfwGif a,½k&SvifNrdKUawmfBuD; ysufpD;cJhtNyD;
rMumrDtawmtwGif; a&;om;cJhjcif;jzpf&m xdkESpftwGif;rSmyif pwifa&;om;
onf[k qdEk ikd o
f nf/ ykaH zmfjyoxm;aom jrifuiG ;f \ &Si;f vif;jywfom;rIrsm;t&
586 odkUr[kwf 585 bDpDwGif a&;om;aMumif; odEdkifygonf/
OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
tjypf'kp½kdufrsm;ESifh jynfhESufaeaom a,½k&SvifNrdKUawmfBuD; tay:rS
usa&mufvmaom emMunf;cHcufb, G 'f u k a© 0'emrsm;aMumifh pdwrf ouf rompGm
jzifh nnf;wGm;jrnfwrf;&jcif;onf t"dutcsuf jzpfonf/ þusrf; tm;jzifh
NrKd UawmfBu;D ESiw
hf pfuG Adrmefawmfysupf ;D &ykwH Ukd udk azmfjyonf/ ,k'jynf \tjzpf
rsm;twGufbk&m;ocif BudKwifowday;cJhaom w&m;pD&ifjcif;jzpfcJhykHudk awGU&
onf/ odkUjzpfí ya&mzufu bk&m;ocif\ tjypfay;pD&ifjcif;onf vlom;wdkY
160
tzdkYw&m;rQwjcif;? ajzmifhrwfjcif; &Sdonfudk vlom;wdkY owdoHa0* &,l&ef
wdkufwGef;xm;onf/ qufvufí bk&m;ocif\ u½kPmawmfudk &SmazGMuoifh
aMumif;udkvnf; qdkzGJUxm;avonf/
a,&rd\ tem*wdåESifh jrnfwrf;jcif;usrf;ESpfapmifonf twl,SOfwGJ
avhvm rnfqdkygu ya&mzufBuD;\ xl;jcm;aumif;jrwfaom aqmif&Gufcsuf
wpfcktjzpf atmufygtwdkif; jrifawGU&avonf/39
a,&rdtem*wdå t½IH;ESifh a,&rdjrnfwrf;pum;
(owif;ay;jcif;) ysuo
f Ok ;f &aom (idak uR;jrnfwrf;jcif;)
a&SUodUk arQmMf u a,½k&Svif jyefvn S Mhf unfMh u

t"duyg0ifol
a,&rdu,
kd w
f ikd t
f "du
c&pfawmfudkþusrf;ü awGUjrif&ykH
a,&rdjrnfwrf;pum;wGif u,fwif&iS o f cifc&pfawmf\ oP²mefawmf
udk azmfjyonft h ydik ;f 2ckyg0ifonf/ (1)þusr;f onf vlom;wdUk twGuf 0rf;enf;cJh
&jcif;? emusicf &hJ jcif;? vlom;wdUk \ ty,fc&H jcif;? &efow
l Ukd \ tjypfwifc&H jcif;
ponfh c&pfawmf\ tjzpfawmfrsm;udk owd&atmufarhaponf (1;12)(2;15-
16) (3;14 ?19?30)
(2)a,&rd\ a,½k&v S ifNrKd UBu;D ysupf ;D jcif;tay:rSm ½Ijrifiakd uR;cJ&h yko
H nf (&Sirf óJ?
23;37-38)wGif azmfjyonfh c&pfawmf udk,fawmfwdkif xdkNrdKUawmfBuD;twGuf
idka<u;&jcif;tm; ykHazmfjyoonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ a,½k&SvifNrdKUawmfysufpD;jcif; (1;1-22)/
(u) ya&mzuf\jrnfwrf;jcif; (1;1-11)/
161
(c) NrdKUawmfa,½k&Svif\ jrnfwrf;jcif; (1;12-22)/
2/ rdrdvlrsdK;awmftwGuf bk&m;ocif\ trsufawmf (2;1-22)/
(u) bk&m;ocif\ trsufawmf (2;1-10)/
(c) pma&;ol\ jrnfwrf;jcif; (2;11-22)/
3/ 'kuy© ifv,fa0aeonfyh a&mzuf (3;1-66)/
(u) ol\NiD;wGm;jrnfwrf;jcif; (3;1-18)/
(c) olUarQmfvifhcsuf (3;19--42)/
(*) olUcHpm;&jcif; (3;43-54)/
(C) olUqkawmif; (3;55-66)/
4/ a,½k&SifvifNrdKUawmfrS ppf½IH;olrsm; (4;1-22)/
(u) ppf½IH;oGm;aom NrdKUawmf (4;1-12)/
(c) ½HI;&aomtaMumif;w&m; (4;13-20)/
(*) tem*wftwGuf arQmfvifhcsuf (4;21-22)/
5/ topfjyKjyif&efqkawmif;jcif; (5;1-22)/
(u) 0efcHrI (5;1-18)/
(c) toem;cHrI (5;19-22)/
162

a,Zausvtem*wdåusrf;
(igbk&m;ocifjzpfonf? olwdkYod&Murnf)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
a&;olonf ,Zfya&m[dwfa,Zausvjzpf\? olUzcifrSm AkZdjzpfonf/
olUudkya&mzwftjzpf wm0eftyfESif;cH&csdefwGif olonfbmbkvkef jynfü
uReftjzpf odrf;oGm;jcif; cHae&jyDjzpfonf (1;1-3)/ ya&mzufwpfyg;tjzpf
trIawmfxrf;&Guf&mwGif olonfAdrmefawmftwGuf tav;xm;&ykH? ,Zfya&m
[dwf wpfyg;tjzpf&yfwnf&yk?H ,Zfyal ZmfrrI sm;taMumif;ESihf bk&m;ocif bke;f awmf
udk xif&Sm;ap&ef t"duazmfjyoGm;cJhonf/ a,Zausv\ b0jzpfpOfudk olU
tem*wdå usrf;t&omvQif uREkfyfwdkUodjrifcGifh &&Sdonf/ olonftdrfaxmif&Sif
jzpfonf (24; 15-18)/ ud,k yf ikd t d nf (3;24-8;1)/ olonf tjcm;uReb
f rd &f m&So f 0
oufqif;olrsm;enf;wl vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;rsm; r&SdcJhay/
a[&Sm,ESifh a,&rdtem*wdårsm;uJhodkUyif ol\trnfemrtm;jzifh þ
tem*wdåudk azmfjyonf/ wdkuf½dkuft"dyÜg,fjyefqdkrnf qdkygu ]a,Zausv}
qdkonfrSm ]bk&m;ocifcGeftm;ay;onf? bk&m;ociftm;jzifh cGeftm;&&Sdonf}
[k t"dyÜg,f&Sdav\/
usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
593-571 bDpD
þtem*wdåusrf;wGif aeUpGJudkazmfjyxm;aomaMumifh tem*wdåa&;om;
&m aeUpGJrsm;udk twdtuseD;yg;rQ azmfjyEdkifygonf/ aeUpGJaygif; 13ck teuf12
ckwdkUonfbk&m;ocifu a,Zausvtm; qufoG,fcJhaom aeU&ufrsm;udk
ydkif;jcm;azmfjyonf/ usefwpfckaom aeUpGJrSm a,½k&SvifNrdKUawmf usqkH;NyD;
aemufydkif; ,if;owif;udk aqmifMuOf;vmol a&muf&Sdvmaom aeUpGJtjzpf
awGU&onf (33;21) bDpD 593-ckESpf Zlvdkifvü ya&mzuftjzpf cefUtyfcH&NyD;
163
aemuf a,Zausvonf ya&mzufwm0efudk 22ESpfwdkif wm0efausyGefpGm
xrf;aqmifcJhaMumif;awGU&onf/ bk&m;ocifxHrS Asm'dwfawmfudk aemufqkH;
oljyefMum;cJh&aom tcsdefumvrSm bDpD 571 jzpfavonf/
OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
£oa&vvl r sd K ;awmf \ tjypf r sm;ud k ½ I H ; csazmf j y&ef a ,Zausvt"d u
OD;wnfaMumif; (tcef;BuD; 1-32)t& awGU&\/ tem*wfwGif bk&m;ocif
tb,fodkU pD&ifrnfudk ESpfodrfhap&eftwGuf (33-48)twGif; azmfjyxm;
avonf/
t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
ya&mzufwm0efjzifh vlrsdK;awmf£oa&vuRefrjzpfrSD tcsdefrS pwifí
bmbkvkefEdkifiHü uRefjzpfonfhtcsdefwdkifatmif wm0ef,lcJh&aom AkZD\om;
a,Zausv udk,fwdkift"du yg0ifoljzpfonf/
c&pfawmfudk a,Zausvtem*wdåü awGUjrif&ykH
ar&S d , u,f w if & S i f o cif c &pf a wmf t m;tjrif h q k H ; aom £oa&v
awmifay:ü aumif;rGefaom pyspfEG,fyiftjzpf pdkufysdK;rnfhtaMumif;udk
bk&m;ocifazmfjyonf/ (17;23-24)/ ,if;onf a[&Sm,tem*wdå(11;1)
azmfjycsufESifhwlnDonf/ a,&rd (23;5) (33;15) ESifh Zmc&d (3;8) (6;12)
wGiv
f nf; þoabmw&m; udk awGU&onf/ a,Zausvonf ar&S, d ociftm;
tkyfpdk;ydkifaom ociftjzpf(21;26-27)wGif azmfjyNyD; ppfrSefaom odk;xdef;BuD;
tjzpf (34;11-31)wGif azmfjyxm;onf/
t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ a,Zausvtm;ac:,líwm0efay;jcif; (1;1-3;27)/
(u) a,Zausvbk&m;ocifbkef;awmfudk awGU&Sdjcif; (1;1-28)/
(c) EIwfuywfawmftwGuf wm0efay;tyfcH&jcif; (2;1-3;27)/
164
2/ a,½k&v
S ifNrKd UawmfEiS hf ,k'jynftm;vwfwavmpD&ifjcif; (4;1-24;27)/
(u) vmrnfhw&m;pD&ifjcif;twGuf vu©Pm 4&yf(4;1-5;17)/
(c) vmrnfhw&m;pD&ifjcif; 2rsdK;twGuf owif;pum;rsm;
(6;1-7;27)/
(*) Asm'dwfawmf 4ckudk ½lyg½kHcHpm;&jcif; (8;1-11;25)/
(C) pD&ifawmfrlcsufwdkU\ aocsmrIESifh taMumif;w&m;rsm;
(12;1-24;27)/
3/ wpfyg;trsdK;om;rsm;twGuf tem*wdårsm; (25;1-32;32)
(u) tr®KeftwGuf (25;1-7)
(c) armbtwGuf (25;8-11)
(*) {'kHtwGuf (25;12-14)
(C) zdvdwdåtwGuf (25;15-17)
(i) wk½ktwGuf (26;1-28;19)
(p) pd'kHtwGuf (28;20-26)
(q) tJ*kwåKtwGuf (29;1-32;32)
4/ £oa&vtm;topfjyefvnfjyKjyifjcif; (33;1-48;35)
(u) tarGcH&majrodkU £oa&vwdkUjyef&ykH (33;1-39;29)
(c) bk&m;ocifEikd if aH wmfü £oa&vwdUk yg0ifjcif; (40;1-48;35)
165

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(£oa&v\ tEdÅryef;wdkif)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
'Ha,v\udk,fydkiftawGUtBuKHazmfjycsuf (12;4)t& vnf;aumif;?
ig'Ha,v[lonfh tok;H tEIe;f t&vnf;aumif; (7;2)? 'Ha,vonf þusr;f udk
a&;ol[kqdk&ygrnf/ 605bDpDwGif 'Ha,vonf aeAkc'faeZmbk&if? 'g&d
bk&ifwUkd \ eef;awmfü rif;pd;k &mZm &mxl;ud&k &Scd o
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tjzpfowfrSwfazmfjycJhygonf/ (róJ 24;15) (rmuk 13;14)
usrf;trnfudka&;ol\ tem*wdåtjzpfazmfjyxm;onf/ 'Ha,v\
teuft"dyÜg,frSm ]bk&m;ocifonf w&m;pD&ifol odkUr[kwf bk&m;ocifonf
ightzdkU w&m;pD&if} [lí jzpfygonf/
usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
537 bDpD
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aemufydkif;wGif a&;om;jcif;jzpfonf/
OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
bk&m;ocifonf wpfqlwnf;aom bk&m;ocifjzpfawmfrl\/ olUudkqefU
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166
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BuD;yk*d¾Kvfrsm;rSm AmAkvefbk&if aeAkc'faeZm(bDpD 605)? xdkbk&ifudk qufcHol
'g&drif;BuD;? ay&odac:yg&Sef;bk&ifuk½k? tcef;BuD; 10wGif 'Ha,vudk vm
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c&pfawmfudk'Ha,vtem*wdåüawGUjrif&ykH
c&pfawmfudk tcGifhr&bJ taoowfjcif;cH&ol[lí (9;25-26)wGif
txift&Sm;azmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;onf um;wdkifvrf;udk ñTef;qdkjcif;jzpfonf/
xdkUtwl c&pfawmfudk EdkifiHawmfESifh acwfrsm;udkudk,fpm;jyKonfh ½kyfwktpdwf
tydkif;rsm;tm; wdkufcdkufonfh ausmufwkH;BuD;tjzpf (2;34-45)wGif azmfjyxm;
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t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
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(u) AmAkvkefodkUoGm;&jcif; (1;1-7)
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167
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wGif;xJodkYcsjcif; (6;1-28)
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3/ £oa&vtem*wfa&;Asm'dwf (8;1-12;13)
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(c) owif;ckEpS q
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(9;1-27)
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½lyg½kH (10;1-12;13)
168

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171
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usrf;rsm;\ tpDtpOfudk Munfhaomf
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1 a[ma&S 4 MoA'd 7 em[kH 18 [*¾J
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172

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cJhMuonfudkvnf; awGU&onf/ £oa&vjynfwGif ,k'jynfrSmuJhodkU wdkif;jynf
twGuf aumif;&maumif;usdK; jyKvkyfcJhaom rif;aumif;rif;jrwfrsm; wpfyg;rQ
ray:xGe;f cJah y/
OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
a[ma&Stem*wdu å sr;f onf opömr&Sad om £oa&v vlrsKd ;awmf tay:
ü rqkwrf epfaom arwåmESichf spcf ahJ om bk&m;ocifh arwåmtaMumif;udk odap&ef
a&;om;aom usrf;jzpfonf/ a[ma&S\tdrfaxmifa&;b0 jzpfpOfrSwpfqifh
cspjf cif;arwåmESihf tMuifemw&m;&Sad om bk&m;ocifonf vlrsKd ;awmftm; ol\
taMumif;udkodap&efESifh aumif;csD;ay;oem;&ef &nf&G,fonf/ vlowå0gwdkU
twGuf bk&m;ocifukd oduRr;f ap&efvnf; &nf&, G f onf/ a[ma&S\ jzpf&yfonf
vlrsdK;awmf £oa&vü tkyfpktvdkufjzpfap? vlwpfOD;csif;tvdkufjzpfap bk&m;
ocif\ y#dnmOfukd tb,frQ csKd ;azmufae onfukd ñTejf yonf/ odUk jzpfí ya&m
zufBu;D onf rdrv d rl sKd ;rsm;tm; þrQpw d &f n S f í arwåmBu;D rm;aom bk&m;ocifx
h H
aemifw&í jyefvn S v hf mMu&ef wdu k w
f eG ;f cJh onf/ opömazmufaom £oa&vudk
azmufjyefonfh rdef;rESifhom;orD; rsm;tjzpf Oyrmwifpm;azmfjyxm;avonf/
174

t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
a[ma&S? a*grmESifh £oa&vbk&ifa,[k/
c&pfawmfudka[ma&Stem*wdåü awGUjrif&ykH
a[ma&SwiG af r&S,
d u,fwif&iS tf m; bk&m;ocif\ om;awmf tjzpf awGU&onf/
(11;1? &SifróJ 2;15)/ vlom;wdkUtwGuf wpfyg;wnf;aom u,fwifydkif&Sif
(13;4? a,m[ef 14;6)/ aojcif;rSa&G;EIwfay;Edkifaom ocif (13;14? 1aum
15;55)/ arwåmu½kPmESijhf yKpo
k l (11;4)/ olUxHjyefvmolwUkd tm; tem a&m*grS
aysmufapol (6;1)
t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef; (1;1)
2/ a[ma&Stdrfaxmif? bk&m;ocif\ rdrdvlrsdK;awmfESifh qufqHa&;
(1;2-3;5)
u/ a[ma&Srdom;pk\ Asm'dwftvdkusykHpH (1;2-2;1)
(1)a[ma&S\rdef;r? opömr&Sdaom £oa&v (1;2-3(u))
(2)a[ma&Som;orD;rsm;? £oa&vtm;pD&ifjcif; (1;3c-9)
(3)£oa&vtem*wf? jyefvnfjyKjyifjcif; (1;10-2;1)
c/ tjypfay;í jyefvnfvufcHjcif; (2;2-23)
(1)bk&m;ocif£oa&vtm; tjypfay;jcif; (2;2-13)
(2)bk&m;ocif£oa&vtm; jyefvnfvufcjH cif; (2;14-23)
*/ a[ma&S\ tdrfaxmiftm;jyefvnfjyKjyifjcif; (3;1-5)
(1)bk&m;ocif\ trdefUawmf (3;1)
(2)a[ma&S\ emcHwkefUjyefjcif; (3;2-3)
(3)Zmwfvrf;udk &Sif;jyjcif; (3;4-5)
3/ a[ma&SxrH o S wif;aumif;? £oa&vtm;w&m;pD&ifjcif;ESihf jyefvnf
vufcHjcif; (4;1-14;9)
175
u.£oa&vtm; bk&m;ocifpGJqdkjcif; (4;1-6;3)
(1) £oa&vtm; bk&m;ocifpGJqdkjcif; (4;1-19)
(2) £oa&vtwGuf pD&ifcsufudk aMujimjcif; (5;1-14)
(3) £oa&vtm; jyefvnfvufcHjcif;twGuf Asm'dwf (5;15-6;3)
c. bk&m;ocif\ pGJqdkcsufudk tus,fcsJUaomf (6;4-11;11)
(1)£oa&vtjypfESifh tjypf'Pf (6;4-8;14)
(2)tjypfESifh tjypf'PfudkxyfrHwifjyjcif; (9;1-11;7)
(3)bk&m;u½kPmawmfjyefvnfopfviG jf cif; (11;8-11)
*.£oa&v\ trIudk zdwfvdkufjcif; (11;12-14;9)
(1)tNyD;owf tjypfwifjcif; (11;12-13;16)
(2)tNyD;owf EdI;aqmfcsuf (14;1-9)

a,mvtem*wdåusrf;
(bk&m;ocif\ aeUodkUa&mufvdrfhrnf)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
usr;f \tp(1;1)t& usr;f a&;olonf a,mvjzpfonf/ a,mv qdo k nfrmS ]a,
a[m0gonf bk7m;ocifjzpfawmfrlonf} [laom t"dyÜg,f&Sdonf/ olUtazrSm
]ayaoGv} jzpfaMumif;rSwpfyg; a,mv\ tjcm; taMumif;rsm;udk rod&ay/
a,mv\ usrf;azmfjycsufrsm;ESifh olUtrnf\ teuft"dyÜg,fonf
nDñGwfaMumif;awGU&onf/ a,mv\ azmfjycsufrsm;wGif bk&m;ocifwnf;
[laom tcsKyt f jcmtmPmydik &f iS \
f vufawmfatmufwiG f vlom;wdUk \ordik ;f ?
Ekid if aH wmfrsm;ESihf zefqif;jcif;tvk;H pkw
H Ukd wnf&adS eonfukd azmfjyxm;avonf/
176
usr;f udak &;aomckEpS f
835-796
xdkusrf;twGif;rSm txufygaeUpGJudk rawGU&aomfvnf; usrf;twGif;rS tjzpf
tysuf taxmuftxm;rsm;ESiahf eUpGu J kd wGucf su&f ,lygonf/ tcsKd UwdUk u aeUpGu J kd
835-400 bDp[ D k us,jf yefUpGm cefUrSe;f Muonf/ odUk aomf usr;f twGi;f rS azmfjycsuf
rsm;t& wkZd? pD'kef? zdvdwdå? tJ*kwåK? {'kHwdkYonf £oa&v\ &efolrsm;tjzpf
azmfjyxm;jcif; (3;4?19)aMumifh AmAkvkeftm; uRefrcH&rDS(PRE-EXILE) tcsdef
umv[k trsm;qk;H wGuq f Ekid o
f nf/ uReb f 0aemufyikd ;f ordik ;f wGif &eforl sm;rSm
tm½I&d? AmAkvkefESifh ay&odEdkifiHrsm;yg0if&rnf jzpfygonf/
OD;wnfonf&h nf&,
G cf sut
f aMumif;&if;
xdtk csed u
f mvü ,k'jynfwiG f usa&mufcahJ omrd;k acgifr?I usKd i;f aumifwYkd zsuq f ;D
rIrsm;udk om"u,lvsuf bk&m;ocif\ aeY&ufwGif £oa&v cHpm;&rnfh
tem*wfa&;rsm;udk a,mvazmfjyoGm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tvGef wdak wmif;aom tcsed f
twGi;f rSm oD;EStH ukev
f ;Hk ysuq
f ;D &rnf/ odUk jzpfí aemifw&vsuf bk&m;ocifxH
jyefvmyg/ bk&m;ocifonf cGifhvTwfvsuf aumif;csD;r*Fvm csay; rnf[lí
olqckd o
hJ nf/ xdw
k &m;twdik ;f olpma&;aeaom tcsed u f mvrSmyif trSef jzpfco hJ vdk
ordkif;aMumif; wpfckvkH;wGifvnf; trSef jzpfwnfcJhonf/
a,mvtem*wdrå S zGijhf yonfh t<uif;rJch pH m;&m Munf½h I jyKpak wmfrjl cif; ESihf tqk;H pGef
aom aumif;csD;r*Fvmrsm;twGuf *sL;vlrsdK;wdkUonf bk&m;ocif\ pD&ifjcif;ESifh
0dnmOfawmf oGe;f avmif;jcif; 2rsKd ;udk trSew
f u,fBuKq H Hk Muygvdrrhf nf/ rwlní D
qefYusifbufjzpfaom þjzpfpOfwdkUaMumifhyifvQif olwdkYonf bk&m;ocifxH
jyefvm&pNrjJ zpfayonf/
t"duyg0ifol
a,mv
177

c&pfawmfudktem*wdåüawGUjrif&ykH
c&pfawmfudk oefU&Sif;aom 0dnmOfawmfcsay;rnfh oltjzpf a,mv azmfjyonf
(2;28 a,m[ef 16;7-15? wref 1;8)/ EdkifiH rsm;tm;w&m;pD&ifol (3;2 ?12)?
£oa&v\ cGeftm;ESifh &Jwdkuf (3;16)/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ bk&m;ocif\ ordkif;0ifaeU (1;1-20)
(u) usdKif;aumifwdkUpHwifavmufatmifusa&mufjcif; (1;1-12)
(c) rdk;acgifrIudk pHwifavmufatmif&ifqdkif&jcif; (1;13-20)
2/ Asm'dwaf wmft&awGU&rnfb
h &k m;ocif\aeU (2;1-3;21)
(u) bk&m;ocifpD&ifrnfhaeUBuD;eD;jyD (2;1-27)
(1) ,k'jynftm;0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufjcif; (2;1-11)
(2) ,k'jynftm; u,fwifzdkU&ef vdktyfaomtajctae (2;12-27)
(c) bk&m;ocif\aemufqkH;aeU (2;28-3;21)
(1) aemufqkH;aeUrwdkifrSD ed*kH;jzpf&yfrsm; (2;28-32)
(2) aemufqkH;aeUwGif jzpfrnfht&mrsm; (3;1-21)
178

tmrkwftem*wdåusrf;
(rw&m;rIrsm;twGuf pD&ifcsuf)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
eef;wGi;f rSay:xGuo f al [&Sm,? ,Zfya&m[dwjf zpfol a,&rdwEYkd iS rhf wl? EGm;ausmif;
om;ESihf ozef;oD;qGwo f jl zpfonfh tmrkwo f nfþusr;f udak &;onf/ olZY mwdrmS
a,½k&v S ifNrKd Uawmf awmifbuf 10rdik cf efUtuGmwGi&f o
dS nfh awaum&Gmjzpfonf/
AufvifNrdKYESifheD;onf/ ausawmom;wpfOD;jzpfaomfvnf; EIwfuywfawmfudk
vdkufemol jzpfonf/
]tmrkwf} [lonf ]0efxkyf} odkUr[kwf ]0efxrf;ol} [kt"dyÜg,f&onf/ olonf
awmifydkif;,k'jynfom; jzpfaomfvnf; ajrmufzuf£oa&vwGif trIawmfudk
xrf;&Gucf &hJ Ny;D trSew
f u,f av;vHaom0efukd xrf;&Gucf &hJ onf/ avmba'go
rsm;? rw&m;rIrsm;? avmuDqefjcif;rsm;? rmefrmersm; xGe;f um; aeonfh ajrmufzuf
£oa&vwdkYtwGuf bk&m;ocifhxHrS trdefUawmfrsm;udk oljyefMum;cJh&onf/
tmrkwf (AMOS) udk a[&Sm,\ ocifjzpfonfh (AMOZ) ESifh rrSm;&efvdkonf
(a[&Sm ? 1;1)/

usrf;udka&;om;aomckESpf
760 bDpDcefU
tmrkwftem*wdåusrf;azmfjycsuft& tprSyif atmufygtwdkif; awGU&onf/
]],k'&Sibf &k ifMoZdrif; (790-739bDp)D £oa&v&Sibf &k if a,m&Som; a,a&m
aAmifrif; (793-753bDpD)wdkUvufxuf? ajrBuD;rvIyfrD ESpfESpftxufu}}[lí
jzpfonf/ xdkUaMumifh tmrkwfonf MoZdbk&ifESifh 'kwd,ajrmuf a,a&maAmif
rif;wdkUacwfwGif ya&mzufjzpfcJhaMumif; od&onf/ cefYrSef;ajc tm;jzifh 767-
179
753bDpD umvjzpfonf/ ajrivsiBf u;D rvIyrf D 2ESp[
f k od&aomfvnf; aeY&uftwd
tus rodEdkifyg/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
aumif;uifbrHk aS eí tmrkwt f wGuf ya&mzufjyK&ef tcsurf sm; a&mufvm&mwGif
tjypfp&D ifjcif;jzifh ed'gef;ysKd ;aomfvnf; arQmv f ifch surf sm;jzifh ed*;Hk csKyaf vh &Sad Mumif;
awGU&onf/ pBuFm0Vm\ teEÅbk&m;ocifonf olYudk ykefuefjcm;em;aeaom
avmutm;vkH;udk w&m;pD&if&eftwGuf ppfolBuD;rif; uJhodkY <uvmvdrfhrnf[k
tmrkwu f owday;cJo h nf/ txl;ojzifh bk&m;ocif\ ynwfawmfukd csKd ;azmuf
aeaom £oa&vwdkYonf tjypfay;cH&rnf[k azmfjyonf/ a,a,maAmif
bk&if\acwfwGif csrf;om<u,f0NyD;? ½kyf0g' orm;rsm;jzpfaeonf/ ajrmufydkif;
£oa&vom;rsm;taejzifh bk&m;ocif\ tjypfp&D ifcsurf S vGwaf jrmufEikd zf Ukd &ef
aemifww&m;onf t"du vdt k yfaMumif; olazmfjycJo h nf/ xdu k sr;f \ tqdt k &
rw&m;rIukd rke;f wD;aom bk&m;ocifonf rdr\ d oef&Y iS ;f jcif;ESit
hf nD £oa&v\
tjypfrsm;udk tjypfray;bJ cGifhrvTwfEdkif? ajzmifhrwfpGmpD&if&rnf[k qdkxm;av
onf/
£oa&vEdkifiHawmfonf zsufqD;jcif;cH&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; aemifw &&Sdaom
£oa&v<uif;aomolvlwpfpk (REMNANT)udk bk&m;ocif csefvSyfxm;rnf/
wpfaeUaomtcg xdo k w
l pfpo
k nf uwdawmfEiS hf avsmn f aD om aumif;cs;D udck &H í
jynfawmfü xif&mS ;&rnf/ xdok w
l Ukd ESit
hf wl vlrsKd ;wumwdUk udk bk&m;ocif odr;f
qnf; rnf[k azmfjycJhavonf/

t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
tmrkwf? ,k'bk&if MoZdrif;? £oa&vbk&if a,a&maAmif/
180

c&pfawmftm; tmrkwftem*wdåü awGUjrif&ykH


'g0d'frif;qufudk jyefvnfaqmufrnfholtjzpf c&pfawmfudk (9;11)wGif
azmfusL;onf/ vlrsKd ;awmfujkd yefvnfxed ;f odr;f rnfh t&Sit
f jzpfvnf; azmfjyxm;
onf (9;11-15)/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef;? usrf;a&;olESifh t"dutcsuf (1;1-2)
2/ tmrkwfazmfjyonfh pD&ifcsuf 8ck (1;3-2;16)
(u) 'rmoufEiS yhf wfoufí (1;3-5)
(c) zdvdwdåESifh ywfoufí (1;6-8)
(*) wk½kESifh ywfoufí (1;9-10)
(C) {'kHESifh ywfoufí (1;11-12)
(i) tr®KefESifh ywfoufí (1;13-15)
(p) armbESifh ywfoufí (2;1-3)
(q) ,k'ESifh ywfoufí (2;4-5)
(Z) £oa&vESifh ywfoufí (2;6-16)
3/ tmrkwf\w&m;a[mcsufrsm; (3;1-6;14)
(u) £oa&vtarSmifusjcif; (3;1-15)
(c) £oa&vtpGeUf ypfc&H jcif; (4;1-13)
(*) £oa&vtwGuf rkomaw;oDcsif; (5;1-6;14)
(C) tem*wfw&m;pD&ifcsdefrSm £oa&vysufqD;&rnf (5;1-17)
181
(i) bmoma&;ta&NcKHrsm;tm; tjypfwifjcif; (5;18-27)
(p) wdkif;jynfwpfckvkH;tm; jyif;xefpGm owday;jcif; (6;1-14)
4/ tmrkwfcHpm;&onfh ½lyg½kHig;rsdK; (7;1-9;15)
(u) 0g;rsdKrnfh usdKif;aumifrsm; (7;1-3)
(c) yifv,fudk yifavmifrnfhrD;BuD; (7;4-6)
(*) csdefBudK;csonfudkjrif&jcif; (7;7-9)
(C) Mum;jzwfordkif;azmfjycsuf - - - aAov,Zfya&m[dwf\
&efjyKjcif; (7;10-17)
(i) aEGumvtoD;rsm;ygaom ½lyg½kH (8;1-14)
(p) w&m;pD&ifaom bk&m;ociftm; jrifruf&jcif; (9;1-10)
5/ £oa&vtm;jyefvnfapmifhxdef;rnfh *wdawmf 5csuf (9;11-15)

MoA'dAsm'dwf½lyg½kH
(vuFmwpfyk'fjzifh pD&ifjcif;)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
usrf;a&;olonf ,k'jynfrS rxif&Sm;vSaom ya&mzufwpfyg;jzpfí MoA'd[k
trnf&Sdonf/ þtrnf\ teuft"dyÜg,frSm ]]bk&m;ocif\ wynfhawmf
odkUr[kwf udk;uG,fOD;ñTwfol}} jzpfonf/
"r®a[mif;usrf;rsm;xJrS vltawmfrsm;rsm;\ trnfrsm;tjzpf MoA'd trnfudk
awGUEdkifonf/ 'g0d'facwfwyfrawmft&m&SdwpfOD; (5 &m? 12;9)/ bk&m;ocif\
182
ya&mzufrsm;udk umuG,fay;ol tm[yfrif;qdk;rif;npf \tapcH(18;13)?
a,m&Sb d &k ifvufxuf uav0dtrsKd ;om;wpfO;D (6&m? 34;12)wdUk \ trnfrsm;rSm
MoA'd[í l awGUcJ&h onf/ {Z&ESit hf wl a,½k&v S if odYk jyefvmaom MoA'dtrnf&dS
yk*K¾d vw
f pfO;D udv
k nf; awGUEdik o
f nf ({Z&? 8;9)/ MoA'dEiS yhf wfoufí ZmwdNrKd U&GmESihf
rdom;pktaMumif;rsm;udk rawGU&/ olUociftrnfudkvnf; razmfjyaomaMumifh
rsdK;BuD;aqGBuD;xJrS jzpf[efrwlay/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
840bDpD
or®musrf;pmwGif twdkqkH;aom usrf;jzpfNyD; tydk'fi,f 21ckomyg0ifyg onf/
a&;om;aom&ufpu JG kd tcufcq
J ;Hk owfrw
S &f Ny;D 840bDp[
D k cefUrSe;f &jcif; rSm{'kjH ynf
twGuf zdvw d Eåd iS t
hf m&yfrsm;\ wpfzufrjS yKaom Asm'dwrf sm;udk azmfjyxm;aom
aMumifh jzpfavonf/ þjzpf&yfrsm;jzpfyGm;cJhonfrSm ,a[m&H bk&if\
acwfjzpfaom bDpD 848-841twGif;ü jzpfcJhNyD; xdktaMumif;udk (6&m 21;16-
17)wGif awGUjrifEdkifayonf/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
MoA'd\&nf&G,f&if;rSm rmefrmeonf usqkH;jcif;\taMumif; jzpfonf udk
azmfjyjcif;jzpfonf/ MoA'dtaejzifh a,½k&SvifNrdKUawmfBuD;ü 'ku©qif;&Jjcif;
a&muf&onfudk 0rf;ajrmufaom pdwfxm;&SdNyD; rmefrmeaxmifvTm;ol {'kHjynf
onf w&m;pD&ifjcif;udkcH&onfhtaMumif;udk wifjyxm;ygonf/

t"duyg0ifol
MoA'd
183

c&pfawmftm;MoA'dAsm'dwf½lyg½kHüawGUjrifykH
MoA'd(15-16)t& c&pfawmfonf wdik ;f Edik if rH sm;tm; w&m;pD&ifot l jzpf awGU&
onf/ £oa&v\ u,fwif&iS f (17-20)/ Edik if aH wmfukd ydik o
f pd;k rd;k ol (21)tjzpf
42
azmfjyonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfh tcsufrsm;
1/ {'kHjynftm;w&m;pD&ifrnfh taMumif;Asm'dwfrsm; (1;1-9)
(u) tpD&ifc&H rnft
h aotcsm (1;1-4)
(c) pD&ifjcif;\ jynfhpkHrI (1;5-9)
2/ {'kt
H m;pD&ifjcif;\tajccHtaMumif;w&m; (1;10-14)
(u) nDtpfudkpdwfxm;r&SdrI (1;10)
(c) rmefrmeaxmifvTm;rI (1;11-12)
(*) trsufa'go (1;13-14)
3/ w&m;pD&ifaomtcsed u
f mv (1;15)
4/ w&m;pD&ifrI\ &vm'frsm; (1;16-18)
5/ £oa&vtm;xkwaf qmifjcif; (1;19-21)
184

a,me0wåK
(tvdkawmfudk jiif;qefrI)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
usrf;a&;ol ]a,me} jzpfí bciftrnf ]trdwJå} jzpfonf/ £oa&v EdkifiH
*gvdvJt&yfrS ya&mzufjzpfonf/ ,if;udk usrf;tp(1;1)wGif awGUEdkif onf/
xdkusrf;onf ordkif;taxmuftxm;ESifh vlyk*d¾Kvftaxmuftxm;? yx0D
taxmuftxm;rsm;jynfph jHk cif;&So
d nf (4&m? 14;25)/ c&pfawmf ud,
k af wmfwikd f
onf ,if;tcsufudk oufaocHcJhonf (róJ? 12;40)/ a,me\ t"dyÜg,frSm
csKd ;iSujf zpfonf/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
793-753 bDpD
(4&m 14;27) azmfjycsutf &a,meonf 'kw, d ajrmuf a,a&maAgif rif;jyKaom
tcsed üf £oa&vya&mzufjzpfco hJ nf/ {vd&v
JS eG o
f mG ;Ny;D aemuf olay:xGe;f onf/
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awmfrlrnf}}[lí qdkcJhavonf/ 43

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ocif\ aumif;jrwfawmfrjl cif;ESihf tpGr;f owdu å kd owd&apaom tem*wdu å sr;f
jzpfonf/

t"duyg0ifol
[AuúKwf

c&pfawmftm;[AuúKwftem*wdåü awGUjrif&ykH
tem*wdu å sr;f oabmtwdik ;f c&pfawmftm; u,fwifyikd &f iS f tjzpf awG&Y onf/
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tcsuEf iS hf yifv,fa&onf rdrad e&mudk vTr;f rd;k ouJo
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t"duta&;BuD;aomtcsufrsm;
1/ [AuúKwf\ Za0Z0gjzpfjcif;? ,kHMunfjcif;udk ppfaq;íoGefoifjcif;
(1;1-2;20)
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c/ bk&m;\yxrtajz (1;5-11)
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aZzedtem*wdåusrf;
(w&m;pD&ifjcif;jzifhjyKaomaumif;csD;)
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(2;3)/
197

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
630-625 bDpD
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f jzpfovdk
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twGuf ,if;½kyw f rk sm;udk a,m&Srd if;rzsuq f ;D rD þusr;f udak &;om;jcif;jzpfonf/
cefUrSef;acs bDpD 630-625[k wGufqEdkifonf/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
,k'wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;\ 0dnmOfa&;? pm&dwåa&;rsm;onf rif;qdk; rif;npfrsm;
jzpfaom rema&SESifh tmrkefacwfrS tarGqdk;udkcH&í ysufpD;ae aMumif;azmfjy
onf(3;1-7)/ w&m;a[m&musrf;tcef;BuD; 28wGif BudKwif owday;cJhonfh
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vlrsKd ;wumwdUk a&SUwGif tjypfw&m;udpk &D if ydik o
f aMumif;azmfjyonf/ wpfcsed w
f nf;
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tem*wdåtm;jzifh tjypfpD&ifjcif; aemifw&&ef ajymqdkjcif;? tem*wftwGuf
u,fEIwfí aumif;BuD;ay;jcif;[laom tydkif;okH;ydkif;yg0ifygonf/

t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
aZzed? a,m&Sd

c&pfawmftm;aZzedtem*wdåüawGU&ykH
twdtusazmfjyjcif;r&Syd g? odUk aomfar&S,
d u,fwif&iS t
f m; £oa&vü ajzmifrh wf
198
aomolwpfOD; (3;5)tjzpfESifh bk&iftjzpf (3;15)ü awGY&\/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
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u/ urÇmajrBuD;wpfckvkH;tm; pD&ifjcif; (1;2-3)
c/ ,k'jynftm;pD&ifjcif; (1;4-2;3)
(1) pD&if&onfhtaMumif;&if; (1;4-13)
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hf &k m;ocifu&kd mS &ef
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u/ vlrsdK;wumwdkUtwGuf (3;9-10)
c/ £oa&vtwGuf (3;11-20)
199

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200

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201
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t&Six
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uwdawmfrsm;onf ,aeUtwGuf ,kHMunfjcif;wdkufjrpfjzpfonf [lía&;om;
azmfjyxm;avonf/

t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
[*J¾? 'g&d? aZ½kAaAv? ,Zfya&m[dwfrif;a,m½I

c&pfawmftm;[*J¾tem*wdåü awGUjrif&ykH
,ckusr;f wGif ar&S,
d u,fwif&iS t
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t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ yXrowif;pum;/ Adr®mefawmfudk wnfaqmuf&efzdwfac:jcif; (1;1-15)
u/ ed'gef; (1;1)
c/ yxrtBudrftjypfwifrI (1;2-6)
*/ vdkufem&ef (1;7-8)
C/ 'kwd,tBudrftjypfwifrI (1;9-11)
i/ owif;pum;udk wkefUjyefjcif; (1;12-15)
202
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(2;1-9)
u/ ed'gef; (2;1-2)
c/ aqmif&u
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uwdawmf (2;3-9)
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u/ ed'gef; (2;10)
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k ef mapmifx
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u/ ed'gef; (2;20-21(u))
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h wd
(2;21(c)-22)
*/ 'g0d'f\ EdkifiHawmfjyefvnfxlaxmifrnfhuwd (2;23)

Zmc&dtem*wdåusrf;
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usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
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hf o
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21)rSm az:jyonfh,k'bk&ifa,m&Sacwfu ,Zfya&m[dwfrif; a,m,'
\om;Zmc&d\ aojcif;udk razmfjycJhay/ 44

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
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204
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pdw0f n
d mOfukd apmifxh ed ;f vrf;jyjcif;rsm;\ ta&;Bu;D ykrH sm;udk azmfjyoGm;avonf/

t"duyg0ifaomolrsm;
Zmc&d? ,Zfya&m[dwfrif;a,m½I

c&pfawmftm;Zmc&dtem*wdåü awGUjrif&ykH
ar&S,
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tvGefodomaponf(3;1)/ ajzmifhrwfaom tñGefY(3;8)? rsufaph ckESpfvkH;
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<uvmawmfrlí ESdrfhcsaom&Sifbk&if(9;9-10)? pGefUypfcH&aom odk;xdef;(13;7)?
<uvmawmfrlí w&m;pD&ifrnfht&Sif ajzmifhrwfaombk&if(tcef; 14) . . .
[lí jynfhpkHpGm azmfjyxm;avonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ aemifw&&efyefMum;jcif; (1;1-6)
2/ Zmc&d\ ½lyg½kH 8rsdK; (1;7-6;8)
u/ jrif;rsm;ESifh jrif;pD;ol&Jaumif; (1;7-17)]
c/ csdK 4 ckESifh vuform; 4 OD; (1;18-21)
205
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C/ a&TrD;ckH (4;1-14)
i/ ysH0Jaeonfh pmapmif (5;1-4)
p/ {zgüxdkifaeaom rdef;r (5;5-11)
q/ &xm;pD; (6;1-8)
3/ a,m½Iudko&zlaqmif;jcif; (6;9-15)
5/ tpma&Smifjcif;twGuf ar;cGef;rsm; (7;1-8;23)
5/ tem*wfa&;&m EIwfawmfxGufpum;rsm; (9;1-14;21)
(u) ar&Sd,\ jiif;y,fjcif; (9;1-11;17)
(c) ar&Sd,\ pdk;pHjcif; (12;1-14;21)

rmvcdtem*wdåusrf;
(aemifwESifhtjyef)

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Nird ;f csr;f a&;&onfrt S p a&mrtifyikd ,f monf e,fajrcsUJ xGirf rI sm; tBu;D tus,f
jyKvkyfcJhonf/ txl;ojzifh a&mrvrf;rBuD; rsm; azmufvkyfvsuf ppfwyfrsm;ESif
v
h NHk cKrH u
I kd wm0ef,cl ahJ v&m tifyg,mwpfavQmufü tvGew f iG u f s,pf mG c&D;oGm;
vmEdik cf MhJ uonf/ Mo*wfpwyfqZD monf c&rf;a&mif0wf½EHk iS hf o&zlEiS {hf u&mZfbUJG
udck u H m t<uif;rJt h mPmudk udik pf x
JG m;cJNh y;D ynmowd&å &dS jdS zifh tkypf ;kd cJ&h m Nird ;f csr;f
vsuf csrf;om <u,f0aom acwfwpfacwfjzpfcJhonf/ ,if;tcsdefumvESifhywf
oufí Nidrf;csrf;aom a&mr (PAX ROMANA) [kac:qdkMuNyD; (27bDpD-
at'D 180)txd t"GefU&Snf cJhavonf/ ]Mo*wfpwyf}tm; arG;zGm;jcif;onf
bk&m;wpfyg;zGm;jrifjcif; jzpfonf[kyif trsm;pku csD;rGrf;axmremjyKaeMuNyD;
xdt k csed w f iG f trSef wu,fyifvQif bk&m;ocifonf vlUZmwduckd , H í l a,½I[l
aomtrnfukd cH,cl jhJ cif;jzpfonf/ vlom;udk bk&m;wrQ axmyem jyKaeMucsed w f iG f
tb,fvlom;urQ ay;pGrf;Edkifjcif; r&Sdaom xm0&Nidrf;csrf;a&;\ t&Sifbk&m;
ocifay:xGe;f jcif;yifjzpfygonf/ a&mrwdUk \ tkycf sKyaf &;ESihf Oya' tmPmawmf
216
atmufwGif u,fwif&Sif\ vlUZmwdtoufwm? u,fwif&Sif\trIawmfrsm;
twGuf bk&m;ocifBudKwifjyifqifay;cJhav&m 0rf;ajrmufbG,f u,fwifjcif;
owif;pum;udk aumif;pGm ñTefMum;jyooGm;EdkifcJhav\/
"r®opfusrf;udk pl;prf;avhvmjcif;jyK&mü u,fwif&Sif<uvmawmf rlaomtcsdef?
aESmif;umvü urÇmavmuBu;D twGi;f toif;awmfuw kd nfaqmufcsed f taMumif;
jcif ; &mrsm; taMumif ; ud k em;vnf x m;&ef vd k t yf y gonf / "r® y nm&S i f
MERRILL C. TENNEY a&;om;azmfjyxm;aom atmufygpmpkrsm;tm;
jzifh rsufarSmufacwf uREkfyfwdkU,kHMunfolrsm;onf qifjcifokH;oyfEdkifp&mrsm;
&Syd gvdrrhf nf/
]]c&pf,meftoif;awmfonf tjcm;aom,kHMunfudk;uG,f&m bmoma&;rsm;ESifh
jynfhESufaeaom urÇmavmuBuD;ü jzpfwnfí vmcJhygonf/ tqdkyg,kHMunf
ud;k uG,rf rI sm; tm;vk;H wdUk onf obm0tavsmuf wpfcEk iS w hf pfck tBu;D tus,f
jcm;em;aeonf rSeaf omfvnf; vufvrS ;f í rS&D efrvG,o f nfh teEÅwefc;kd &Sif bk&m;
ocifukd awmifw h onfah e&mrSmawmh twlwyl if jzpfav\/ xd, k MHk unfu;kd uG,f
aombmomw&m;rsm;teuf ,k'wdUk \ bmomw&m;uJo h Ukd arma&Srt S p ya&m
zufrsm;tm; udk,fhudkudk,fazmfjyonfh bk&m;aomfvnf;aumif;? vlowå0gwdkU\
Zmwdyuwd tjypfw&m;ESifh tjypfrSvGwfajrmufatmif u,fwifonfhw&m;udk
aomfvnf;aumif; aocsma&&mpGm azmfjyEdkifonfh udk;uG,f&m bmom[lí r&Sd
cJhay/ wpfenf;qdk&aomf ... vlom;wdkU\ vuf&Sdudk,fusifh w&m;rsm;onf
tjypf[laom t&mtwGuf aq;r&Sdovdk xdkvlom;wdkUtwGuf u,fwifjcif;
[laom w&m;vnf; r&SdEdkifbJ jzpfaecJhavonf/
,k'bmomüyifvQif or®mw&m;onf ra&&mraocsmbJ xk;H wrf;pOfvm tusihf
rsm;ESihf aomfvnf;aumif;? vk;H 0Oók*H ½krpdu
k jf cif;jzifah omfvnf;aumif; jzpfcsif
wdkif;jzpfaeonfudk awGU&onf/ bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfudk ,kHMunfí
em;vnfjcif;r&Sad omtcgwGif xdEk wI u
f ywfawmfonf vlom;wdt Yk wGuf uarmuf
urrsm;jzpfapcJhonfudk awGU&onf/ tajccHo'´g w&m;wdkUonf vufawGUwGif
217
tvdkawmftwdkif; r[kwfawmhbJ ajymif;jyefjzpfpOfrsm;udk jzpfay:apcJhonf/
bk&m;ocif\ tkyfcsKyfrI MoZmtmPmpufudk *½krjyKbJ uHMur®mudk ½dk;r,fzGJYvm
Muonf/ aus;Zl;arwåmawmftpm; rdrw d pYkd wd Bf uKd uv
f yk af qmifraI wG ydv
k monf/
ajzmifrh wfjcif;w&m;xuf xifovdu k siBhf urH aI wGrsm;jym;vmonf/ ud;k uG,0f wfjyK
jcif;onfvnf; tESpo f m&r&S?d qkawmif;&mrSmyif wpfu, kd af umif;qefvmMuNy;D
bk&m;ocif\ wefc;kd awmftpm; t,lo;D rIrsm;u vTr;f rd;k vmcJah vonf/ wenf;
tm;jzifh bk&m;ocifziG jhf yaom tvif;w&m;onf xifwikd ;f BucJ &H onfh tqifo h Ykd
a&mufí ,kMH unfjcif;üjzpfap? wefz;kd xm;&Srd üI jzpfap a0hvnfaMumifywf rjywf
rom; jzpfcJh&av\/ tcsdKUaom vlom;rsm;twGuf qdk&ygvQif tem*wf bmrQ
rpOf;pm;awmhbJ pdwBf uKd u&f iS o
f ef&jcif;onfyif b0\tbd"r®m jzpfaecJah v\/
avmuBu;D ü toufwm\ vrf;ñTecf su[ f í l r&S?d odUk jzpfaomaMumifh avmavm
vwfvwftqifajyvQif Ny;D pwrf;[lonfch , H cl surf sm; jzpfvmcJah vonf/ bk&m;
ocifth ay:ü oHo,jzpfymG ;vsuf a&S;umvbk&m;rsm;tpm; aemufxyf bk&m;
rsm;udk topf&mS azGvmMuavonf/ xdt k csed Ef iS hf wdu
k q
f ikd í
f vlom;wdUk Zmwfvrf;
Zmwfuu G rf sm;uvnf; [drk o
S nfrS ay:xGuv f monfEiS t hf nD qif;&J csr;f omra&G;
vlwef;pm;toD;toD;tzdkU pdwful;,Ofqefqef udk;uG,f,kHMunfrIrsm;vnf;
jzpfwnfcJhonf/ wenf;tm;jzifh vlUb0 wefzdk;jzpfaom0rf;ajrmufaysmf&Tifjcif;?
vlUb0yef;wkH;wdkifwdkUudk vlom;rsm; rcHpm;EdkifbJ qkH;½IH;cJh &onf}} 50
,if;onf MERRILL.C.TENNEY \ a0zefa&;om;csufjzpfvsuf wdk;wufae
onfqakd om uREyfk w
f Ukd acwftoif;awmfrsm;ud,
k w
f ikd f owdjyKqifcsif tyfaom
tcsufrsm;yif jzpfavonf/

"r®opfusrf;tm; zGJUpnf;wnfaqmufykH
"r®opfusrf;wGif usrf;apmifa& 27ck yg0ifí a&;om;ol 9OD;&Sdonf/ olwdkU\
pmaytrsdK;tpm;t&trsm;tm;jzifh tkyfpk 3ckcGJjcm;avh&Sdonf/
1/ ordkif;qdkif&musrf; 5ck/ c&pf0ifusrf;rsm;ESifh wrefawmf0wåK
218
2/ Mo0g'usrf; 21ck / a&mrMo0g'rSpí &Sif,k'Mo0gtxd
3/ tem*wdåusrf; 1ck / Asm'dwfusrf;
atmufazmfjyygZ,m;uGufrsm;tm;jzifhvnf; ydkif;jcm;Edkifonf/ 51

"r®opfusrf;rsm;
ordik ;f tem
Bo0g'pmrsm; *wdå
&Sifaygvk taxG a xG
&Sirf ó
óJJ trI a wmf a qmif c &D ; pOf &Sif,mukyf Asm'd w f
a,½k&SvifNrdKUü tzrf;cH&NyD;aemuf Bo0g'pm usrf ;
tpydkif;
a[NAJ
yXrtBudrf 'kwd,tBudrf Bo0g'pm
&Sifrmuk *vmwdBo0g' vGwfajrmufpOf &Si,f 'k
axmifuspOf axmifuspOf
Bo0g'pm
&Siaf yw½k
aumavmoJ wdarmao wdarmaoBo0g'pm
&Sifvkum oufomavmedwf Bo0g'pm
Bo0g'pmyXrapmif Bo0g'pm Bo0g'pm 'kwd,apmif yXrapmif
yXrapmif &Siaf yw½k
{zuf Bo0g'pm
&Sifa,m[ef oufomavmedwf
Bo0g'pm'kwd,apmif Bo0g'pm 'kw, d apmif
wdwkBo0g'pm &Siaf ,m[ef
aum&dEoK zdavrkef Bo0g'pm
Bo0g'pmyXrapmif yXrapmif
Bo0g'pm
wrefawmf &Siaf ,m[ef
0wåK aum&dEoK Bo0g'pm
Bo0g'pm'kwd,apmif 'kw, d apmif
&Siaf ,m[ef
zdvdydÜ Bo0g'pm
a&mrBo0g'pm Bo0g'pm wwd,apmif
219

"r®opfusrf;wGifyg0ifaom usrf;rsm;\ OD;wnfcsufrsm;

0rf;ajrmufbG,fowif;pum; &S i f ; vif ; zG i f h q d k r I


ordik ;f &S i f r óJ ? &S i f r muk ? u,f w if & S i f < uvmjcif ; ?
&S i f v k u m? &S i f a ,m[ef vl Y Z mwd E S i f h tvk y f v k y f j cif ; /

wref a wmf 0 wå K aMujimcsuf


pmtkypf may wref a wmf r sm;rS w pf q if h <uvmawmf r l a om
0d n mOf a wmf O D ; aqmif v suf ocif h o wif ; ud k aMumjimjcif ;
vI y f & S m ;jcif ;

Bo0g' &S i f ; vif ; csuf


toif;awmfrsm;üvly*k K¾d vfrsm; c&pf a wmf \ vl U Zmwd b 0ES i f h
Bo0g'rsm; twG u f vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udko½kyfazmfí
ay;pmrsm;jzpfjcif; ,k H M unf o l c &pf , mef r sm;
a&mrBo0g'rS urÇ m avmuBuD ; xJ w G i f
&S i f , k ' Bo0g' txd twk , l v suf touf & S i f & ef /

Asm'd w f a wmf NyD ; ajrmuf j cif ; avmuBuD ;


u,f w if & S i f o cif c &pf a wmf twG u f aemuf q k H ; jzpf p Of r sm;
tem*wdå aemufqkH;tBudrf<uvmawmf ud k B ud K wif a zmf j yvsuf u ,f w if
rl j cif ; &S i f jyef v nf < uvmrnf h
taMumif ; ol \ tk y f p d k ; jcif ; ES i f h
xm0&Ed k i f i H a wmf w nf a xmif r I /

"r®opfusrf;pmonftcsdefumvtwdkif; pDpOfjcif;r[kwfbJ ,kwdåaA'


enf;vrf;usepGm a&SUaemufppD Ofwifqufxm;ygaMumif;udk "r®ynm&Sif RYRUE
u azmfjycJh onf/52 RYRIE \tqdkt&
]]a&S;OD;pGm c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;tm;jzifh c&pfawmf\ oufawmfpOfukd rSww
f rf;
wifygonf/ xdkUaemufc&pf,mef,kHMunfjcif;w&m; ESHUjym;onfhordkif; jzpfpOfudk
wref a wmf 0 wå K uazmf j yvsuf Mo0g'ay;pmrsm;tm;jzif h toif ; awmf \
220
jyóemrsm; Mum;rSm ,kMH unfjcif;tajccHrrl sm; wnfaqmufay;cJyh gonf/ ed*;Hk wGirf l
Asm'dwu
f sr;f tem*wdEå iS chf &pfawmf\'kw,
d tBurd <f uvmawmfrjl cif; ud½k yl g½kcH pH m;
&apayonf}}
usr;f pmokawoDrsm;taejzifh "r®opfusr;f wdUk a&;om;onfh aeUpGrJ sm;udk
twdtus oabmrwlnMD uyg/ odUk aomf atmufygtcsed Zf ,m;twdik ;f jzpfcv hJ rd hf
rnf[k trsm;pku cH,lMuyg\/

usrf;trnf aeUpG J(A.D) usrf;trnf aeUpG J(A.D)

&S i f , muk y f B o0g' 45-46 wref a wmf 0 wå K 61

*vmwd B o0g' 49 &Sifayw½kBo0g'yXrapmif 63-64

&S i f r muk c &pf 0 if 50 60 wdarmaoBo0g'pmyXrapmif 63

&S i f r óJ c &pf 0 if 50 60 wd w k B o0g'pm 65

ouf o mavmed w f ( yES i f h ' k ) 51-52 a[NAJ B o0g'pm 64-68

aum&dEoKBo0g'pmyXrapmif 55 &Sifayw½kBo0g''kwd,apmif 67-68

aum&dEoKBo0g'pm'kwd,apmif 56 wdarmaoBo0g''kwd,apmif 66

a&mrBo0g'pm 57-58 &S i f , k ' Bo0g'pm 70-80

&Sifvkumc&pf,mef 60 &S i f a ,m[ef c &pf 0 if 85-90

aumavmoJESifh {zufBo0g' 60-61 &Sifa,m[efBo0g'(y?'k?w) 85-90

zdvdydÜESifh zdavrkefBo0g'rsm; 60-61 Asm'd w f u srf ; 96


221

"r®opfusrf;rsm;udk pkaqmif;cJh&jcif;
"r®opfusrf;rsm;wdkYonf oD;oefUjzpfapcJhaom pmapmifrsm;jzpfMuNyD; ,if;wdkUudk
tcsdefMumjrifhpGmjyefvnf pkaqmif;NyD;rS usrf;pmtwGJtjzpf wnfaqmufí
EIwu f ywfawmfrmS yg0ifvm&onf/ bk&m;ocif\ apmifx h ed ;f rItm;jzifh þusr;f
27apmifwu Ykd kd ueOD;toif;awmf\ tjcm;pmayrsm;ESihf oD;oefUcGx J w
k cf &hJ ygonf/
þodkUEIwfuywfawmf0if usrf;pmtjzpfowfrSwf&onfrSm olwdkYwGif awGUjrif&
aom 0dnmOftESpfom&rsm;ESihf usrf;jyKyk*d¾Kvfrsm;\ wrefawmftcGifhtmPm
yg0ifjcif;rsm;aMumifhjzpfonf/ "r®ynm&Sif RYRIEuyifvQif taumif;qkH;
zGiq
hf &kd mü-
]]þusrf;rsm;udk jyKpkNyD;aemufü aumufumiifumpkpnf;NyD; usrf;pmtjzpf
owfrw S cf jhJ cif;r[kwyf g/ "r®opfusr;f pmapmif 27udk EIwu f ywfawmfrmS pm&if;
oGi;f &rnf[k rjzpfraevkyu f ikd af qmif&u
G jf cif; r&Scd yhJ g/ &Siaf ygvk\ qk;H rMo0g'pm
rsm;? c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;ponfh pmapmifrsm;udk toif;awmfrsm;? oufqikd &f m ,kMH unf
olrsm;u w½dw k ao xde;f odr;f apmifah &SmufcMhJ uNy;D aemufyikd ;f usrS wpfajz;ajz;csi;f
qef;ppfpkpnf;cJh&jcif;jzpfygonf/ þusrf; 27apmifpvkH;udkvnf; ueOD;toif;
awmfrsm;tm;vk;H onf wpfnw D nGww f nf;w&m;todtrSwf jyKcMhJ uygonf/}} [lí
azmfjyxm;ygonf/
þtrIawmfonf ESpaf ygif; 350cefUMumjrifah tmif vkycf &hJ aom tvkyjf zpfonf/
'kw, d &mpkEpS t f wGi;f rSmqdvk Qif t,ltqtrSm;rsm;udk wGiw f iG u
f s,u
f s,f xkwaf 0
jzefYcsdcJhMuygí touf&Sifaom EIwfuywfawmfudk tav;teufydkif;pkpnf;&ef
tajctaeqdu k af &mufcohJ nf/ þodUk ydik ;f jcm; qef;ppf&mwGif atmufygazmfjyyg
pHcsed rf sm;&Scd yhJ g\/
1/ xdpk mapmifonf wrefawmfa&;aom odUk r[kwt
f wnfjyKaom
pmapmifjzpfyg\avm/
2/ xdpk mapmifü yg0ifaom usr;f wdUk onf 0dnmOfawmfwefc;kd &Syd g\
avm/
222
3/ bk&m;ocif\ oefU&Si;f aom 0dnmOfawmfrw
I o
f iG ;f xm;aMumif;
odomyg \avm/
4/ ,kMH unfot
l oif;awmfrsm;u us,jf yefpY mG vufcEH ikd yf g\avm/
rnfodkUyifjzpfap ... &mpkopf\ toif;awmfrsm;rSm EIwfuywfawmf usrf;pm
tm;vkH;udk wpfaoG;wpfoHwpfrdefUxJ vufcHcJhMuonfawmh r[kwfyg/ odkYaomf
usr;f pmrsm;onf twkta,mifrsm;tjzpf ykwcf wf½UHI csrrI sm; r&Scd MhJ ubJ vly*k K¾d vf
wpfOD;csif;twGuf &nfñTef;aom usrf;rsm;jzpfaom zdavrkef? &Sifa,m[ef
Mo0g'pm 'kw, d ESihf wwd,apmifwUkd uJo h Ukd aom usr;f rsm; udk us,uf s,jf yefjY yefY
jzefYa0tokH;jyKjcif; r&SdcJhMuay/ trsm;qkH;tjiif;yGm; cJh&aom usrf;rsm;rSm
&Si,
f muky?f &Si,f 'k ? &Siaf yw½k Mo0g'pm'kw, d apmif? &Siaf ,m[efMo0g'pm 'kw, d
apmif? zdavrkefMo0g'pmwdkUjzpfcJhNyD; aESmif;ydkif;wGifrl trsm;pkoabmwlvufcH
vmMuonf omru AD 397 ü umaohcsNf rKd UBu;D wGif usi;f yonf/ toif;awmfrsm;
aumifpDnDvmcHu wcJeuftwnfjyK jcif;udk cH&avonf/
"r®opfusrf;rl&if;ü yg&Sdaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk wdkuf½dkufwkyul;,lrIrsm;
r&SdcJhaomfvnf; tenf;ESifhtrsm;qdkovdk udk;um;azmfjyxm;onfh *&dcfvufa&;
rlaygif; 4500? vufwifbmomjzifh vufa&;rlaygif; 8000ESifhwuG? rl&if;udk
bmomjyefqx kd m;aom pmtkyaf ygif;tenf;qk;H 1000&Syd gonf/ ,if;pmtkypf may
rsm;udk *½kwpdkuf avhvmokH;oyfjcif;tm;jzifhvnf; "r®opfusrf;pmonf tvGef
wdusrSefuefonf opömw&m;jzpfaMumif; em;vnfvm&ay\/ 53
223

tydkif; (1)
ordkif;ESifh,SOfc&pf0ifrsm;

ed'gef;
"r®opfusr;f rsm;onf ordik ;f ? Mo0g'? Asm'dw[ f í
l pmaytrsKd ;tpm; ok;H ck pkaygif;
xm;aMumif;udk odc&hJ ygjy/D c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;[lonfh 0rf;ajrmufb, G f u,fwifjcif;
w&m;udk zGifhqdkaomusrf;rsm; 4apmifonf "r®opfusrf;\ 46 &mcdkifEIef;udk
zk;H vTr;f aeNy;D tu,fí wrefawmf0wåKuykd g xnfo h iG ;f vQif ordik ;f ESihf qdik af om
usr;f rsm;pkpak ygif;onf "r®opfusr;f \ 60&mcdik Ef eI ;f &Srd nf jzpfavonf/ c&pf,mef
,kHMunfjcif;w&m;onf c&pf0ifusr;frsm;\ obm0jzpfaom ordkif;rSefuefrI
tay:rSm wnfaqmufjcif;jzpfvsuf 0rf;ajrmufbG,faom aumif;owif;udk
tjcm;aomusrf;rsm;rSwpfqifh qif;oufvmjcif;jzpfum vufqifhurf;azmfjy
ay;vsu&f ydS gonf/ ,if;onf ppfreS af om ordik ;f aMumif;jzpf&yfwUkd \ oufaocH
csuf[k qdk&rnfvnf;jzpfygonf/ c&pf0ifusr;f 4qlwUkd onf a,½I\ vlUZmwdcH
,ljcif;ESihf b0toufwm? taocHawmfrjl cif;ESihf &Sijf yefxajrmufawmfrjl cif;rsm;udk
224
azmfjyay;í wrefawmf0wåKrmS rl a&S;OD;c&pf,meftoif;awmfrsm;wGif wrefawmf
BuD;rsm; trIawmfaqmifcJhykHrsm;udk azmfjyxm;\/
xdUk aMumifw
h refawmf0wåKqo kd nfrmS wrefawmfwUkd \ Mo0g'usr;f rsm;udk em;vnf
ap&eftwGuf r&Sv d Qirf jzpfaom usr;f Bu;D [lívnf; qd&k ygrnf/ xdMk o0g'pmrsm;
onf ordik ;f 0ift&yfa'o toD;oD;rS vlom;rsm;qDoUkd trSef wpfu,fa&;om;ay;
vdu k af om pmrsm;yifjzpfavonf/ tcsKyt f m;jzifq
h &kd ygrl "r®opfusr;f qdo
k nfrmS
vlUordkif;twGif;ü touf&Sifawmfrlaom bk&m;ocif\ owif;aumif;rsm;udk
aqmifMuOf;vmaom ordik ;f rSww f ikd t
f jzpf twdwu f mvrS onfypöKyeÜ ?f tem*gwf
umv ok;H yg;pvk;H twGuf bk&m;ocif\ or®mw&m;tvif;a&mifukd azmfjyaeav
ownf;/

qifwlc&pf0ifusrf;rsm; (SYNOPTIC GOSPELS)


c&pf0ifusr;f wpfcck si;f udk rpl;prf;rD ]qifwcl &pf0ifusr;f rsm;} [laom a0g[m&udk
&Sif;zdkUvdktyfygrnf/ c&pf0ifusrf;wdkif;rSm wdusaom tav;teuf xm;rIESifh
&nf&, G cf suo
f ;D oefpY &D MdS uaomfvnf; &Sirf óJ? &Sirf muk? &Siv
f u
k mwdu
Yk kd qifwu
l sr;f
rsm;[k qdkxm;avonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf c&pfawmf\ oufawmfpOfudk
xdkusrf;okH;apmifonftwlwpfuG ½IjrifMuvsufjzpfpOf jzpf&yfrsm;\ taMumif;
tajccHESifh wifjyrIrsm;wGifvnf; oabmxm;wlrQMuonfudk awGY&aomaMumifh
jzpfayonf/ xdkrQru qifwlusrf; 3apmifpvkH;onf &Sifa,m[efc&pf0ift&
awGUjrif&aom c&pfawmf\ oP²mefawmfuv kd nf; ydík touf0ifap&ef b0o½kyf
udak zmfjyay;Edik f Muavonf/ atmufazmfjyygtcsurf sm;onf qifwcl &pf0ifusr;f
3apmiftwGif;wlnDrI&Sdaom tydkif;rsm;udk azmfjyaeygonf/
ã AwdZå q
H &ma,m[ef\ar&S,
d twGuaf Mujimcsuf
(róJ? 3? rmuk? 1? vkum? 3)
ã a,½IAwdåZHcH,ljcif; (róJ? 3? rmuk? 1? vkum? 3)
225
ã a,½Itm;pkHprf;aESmifh,Sufjcif; (róJ? 4? rmuk? 1? vkum? 4)
ã qk;H rMo0g'jyKjcif;ESihf tHb
h ,
G ef rd w
d jf yojcif; (usr;f wdik ;f \ tydik ;f trsm;pk)
ã oP²mefawmfajymif;vJjcif; (róJ? 17? rmuk? 9? vkum? 9)
ã w&m;pD&ifrI? aojcif;ESifh oN*dKvfcHawmfrljcif;
(róJ? 26-27? rmuk? 14-15? vkum? 22-23)
ã &Sifjyefxajrmufawmfrljcif; (róJ? 28? rmuk? 16? vkum? 24)
c&pf0ifusrf; 4apmif\ &nfrSef;csufESifhwdusaom OD;wnfcsuf
usr;f 4apmifpvk;H \ &nfreS ;f csuo
f nf a,½Ic&pfawmf\ bk&m; Zmwdukd azmfjy&ef
jzpfav\/ (&SifróJc&pf0if? 16;13-16) wGif þodkUawGUjrif&yg onf/
]]a,½Ionf zdvdyÜKuJo&dNrdKU\ aus;vufodkU <uawmfrlaom
tcgvlrsm; wdkUonf vlom;jzpfaom ighudktb,foljzpfonf
qdMk uoenf;[k wynfah wmf wdUk udk ar;jref;awmfrvl Qif vltcsKd Uu
ud, k af wmfonf AwdZå qH &ma,m[ef jzpfonf [lí¤if;? tcsKd Uu
{vd,jzpfonf[í l ¤if;? tcsKd Uua,&rdrpS í ya&mzufwpfyg;
yg;jzpfonf[í l ¤if; qdMk uyg\[k avQmufMuaomf? oifwUkd vnf;
ighudk tb,foljzpfonf qdkMuoenf;[k ar;jref;awmfrlvQif?
&Srd ek af yw½ku ud,
k af wmfonf c&pfawmfwnf;[laom touf
&Sifawmfrlaom bk&m;ocif\ om;awmfjzpfawmfrlonf[k
avQmufav\}}
(&SifróJc&pf0if? 16;14)onf a,½I\ acwfumvürsm;pGmaom vlom;wdkY\
cH,lcsufrwlnDykHudk azmfjyaeygonf/ tvGefenf;yg;aom vlwpfpkuomvQif
c&pfawmfukd bk&m;ocif\ om;awmf[k cH,cl MhJ uygonf/ odUk jzpfí ... oefU&Si;f
aom 0dnmOfawmf\ vrf;ñTerf EI iS t
hf nD c&pf0ifusr;f a&;om;olwo Ykd nf a,½I\
tjzpfawmftrSefudk ol\vlUZmwd? ol\ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;rSwqifh today;
226
azmfjyay;cJMh uav\/ þenf;tm;jzifh c&pf0ifusr;f 4apmifrw S pfqifh wdusjywf
om;aom olw\ Ykd OD;wnfcsurf sm;udk azmfjyoGm;cJMh uNy;D wynfah wmfrsm;twGuf
ocifc&pfawmfoad pcsiaf om tajzrsm;udk azmfjyoGm;cJah vonf/ wenf;tm;jzifh
a,½Ib,folenf;[laom tajzyif jzpfygonf/ olwdkUonf ocifc&pfawmf
tm;jzifh "r®a[mif;usr;f rsm;u arQmvf ifch o
hJ nfh ar&S,d u,fwif&iS ?f bk&m;ocif\
tapcHuRe?f vlom;? bk&m;ocif\om;awmf? xdUk aemuf ... avmu\ u,fwif
&SifjzpfaMumif;udk tav;teufazmfjycJhonf/ c&pf0ifusrf;rsm; tm;vkH;wdkUonf
vlUZmwdukd cH,al om bk&m;ocif\ oP²mefawmfukd vnf;aumif;? c&pfawmf\
trIawmf aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udkvnf;aumif; wdusaomykH&dyfrsm;ESifh jyooGm;cJh
av\/
&SifróJc&pf0ifusrf;onf *sL;vlrsdK;wdkUtm; olwdkU arQmfvifhapmifhpm;aeaom
ar&Sd,u,fwif&Sifonf emZ&ufNrdKUom;a,½IjzpfaMumif; *sL;vlrsdK;wdkY\ bk&if
jzpfaMumif;udk azmfjyoGm;cJo
h nf/ &Sirf óJonf a,½I\aqGawmfpOf rsKd ;awmfquf
udk azmfjyvsufxdkocifonf vlom;wdkU\jiif;y,fjcif;ESifh taoowfjcif;udkcH&
aomfvnf; "r®a[mif;usr;f rsm;rS azmfjycJo h nfh ar&S,
d u,fwif&iS jf zpfaMumif;udk
ynwdåusrf;csuf (10)csuftm;jzifh azmfjycJhonf (&SifróJ? 1;23? 2;15? 2;18?
2;23? 4;15? 8;15? 12;18-21? 13;35? 21;5? 27;9-10)wdkUjzpf\/ u,fwif&Sif
a,½Ionf vlrsKd ;awmf trsm;pk\ jiif;y,fjcif;udck &H ef um;wdik af wmfwiG f touf
pGefYcJh&aomfvnf; taoaumifr&Sdonfh ocsØKif;*lrS xajrmufoGm;cJhonf/
&Sifrmukc&pf0ifusrf;onf pum;rsm;rsm;rajymbJtvkyfudkom rsm;rsm;vkyf
wwfaom a&mrvlrsdK;wdkUtwGuf a,½Ionf bk&m;ocif\ tapcHuRef? rdrd
toufawmfukd vltrsm;twGuf ylaZmfaomociftjzpf azmfjycJo h nf/ xdo
k Ukd wif
qufazmfjy&mwGif rmukonf wdkwkwfaom c&pf0if usrf;pmtouf0ifatmif?
wuf<uatmifa&;om;cJhonf/ rsufjrifoufaorsm;xHrS cdkifvkHonfh taxmuf
txm;rsm;udk jyqdck o
hJ nf/ c&pfawmfa,½I\ aemufq;Hk &ufowåywfjzpfpOfrsm;udk
txl;ojzifh azmfjyoGm;onf/ &Sirf muk c&pf0ifusr;f \ ok;H ykw
H pfyo
Hk nf c&pfawmf\
ta&;Bu;D orQ t&ma&mufaom aemufq;Hk aeU&ufjzpfpOfrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf/
227
&Sifvkumwnf;[laom q&m0ef? ordkif;ynm&Sif c&pfawmfudk vlom; wpfOD;
tjzpfyDjyifpGm azmfjyonf/ vlom;onf aysmufaomolwdkUudk &Smí u,fwiftHh
aomiSg <uvmownf;}} [k (19;10)wGif azmfjycJo h nf/ &Siv
f u
k monf c&pfawmf
\ vlUZmwdcHb0tjzpfpOfudk azmfjy&if; bk&m;ocif\ ZmwdjzpfpOfudkvnf;
aMujimay;cJoh nf/ tcsKd Uordik ;f ynm&Sirf sm;url &Siv
f u
k monf *&dcvf rl sKd ; jzpfonfh
tm;avsmfpGm vlom;\ tbd"r®mrsm;udk ydkrdkokH;pGJcJhonf[k ,lqMuavonf/
&Siaf ,m[efonf c&pfawmfukd xm0&toufEiS hf jynfph <Hk u,f0apaom bk&m;\
om;awmftjzpf,kHMunfolrsm;tm;ay; ydkifol[kqdkcJhonf (1;1-2, 12? 3;16-
18, 36? 10;10)/ &Siaf ,m[ef\a&;om;rIrsm;onf vlUavmu wpfcv k ;Hk twGuf
jzpf,rHk utoif;awmfoUkd OD;wnf&nfñeT ;f cJo
h nf/ tcef; 5ckonf c&pfawmf\
taocHawmfrrlrSD em&Dtenf;i,ftwGif; wynfhawmfrsm; tm;ay;aomusrf;
rsm;jzpfonf/ xdkrQruthHbG,faom wefcdk;edrdwfvu©Pm 7ckudk ,kHMunfolrsm;
twGuf xm0&touftjzpf tm;ay;azmfjycJhonf (a,m[ef? 20;30-31)/

&SifróJc&pf0ifusrf;
(,k'bk&if jzpfawmfrljcif;)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;wpfcpk o
D nf usr;f a&;olvo l m;\trnfukd ,lavh&dS ay\/,ck
þusr;f onf tjcm;c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;uJo h Ukd a&;ol\trnfukd razmfjyaomfvnf;
ueOD;toif;awmfrsm;taejzifh wrefawmfBu;D &Sirf óJ a&;om;onf[k vufcMH u
onf/ tvGeaf &S;usonfh pmay½Ia'gifrh S a0zeforl sm;uvnf; ]]&Sirf óJ\ tqdk
t&}} [lí þusr;f udk acgif;pOfwyfcMhJ ujyjD zpfav\/ &Sirf óJ odUk r[kwf c&pfawmf
\ wynfhawmft&if;tjcmjzpfaom &SifróJonf rdrd\ *sL;vlrsdK;rsm;tm;
228
olwUkd arQmv
f ihf apmifph m;aeMuonfh ar&S, d u,fwif&iS t
f aMumif;udk zGiq
hf ckd jhJ cif;yif
jzpfygonf/ ol\rl&if;trnfrmS av0djzpfonf/ olbcifrmS tmvyJ(ALPHAEUS)
jzpfonf [kqdkonf/ olonf ocif\aemufawmfodkY rvdkufrDrSm tcGefcHwpf
a,muf jzpfco hJ nf (róJ? 9;9? 10? rmuk? 2;14-15)/ ocifa,½Iac:aomtcg
csujf cif;aemufawmfov Ykd ukd o
f nfukd axmufaomfoo l nf a,½I\trIawmfjrwfukd
ESpo
f ufjrwfE;kd aeol[í l cefrY eS ;f &onf/
usr;f udak &;om;aomckEpS f
AD 50 odkUr[kwf 60
&SifróJ\aeUpGJudk AD 40rSpí 140txdtrsdK;rsdK;t,ltq &SdMuonf/
odUk aomfa,½k&v
S ifNrKd UawmfBu;D ysupf ;D rnfh AD 70twGuf BuKd wifazmfjyxm;onfh
twGuf xdktcsdefrwdkifrD a&;om;jcif;[k qkH;jzwfoifh\/ (24;2)trsm;pku
tapmqk;H a&;om;onfh c&pf0iftjzpf AD 50[ktcdik t f rm qdMk uonf/ tcsKd Uurl
tapmqkH; usrf;rjzpfEdkif[k AD 60udkpGJ,l Muavonf/
OD;wnfonf&h nf&,
G cf sut
f aMumif;&if;
16;13-15 twGif;a,½Iuol\ wynfhawmfrsm;udk ar;cJhaom ar;cGef;rsm;t&
&Sirf óJtaejzifh *sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;udk emZ&ufNrUkd om;a,½I\ tjzpfawmftppftrSeu f kd
odapvdo k nf/ xdUk aMumifh þusr;f udak &;onf [kqo kd nf/ a,½Ionf "r®a[mif;
umv ya&mzufwdkUAsm'dwfjyKcJhaom ar&Sd,u,fwif&Sifjzpfygovm;? jzpfonf
qdkvQif xdktcsdefu bmoma&; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf a,½Iudk tb,faMumifh
vufrcHoenf;? a,½Ionfvnf; aumif;uifEikd if aH wmfukd tb,faMumifh rwnf
axmifoenf;? aemifwiG af &m ... wnfaxmifO;D rnfavm ... b,ftcsed rf mS
wnfaxmifrnfenf;/ ponfjzifh ar;p&mrsm;&Scd &hJ m &Sirf óJtaejzifh a,½Ionf
*sL;vlrsdK;wdkU apmifhpm;cJh&aom ar&Sd,jzpfonfudk aqGawmfpOfrsdK;awmfquf
pm&if;ESihf &Si;f jycJo
h nf (1;1-7)? rm*kynm&Sw d Ukd \ zl;ajrmfjcif;ESihf oufaojycJo
h nf
(2;1-12)/ a,½k&SvifNrdKUawmfodkU 0ifa&mufjcif;ESifh azmfxkwfcJhonf (21;5)/
vlom;wdkYtm;tjypfpD&ifjcif; (25;31-46)ESifh twnfjyKcJhonf/ aumif;uif
229
Edik if aH wmf\ taMumif;udk azmfjy&mwGif tjcm;aom c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;ESihf azmfjycsuf
jcif;wlnDrI&Sdí "r®a[mif;tem*wdåwdkU qufvufjynfhpkH&OD;rnfudk em;vnfap
ygonf/

c&pfawmftm;&SifróJc&pf0ifusrf;ü awGU&ykH
&Sirf óJonf a,½Iukd "r®a[mif;umvü arQmv f ifch &hJ aom ar&S, d u,fwif&iS f
tjzpf o½kyfazmfcJhonf/ tmjA[H? 'g0d'fwdkUrS qif;oufaom om;jzpfonf/
xdUk aMumifh 'g0d'\ f rif;quftaejzifh Edik if aH wmfukd ydik o f cGi&hf dS onf/ ]aumif;uif
bkH&Sif} (KING OF HEAVEN)[laom a0g[m&udk ol\ usrf;wpfavQmufwGif
32Burd f ok;H pGaJ zmfjycJo
h nf/ xdrk Qru "r®a[mif;usr;f tem*wdrå sm;a,½I\ vlUZmwd
cH,lcsdeftwGif; 10BudrfwdkifjynfhpkHonfhtaMumif;udk rD;armif;xdk;azmfjycJhonf/
tjcm;aom c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;xuf"r®a[mif;usr;f udk tok;H csu;kd um;&mrSm &Sirf óJ
c&pf0ifusr;f onf ydí k rsm;onf/ tBurd af ygif; 130wdik &f adS Mumif; awGU&avonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ vlUZmwdESifh bk&iftjzpf<uvmawmfrljcif; (1;1-4;25)
u/ arG;zGm;jcif; (1;1-25)
c/ todtrSwfjyKjcif; (2;1-12)
*/ xGufajy;wdrf;a&Smifjcif; (3;13-23)
C/ olUtwGufjyifqif&ol (3;1-17)
i/ pkHprf;aESmuf,Sufjcif; (4;1-11)
p/ yXrwynfhawmfrsm; (4;12-25)
2/ aMujimjcif;ESifh bk&iftjzpfa[majymoGefoifjcif; (5;1-7;29)
u/ udk,ftrlt&m (5;1-12)
230
c/ ,kHMunfolwdkUwm0ef (5;13-20)
*/ vlrIqufqHa&; (5;21-48)
C/ ay;vSLjcif;? qkawmif;jcif;? tpma&Smifjcif; (6;1-18)
i/ ppfrSefaom &wem (6;19-34)
p/ ynwfawmfrsm;jznfhqD;jcif; (7;1-29)
3/ bk&if\tcGit
hf mPmESihf (8;1-11;1)
u/ ukojcif; (8;1-17)
c/ ac:,ljcif; (8;18-22)
*/ rkefwdkif;udk Nidrf;apjcif; (8;23-27)
C/ ewfqdk;udk ESifxkwfjcif; (8;28-34)
i/ xyfrHukojcif; (9;1-38)
p/ wynfhawmfrsm;tm; ñTefMum;jcif; (10;1-11;1)
4/ t&Sio
f ciftjzpfvufrcHaomtpDtpOfrsm;wd;k wufjzpfay:rI
(11;2-16;12)
u/ AwdåZHq&ma,m[efudk csD;rGrf;jcif; (11;2-19)
c/ aemifw&Mu (11;20-30)
*/ zg&d&SJwdkU wdkufcdkufrI (12;1-50)
C/ ykHjyifOyrmrsm; (13;1-58)
i/ a,m[efudk acgif;jzwfrI (14;1-12)
p/ ydrk rkd sm;jym;onft
h b
hH ,
G w
f efc;kd vu©Pmrsm; (14;13-36)
231
q/ tusifhESifh vsdKU0Sufnpfñl;rI (15;1-20)
Z/ ukorIrsm; (15;21-39)
ps/ ydrk q
kd efUusiw
f u
kd cf u
kd Mf ujyD (16;1-12)
5/ bk&ifw
h ynfah wmfrsm;tm;jyifqifjcif; (16;13-20;28)
u/ ayw½k\ 0efcHcsuf (16;13-28)
c/ ud,
k af &mifu,
kd 0f gawmufyjcif; (17;1-13)
*/ ewfqdk;pGJjcif; (17;14-23)
C/ ,kHMunfjcif;ESifh tcGefaumufrI (17;24-27)
i/ ,kHMunfjcif;ESifh cspfjcif; (18;1-19;12)
p/ ,kHMunfjcif;ESifh uav;oli,frsm; (19;13-15)
q/ ,kHMunfjcif;ESifh aemufawmfvdkufjcif; (19;16-30)
Z/ uwdopömtaMumif; (20;1-16)
ps/ tmPmvm;? tapcHjcif;vm; (20;17-28)
6/ bk&iftjzpfazmfjyrI (20;29-23;39)
u/ uef;oludkjrifap (20;29-34)
c/ NrdKUawmfodkUt0if (21;1-27)
*/ Oyrmrsm;ESifh oGefoif (21;28-22;14)
C/ xyfrw
H u
kd cf u
kd Mf ujyefjyD (22;15-46)
i/ zg&d&SJ0g'azmfxkwfjy (23;1-39)
7/ bk&if\BuKd wiftem*wdjå yKjcif;rsm; (24;1-25;46)
232
u/ wzef<uvm&efjyifqif (24;1-51)
c/ jyifqifjcif;\ ykHOyrmrsm; (25;1-30)
*/ w&m;pD&ifjcif; (25;31-46)
8/ &r®ufa'goESifhocifhudk jiif;y,fjcif; (26;1-27;66)
u/ opömazmufjcif;? zrf;qD;jcif; (26;1-56)
c/ tjypfpD&ifjcif;ESifh jiif;qefjcif; (26;57-75)
*/ vlrdkufaemifw (27;1-10)
C/ um;wdkifxufaAG (27;11-56)
i/ oN*dK[fjcif; (27;57-66)
9/ bk&ifhoufao (28;1-20)
u/ xajrmufawmfrljyD (28;1-10)
c/ zkH;zdMujcif; (28;11-15)
*/ r[mwm0ef (28;16-20)

&Sifrmukc&pf0ifusrf;
(crnf;awmf\tapcH)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
a&;ol\ trnfrazmfjycJhojzifh trsdK;rsdK;oHo,yGm;cJhaom usrf;jzpfygonf/
]rmuk\ tqdkt&} [laom a0g[m&udk A.D 125 cefUwGifusrS jznfhpGufonf/
233
rnfodkUqdkaptbufbufaom ½Ia'gifhrS &Sifrmukudk axmufcH onf/ ueOD;
toif;awmf acgif;aqmiftrsm;pkBuD;u &Sifayw½k\ vkyfazmfaqmifzufjzpfol
&Sifrmuku þusrf;udka&;onf[k owfrSwfcJhMu\/ A.D 112ckESpfwGif xdkacwf
yky&f [ef;rif;Bu;D u &Sirf mukonf &Siaf yw½k\ ]pmawmf jyef} jzpfonf[k qdck NhJ y;D
"r®ynm&Sif W.M. DUNNETT u (wrefawmf0wåK? 10;36-43)ü awGU&aom
&Siaf yw½k\ w&m; a[mcsuu f kd &Sirf mukc&pf0if\ azmfjycsuw
f o
Ykd nf tajccHí
a,½ItaMumif;udk azmfjyonf/ &Sirf muku tvGef tao;pdwaf &;om;xm;onf[k
qdkavonf/ 57
&Sifrmukonf a,½I\ wynfhawmft&if;r[kwfcJhaomfvnf; a,½k&SvifNrdKU&Sd
aMu;a&wwftrsKd ;orD;Bu;D rm&d\om;jzpfonf/ rmukonf &Siaf yw½kEiS hf tvGef
&if;ES;D cJo
h nf (wref? 12;12? 1ay? 5;13) olonf AmeAÁEiS v
hf nf; 0rf;uGn J t
D pfukd
jzpfonf (aumavmoJ? 4;18) txl;ojzifh ayw½kxrH &S &Sad om tcsut f vufrsm;
udk wifjyjcif; jzpfaomaMumifh wrefawmf tcGit hf mPmESihf jynfph aHk om usr;f jzpf
vmonf/ ayw½ku ighom;rmuk[al om tac:ta0: (1ay? 5;13)udk ok;H pGv J Qif
rmukonf ayw½kaMumifh ajymif;vJvm&jcif;jzpfygrnf/
rmukonf &Siaf ygvkEiS v
hf nf; vufwaJG zmfwpfO;D jzpfygonf/ CHARLES RYRIE
u azmfjy&mwGif -
&Sifrmukonf &Sifaygvk? &SifAmeAÁwdkUESifh yXromoemjyKc&D;pOfudk vdkuf&ef
BuKaH wmifBh uKcH tJ cGit
hf a&;&cJo h nf/ odUk aomf c&D;pOfwpfcv k ;Hk rvdu
k yf g Edik cf ahJ y/
odUk jzpfí 'kw, d c&D;pOfwiG f &Siaf ygvku olu Y ckd sev
f yS cf &hJ m olonf AmeAÁEiS t hf wl
uky½k (CYPRUS) uRef;odkUvdkufoGm;cJhonf/ aemufxyf 12ESpf cefYtMumwGifrl
olYudk &SifaygvkESifhtwl jyefíawGUcJh&onf (aumavmoJ? 4;10? zdavrkef 24)/
wrefawmfBu;D okwo f ifjcif;rcH&rD oluY w
kd rf;wpGm ac:,lcahJ o;onf (2wd? 4;11)/
olYb0Zmwfvrf;tm;jzifh tm;enf;csuf&Sdonfh vlom;wpfa,muftm; bk&m;
ocif\ {&mrwm0efESifh tokH;jyKawmfrljcif;udk oufaocHaeay\/ 58
234

usrf;udka&;om;aomckESpf
A.D 50 odkUr[kwf 60
&Sifrmukusrf;\ &ufpGJudk twdtusrodEdkifaomfvnf; okawoDrsm;u yXr
c&pf0iftjzpf ,kMH unfMuonf/ tb,faMumifq h akd omf &Sirf muk\ usr;f csuif ,f
rsm;pGmudk tjcm;c&pf0ifrsm;u rSDjirf;onf[k ,lqMuí jzpfonf/ a,½k&Svif
NrdKUawmf&Sd Adr®mefawmfBuD;udk a&mrwdkYvma&mufzsufqD;onhf A.D 70 rwdkifcif
tcsdefrSm a&;om;jcif;[k a,bk,stm;jzifh owfrSwfygonf (13;2)/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
]c&pfawmfwnf;[laom tapcHuRe}f rSm usr;f \tESpo
f m&jzpfonf/ ,iftcsuf
udk (10;45)wGif þodkUawGU&onf/
]]taMumif;rlum;vlom;onf olwpfyg;udk appm;jcif;iSgrvm? olwpfyg; tapudk
cHjcif;iSg¤if;? rdrdtoufudk pGefYí vlrsm;udk a&G;jcif;iSg¤if;? <uvmownf;[k
rdefUawmfrl\}}
xdu
k sr;f udk aocsmpGm avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh c&pfawmf\ tapcHjcif; c&pfawmf\
qufuyfylaZmfjcif;[lonfh tESpfom& 2ckudk awGUjrif&rnfjzpf ygonf/
&Sirf mukusr;f onf a&mrESihf wpfyg;trsKd ;om;rsm; zwf½&I ef &nf&, G cf su&f o dS nf/
a,½I\ aqGpOfrsKd ;qufEiS hf awmifay:a'oemudk xnfo h iG ;f í rxm;ay/ bmom
a&;acgif;aqmifrsm;\ tjypfwif½w I cf sjcif;udvk nf; tenf;tusO;f om jyqdv k suf
xm;onf/ þusrf;onf c&pfawmfudk tapcHuReftjzpf azmfusL;xm;onfh
tavsmuf a,½I&iS t f aejzifh opöm&S&d dS xdxad &mufa&muf tvkyv f yk jf cif;rsm;udk
OD;pm;ay;azmfjyavonf/
c&pfawmftm;&Sifrmukc&pf0ifusrf;ü awGYjrif&ykH
&Sifrmuk\ pmay'geonf vltrsm;twGuf oufpGefYarwåmjzifh tapcHcJhjcif;udk
235
azmfusL;jcif;jzpfav&m xdv
k rl sm;onf um,tm;jzifv h nf;aumif;? 0dnmOfa&;t&
vnf;aumif; rpu,fwif&ef vdt k yfaeonfukd azmfjyonf/ þOD;wnfcsut f &
a,½I&iS \f tapcHtrIawmfaqmifyu Hk kd &Sirf mukO;D pm;ay;xm;onfh tavsmuf-
c&pfawmfonf ykjH yifOyrmaygif; 70udk ajymqdck &hJ mwGif &Sirf mukonf 18ckuo kd m
azmfjyonf/ tcsKd UwdUk rSm 0gusww
kd pfcpk mom&So
d nf/ odUk aomf &Sirf mukonf c&pf
awmfjyocJhonfh tHhMobG,fwefcdk;vu©Pmaygif; 35ckausmf udk azmfjycJhjcif;jzifh
tjcm;c&pf0ifusrf;rsm;xuf ydkuJazmfjyoGm;avonf/ 59

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ tapcH&eftwGujf yifqifjcif; (1;1-13)
u/ a&SUajy;wref (1;1-13)
c/ AwdåZHcH,ljcif; (1;9-11)
*/ pkpH rf;aESmuf,u
S cf &H jcif; (1;12-13)
2/ tapcHuRef\ *gvdvJüw&m;a[moGefoifrI (1;14-9;50)
u/ trIawmf (1;14-2;12)
c/ qefUusifMujyD (2;13-3;35)
*/ ykHjyifOyrmrsm; (4;1-34)
C/ wefcdk;vu©Pm (4;35-5;43)
i/ qefUusifrIBuD;xGm;vmjcif; (6;1-8;26)
p/ ayw½kocifhudk 0efcHjcif; (8;27-33)
q/ wynfhawmfrsm;\ wefzdk; (8;43-9;1)
Z/ oP²mefawmfajymif;vJjcif; (9;2-13)
ps/ ewfqdk;pGJaomom;tm; u,fjcif; (9;14-29)
236
n/ rdrdao&rnfudk BudKwifajymMum;jcif; (9;30-32)
3/ tapcHuRef\ a,mf'efurf;ajcwpfavsmufrSm a[majymoGefoifrI
(9;33-10;52)
u/ wynfhawmfrsm;tm;jyifqif&ef oGefoifjcif; (9;33-45)
c/ AgwdrJtm; rsufaphtvif;&apjcif; (10;46-52)
4/ tapcHuRef\ a,½k&SvifrS ylavmifaomu (11;1-15;47)
u/ w&m;0ifc&D;<uvmjcif; (11;1-19)
c/ qkawmif;&ef oGefoifjcif; (11;20-26)
*/ acgif;aqmifrsm;\ qefUusifzufjyKrI (11;27-12;44)
C/ tem*wftwGuf vrf;ñTefcsuf (13;1-37)
i/ ylavmifaomu (14;1-15;47)
5/ tapcHuRef\ &Sifjyefxajrmufjcif;ü <u,f0jynfhpkHjcif; (16;1-20)
u/ xajrmufawmfrljyD (16;1-8)
c/ udk,fxifjyjcif;rsm; (16;9-18)
*/ aumif;uifbkHodkU (16;19-20)
237

&Sifvkumc&pf0ifusrf;
(vlom;jzpfjcif;)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
aomfzdvktrnf&Sd vlwpfa,mufqDodkU a&;vdkufonf&Sifvkum c&pf0ifusrf;ESifh
wrefawmf0wåKwdkUonf &Sifvkuma&;om;jyKpkaom pmayrsm; jzpfonf/ pmwGif
emrnfukd razmfaomfvnf;aygvku ]]igcspaf omaq;orm;}} (aumavmoJ? 4;14)
[kqdkcJhjcif;udk cH&onfh &Sifvkuma&;om;rSef;xif&Sm;onf/
xdkpmpkESpfckpvkH;onf *&dcfvdka&;xm;onfh "r®opfusrf;\ av;ykH wpfykH&Sdonf/
"r®opfusrf;wGif vkum\trnfudk (aumavmoJ? 4;14? wdarmaoMo0g'pm
'kwd,apmif? 4;11? zdavrkef? 24wdkYwGif awGY&onf/ (wrefawmf? 16;10-17?
20;5-21;18? 27;1-28;16)wdüYk yg0ifaom igwdq Yk o
kd nfrmS &Sivf uk mtygt0if
jzpfí wrefawmfBu;D &Siaf ygvkEiS t
hf wl c&D;oGm;vmcJ[ h ef&adS yonf/ &Siaf ygvk\
rdwaf qG taygif;toif;rsm;teuf tjcm;vlEpS Of ;D udk azmfjyrnfq h vkd Qif wdwEk iS hf
vkumwdkYudk csefrxm;oifhyg/
(aumavmoJ? 4;10-14)t& vkumonf wpfyg;trsdK;om;jzpfonfh twGuf
aygvkuolEiS hf *sL;rsm;udk oD;oefcY jJG cm;xm;onf/ xduk sr;f t& tm&dw,å Ek? rmuk?
a,m½Iwo Ykd nf *sL;rsm;jzpfonf/ {yjz? vkumESihf a'rwdo Yk nf wpfyg;trsKd ;om;rsm;
jzpfavonf/ vkumonf *&dcpf mayudk tvGeu f Rr;f usií f (wrefawmf? 1;19)t&
]rdrdwdkUbmomtm;jzifh} [kazmfjyxm;&m ,k'(*sL;) rjzpfEdkifacs/ 60
uREyfk w
f Ukd taejzifh ol\i,fb0? ol\,kMH unfjcif;ajymif;vJrw
I u
Ykd kd bmrQ rod&bJ
a,½Ic&pftwGuf rsujf rifoufaowpfO;D rjzpfcahJ Mumif;udo k m od&onf (vkum?
1;2)/ olonfaq;orm;ynm&Sijf zpfaomfvnf; {0Ha*vd trIawmfuakd qmifvsuf
usrf;pmrsm;udka&;ol? c&D;rsm;xGufí omoemjyKoljzpfonf/ (2wd? 4;11)t&
238
wrefawmfBu;D &Siaf ygvktaocHcsed w
f iG f oltem;rSm &So
d nf? aESmif;umv touf
61
wmudkrl aocsmpGmrSwfwrf;rwifEdkifyg

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
A.D 60

trsm;tm;jzifh (1) A.D 59-63 ESihf (2) A.D 70 odrYk [kwf 80 [k,q
l olrsm;&So
d nf/
odkUaomf wrefawmf0wåK\ ed*kH;wGif &Sifaygvkonf a&mrwGif a&muf&SdaeNyD;
&Sifvkumtqdkt& wrefawmf0wåK\ t&iftxufusrf;pmudk a&;cJhaMumif;
(wrefawmf? 1;1-2) od&ojzifh &Sifvkumudk t&ifa&;NyD; jzpf&rnf? A.D 60
0ef;usifjzpf&rnf[k qdkEdkif\/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
OD;wnf&nf&G,fcsufudk &Sifvkum\ ed'gef;rsdK;ykHESifh azmfjy&ygrnf ...
]]a&S;OD;pGmrSpí ud,
k w
f ikd jf rifaom oufaojzpfvsu?f EIwu f ywfawmfru I kd aqmif
&GufaomolwdkYonf igwdkYwGif xif&Sm;pGm jzpfavNyD;aom tw¬KyÜwdårsm;udk
igwdkUtm;Mum;ajymonfhtpOftwdkif; rSwfom;aompmudk pD&ifa&;xm;aom
oltrsm;&Sd Muonfjzpfí igonfvnf; xdktw¬KyÜwdåtvkH;pkHwdkYudk a&S;OD;pGmrSpí
aphaphazG&Smvdkuf ppfNyD;vQif? udk,fawmfoifNyD;aomtaMumif;t&mwdkUonf
{ueftrSejf zpfaMumif;udk ud, k af wmfoad pjcif;iSm tpOftwdik ;f a&;xm;í Mum;vdu
k f
rnftBuH&Sdyg\/ tvGefjrwfaom aomfzdvk}}
þed'gef;t& tav;teufjyKp&mrsm; &Sdygonf/
&Siv
f uk monf tjcm;aom yk*K¾d vrf sm;\ vkyaf qmifrrI sm;udk ESpo f uf oabmus
onf (1;1-2)/ ud,
k wf Ukd odjrifco
hJ rl sm;ESihf wdik yf ifaqG;aEG;cJo
h nf (1;2-3)/ ,kMH unf
jcif;t&mtppftrSefudk 0dnmOfawmfvrf;jyonfhtwdkif; aomfzdvktm; azmfjyvdk
onf (1;4)/ þpmapmifonf aphpyfaocsmpGm pl;prf;í rSwfwrf;jyKvdkufjcif;
jzpfonf (1;3-4) 62
239
wpfyg;trsKd ;om;jzpfonfh &Siv f u
k monf wpfyg;trsKd ;om;rsm;twGuf usr;f pmrsm;
udk jyKpk&ef wm0ef,lcsifpdwf &SdcJhygrnf/ xdkYaMumifhyifvQif rl&if; ]tma&;rdcf}
bmomrSaeí *&dcpf mzwforl sm;cHpm; em;vnfv, G af tmif? rpdr;f atmif þusr;f
63
udk jyKpkEdkifcJhjcif;jzpfyg\/
&Sifvkumc&pf0ifonf t&Snfvsm;qkH;aom c&pf0ifusrf;jzpfvsuf em;vnf&ef
vG,fulvSaom usrf;vnf;jzpfygonf/ ]cspfaomaq; orm;vkum}\ ajymif
ajrmufrI[k qdkoifhonf/ ,if;usrf;onf u,fwif&Siftm; vlom;wpfOD;tjzpf
vnf ; aumif ; ? aysmuf q k H ; aeaom ol w d k Y u d k &S m azG u ,f w if o l t jzpf ¤ if ;
(19;10)azmfjyxm;onf/ &SifróJc&pf0ifusrf;wGif 'g0d'frif;rsdK;? &Sifrmukt&
vlom;wdkYtm;jyKpkol bk&m;ocif\ tapcHuRefponfjzifh awGU&SdcJh&NyD; ,ck
&Siv f u k mwGirf l vlom;pifppf wpfO;D taejzifh vlw\ Ykd vdt
k yfcsuu f kd jznfq
h nf;ol?
vlwt Ykd euft<uif;rJjh ynf0h pkv
H ifo?l vlom;wdMYk um;rSm a&G;aumufc&H Ny;D ? vlom;
wdMYk um;rSm tppfaq;cH&ol? u,fwifyikd af om t&SiEf iS hf tjrifq h ;Hk aom ,Zfya&m
[dwrf if;jzpfxu kd o
f [
l í
l azmfjyxm;onfukd awG&Y ygrnf? &Sirf óJc&pf0ifusr;f wGif
xif&Sm;aom jzpfpOfrsm;udk tpkvdkufawGU &NyD;aemuf? &Sifrmukc&pf0ifusrf;ü
xif&mS ;aomjzpfpOfrsm;udk wdak wmif;aom 0gusrsm;ESihf awGUcJ&h onf/ ,ck&iS v f u
k m
c&pf0ifusr;f rSmrl aq;ynm&Si^f ordik ;f q&mwpfO;D \ vuf&mtjzpf tao;pdwf
qefaom xif&Sm;jzpfpOfwdkYudk awGU&rnfjzpfygonf/
þusr;f onf jynf0h pkv H ifaom vlom;ESihf bk&m;Zmwdukd cH,x l m;onfh c&pfwmf
taMumif;jzpfav&m vlUb0ZmwdrsKd ;½d;k t& urÇmOD;vlom;tm'Hqo D Ykd wdik af tmif
rsdK;qufpm&if;udk azmfjyonf (3;38)/ &SifróJwGif tmjA[H txdom azmfjycJh
onfudk owdjyKEdkifygonf/ c&pfawmf\ pdwf"gwfzGHUNzdK;rIudk (2;40-52)twGif;
azmfjyxm;NyD;? ol\udk,fusifhw&m;? ol\0dnmOfa&; tqifhtwef; t<uif;rJh
jynfph o
Hk nfukd olUAwdZå cH,cl sed üf aumif;uifbrHk t S bbk&m;\ toHawmf? oef&Y iS ;f
aom0dnmOfawmf\ qif;oufjcif;rsm;tm;jzifh xif&mS ;apyg onf/ wenf;tm;jzifh
uREyfk wf t
Ykd wGuf a,½Ionf½yk yf ikd ;f ? 0dnmOfyikd ;f tzufzufrS jynfph aHk omt&Sio f cif
jzpfayonf/
240

c&pfawmftm;&Sifvkumc&pf0ifusrf;üawGUjrif&ykH
a,½Ic&pf\ vlom;0g'ESihf Muifemoem;wwfjcif;rsm;udk &Siv f u
k m c&pf0ifonf
tBurd Bf urd t f m½kpH ;l pdu
k f azmfjyxm;onf/ c&pfawmf\rsKd ;½d;k tpOftvmzGm;jrifjcif;?
zGHUNzdK;rIwdkYudk tjynfhtpkHqkH;ESifhtrsm;qkH;azmfjyonfh c&pf0ifusrf;yifjzpfonf/
c&pfawmfonf pHjyvlom;jzpfí jypf&SdvlUavmu twGuf pdwfawmfxdcdkufcJh&NyD;
xdt k jypfw&m;udk ud, k wf ikd cf ,
H Nl y;D wefz;kd rjzwfEikd af om u,fwifjcif; vufaqmif
udkcsay;cJhonf/ *&dcfwdkU\ tbd"r®mwGif rSwfwrf;jyKxm;aom t<uif;rJhjynfh0
csrf;omonfh vlUabmifudk a,½Iuom ay;pGrf;Edkifonfudk þusrf;tm;jzifh
em;vnfapEdik o f nf/ 64
t"duta&;Bu;D onft
h csurf sm;
1/ ed'gef;? pmayykHpHESifh &nf&G,fcsuf (1;1-4)
2/ vlom;a,½Itm;vlom;rsm;ESifh ,SOfwGJodrSwfrI (1;5-4;13)
u/ c&pfawmfrarG;rDjzpfpOfrsm; (1;5-56)
c/ c&pfawmfarG;zGm;csed jf zpf&yfrsm; (1;57-2;38)
*/ c&pfawmf\ i,fb0jzpfpOfrsm; (2;39-52)
C/ c&pfawmf\trIawmfrwdik rf jD zpf&yfrsm; (3;1-4;13)
3/ vlom;\ vlrsm;twGuftrIawmf (4;14-9;50)
u/ c&pfawmf\ trIawmftp (4;14-30)
c/ wefcdk;awmfrsm;\ o½kyf (4;31-5;28)
*/ c&pfawmf\ pDrHrIudk &Sif;vif;jcif; (5;29-6;49)
C/ c&pfawmf\ pDrHrIudk csJUxGifjcif; (7;1-9;50)
4/ vlom;wdUk c&pfawmftm;jiif;y,fMuykH (9;51-19;27)
241
u/ c&pfawmftm;qefUusirf BI u;D xGm;vmjcif; (9;51-11;54)
c/ qefUusifrIrsm;ESifh ywfoufí ñTefMum;csuf (12;1-19;27)
5/ vlowå0gwdkUtwGuf vlom;u,fwif&Sif\ emMuifcHpm;rI
(19;28-23;56)
6/ vlowå0gwdkUtwGuf vlom;ZmwdtppftrSefjzpfjcif; (24;1-53)

&Sifa,m[efc&pf0ifusrf;
(bk&m;ocif\xm0&om;awmf)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
aZaA'J\om;? ,mukyf\nDa,m[efpD&ifa&;om;onfh &Sifa,m[ef c&pf0if
usr;f onf A.D 'kw, d &mpktydik ;f rS pwifvsuf ueOD;toif;awmf rsm;cdik rf mpGm
cH,l&musrf;jzpfvmcJhonf/ a,½Ionf a,m[efESifh ,mukyfwdkUudk ]rdkCf;BudK;
om;rsm;} [kqdkcJhonf (rmuk? 3;17)/ olwdkU\ rdcifBuD; SALOME onf
*gvdvJjynfe,fwGif a,½Itm;tapcHvsuf a,½Ium;wdkifü toufawmf
pGecYf sed w
f iG f teD;ü&Scd o hJ nf (rmuk? 15;40-41)/ a,m[efonf wynfah wmf 12yg;
tygt0ifjzpfonfomru a,½Icspaf omwynfah wmftjzpf (13;23? 18;15? 16?
19;26-27)wdkYwGif azmfjyxm;onf/ olonf a,½I\ vuf½kH;wpfqljzpfcJhNyD;
oP²mefawmfajymif;vJ&m awmifay:odYk a,½I\ ac:aqmifjcif; udck &H onf (róJ?
17;1)/ olonfwrefawmfBu;D &Sif ayw½kEiS hf eD;pyfpmG vufwcJG o hJ nf/ c&pfawmf
aumif;uifbo Hk Ykd jyefvnfwuf<uNy;D aom tcg &Siaf ygvku oltm;toif;awmf\
242
trSw
D uJtjzpfazmfjycJo
h nf/
twdtusqdk&ygrl a,m[efc&pf0ifusrf;onf usrf;a&;olESifh ywfouf í
jiif;ckHp&mrsm;&Sdonf/ tjcm;c&pf0ifrsm;ESifh ykHpHrwlrIaMumifh þodkYjiif;ckH Mu&
onfrmS rqef;vSyg/ Oyrmtm;jzifh &Siaf ygvk\ Mo0g'rsm;ü olUtrnfukd azmfjyNrJ
&SNd y;D ,if;onfa&S;xk;H tpOftvmyif jzpfygonf/ c&pf0ifusr;f rsm; tm;vk;H wGirf l
þodkYusrf;q&m\ trnfudk razmfjycJhMubJ olwdkY\ pmayt& vnf;aumif;?
tpOftvmt&aomfvnf;aumif; usr;f a&;olrsm;udk owfrw S f twnfjyKc&hJ ay
onf/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
A.D 85-90
toif;awmfonf &Sifa,m[efc&pf0ifusrf;tm; trSwfpOf 4ckc&pf0if tjzpf
cH,lcJhNyD; &Sifa,m[efonf tvGeftdkrif;aom usrf;a&;q&mBuD;tjzpf odrSwfcJh
onf/ odUk jzpfí A.D 85-90 onf jzpfEikd af cs&adS om aeUpGjJ zpfaeygonf/ (&Siaf ,m
[ef? 21;18-23)wdkYt& tcsdefumvrsm; vGefajrmufí &Sifayw½konf tdkrif;
&ifah &mfcjhJ y?D a,m[efonf &Sio
f efq&J o
dS nfukd (a,m[ef? 21;18-23)t& od&EdS ikd f
65
av\/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
tjcm;aomor®musrf;azmfjycsufwdkYESifh EdIif;pmygu &Sifa,m[ef c&pf0ifonf
0rf;ajrmufb, G uf ,fwifjcif;w&m;udk tyDjyifq;Hk azmfjyxm; onf[q k Ekd ikd yf g\/
,if;opömw&m;udk wynfah wmfaomru c&pfawmftm; awGU&csed üf zGiq hf ckd surf sm;
u oufaocHvsu&f ydS gonf/ aomronf c&pfawmf&iS jf yefxajrmufonfukd r,kH
Munf jzpfcphJ Of (a,m[ef? 20;24-25) xdok o H ,rS wpfqifw h ynfah wmfrsm;tm;
ajymMum;onfph um;awmfrsm;tm;jzifh oufaojyKvsu&f ydS gonf/
243
xdaYk emuf&pS &f ufajrmufaomaeYü wynfah wmfwoYkd nf wpfzeftwnf;rSm &SMd uí
aomrvnf;yg\/ wHcg;rsm;udk ydwx f m;pOftcg a,½Ionf <uvmí tv,frmS
&yfawmfrlvsuf oifwdkYü Nidrfoufjcif;&Sdapownf;[k rdefYawmfrl\/
xdok Ukd awGUqkpH Oftcsed af emufyikd ;f ü ocifc&pfawmfü ,kMH unfjcif;&Szd &Ykd ef vdtk yfyu Hk kd
&Sifa,m[efu az:jyay;cJhavonf/
þusr;f pmü a&;írxm;aom tjcm;edrw d v f u©Pmtrsm;wdu Yk v
kd nf; a,½Ionf
wynfhawmfwdkYrsufarSmufü jyawmfrl\/ a,½Ionf c&pfawmfwnf; [laom
bk&m;ocif\om;awmfjzpfawmfro l nfukd oifwo
Ykd nf ,krH nftaMumif;? xdo k ,
Ykd í Hk
emrawmftm;jzifh toufu&kd rnftaMumif;? þrQavmufa&;xm;vsu&f o dS wnf;/
rSefygonf/ &Sifa,m[efonf bk&m;ocif\ om;awmfa,½Itm; u,fwif&Sif
tjzpf vlom;wdUk ,kMH unfap&eftwGuf a,½I\ bke;f awmf (a,m? 1;14? a[&Sm?
35;1-2? a,mv? 3;18? tmrkwf? 9;13)udk xif&Sm;aprnfh jzpfpOf 7&yfwdkYudk
ol\usr;f üazmfjyay;cJah vonf/
1/ a&udpk ysp&f nfjzpfapjcif; (2;1-11)
2/ trwfwpfa,muf\om;tm;ukojcif; (4;46-54)
3/ 38ESpfa&m*g&Siftm; ukojcif; (5;1-18)
4/ vlrsm;pGmtm; auR;arG;jcif; (6;6-13)
5/ a&ay:rSm avsmufoGm;jcif; (6;16-21)
6/ uef;oludkjrifapjcif; (9;1-7)
7/ vmZ½ktm; ao&mrS&Sifapjcif; (11;1-45)
&Siaf ,m[ef\ OD;wnf&nfreS ;f csuo
f nf &Sirf óJ? &Sirf muk? &Siv
f u
k m c&pf0ifrsm;
xuf ydkif;jzwfem;vnf&ef vG,fulavonf/
avhvmolwpfOD;taejzifh tjcm;usrf;rsm;xuf ESpfouftm;&rI &SdEdkifonf/
244
þc&pf0ifwGif a,½I\ rsdK;quf? arG;zGm;jcif;? AwdåZH? pkHprf;aESmuf,Suf cH&jcif;?
ewfqdk;ESifjcif;? ykHjyifOyrm? tqif;oP²mefajymif;vJjcif;? npmyGJ? a*oa&Sref
O,smOfü cHpm;&yk?H aumif;uifoYkd wuf<ujcif;rsm;udk razmfjyay/ a,m[efonf
a,½k&v S ifü ociftrIawmfaqmify?Hk ,k'vlrsKd ;wdUk \yGaJ wmfrsm;? vly*k K¾d vrf sm;ESihf
qufoG,fajymqdkrIrsm; (3;1-4;38) (18;28-19;16)ESifh wpfuG wynfhawmfwdkY
twGuf trIawmfaqmifjcif; (13;1-17;26)wdu Yk kd OD;pm;ay; azmfjyonf/ usr;f \
t"dutydkif;tjcm;onf ]vu©Pmrsm;pmtkyf} wGif yg0ifonf/ (2;1-12;50)
,if;tydik ;f ü azmfjycJah om wefc;kd vu©PmrSm 7&yf &SNd y;D a,½Itm; bk&m;ocif\
om;awmfar&Sd, u,fwif&Sif tjzpfaMujimxm; onf/ vu©Pmrsm;\pmtkyf
(BOOK OF SIGNS)wGif xdkvu©Pmrsm;ESifh oufqdkifí a,½Iudk,fawmfwdkif
&Si;f vif;zGiq
hf jkd yonfrsm;udv
k nf; xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjyonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh vly&dowf
5000tm; auR;arG;Ny;D csed f (6;1-15)? a,½Iuolonf toufrek Uf jzpfí aumif;uif
bkrH S tbbk&m;ocifu vlom;wdYk twGuaf y;aom toufjzpfaMumif; a[majym
cJo
h nf (6;25-35)/ þc&pf0if\wrlx;l jcm;csuaf emufwpfcrk mS igonf (I AM)
[laom a,½I\ pum; ed'gef;rsm;yif jzpfygonf
(6;35? 8;12? 10;7? 9? 11? 14) (11;25? 14;6? 15;1? 5)/
&Si;f vif;wdusaom þc&pf0ifusr;f udk tzufzufrS NcKH io
Hk ;Hk oyfoifo
h nf/ c&pf0if
rsm;onf udk,fa&;tw¬KyÜwdåoufoufr[kwfbJ usrf;q&mwdkY taejzifh owif;
tcsuftvuf aygif;pkHxJrS rdrdwdkY\ OD;wnf&nf&G,fcsuftwdkif; jzpfap&ef
xkwEf wI af &;om;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ okawoejyKcsut
f & róJ? rmuk? vkumwdUk \
usrf;rsm;twGif;rS a,½I\ EIwfawmfxGufpum;rsm;tm;vkH;udk toHxGufí
zwf½IrnfqdkvQif pkpkaygif; 3em&Dom Mumanmif;rnfjzpfygonf/ 66

c&pfawmftm;&Sifa,m[efc&pf0ifü awGUjrif&ykH
ocifa,½I\ tjzpfawmfudk or®musrf;pmü ae&mtESHUtjym;wGif txift&Sm;
awGU&ygonf/ odUk aomfvZYl mwdukd cH,o
l nfh om;awmftjzpf azmfjyonfh ae&mwGif
245
þusrf;xufydkrdktiftm;jynfh0aom usrf;r&Sdyg/ Oyrmqdk&vQif (9;11)ü
a,½Itrnf &Sad omolwpfa,muf[q k vkd suf xdo
k u
l kd (1;18)wGif crnf;awmf\
&ifciG üf &Sad om wpfyg;wnf;aom om;awmfonf bk&m;ocifukd xif&mS ;apjy[ D k
azmfjyxm;avonf/ xdkYtwl (6;69) udk,fawmfonf c&pfawmfwnf;[laom
touf&iS af wmfral om bk&m;ocif\ om;awmfjzpfawmfro l nf[í l awGUjrifEikd f
ygonf/
a,½Ic&pfawmf\ bk&m;ocifjzpfjcif;udk aMujimrItjzpf igonf (I AM) [laom
azmfjyoHrsm;u axmufcHtm;ay;vsuf&Sd&m ,if;wdkYonf atmufygtwdkif;
jzpfonf/
1/ igonf toufrkefUjzpf\ (6;35)
2/ igonf þavmu\ tvif;jzpf\(8;12)
3/ igonf wHcg;0jzpf\ (10;7? 9)
4/ igonf aumif;aomodk;xdef;jzpf\ (10;11, 14)
5/ igonf xajrmufjcif;taMumif;? touf&iS jf cif;taMumif;jzpf\ (11;25)
6/ igonf vrf;c&D;jzpf\?or®mw&m;vnf;jzpf\? toufvnf;jzpf\(14;6)
7/ igonf rSefaom pyspfEG,fyifjzpf\(15;1? 5)
qufvufwifjy&aomf &Sifa,m[efc&pf0ifonf a,½Itm; bk&m; ocif\
om;awmfjzpfaMumif; oufaojyoxm;csufrsm;yif jzpfonf/ (5;31-47) t&
olUudq
k efUusijf yKorl sm;tm; a,½Iujyefvnfacsyonfukd awGU&onf/ xdo k wl u
Ykd
a,½I\ tqdkjyKcsufrsm;onf oufaocdkifvkHrIr&SdaMumif; ajymvmMuaomtcg
a,½Ionf olUtwGuf oufaorsm;udk axmufjycJo h nf/ ,if;wdUk rSm crnf;awmf
bk&m; (5;32? 37)? AwdåZHq&ma,m[ef (5;33) ol\wefcdk;edrdwfrsm; (5;36)?
usrf;pmrsm; (5;39)ESifh arma&S (5;46) wdkUyifjzpfavonf/ wzef(8;14)t&
ighoufaownf\[k qdkcJhonf/ tcsdKUaom tcsdefrsm;wGif a,½Iazmfjyaom
246
igonf (I AM) or YAH WEH onf bk&m;ocif\ "r®a[mif;usr;f rS ok;H EI;H rIEiS hf
wlnDaeonf/ (4;25? 26) (9;24? 28? 58) (13;19) (18;5? 6? 8)/ ol\bk&m;
tjzpfawmfukd ta&;Bu;D qk;H azmfjycsurf sm;tjzpf (1;1) (8;58) (10;30) (14;9)
(20;28) wdkUwGif avhvmcsifonf/67

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef;? bk&m;ocif\ om;awmfvlUZmwdudk cH,ljcif; (1;1-18)
u/ bk&m;ocifjzpfjcif; (1;1-2)
c/ vlUZmwdrcH,lrDc&pfawmf (1;3-5)
*/ c&pfawmf\a&SUajy; (1;6-8)
C/ c&pfawmftm;jiif;y,fjcif; (1;9-11)
i/ c&pfawmftm;vufcHjcif; (1;12-13)
p/ vlUZmwdb0odUk (1;14-18)
2/ om;awmfjzpfaMumif;wifqufjcif; (1;19-4;54)
u/ AwdåZHq&m a,m[efrS (1;19-34)
c/ a,m[ef\ aemufvdkufrsm;xH (1;35-51)
*/ umeNrKd Ur*Fvmaqmif0,f (2;1-11)
C/ a,½k&v
S ifArd mefawmfwiG f (2;12-35)
i/ edaum'ifoUkd (3;1-21)
p/ AwdZå q
H &ma,m[efrS (3;22-36)
q/ &Srm&drdef;rtwGuf (4;1-42)
247
Z/ uay&aemifrt
S &m&So
d Ukd (4;43-54)
3/ om;awmfudk qefUusifrI (5;1-12;50)
u/ ,k'wdkUyGJcHpOf (5;1-47)
c/ *gvdvJyócgyGJü (6;1-71)
*/ oauaeyGJawmfwGif (7;1-10;21)
C/ a,½k&SvifrS oauFedyGJrSm (10;22-42)
i/ aAoed&Gm0,f (11;1-12;11)
p/ a,½k&SvifrSm (12;12-50)
4/ om;awmf&Sif\ ñTefMum;csuf (13;1-16;33)
u/ tjypfvw
T jf cif;taMumif; (13;1-20)
c/ olUudo
k pömazmufjcif;ESiq
hf í
kd (13;21-31)
*/ ol\cGJcGmjcif;ESifh ywfoufí (13;31-38)
C/ aumif;uifbkH (14;1-14)
i/ oefU&Sif;aom 0dnmOfawmftaMumif; (14;5-26)
p/ Nidrf;csrf;a&; (14;27-31)
q/ toD;oD;&mtoufwm (15;1-17)
Z/ urÇmavmuBuD;ü (15;18-16;6)
ps/ oefU&Si;f aom0dnmOfawmf (16;7-15)
n/ ol<uvmrlOD;rnf (16;16-33)
5/ tbxHodkU vlrsm;twGuf toem;cHjcif; (17;1-26)
248
6/ um;wdik w
f ifjcif;cH&jyD (18;1-19;42)
7/ om;awmf&iS jf yefxajrmufawmfrjl cif; (20;1-31)
u/ yGifhaeaom ocsØKif;wGif; (20;1-9)
c/ xajrmufocifu,
kd w
f ifjyjcif; (20;10-31)
8/ ed*kH;? tdkifem;rSm qkHawGUrI (21;1-25)
u/ wynfhawmf 7yg;xH udk,fxifjyjcif; (21;1-14)
c/ ayw½ktwGuf pum;oHrsm; (21;15-23)
*/ c&pf0ifusr;f ed*;Hk (21;24-25)

wrefawmf0wåK
(u,fwifjcif;w&m;ESUH jym;jy)D

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
0wåKxJwGif a&;olemrnfrazmfaomfvnf; &Sifvkuma&;om;aMumif; taxmuf
txm; cdik vf o Hk nf/ &Siv
f u
k m\ w&m;pmay'kw, d ydik ;f [k qd&k ygrnf/ yXrydik ;f rSm
&Sifvkumc&pf0ifjzpfonf/ usrf; 2ckvkH;onf q&m0ef^ pma&; q&mjzpfolESifh
vkumrS aomfzdvkqdkolxH ]a,½IjyKaomtrIESifh oifMum;cJhjcif; rsm;} [laom
acgif;pOfESifh a&;om;ay;ydkYcJhjcif;jzpfonf/
,ckwrefawmf0wåKukd *&dcpf maye,fwiG f ACTS [lívnf;aumif; THE ACTS
OF THE APOSTLES [lSívnf;aumif; acgif;pOfay;xm; onf/ THE ACTS
249
OF THE APOSTLES qdkvQif acgif;pOfonf rudkufnD Edkifyg? tb,faMumifh
qdkaomf wrefawmftm;vkH;\ vkyfaqmifcsufrsm; r[kwfbJ ayw½kESifh aygvk
wdUk taMumif;rsm;uom txl;jyKxm;jcif;cH&í jzpfonf/ rnfoUkd qdak p c&pfawmf\
0dnmOfawmfqif;oufjcif;udkrlwrefawmfrsm;tm;vkH;cHpm;cJh&onf(1;2-8) udk
awGU&Ny;D xdtk &Sed w
f efc;kd tm;jzifh olwo
Ykd nf urÇm t&yf&yfoYkd oGm;a&muf trIawmf
aqmifcMhJ u&ayonf/ vltawmfrsm;rsm;onf tqdyk gacgif;pOftpm; THE ACTS
OF THE HOLY-SPIRIT [k ajymif;vJ vdkMuonf/ oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOfawmf\
OD;aqmifrjI zifo
h m ,kMH unfjcif;w&m; ESjYH ym;ysUH yGm;cJ&h ykH (tcef; 2)udk ay:vGiaf pvdí
k
jzpfayonf/ ,ckwrefawmf 0wåKwiG f t"duyk*K¾d vrf sm;tjzpf? ayw½k? a,m[ef?
oawzef? zdvdyÜdK? ,mukyf? AmeA? odvESifh aygvkwdkYudk awGU&ygrnf/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
A.D 61
þ&ufpEJG iS hf oufqikd í
f okawoD STANLEY TOUSSAINT qdo
k \
l rSwcf surf mS
odrw
S b
f ,G jf zpfav\/
wrefawmf0wåKonf a,½k&Sviftm;a&mrwdkU 0ifa&mufzsufqD;onfh A.D 70
rwdkifrDu a&;jcif;jzpf&ygrnf/ þrQta&;BuD;aom jzpf&yfBuD;udk xdktcsdef
aemufyikd ;f rSm a&;cJyh gu wrefawmf0wåKonf rxnfo
h iG ;f bJ csev
f yS rf nf r[kwyf g/
xdu
k sr;f pm\ oabmrSmvnf; c&pfawmfukd *sL;rsm;u jiif;y,frEI iS hf wpfyg;trsKd ;
om;rsm;tm; bk&m;ocif rpawmfrljcif;jzpfav&m NrdKUawmfBuD;tm; a&mrwdkY
wdkufcdkufjcif;onf r[mjyóemBuD;wpfck[k qdk&ygvdrfhrnf/
]]wpfzef? cefUrSef;ajctm;jzifh A.D 66-68 tcsdefwGif aoqkH;onfh &Sifaygvk\
aemufq;Hk tjzpfuv kd nf; xdt
k csed af emufyikd ;f usrS wrefawmf0wåKukd a&;rnfqykd gu
&Sifvkumonf b,fenf;ESifhrQ razmfjybJaernfr[kwfygay/
xdkUjyifwpf0? &Sifvkumonf a&mrNrdKUBuD;rD;avmif&m A.D 64 rStp c&pf,mef
rsm;udk tjypfzdkUokwfoifcJhaom a&mrbk&ifeD½dk;taMumif;udkvnf; wpfpGef;
250
wpfprQrazmfjycJjh yefay/
xyfrHpOf;pm;&eftcsufrSm? wrefawmf0wåKwGif &Sifaygvk\ taMumif; rsm;udk
a&;om;&if; a&mrt&m&Srd sm;\ aygvkEiS yhf wfoufaom vkyaf qmifcsuf rsm;tm;
t,lcHawmif;yefrI? c&pf,mefbmomtm; tumtuG,fjyKrIrsm; yg0ifcJhav&m
eD½dk;bk&if\ &ufpufrIrsm;t& uRJyg;apmif;wD;ovdk t"dyÜg,f&Sdrnf r[kwfyg/
eD½;kd bk&ifu toif;awmfukd tjrpfjyKwaf tmif zsuq
f ;D &eftm;oef aeonfh tcsed f
umvrsKd ;rSm wrefawmf0wåK\ toif;awmftwGuf umuG,rf o I nf xdb
k &k ifph w
d f
"gwfukd b,fvrkd aS jymif;vJapEdik rf nfr[kw/f
xdkUaMumifh? a&S;½dk;pGJ"r®ynm&Siftrsm;pktaejzifh wrefawmf0wåKudk AD 60-61
wGif a&;onf[k ,kHMunfonf/ a&;om;&mt&yfrSm a&mrNrdKUodkUr[kwf
*gvdvu J rf;ajc uJo&d (qDZm;&D;,m;)NrKd UodUk r[kwNf rKd UESpcf pk vk;H wGif a&;om;jcif;
jzpfEdkifygonf/ xdk0wåKudk a&;aepOfumvü a&mraxmifrS &Sifaygvkonf
vGwfajrmufjyD odkYr[kwf vGwfajrmuf&ef eD;aejyD[k ,lq&avonf}} 68

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
wrefawmf0wåKonf "r®opfusr;f rsm;teufpjH yusr;f Bu;D jzpfvsuf tjcm; usr;f rsm;
tm;vk;H ESihf qufpyfay;onf/ &Siv f uk m\ 'kw, d pmwGJ jzpfaomaMumifh ]a,½IjyKrl
awmfro l rQ? oGeo
f ifawmfro l rQ} udk ola&;cJNh y;D jzpfaMumif; (1;2)ü azmfjyxm;onf?
c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;tm;vk;H onf xdt k csuEf iS hf jynfph NHk y;D jzpfonf/ xd0k wåKü c&pfawmf
aumif;uifbkHodkY jyefvnfwuf<ujcif;ESifh twl "r®opfumvMo0g'pmrsm;\
tcsdefumvudk ed'gef;ysdK;xm;onf/ xdktcsdefumvwGif wrefawmfBuD;rsm;udk
tok;H jyKí a,½Ioef&Y iS ;f aom 0dnmOfawmfonf trIawmfuq kd ufvuf xrf;aqmif
aecJah Mumif;udk olazmfjyay;onf/ 0dnmOfawmfoeG o f ifonfth wGuv f nf; wref
awmfBu;D rsm;taejzifh a[majymoGeo f ifjcif;ESihf c&pfawmf\ cE¨mjzpfonfh toif;
awmfwUkd udk wnfaqmufjcif;rsm;jyKEikd cf MhJ uonf/ wrefawmf0wåKonf c&pf0ifusr;f
rsm;ESifh Mo0g'usrf;rsm;\ aygif;ul;wHwm;yif jzpfavonf/
251
uREyfk w
f Ukd taejzifh wrefawmf0wåKukd ½Iaxmift
h rsKd ;rsKd ;rS avhvm wefz;kd xm;tyf
onf/ olonf&iS af ygvk\ b0taMumif;ESihf ol\ Mo0g'pmrsm;\ ordik ;f rSww f ikd f
rsm;udyk g em;vnfaponf/ tu,fpifppf "r®opftoif;awmf \ tESpf 30Mum
ordkif;uEÅ0if usrf;tjzpf wrefawmf0wåKudk owfrSwf&rnf jzpfyg\/
wrefawmf0wåKBuD;\ OD;wnfcsufudk tzufzufrS okH;oyfNyD;aemuf okawoD
STANLEY TOUSSAINT uqufvufa&;om;í . . .

]]wrefawmf0wåK\ OD;wnfcsuu f kd atmufygtwdik ;f twnfjyKcsiyf gonf/ olonf


aumif;uifEdkifiHawmf\ owif;aumif;udk *sL;vlrsdK;wdkUxHrS wpfyg;trsdK;om;
tm;vkH;wdkUxH &Sifvkumc&pf0ifusrf;ESifhtwl pnf;pHepfusepGm? wefcdk;BuD;rm;
vSpmG jzifh o,faqmifomG ;&ef a,½k&v S ifrpS í a&mrtifyikd ,
f m txd OD;wnfomG ;
av\/ &Sifvkumc&pf0ifwGif ]]c&pf,mefbmomonf "r®a[mif;usrf;ESifh ,k'
bmomü tjrpfpGJonf qdkygu tb,faMumifh urÇmhbmomw&m;jzpfvmEdkif
oenf;}} [laom ar;cGe;f twGuf tajz&Scd yhJ gonf/ ,ckwrefawmf0wåKwiG v f nf;
&Sifvkumc&pf0ifrSqufcHaom ya[VdtarGESifhtwl tajz&Sdaeonf[k qdkcsif
avonf}} 69 [líjzpfygonf/
(wrefawmf0wåK? 1;8)onf usrf;\tESpfom&udk em;vnfapEdkifonf/ oifwdkY
tay:odkY oefY&Sif;aom 0dnmOfawmfqif;oufaomtcg oifwdkYonf wefcdk;udk
cH&í a,½k&v S ifNrKd U (tajccHa'o)rSpaom ,k'jynf? &Smrm&djynf (0ef;usiaf 'o)?
ajrBuD;pGef;wdkifatmif (urÇmukefus,foa&GU) ig\oufao jzpfMuvdrfhrnf[k
rdeaYf wmfr\
l /

c&pfawmfudk wrefawmf0wåKüawGUjrif&ykH
aojcif;rS&iS jf yefxajrmufawmfral om u,fwif&iS \
f taMumif;onf þusr;f rSm
yg0ifaom w&m;a'oemwdkUudk csKyfudkifxm;onf/ "r®a[mif;usrf;pmrsm;
&Sifjyefxajrmufjcif;ordkif;? wrefawmfwdkUoufaocHcsuf? oefY&Sif;aom 0dnmOf
awmf\ pD&ifydkifaom wefcdk;tmPm[laom tcsuftm;vkH;wdkUonf a,½Itm;
252
bk&m;&Siftjzpf vnf;aumif;? c&pfawmftjzpfvnf;aumif; azmfjyaeMuonf
(2;22-36? 10;34-43)/
xdkocifudk,kHMunfaomol&SdorQwdkUonf emrawmftm;jzifh tjypfvTwfawmf
rljcif;aus;Zl;udk cH&MuvwåUH [lí ya&mzuftaygif;wdUk onf xdo
k cif\ oufao
cHjzpfMuonf (10;43)? xdkocif\emrawmfrSwpfyg; igwdkUudku,fwifEdkifaom
emrwpfpkH wpfckrQ aumif;uifatmuf? vlwdkUwGif ray:r&Sd (4;12) 70

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ a,½k&SvifwGif oufaocHjcif; (1;1-6;7)
u/ a&G;aumufjcif;cH&olwdkU\ arQmfvifhcsuf (1;1-2;47)
jzpfay:rIwifjycsuf trSwf (1)
c/ a,½k&v
S iftoif;awmfus,yf sUH jcif; (3;1-6;7)
jzpfay:rIwifjycsuf trSwf (2)
2/ ,k'jynf? &Srm&djynfwdkUü oufaocHjcif; (6;8-9;31)
u/ oawzef rmwk&jzpfjcif; (6;8-8;1(u))
(1)oawzeftm; zrf;qD;jcif; (6;8-7;1)
(2)oawzefa[majymjcif; (7;2-53)
(3)oawzeftm;vkyBf ujH cif; (7;54-8;1(u))
c/ zdvdydÜK\ trIawmf (8;1(c)-40)
*/ a&Smvk\owif; (9;1-19(u))
C/ a&Smvk\ jyóemrsm; (9;19(c)-31))
253
jzpfay:rIwifjycsuf trSw(f 3)
3/ ajrBu;D pGe;f wdik af tmif oufaocHjcif; (9;32-28;31)
u/ tEdÅtkwftxd us,fysHUvmaom toif;awmf (9;32-12;24)
jzpfay:rIwifjycsuf trSw(f 4)
c/ tm&Srdkif;em;odkU toif;awmfus,fysHUvmykH (12;25-16;5)
jzpfay:rIwifjycsuf trSw(f 5)
*/ at*sD,Hyifv,fa'oodkU toif;awmfus,fysHUvmykH(16;6-19;20)
jzpfay:rIwifjycsuf trSw(f 6)
C/ a&mrNrdKUawmfodkU us,fysHUvmaom toif;awmf (19;21-28;31)
jzpfay:rIwifjycsuf trSw(f 7)
254

tydkif;(2)
&Sifaygvk\Mo0g'rsm;

ed'gef;
ordik ;f qdik &f musr;f pmrsm;udk pl;prf;cJNh y;D aemuf ,cktcsed w f iG f Mo0g'usr;f pm21qloYkd
a&mufayjy/D tu,fíom Asm'dwu f sr;f udk xdu
k sr;f (1;4) azmfjycsut f & Mo0g'pm
wpfct k jzpfc, H rl nfqvkd Qif Mo0g' 22ql&rdS nfjzpfyg onf/ odUk aomf Asm'dwu f sr;f \
Asm'dwfoabmrsm;tvGefjynfhpkHaomaMumifh uREkfyfwdkUonf olUudk "r®opfydkif;rS
tem*wdt å jzpfomvQif vufcv H u kd yf gonf/ Mo0g'pmrsm;udk &Siaf ygvka&;aom
Mo0g'rsm;? &Sifaygvkra&;aomMo0g'rsm;[k ESpfydkif;cGJxm;&m &Sifaygvku
toif;awmfrsm;twGuf a&;onfhMo0g'pm 9apmifESifh oif;tkyfq&mMo0g'pm
4apmifyg0ifaeygonf/ ,if;wdUk \ aemufwiG f *sK;odUk r[kwf a[NAcJ &pf,mefrsm;
twGuf Mo0g'pm 8apmif &Syd gao; onf/ c&pf0ifusr;f rS 0rf;ajrmufb, G f owif;
pum;rsm;onf c&pf,mef wdUk tzdUk tb,ft"dygÜ ,f&í dS tb,fenf;ESihf qG, J t l ok;H
jyKEikd o
f enf;[laom ar;cGe;f wpfco k nf ar;xdu k af om ar;cGe;f wpfcyk ifjzpfygonf/
,ckMo0g'pmrsm; tae jzifh xdkar;cGef;twGuf tajzrsm;udk azmfjy,kHomru
c&pfawmf\ bk&m;ocifjzpfaMumif;? c&pfawmf\ trIawmfjrwftaMumif;rsm;udyk g
wifquf&if; or®musr;fpmawmfjrwf\ opömtrSeu f kd ,kMH unfow l Ukd xH aqmifMuOf;
ay;ygvdrrhf nf/
255

aygvkaemufaMumif;rarhaumif;
wm½INrdKUom;a&SmvktjzpfESpfaygif;rsm;pGm &SifoefcJhNyD; udvdudjynf wm½INrdKUwGif
*sL;rdbwdkUrS aygufzGm;cJholjzpfonf/ omref*sL;wpfa,mufr[kwf? t,ltpGJ
jyif;xefaom zg&d&tJS rsKd ;jzpfco hJ [
l í
l (wref 23;6) t&od&onf/ a[NAb J mom
pum;odUk r[kwf tma&;rpfuo kd majymqdok ?l £oa&vA,Fmrdef trsKd ;jzpfaMumif;
zdvdydÜ(3;4-5)t& od&\/ wJ&Sifrdk;umcsKyfvkyfí ukefonfb0rSmBuD;jyif;ol
(wrefawmf 18;3)[kqo kd nf/ i,fb0wGif a,½k&v S if udak &muf&NdS y;D xdak cwfu
xif&Sm;vSaom q&m]*gravsv} xHwGif ynmoifMum;cJhonf/ *sL;t,l0g'udk
xl;cRefaygufajrmufpGm wwfuRrf;&mwGif tjcm;ynm&Sifrsm;xuf omvGefí
bdk;ab;pOfquf xkH;wrf;pOfvmrsm;udk tpGef;a&mufpGm ESpfoufoljzpf\/
(*vmwd 1;14)
þodkUpdwftm;xufoefrIaMumifh c&pf,meftoif;awmfudk olonf ESdyfpuf&ef
qE´rsm;jyif;jycJNh y;D ? zg&d&v
JS il ,fwpfa,muftaejzifh c&pf,mef acgif;aqmif wpfO;D
jzpfaom oawzeftm;owfjzwfcsed w f iG f yg0ifvsuf oufaocHwpfO;D jzpfcahJ v
onf (7;58-83)/ c&pf,mefqefu Y siaf &;rsm; vkycf &hJ mwGif ,Zfya&m[dwf rif;rsm;
\ axmufcHpmrsm;ESifh usm;-r-ra&G; zrf;qD;ESdyfpufcH,kHomru tjcm;aom
NrKd Ujyrsm;&Sd a,½Ic&pf\toif;awmfrsm; udk oGm;a&mufzsuq f ;D cJo
h jl zpfonf/ (wref
26;10-11) (*vmwd 1;13)/ xdu k o
hJ Ukd toif;awmfrsm;udk aESmuf,u S zf suq
f ;D a&;
vkyfief;rsm;udk aqmif&Guf&ef 'rmoufNrdKUodkUtoGm;c&D;pOfwpfckü ,kHMunfjcif;
ajymif;vJí wrefawmfBuD; &Sifaygvkb0odkUa&mufcJhavonf/
&Siaf ygvkonf *&dc,
f Ofaus;rIEiS v
hf nf; ,Ofyg;oljzpfí *&dcyf nmudk wwfuRr;f
cJhonf/ (wref 17;28? wdwk 1;12)/ odkUjzpfí *&dcftbd"r®mrsm;udk em;vnfol
jzpfonf/ ausmif;om;b0uwnf;u *&dcyf nm&Siw f \
Ykd tqdk trdeUf rsm;udk odo?l
acwfjydKif*&dcf t,ltqrsm;udk uRrf;aomoljzpfonf/ xdkrQruao;yg/ aygvk
onf a&mrjynfe,fom;wpfOD;jzpfonfhtavsmuf a&mrom;tcGifhta&;udkyg
&&Sdxm;oljzpf&m zdvdydÜtusOf;axmifwGif tusOf; uspOfu uJombk&ifxHodkU
t,lcHvTm wifoGif;cGifh&&SdcJh&avonf/ (wref? 16;37-39)
256
azmfjyygtaMumif;w&m;rsm;t& &Siaf ygvkonf wpfyg;trsKd ;om;rsm;tm; {0Ha*vd
owif;pum;a0iS&rnfh wrefawmft&nftcsi;f ESihf jynfph cHk o
hJ jl zpfonf/ olu,
kd f
wdkif (1aum? 9;22)ü azmfjycJhonfhtcsufrSm . . .
]]tcsdKUaomolwdkUudk wpfpkHwpfckaom trlt&mtm;jzifh u,fwifjcif; tvdkYiSg
cyfodrf;aomolwdkUü cyfodrf;aomt&mjzpf\}} [líjzpfavonf/

&Sifaygvk\ajymif;vJjcif;
toif;awmfukd pOfqufrjywfwuf<upGm ESyd u f yG cf o
hJ w
l refawmfBu;D onf 'rmouf
NrKd UoGm; c&D;vrf;ay:wGif &Sijf yefxajrmufco
hJ l a,½Ic&pf\ bke;f awmfa&mif0gESihf
&ifqdkif&NyD;aemuf &ifodrfhwkefbG,faom b0tawGU tBuHKrsm;udk cHpm;cJh&av
onf/ (wref? 9;3-30)
olonf a,½Iudk bk&m;ocif\om;awmf ar&Sd,u,fwif&Siftjzpf vufcHol
c&pf,mefrsm;tm; qefUusifoljzpfcJhonf/ (wref? 7;56)t& ]]Munfhyg . . .
aumif;uifzGifhvSpfonfudk¤if;? vlom;onf bk&m;ocif\ vusfmbufü
&yfaeonfu¤kd if;? igjrifonf}} [lonfh oawzefazmfjyaom xajrmufol ocifukd
olr,kHcJhay/ ]vlvdrf} [kqdkvsuf oawzefudk ausmufcJrsm;jzifh aygufí
owfMuonfudk 0efcHol a&Smvktjzpfyif udk,fwdkifyg0ifcJhol jzpfavonf/
odUk aomf½&I jd ynf'rmoufNrKd U&Sd c&pf,mefrsm;tm; ESyd pf uf&eftwGuf c&D;xGucf mG pOf
c&pf a wmf \ ud k , f x if j yjcif ; ud k &if q d k i f c J h & NyD ; aemuf ]oawzef } \
oufaocHcsufonf rSefvsuf rdrdonf rSm;íaeaMumif;udk olodoGm;NyD; a,½I
onf u,fwif&Sifbk&m;ocifjzpfaMumif;udk ,kHMunfcJhayonf/ odkUjzpfíyif
'rmoufNrdKU&Sd Adr®mefawmfrsm;wGif c&pfawmfonf u,fwif&Sifjzpfonfudk
olaMujimcJhonf/ ol\tqdkygajymif;vJrIonf tvGefjrefqefí rsufvSnfhqef
aomfvnf; xm0pOf wnfwahH om ajymif;vJjcif;yif jzpfavonf/ tqdyk gjzpf&yfEiS hf
oufqikd v f suf owåaA'tjrif? ynm&Siw f Ukd \ t,ltqrsm;udk pdraf c:rIrsm;&Sí d
aeonf/ ,if;taMumif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufí a,½k&S vifodkUrjyefrD tma&As
uEÅm&ESifh 'rmoufNrdKUrsm;rSm oltcsdef,lvsuf udk,fhudk udk,fqef;ppfcJhonf[k
257
qdkEdkifonf (*vmwd? 1;16-19)/ xdkUaemufwGif olonf rdrdZmwda'oudkjyefí
aexdik cf &hJ m 8ESprf S 10ESpf umvtwGi;f ü oltb,fuo
hJ Ukd vkyaf qmifaecJo
h nfukd
uREkfyfwdkUtwdtusrodMu&ay/ 71

&Sifaygvk\Mo0g'rsm;\OD;wnfcsuf
&Siaf ygvk\Mo0g'rsm;wpfcck si;f udk avhvmrIrjyKrD xdMk o0g'pmwdUk \ xif&mS ;aom
0daoovu©Pmrsm;udk owdjyKqifcsifoifhygonf/ 72

axmifwGif;rSay;ydkUonfhMo0g'pmrsm;
{zuf? zdvdydÜ? aumavmoJ? zdavrkefMo0g'pmrsm;onf? aygvktusOf; uspOf
a&;om;cJhonfhpmrsm;jzpfav\/ xdkMo0g'pmrsm;tm;jzifh ol\tusOf;uscH&csdef
tajctaerSefudk uREkfyfwdkUawGU&onf/ ({zuf? 3;1? 4;1? 6;20) (zdvdydÜ? 1;7?
13) (aumavmoJ? 4;10? 18) (zdavrkef? 1? 9? 10)
aygvktaejzifh xdktcsdefwGif tusOf;csKyfae&onf odkUr[kwf tus,fcsKyf ae&
onf/ (wrefawmf ?28;30)udk twdtusrod&aomfvnf; xdMk o0g'pm rsm;tm;jzifh
bk&m;ocifonf rdrd\bkef;awmfudk xif&Sm;apvsuf ol\ trIawmf jrwfwGif
vlom;wdkUudk tokH;jyKcJhaMumif;ESifhwpfuG (zdvdydÜ? 1;2? 13)? EIwfuywf awmfudk
avmuDtmPm pufrsm;ESihf csKyaf ESmifír&aMumif; odomapcJo h nf (2wd? 2;9)/

oif;tkyfq&mMo0g'rsm;
&Siaf ygvk\Mo0g'pmrsm;udk þodyYk ikd ;f jcm;tyfEí
HS yk*K¾d vaf &;qefqef a&;om;aom
wdarmaoMo0g' 2apmif? zdavrkeMf o0g'pm 1apmif wdyYk g0if av\/ rnfoUkd qdak p
yk*K¾d vaf &;t& Mo0g'jyK&mwGif toif;awmfwpfc\ k oif;tkyq f &mwpfyg;a&;om;
qk;H ronf[k cH,v l suf oif;tkyqf &mMo0g'rsm;udk pm&if;oGi;f &ygrnf/ vlwpfO;D
wpfa,muf\ trnfukd wyfxm;aomfvnf; *kPaf us;Zl;tvGeBf u;D rm;í toif;
awmf wpfckvkH;twGuf tBuKH;0ifaMumif;udk awGY&ygrnf/ wdarmaoESifh wdwk
onf toif;awmfwpfckqDwdkifatmif? a&Smif&efrsm;udk azmfjyxm;ayonf/
258
(1wd? 3;14-15? 4;6-15) (2wd?2;2) tqdkygMo0g'pmrsm;tm;jzifh toif;awmf
wpfyg;udk tkycf sKyjf cif;? toif;awmf\ rl0g'csrw
S jf cif;? toif;awmf wdUk \ usix
hf ;Hk
enf;pHepfrsm;udak zmfjyí oif;tkyq f &mwpfyg;\ wm0ef 0wå&m;rsm;udk azmfjyxm;
&mwGif ,aeYacwftoif;awmfrsm; Bu;D yGm;wd;k wufa&; ESihf aqmif&u G &f ef wm0ef
rsm;udkyg vrf;ñTefvsuf&Sdonfudk jrifawGU&ygonf/
xdkUaMumifhþMo0g'pmrsm;udk uREkfyfwdkY rsufarSmuftoif;awmfrsm; taejzifh
tav;teufjyK&ef vdktyfygonf/ &Sifaygvk\pmapmif 13ckteuf aemufqkH;
a&;om;cJah om Mo0g'pmrsm;onf toif;awmf\enf;pepf? trIawmf ESizhf UJG pnf;ykH
rsm; taMumif;udk azmfjyxm;vsuf ,aeYtoif;awmfrsm;twGuf vrf;ñTeo f bG,f
tusdK;jyKvsuf&Sdonf[k qdkcsifayonf/
awG;ac:qifjcifEdkif&ef tBuHjyK&rnfqdkygu -

tBuHjyKcsuf trSwf(1)
zGUJ pnf;tkycf sKyrf EI iS hf pnf;pepfonf t"duusygonf/ toif;awmfEiS hf ,kMH unfol
wpfO;D pDü 0dnmOfa&;wm0efrsm;&SMd uygonf/ tajccHtm;jzifh bk&m; ocif\ EIwu f
ywfawmfudk rSefuefpGmem;vnf&ef vdkygonf/ c&pfawmfjyocJhaom b0ykHpH udk
vdu k ef m&ef ta&;Bu;D ygonf/ þenf;tm;jzifo h m toif;awmfonf 0dnmOf a&;?
pdw"f gwfa&;&mwdUk ü tajccHoabmw&m;rsm; wlnv D suf EIwu
f ywfawmfukd cH,l
&mrSm jcm;em;jcif;&SdMurnf r[kwfyg/
Oyrmay;&rnfqdkvQif toif;awmfwpfyg;udk wnfaqmuf&ef udpöonf
pkaygif;wm0efjzpfovdk wpfO;D csi;f \ wm0efvnf;jzpfonf/ ay;urf; vSL'gef;jcif;?
tvSLaiGaumufcHjcif;paom trIawmfrsm;onf or®musrf;pmrS azmfjyonfh
twdik ;f enf;pepfususeejzpf&ef vdt k yfonf/ ,kMH unfocl &pf,mef wdUk taejzifh
rdrwd Ukd pdwq
f E´&o
dS nft
h wdik ;f vSL'gef;&rnfjzpfNy;D tajccHpnf;rsO;f rsm;udk pdwBf uKd uf
jyKjyifajymif;vJí vSL'gef;jcif; rjyKtyfay/ (2aum? 9;6-10)
259

tMuHjyKcsuf trSwf(2)
toif;awmftzGUJ tpnf;onf EIwu f ywfawmf\ oGeo f ifcsut f wdik ;f rSeu
f efpmG
vdu k ef musiohf ;Hk &ygrnf (2wd? 2;15)/ bk&m;ocifcsxm;ay; onfo h pömw&m;udk
0dnmOfoabmxm;jynf0h onfh acgif;aqmifrsm;\ OD;aqmifrI ESihf vdu k af vQmufjcif;
(1wd? 3;1-10)onf toif;awmf&iS o f efrt
I wGuf r&Srd jzpfvtkd yfonf/ ,kMH unfol
rsm; taejzifh tpOftvmrsm;twdik ;f aomfvnf;aumif;? rdrw d Ukd \ ausmaxmuf
aemufcH ordik ;f tay:rSm vnf;aumif; tm;jyKveG ;f tm;Bu;D rnfqykd gu or®mw&m;
vrf;rus? 0dnmOfoabmrsm; cRwaf csmí f bk&m;ociftvdak wmftwdik ;f pGr;f aqmif
Edkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfay/
,ckMo0g'pmrsm;onf toif;awmfykHpHudk ,ckuREkfyfwdkUazmfjyovdk azmfjyrnf
r[kwf? bk&m;ocifonf þuJhodkU ykHaoum;csyfazmfjyjcif; rjyKrD uwnf;u
a&mrMo0g'pm? aum&dEKÅ Mo0g'pmyXrapmifEiS hf 'kw, d apmif? *vmwdMo0g'pm?
{zufMo0g'pm? zdvdydÜMo0g'pmESifh aumavmoJMo0g'pm wdkYudk csxm;ay;cJhjyD;
jzpfygonf/ þodq Yk akd omtcgü toif;awmftzGUJ tpnf; ykpH o H nf ta&;rBu;D bl;
vm;[k ar;csifp&m&Sdygvdrfhrnf/ r[kwfyg . . . toif;awmftzGJUtpnf;ESifh
tkyfcsKyfa&;onf yXrOD;pm;ay;tqifhür&Sd? ,if;wdkUonf toif;awmf\
&Sifoefjcif;wGif 'kwd,tqifhrSmom &Sdygonf/ bk&m;ocif\ owfrSwfpHcsdef
pHñeT ;f twdik ;f aumif;jrwfaom oGeo f ifrEI iS hf 0dnmOfoabmaqmifonfh trIawmf
rsm;jzpfz&Ykd ef? c&pfawmfjyKcohJ nfh u,fwifjcif; aus;Zl;awmfqikd &f m aumif;owif;
0daoovu©PmwdkYudk azmfjyap&efomvQif y"gejzpfygonf/
&Sifaygvk\ Mo0g'pmwpfckpDwGif u,fwif&Sifocifc&pfawmf\ taMumif;udk
wlnDpGm? yDjyifpGm? xda&mufpGm azmfjyvsuf&SdNyD; 0rf;ajrmufbG,f u,fwifjcif;
owif;pum;udk aqmifMuOf;vsuf ,kHMunfoltm;vkH;tm; ocifc&pfawmfü
tpOfwnfwHhpGm cdkvIHudk;pm;&ef a&;om;jyKpkcJhygaMumif;/
260
atmufygZ,m;uGufrsm;tm;jzifh jcm;em;csufrsm;udk odEdkifygonf/

c&pfawmfa,½Itm; t"duxm;azmfjyjcif;
a&mrMo0g'pm c&pfawmfonfbk&m;ocif\wefcdk;awmfudkaqmifcJhol
aum&dEÅKMo0g'pmyXrapmif c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ ynmawmf u d k aqmif c J h o l
a u m & dE Å KM o 0 g ' p m ' k w d , a p m i f c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ ES p f o d r f h j cif ; ud k a qmif c J h o l
u m v w ddMM o 0 g ' p m c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ ajzmif h r wf j cif ; ud k a qmif c J h o l
{ z u fM o 0 g ' p m c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ <u,f 0 jynf h p k H j cif ; ud k a qmif c J h o l
zd v d y d Ü Mo0g'pm
M o0g'pm c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ zl v k H j cif ; ud k a qmif c J h o l
a u m a v m o J Mo 0 g ' p m c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ jynf h 0 BuD ; jrwf r I u d k a qmif c J h o l
oufomavmedwfMo0g'pmyXrapmif c&pfawmfonfbk&m;ocif\uwdawmfudkaqmifcJhol
oufomavmedwfMo0g'pm'kwd,apmif c&pfawmfonfbk&m;ocif\qkvmbfudkaqmifcJhol
w d a r m a o MMo o0g'pmyXrapmif c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ vl o m;ud k aph p yf a y;ol
w d a r m a o MMo 0 g ' p m ' k w d , a p m i f
o c&pfawmfonfbk&m;ocif\w&m;pD&ifol
w d w k Mo 0 g ' p m c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ Muif e mjcif ; u½k P mud k a qmif c J h o l
z d a v r k e f Mo 0 g ' p m c&pf a wmf o nf b k & m;ocif \ ,k H M unf p d w f c sjcif ; ud k c H & ol j zpf o nf /

0rf;ajrmufbG,fowif;pum;udk t"duxm;jcif;
a&mrMo0g'pm u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h owif ; aumif ;
a u m & d E Å KM o 0 g ' p m y X r a p m i f u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h trI a wmf
a u m & d E Å KM o 0 g ' p m ' k w d , a p m i f u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h trI a wmf a qmif r sm;
umvwdMo0g'pm u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h tusif h r S m ;ol r sm;
{ z u fM o 0 g ' p m u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h aumif ; uif q k a us;Zl ;
zd v d y d Ü Mo0g'pm
M o0g'pm u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h avmuD t &mrsm;
a u m a v m o J Mo 0 g ' p m u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h tbd " r® m rsm;
oufomavmedwfMo0g'pmyXrapmif u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h toif ; awmf t em*wf
oufomavmedwfMo0g'pm'kwd,apmif u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h c&pf a wmf q ef U usif o l t Ed Å c &pf
w d a r m a o MMo o0g'pmyXrapmif u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h oif ; tk y f r sm;
w d a r m a o Mo 0 g ' p m ' k w d , a p m i f u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h qef Y usif r I
wdwkMo0g'pm u,f w if j cif ; w&m;ES i f h quf E G , f a qmif & G u f r I
z d a v r k e f Mo 0 g ' p m u,fwifjcif;w&m;pGrf;yum;
261

,kHMunfoltzGJUtpnf;wGif u,fwifjcif;w&m;udk t"duxm;jcif;


a&mrMo0g'pm c&pfawmfü w&m;rQwjcif;&Sdonf/
a u m & d E Å KM o 0 g ' p m y X r a p m i f c&pf a wmf ü oef U &S i f ; jcif ; &S d o nf /
a u m & d E Å KM o 0 g ' p m ' k w d , a p m i f c&pf a wmf ü Nid r f o uf c srf ; omcG i f h & S d o nf /
umvwdMo0g'pm c&pf a wmf ü vG w f v yf j cif ; &S d o nf /
{ z u fM o 0 g ' p m c&pf a wmf ü csD ; ajrS m uf j cif ; &S d o nf /
zd v d y d Ü Mo0g'pm
M o0g'pm c&pf a wmf ü 0rf ; ajrmuf j cif ; &S d o nf /
aumavmoJMo0g'pm c&pf a wmf ü NyD ; ajrmuf j cif ; &S d o nf /
oufomavmedwfMo0g'pmyXrapmif c&pf a wmf ü ajymif ; vJ j cif ; &S d o nf /
oufomavmedwfMo0g'pm'kwd,apmif c&pfawmfü tay;t,lrQwrI&Sdonf/
w d a r m a o Mo 0 g ' p m y X r a p m i f c&pf a wmf ü cG e f t m;wd k ; wuf j cif ; &S d o nf /
w d a r m a o Mo 0 g ' p m ' k w d , a p m i f c&pf a wmf ü t"d X gef & S d o nf /
wdwkMo0g'pm c&pf a wmf ü wuf < ujcif ; &S d o nf /
z d a v r k e f Mo 0 g ' p m c&pf a wmf ü tif t m;jynf h p k H o nf /

a&mrMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonfbk&m;ocif\wefcdk;awmfudkaqmif,lol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
wrefawmfBuD;&Sifaygvka&;om;onf (1;1)? a&S;OD;toif;awmfonf
þusr;f pmudw k pfnw
D ñGwwf nf;axmufcí H &Siaf ygvkukd *kPjf yKMuonf/ aygvk
toufwmrS xif&Sm;jzpf&yfrsm;\ rSwfwrf;rsm;yg0ifovdk ,kHMunfjcif; tajccH
oabm w&m;rsm;rSmvnf; &Sifaygvk\ tjcm;pmayrsm;ESifh pnf;vkH;nDñGwf
aMumif;udk xif&Sm;odomaponf/
&Siaf ygvk\tBu;D tus,q f ;Hk [k qdt
k yfaom þusr;f pmtkyo f nf a&mr
NrKd UawmfrS toif;awmfukd OD;wnfa&;om;ojzifh a&mrMo0g'pm[k rSnq hf o
kd nf/
(1;7? 15)? &Siaf ygvkonf a&mrtoif;awmfukd wnfaxmiforl [kwaf omfvnf;
262
wpfyg;trsdK;om;wdkU\ wrefawmfBuD;taejzifh a&mrNrdKU&Sd ,kHMunfolrsm;udk
awGUqkHzdkU&ef ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm awmifhwcJhvsuf (15;22-23)olwdkY\ ,kHMunfjcif;
udk wnfwHhatmif a[majymoGefoifvdkpdwfvnf;&SdcJhonf (1;13-15)/
þodUk a&mrwGif trIawmfukd aqmifzUkd &eftwGuf a&mrom;wdu Yk vrf;udk
jyifqifay;Muyg&ef olpma&;cJo h nf (15;14-17)/ a&;om;aom tcsed rf mS aum&dEKÅ
NrdKUwGif ,k'qif;&Jom;,kHMunfolrsm;twGuf tvSLaiGudk olaumufcHNyD;onfh
tcsed rf mS jzpfonf/ aum&dEKÅ rSwzef a,½k&v S ifNrKd Uawmfukd jyefomG ;Ny;D tvSLaiGrsm;
udt k yfum a&mrESiphf ydeuf kd c&D;xGu&f ef &nf&,
G cf o
hJ nf (15;24)/ olaemufyikd ;f wGif
a&mrodkYa&mufoGm;onf/ odkUaomftusOf;om; tjzpf a&mufoGm;jcif;jzpfonf/
þMo0g'pmudk aum&dEoKteD;rSm&Sdaom uifajctoif;awmfrS trsdK;orD; acgif;
aqmifwpfO;D jzpfol ]zdaA}u a&mr toif;awmfoYkd ,laqmifay;ydUk aMumif; awGU&
avonf/ (16;1)
usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 57-58
a&mrMo0g'pmudk wrefawmfBuD;onf ol\ wwd,tBudrfajrmufc&D;
pOf ed*kH;ydkif; AD 57-58 ü a&;om;onf[k ,lq&onf/ (wrefawmf? 18;23-
21;14)/ (a&mr 15;26) azmfjycsufrsm;t& aum&dEÅK t&yfrSm&Sdaom rmaum
a'gedEiS hf tcg,toif;awmfrsm;rS tvSLaiGrsm;udk aygvkvufc&H &SNd y;D jzpf&ygrnf/
þtcsuft& olonf aum&dEÅK udka&mufcJhNyD;jzpfonf/ aum&dEÅK Mo0g'pmudk
ola&;pOfuolonf aum&dEKÅ udk ra&mufz;l ao;aMumif; od&onf jzpfí (1aum?
16;1-4? 2aum? 8-9) ,cka&mrMo0g'pmonf aum&dEÅK Mo0g'rsm; a&;om;
NyD;pD;onfh AD 55 aemufydkif;rSm a&;jcif;jzpf&ygrnf/
OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
a&mrMo0g'pmonf wdusaom jyóemrsm;udk azmfjyonfhtjcm;
Mo0g'rsm; uJhodkYr[kwfay/ þusrf;ü OD;wnfcsuf 3rsdK;udk &SmíawGUEdkifonf/
yXrtcsut f aejzifh a&mrNrKd Uawmfuv
kd mvdak om qE´&NdS y;D a,½k&v
S ifrw
S pfqifh
olvma&mufEdkif&ef jyifqifay;zdkY arwåm&yfcHonf/ (15;24? 28-29ESifh wref?
19;21)/ &Sifaygvkonf ol\pdwful;rsm;udk azmfjyvsufolUudk apmihfMu&ef
263
qkawmif;ay;Muyg&efyefMum;cJo h nf/ (a&mr? 15;30-32)/ 'kw, d OD;wnfcsurf mS
bk&m;ocif\ 0rf;ajrmufbG,fu,fwifjcif; owif;pum;tm; tao;pdwfrQ
jynfph pHk mG aMujimwifjy&efjzpfonf/ (1;15)t& igwwfEikd o f rQ twdik ;f a&mrNrKd U
om;jzpfaom oifwdkYtm; {0Ha*vdw&m;udk a[mjcif;iSm apwempdwf&Sd\ [lí
olazmfjycJo h nf/ wrefawmfBu;D onf xdw k &m;awmf taMumif;udk a&mrom;rsm;
aocsmpGm em;vnf&ef? toufwmwpfckvkH; tay:rSm cH,lEdkif&ef? txl;ojzifh
ajzmifrh wfjcif;tcGit hf wGuf bk&m;ocif\ pD&ifcsujf zpfaomtwdw?f ypkyeÜ u f mv
twGuf oefU&Si;f pifMu,fapjcif;[laom a&G;aumufac:,ljcif;? tem*wfEiS q hf ikd f
vsuf c&pfawmf\ bke;f awmfukd ay;tyfjcif;ponft h csurf sm;udk &Si;f vif;zGiq hf kd
xm;onf/ wwd,OD;wnfcsufrSm a&mrNrdKUtoif;om;rS *sL;,k'c&pf,mefrsm;?
wpfyg;trsdK;om;c&pf,mefrsm; Mum;rS jyóemjzpfaeonfh ta&zsm;vSD;jcif;
cHoifrh oifh jyóemrsm;udk ajz&Si;f jcif;jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocifonf *sL;vlrsKd ;awmf
qdkif&m y#dnmOfrsm;udk rarhavsmhbJ *sL;ESifhwpfyg;trsdK;om;rsm;tm;vkH;twGuf
u,fwifjcif; aus;Zl;udk jyKawmfrlaMumif; &Sif;vif;zGifhqdkay;cJhav\/
&Siaf ygvkonf a&mrMo0g'\OD;wnfcsuu f kd (1;16-17)wGif &Si;f vif;pGm
azmfjyonf/ xdt k ydik ;f wGif bk&m;ocifonf tjypfvo l m;udk tb,foYkd u,fwif
ay;awmfrlaMumif; azmfjyxm;&m r[mqefvSaom Mo0g'rsm;\ tESpfom&[k
qdkEdkifonf/ ,if;azmfjycsufonf 0rf;ajrmufbG,f u,fwifjcif;? bk&m;ocif\
wefc;kd awmf? tjypfrv S wG af pjcif;? ,kMH unfjcif;&So
d l rsm;? bk&m;ocif\ ajzmifrh wf
jcif;? *sL;ESifhwpfyg; trsdK;om;tm;vkH;twGuf jzpfykHwdkYudk azmfjyxm;onf/
CHARLES RYRIE utaumif;qkH;a0zef okH;oyfxm;&mwGif . . .
&Siaf ygvk\tjcm;Mo0g'rsm;ESihf rwlbJ a&mrMo0g'pmonf ,kMH unfjcif;
w&m;tm;jzifh bk&m;ocif\ qkH;jzwfpD&ifawmfrljcif;taMumif;udk pHepfusepGm
azmfjyonf/ xdkusrf;BuD;\ tESpfom&rSm bk&m;ocif\ ajzmifhrwf awmfrljcif;
jzpfonf/ (1;16-17)
c&pf,mefbmom0ifrsm;\ tajccH,MHk unfcsurf sm;pGmwdUk udk ajyvnfpmG
aqG;aEG;ay;Edik o f nf/ obm0avmuBu;D rS azmfjyaom Asm'dwaf wmf (a&mr? 1;19-
20) vlUavmuBuD;\ tjypfarSmifrdkuf (a&mr? 3;9-20)? xdktjypftwGuf
vGwfajrmuf &efpD&ifjcif; (a&mr? 3;24)? onf;cHawmfrlaom arwåm(3;25)?
,kMH unfjcif; (a&mr? 4;1)? £oa&vtm; a&G;aumufjcif;ESihf y,f&mS ;jcif; (a&mr?
264
6;1)(9-11)? 0dnmOfqkaus;Zl;rsm; (a&mr? 12;3-8)? rif;tpdk;&tm; ½dkao
av;pm;jcif; (a&mr? 13;1-7) 73
ed'gef;(1;1-17)ESihf ed*;Hk ydik ;f (15;14-16;27)wdUk rSwpfyg; a&mrMo0g' pmudk
tydkif;tjcm; 3ckjzifh vG,fvifhwul ydkif;jcm;Edkifygrnf/
1/ yXrtcef;BuD; 8ckwdkUonf tajccH,kHMunfcsufrsm;udk azmfjyxm;vsuf
bk&m;ocifudk ,kHMunfjcif;w&m;tm;jzifh tjypfw&m;rS vGwfajrmufí
oefU&Sif; pifMu,fjcif;jzpfapaom 0rf;ajrmufbG,fu,fwifjcif;w&m;\
vdktyfcsufrsm; udk ñTefjyxm;ygonf/
2/ tcef;BuD; 9 rS 11 okH;usrf;wdkUonf vlrsdK;a&;rsm;ESifh qufEG,fí *sL;vlrsdK;
rsm;? wpfyg;trsdK;om;tm; bk&m;ocif\ qufoG,fykHudk vnf;aumif;?
aus;Zl;jyKawmfrjl cif;udv k nf;aumif; odomxif&mS ;aponf/
3/ tcef;Bu;D 12 rS 16 wdUk onf ,kMH unfocl &pf,mefrsm;\ aeUpOftoufwm
usifhokH;vdkufemp&mrsm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf/
c&pfawmfudk a&mrMo0g'pmrSawGUjrif&ykH
wrefawmfBuD;&Sifaygvkonf c&pfawmfudk 'kwd,ajrmuftm'Htjzpf
wifpm;vsuo f \l ajzmifrh wfawmfrjl cif;? ol\ud, k pf m;cHoufpeG Uf arwåmrsm;onf
olUudk ,kMH unfow l ikd ;f twGuf tjypfw&m;rS vGwaf jrmufapjy[ D k wifjyoGm;av
\/ c&pfawmfonf ol\ajzmifrh wfawmfrjl cif;udk aus;Zl;arwåmvufaqmif tjzpf
tjypfom;wdaYk exdik &f m vlUurÇmudk ay;cJo h nf/ bk&m;ocifonf vlUavmu tjypf
w&m;twGuf trsuaf wmfEiS hf tjypfay;rnft h pm; c&pfawmfonf bk&m;arwåm
ESihf toufupkd eG u
Yf m u,fwifawmfrcl o hJ nf/ xdu
k ohJ Ykd c&pfawmf\ u,fwifjcif;?
tjypfvTwfjcif;? bk&m;ocifESifh vlom;rsm; jyefvnf oifhjrwfjcif;? aojcif;rS
vGwaf jrmufjcif;? bke;f awmf xif&mS ;apjcif;rsm;twGuf ocifc&pfawmf\ aojcif;
ESifh&Sifjyefxajrmufjcif;wdkUonf t"dutESpfom& jzpfavonf/ 74
t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef; (1;1-17)
2/ tjypfwifjcif;? vlUabmif\tjypfrsm;twGuf ajzmifhrwfjcif;w&m;udk
vdt
k yfyHk (1;18-3;20)
265
u. ud,
k u
f siw
hf &m;ysupf ;D aeolrsm;tm;½Iwcf sjcif;
(wpfyg;trsdK;om;rsm;) (1;18-32)
c. ud,
k u
f siw
hf &m;vufuikd x
f m;olrsm; (2;1-16)
*. bmoma&;orm;rsm;tm; ½Iwfcsjcif; (*sL;rsm;) (2;17-3;8)
C. vlom;tm;vk;H tm½kcH sjcif; (3;9-20)
3/w&m;pD&ifjcif;? c&pfawmftm;jzifh bk&m;ocif\ oufnSmjcif; (3;21-5;21)
u. ajzmifrh wfjcif;w&m;[lonf (3;21-31)
c. ajzmifhrwfjcif;udk o½kyfykHazmfjyojcif; (4;1-25)
*. ajzmifhrwfjcif;w&m;twGuf aumif;Bu;D (5;1-11)
C. ajzmifhrwfjcif;ESifh tjypfwifjcif; EdIif;,SOfcsuf (5;12-21)
4/oefU&Si;f pifMu,fapjcif;? ajzmifrh wfjcif;w&m;\ zGiq
hf ckd suEf iS o
hf ½kyf (6;1-8;39)
u. oefU&Sif;pifMu,fjcif;ESifh tjypf (6;1-23)
c. oefU&Sif;pifMu,fjcif;ESifh ynwfw&m; (7;1-25)
*. oefU&Sif;pifMu,fjcif;ESifh 0dnmOfawmfwefcdk; (8;1-39)
5/&efvdkrkef;wD;jcif;rsm;? *sL;ESifhwpfyg;trsdK;om;rsm;? bk&m;ocif\
arwåmawmf teEÅ/ (9;1-11;36)
u. £oa&v\twdw?f bk&m;ocif\ a&G;aumufjcif; (9;1-29)
c. £oa&vypöKyÜef? bk&m;ocifjiif;y,fjcif; (9;30-10;21)
*. £oa&v\ tem*wf? bk&m;ocif jyefvnfaumif;Bu;D ay;jcif;
(11;1- 36)
6/ EIwfuywfawmfudk okH;pGJjcif;? trIawmfwGif ajzmifhrwfpGm yg0if&ef
(12;1-15;13)
266
u. bk&m;ocifESifh qufoG,fjcif; (12;1-2)
c. udk,fhb0udk udk,fjyKjyif (12;3)
*. toif;awmftay:rSm (12;4-8)
C. ywf0ef;usifESifh qufqH&mrSm (12;9-21)
i. rif;tpdk;&tay: (13;1-14)
p. tjcm;,kMH unforl sm;twGuf (14;1-15;13)
7/ yk*d¾Kvfa&;owif;rsm;ESifh aumif;BuD;ay;jcif; (15;14-16;27)
u. &Sifaygvk\ pDrHcsufrsm; (15;14-33)
c. &Sifaygvk\ EIwfcGef;qufoHrsm; (16;1-16)
*. &Sifaygvk\ ed*kH;ESifh aumif;BuD; (16;17-27)

aum&dEÅK Mo0g'pmyXapmif
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ ynmawmfudkaqmifcJhol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
aygvka&;om;aMumif;udk tzufzufrS cdkifvkHpGm awGUjrif&onf/ yXr
&mpkEpS f AD 96 txd &Siaf ygvkom usr;f a&;ol[k wpfnw D ñGww f nf; oabmwl
cJMh uonf/ 'kw, f &m CLEMENT u aum&dEKÅ Mo0g'pmyXr
d &mpkEpS f oif;tkyq
apmifudk aumif;BuD;cHpm;&ol &Sifaygvk\ Mo0g'[k qdkcJhonf/ CLEMENT
ud, k w
f ikd o
f nfvnf; aum&dEKÅ ,kMH unforl sm;xH pma&;qufo, G f í yXrapmifrmS
aygvkazmfjycJo h nfh toif;awmfwiG ;f uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIrsm;udk tud;k tum;jyKco
hJ nf/
Mo0g'pm\ twGi;f pmom;rsm;rSmvnf; a&;om;olaygvk \trnfukd tESUH tjym;
awGU&avonf/
267
wrefawmf0wåKESifhrsm;pGmaom Mo0g'rsm;udk aocsmpGm zwf½IvQif aum&dEÅK
toif;awmfEiS hf &Siaf ygvkwUkd \ qufE,
G rf rI sm;udk tusO;f csKyrf Q atmufygtwdik ;f
awGU&onf/ (1) ol\ aum&dEÅK yXrc&D;pOftNyD; (2) aum&dEÅK twGuf yXrqkH;
pmudk a&;cJhonf (xdkpmonfaysmufqkH;cJhonf) (3) xdkUaemuf'kwd,tBudrf
pma&;cJh&m ,if;rSm ,ckyXrapmifjzpfvmonf/ (4)xdkpmudka&;NyD; aum&dEÅK odkU
'kwd,tBudrf c&D;jyKcJh&m pdwfxdcdkufbG,f c&D;pOf jzpfonf (2aum? 2;1)/ (5)
,if;aemufwwd,pmudk a&;om;&m aysmufq;Hk cJh jyefí (6) pwkwp¬ mudak &;cJ&h m
,if;onf'kwd,pmapmifjzpfvmcJhav\/ aemufqkH;ü aum&dEÅK odkU olwwd,
ajrmufoGm;cJhonf (wref? 20;2-3)/ aysmufqkH;oGm;aom pmESpfapmifrSm bk&m;
ocifu or®musr;f pmwGif tok;H rjyKvakd omaMumifh y,f&iS ;f vdu k jf cif;[k ,kMH unfMu
onf/
usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 55
wrefawmfBu;D &Siaf ygvkonf u,fwifjcif;w&m;udk AD 50 ckEpS f ol\
aum&dEÅK'kwd,c&D;pOfrSm a[mMum;cJhonf/ aum&dEÅK rSm jypfudvESifh tmukv
trnf&dS wJ&iS v f yk if ef;&Sirf sm;ESihf olaexdik tf vkyv f yk cf o
hJ nf (wrefawmf? 18;3)/
ol\xk;H pHtwdik ;f *sL;w&m;Z&yfrmS pwifa[majymcJ&h m *sL;rsm;teuf rauseyfol
wduYk ESix f wk jf cif;cHonfh vu©Pm&So d nf/ odUk aomf w&m;Z&yfEiS hf pyfvsu&f adS om
,kwåKtrnf&Sdol\tdrfrSm qufvufí trIawmf aqmifcJhonf (wref? 18;7)/
*sL;rsm;onf a&mrbk&ifcH *gvsKex f aH ygvkukd ac:aqmifNy;D w&m;pGMJ uaomfvnf;
trIrSvGwfajrmufvsuf aum&dEÅK wGif 18v MumaecJhonf/ (wref? 18;1-17?
1aum 2;3)/ þMo0g'pm udk AD 55 rSpí {zufNrKd Uü ok;H ESpaf eNy;D aemufyikd ;f rSm
a&;om;cJo h nf/ (16;5-9? wref 20;31)/ olUtqdt k & {zufwiG f yifawukaw¬yJG
aeYwikd af tmif aecJo h nf(16;8)/ ,if;tcsut f m;jzifh {zufNrKd UwGif þMo0g'pmudk
wpfESpfeD;yg;tcsdef,la&;om; aecJhonf[k qdkEdkifonf/
OD;wnf&nf&G,fonfhtaMumif;&if;
OD;wnf&nf&, G cf suu
f kd vG,u
f pl mG em;vnfEikd &f ef ordik ;f aemufcH
tenf;i,fudk odxm;zdkUvdktyfonf/ aum&dEÅK onf vl 7odef; cefUaexdkifaom
268
NrKd UBu;D jzpfNy;D ,if;aemufo;Hk ykEH pS yf rHk mS uRerf sm;jzpfum urf;½d;k wef;ajr usO;f usO;f
ü pkjH yKaH exdik Mf u&onf/ ,if;uke;f ½d;k onf at*s, D EH iS ahf t'&Dtm;wpf yifv,fpyf
Mum;rSmwnf&NdS y;D ajrmufzuf*&dco f Ykd aygufa&mufaom PELOPO-NNESUS ESihf
qufaeonf/ csrf;omaom NrdKUBuD;yifjzpfapumrl aum&dEÅK vdk t&yfrsdK;ü
bk&m;ocif\ ajzmifrh wfjcif;w&m;onf tb,foaYkd tmifjrifEikd f rnfukd aygvkEiS hf
trIawmfaqmifrsm; awG;rdcJhMurnfjzpfonf/
tb,faMumifhqdkaomf aum&dEÅK onf ½kyfavmuwyfrufrI tvGef rsm;jym;
oavmuf tjypf'pk ½du k rf sm;ESihf zk;H vTr;f aeonf/ wpfNrKd Uvk;H rSm ewfu;kd uG,rf aI wG
rdIvdkaygufí ACROCORINTHUS awmifBuD;ay:rS APHRODITE
ewfb&k m;rSm tvGepf w d ñ f w T Ef ;l zG,jf zpfonf/ *&dcpf may usr;f *efwt Ykd & csr;f om
<u,f0a&;? pdwt f vdv
k u kd af &;wdu Yk kd tm;ay;aom ewfb&k m;jzpfonf/ ]aum&dEKÅ u
rdef;uav;} [kqdkvdkufvQif raumif;wmvkyfí pm;aMumif;&nfñTef;onf/
]aum&dEÅK utusifh} [kqdkvdkufvQif umr*kPfwGif aysmfarGUjcif;udk qdkvdkonf/
vlcsrf;omrsm;? t&m&Sd t&mcHrsm;onf ewfbk&m; ausmif;em;rSmomaeí
axmifcsDí&Sdaom jynfhwefqmrsm;ESifh w½kef;½kef; jzpfaewwfMuonf/ odkUjzpfí
a&S;acwfq½kd ;kd pum;wpfcw k iG f ]aum&dEKÅ em;rSm vrf;rrSm;apeJU} [kyif awGU&av
onf/
wrefawmf0wåK\ azmfjycsut f & &Siaf ygvk\ trIawmfaMumifh *sL;vlrsKd ; tenf;
i,fom ajymif;vJcJhNyD; trsm;pkBuD;rSm wpfyg;trsdK;om;rsm; jzpfav\/ wpfyg;
trsKd ;om;trsm;pkrmS atmufajcvlwef;pm;rsm;jzpfrnf? odaYk omftrsKd ;jrifh oltcsKd U
vnf; ajymif;vJcyhJ gvdrrhf nf (1;26-31)/ xdv k o
l m;rsm; xJwiG f vlaerIb0? pD;yGm;
a&;b0 uGm[csuaf wGBu;D rm;cJrh nfjzpfNy;D (7;20-24? 11;21-34)tcsKd Uaom yk*K¾d vf
rsm;qdkvQif olwdkY\ tusifha[mif;rsm;xJrS ½kef;xGufEdkifMu[efr&Sdyg (6;9-11)/
wpfcsed w
f nf;rSm *&dcw
f x Ykd ;kH pHtwdik ;f ud,
k yf nm? ud,
k t
hf awG;tac:udk txifBu;D
aeMu&mrS ydkrdk,kd,Gif;qdk;0g;jcif;rsm; yif jzpfvmcJhav\/ (1;17? 2;1-5) 75
&Sif;aeygjyD? aaum&dEÅK\ tusifhqdk;rsm;? udk;uG,fykHenf;pepfrsm; atmufwGif
toif;awmf\ 0dnmOfa&;? pm&dwåa&;rsm;tajctaeqdk;ESifh &ifqdkifae&onf/
xdktajctaewGif &Sifaygvk\ Mo0g'pmonf c&pf,mef toufwmonf c&pf
269
awmftm;jzifh oefU&Sif;jcif;&Sdvsuf? tb,ftajctae rSmyifjzpfap oefU&Sif;ol
rsm;taejzifh &SifoefMu&ef wdkufwGef;xm;onf/ c&pfawmftm;jzifh topfb0
udka&mufaomtcg oefU&Sif;aom 0dnmOfawmf tm;jzifh &Sifoefaexdkif&rnf/
(3;16? 17? 6;11? 19-20)/ bk&m;ocif\ ynmawmfonf c&pfawmftm;jzifh
,kMH unfow l u Ykd kd wpfO;D csi;f ajymif;vJap Edik o
f vdk vlUtzGUJ tpnf;twGi;f rSmvnf;
jyKjyifjcif;&Sdonf[k oGefoifxm; avonf/
odUk jzpfí aum&dEKÅ Mo0g'yXrapmifonf rdro d Md um;&orQaom toif;awmfwiG ;f
ursm;pGm jyóemawG? uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIawGtwGuf &Siaf ygvku xde;f ausmif;yJjh yif
aompmyifjzpf\/ toif;awmf\ rnDrñGwfrI (1;11)? bk&m;ocifxuf vl\
OmPfynmudk tm;ud;k rI (1;21-30)? pm&dwyå supf ;D jcif; (5;1-13? 6;9-20)ESiw
hf pfuG
vufxyfjcif;? uGm&Si;f jywfpjJ cif;? tpm;taomuf udp?ö 0wfjyKu;kd uG,rf ?I 0dnmOf
awmf\ vufaqmifrsm;? xajrmuf&Sifjyefjcif; taMumif;ponfh ar;cGef;rsm;
twGufyg &Sif;vif;zGifhjyjcif;jyKxm;onfh? bmoma&;udk;uG,f,kHMunfrIESifh?
udk,fusifhw&m;rsm;tay:u tajccHonfh t,lvGJacsmfjcif;? um,uHajrmuf
usL;vGefjcif;rsm;onf aum&dEÅKtoif;awmf BuD;rsm;o½kyfysufaeapaMumif;
oHo,yGm;p&mr&Syd g/
c&pfawmftm;aum&dEÅKMo0g'yXrapmifrSmawGU&ykH
1aum? 1;30onf c&pf,meftoufwmwGif ocifc&pfawmfonfom t"du
jzpfjcif;udk azmfjyay;onf/
]]xdkbk&m;ociftm;jzifh oifwdkYonf a,½Ic&pfü wnfaeMu\/ xdkocif rlum;
bk&m;ocifp&D ifawmfro l nhtf wdik ;f ? igwdUk ü ynmrSpí ajzmifrh wfjcif;? oef&Y iS jf cif;?
a&G;EIwjf cif;jzpfawmfr\
l /}}
t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ ed'gef; (1;1-9)
u. tav;jyKjcif; (1;1-3)
c. aus;Zl;awmfcsD;rGrf;qkawmif;jcif;(1;4-9)
270
2/ toif;awmfüuGjJ ym;jcm;em;jcif; (1;10-4;21)
u. uGJjym;rIowif; (1;10-17)
c. uGJjym;rItaMumif; (1;18-2;16)
(1) bk&m;ocif\um;wdkifw&m;udk em;rvnfrI (1;18-2;5)
(2) 0dnmOfawmf\ trIawmfudk em;rvnfjcif; (2;6-16)
*. uGJjym;jcif;\&vmbf (3;1-4;5)
(1) 0dnmOfcGeftm;wdk;wufjcif;r&Sd (3;1-9)
(2) qkaus;Zl;rsm;qkH;½IH; (3;10-4;5)
C. ykHpHOyrmESifh azmfjyjcif; (4;6-21)
3/ toif;awmfwGif pdwf"gwfysufjym;rI (5;1-6;20)
u. urf;ukefatmifnpfnrf;rI (5;1-13)
c. omoemhvlwdkUa&SUüw&m;pD&ifrI (6;1-8)
tusifhysufrItwGuf owd (6;9-20)
4/ vufxyfxdrf;jrm;rIMo0g' (7;1-40)
u. tdrfaxmifjyKjcif; rjyKjcif; (7;1-9)
c. tdrfaxmifjyKjcif;? uGm&Sif;jcif; (7;10-24)
*. tdrfaxmifESifh c&pf,mefwm0ef (7;25-38)
C. aemuftdrfaxmifjyKjcif; (7;39-40)
5/ ½kyw
f rk ,
S Zfaumifpm;jcif;ñTeMf um;csuf (8;1-11;1)
u.c&pf,mefonf ewfyal Zmfxm;aom tpmudpk m;Edik o
f vm; (8;1-13)
271
c.aygvk\Oyrm (9;1-27)
*.wdu
k w
f eG ;f Ed;I aqmfjcif; (10;1-11;1)
6/ y&dowf0wfjyKu;kd uG,&f mrSm (11;2-14;40)
u.rdef;rwdkU\ zkH;vGrf;jcif; (11;2-16)
c. c&pfawmf\npm (11;17-34)
*. 0dnmOfaus;Zl;tokH;jyKjcif; (12;1-14;40)
(1) 0dnmOfqktrsdK;rsdK; (12;1-11)
(2) qkaus;Zl;\&nf&G,fcsuf? uGJjym;aomfvnf; nDñTwf&ef
(12;12-31)
(3) aus;Zl;awmfwGif arwåmt"du (13;1-13)
(4) ya&mzufjyKro
I nf tjcm;aom bmompum;xufBu;D jrifh
(14;1-25)
(5) aus;Zl;rsm;udk okH;pGJ&efpnf;urf;rsm; (14;26-40)
7/ &Sifjyefxajrmufjcif;qdkif&m cH,lcsuf (15;1-58)
u. &Sifjyefxajrmufjcif;\ ta&;BuD;ykH (15;1-11)
c. &Sifjyefjcif;udk jiif;qefrI\ &vmbf (15;12-19)
*. c&pf,mefarQmfvifhjcif; (15;20-34)
C. xajrmufaomcE¨m (15;35-50)
i. c&pfawmftm;jzifh &,laomatmifyGJ (15;51-58)
8/ a,½k&SviftwGuf tvSLawmfaiG (16;1-4)
9/ ed*kH; (16;5-24)
272

aum&dEÅKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmif
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ ESpfodrfhjcif;udk aqmifcJhol)
usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
tzGirhf mS yif aygvk\ EIwcf eG ;f qufot
H m;jzifh aygvka&;onf[k qd&k rnf/ usr;f \
twGif;rSmjzpfaptjyifrSm tcsuftvufwdkYtm;jzifhjzpfap aygvk a&;aMumif;
jiif;p&mr&S/d þusr;f wGif aygvk\ [efyeftrlt&mrsm;udk tjcm;usr;f rsm;xuf
yk*d¾Kvfa&;qefqef½Ijrif&ygrnf/ 76
usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 56

(wref? 19;23-41)t& odjrif&aom yef;wdrform;rsm;\½kef;&if; qefcwfjyKrI


aMumif; aygvkonf {zufNrKd UrS rmaua'gedjynfoUkd c&D;qufco hJ nf (wref? 20;1)/
xdktcsdefonf AD 56 ckESpf aEGumvjzpfonf/ vrf;wGif wa&mNrdKUuav;rSm
wpfaxmufem;vsuf wdwEk iS ahf wGUqk&H ef arQmvf ifph Of (2aum? 2;13) aum&dEoKrS
tajctaersm;udk owif;&&SdNyD; wdwkudkvnf;&SmrawGUcJhay/ olESifh rmaua'ged
qDodkU c&D;quf&if;wdwk\ vkHNcKHa&;twGufvnf; pdwfylyefcJhonf (7;5-6)/
rmaua'gedoUkd wdwak &mufvmcJNh y;D aum&dEKÅ toif;awmf\ aumif;owif;rsm;udk
Mum;em&ovdk rdrd\wrefawmft&mudk qefUusifolrsm; x<uaeykHudkvnf;
qufvufMum;&onf/rmaua'gedjynfrSaeí pwkw¬ajrmuf pmwpfapmifudk
aum&dEÅKodkU a&;ydkU&m ,if;pmonf þMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifyif jzpfygonf/
&Sifaygvkonf AD 56-57 twGif; aum&dEÅKodkU wwd,tBudrf oGm;a&mufcJh&m
aqmif;wGif;umv[k rSef;q&onf/ (wref? 20;2-3)
273
OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
aygvka&;om;aompmrsm;teuf ,ckMo0g'onf yk*d¾Kvfa&;qefvsuf &if;ESD;rI
tvGe&f o dS nf? þpmwGif aum&dEKÅ ,MHk unforl sm;tm; olonfcikd Nf raJ om arwåmESihf
cspfaMumif;zGifhqdkonf? aum&dEÅKom;tcsdKUu olUudka0zefrI? olYtay:rSm txif
tjrifvGJrSm;rI&SdaeonfhMum;u olþuJhodkU azmfjyjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;taMumif;
rsm;ESihf ywfoufí "r®q&m JAMES K.LOWERY uteuf zGiw hf ifjycJ&h mü
]]&Sifaygvkt"du pdwfylyefrdonfrSm wrefawmfta,mifaqmifí EIwfuywf
awmfukd vGrJ mS ;atmifjyKvyk rf nfo
h rl sm;twGuyf if jzpfonf/ xdok w
l Ykd onf ud,
k hf
tjrifrsm;? t,ltqrsm;udk trTr;f wifvsuf wrefawmfBu;D rsm;\ owif;aumif;?
wrefawmfBuD;wdkU\ *kPfodu©mudkusatmif vkyfaqmifaeMuonf aum&dEÅK
Mo0g'pm 'kwd,apmifonf &Sifaygvktaejzifh rdrd\wrefawmf t&m? rdrd\
trIawmfudk ckcHumuG,fxm;onf/ ,if;onf trSefwu,f udk,fhtusdK;udk
umuG,fjcif;r[kwfbJ rdrd\trIawmfudk vufcHrSom aum&dEÅKtoif;awmf\
0dnmOfa&;tqifjh ynfh rDEikd rf nfuo kd ad omaMumifh jzpfayonf}} [kqxkd m;av\/
77
}}
&SifaygvkþodkUumuG,fckcH&mwGif &nfrSef;csuf 3csufay:vGifaeygonf/
(1) toif;awmfonf rdr\ d trIawmfukd avsmufywfpmG wkejYf yefxm;jcif;twGuf
rdrdtvGef0rf;ajrmufaMumif; (1;1-7;16)/
(2) ,kHMunfolc&pf,mefrsm;tm; olwdkUwm0ef,lxm;onfhtwdkif; ,k'jynf
c&pf,mefrsm;twGuf ay;vSLMu&ef (8;1-9;15)
(3) ol\wrefawmftcGifhta&;ESifh aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk umuG,f&ef
(10;1? 13;14)
c&pfawmftm;aum&dEÅKMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifü awGUjrif&ykH
þMo0g'pmwGif c&pfawmfukd ESpof rd o
hf ufomjcif;t&Sif (1;5) atmifyu JG kd ay;ol
(2;14)? bk&m;ocif\ 0dnmOfawmf (3;4) vTwfjcif;csrf;omjcif;udk ay;wwfol
(3;17)? tvif;w&m; (4;6)? w&m;pD&ifydkifol (5;10)? jyefvnfoifhjrwfjcif;
taMumif; (5;19)? aus;Zl;vufaqmif (9;15)vlukd ydik q
f ikd o
f l (10;7)? wefc;kd Bu;D ol
(12;9)
274
t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm; 78
1/ &Sifaygvk\ aqmif&GufcsufESifh trIawmfudk &Sif;jyjcif; (1;1-7;16)
u.EIwfqufjcif; (1;1-2)
c. qif;&JcH&pOf oufomcGifhtwGuf aus;Zl;awmfcsD;rGrf;jcif; (1;3-11)
*. aygvk\pdwfaepdwfxm;? aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; nDñGwfykH (1;12-2;4)
C.aum&dEÅKrS tjypfjyKoludk cGifhvTwfjcif; (2;5-11)
i. trIawmfjrwftwGuf bk&m;ocifñTefMum;jcif; (2;12-17)
p. aum&dEÅK,kHMunfolrsm;? c&pfawmf\pm (3;1-11)
q.bk&m;bkef;awmfudk zGifhvSpfxm;onfhrsufESmrsm;rS jrif&jcif;
(3;12-4;6)
Z. ajrtdk;xJrS b@m (4;7-16(u))
ps. aojcif;\ tjrwfudk c&pf,mefwdkUcH,lykH (4;16(c)-5;10)
n.jyefvnfoifjh rwfjcif;trIawmf (5;11-6;10)
om;orD;rsm;yrmtbawmif;qdjk cif; (6;11-7;4)
wdwkESifhawGUqkHjcif; (7;5-16)
2/ awmif;qdjk cif;? ,k'jynfa,½k&v S ifrS c&pf,mefrsm;twGuf (8;1-9;15)
u.&ufa&mrIudk tm;ay;onf (8;1-15)
c. wdwkESifhtaygif;toif;rsm;tm; aum&dEÅKodkU (8;16-9;5)
*. &ufa&mpGm vSL'gef;rI\tajz (9;6-15)
3/wrefawmftcGit hf &mtwGucf ck aH csyjcif; (10;1-13;14)
u.rdrd\tcGifhtmPm? rdrdtrIawmfe,fajrudk umuG,fjcif; (10;1-18)
c. ol½l;uJhodkU &J&ifhpGm 0g<um;jcif; (11;1-12;21)
*. aemufqkH;owday;csufrsm; (13;1-10)
C.ed*kH; (13;11-14)
275

*vmwdMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ ajzmifhrwfjcif;w&m;udkaqmifcJhol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
wrefawmfjzpfaom igaygvkonf[lí twdtusazmfjyonf/

usr;fudka&;aomckESpf
AD 49

*vmwdjynfawmifydkif;rS c&pf,mefrsm;xHa&;om;aom Mo0g'jzpf\/ tqdkyg


,kHMunfol toif;awmfrsm;udk &Sifaygvk\ yXromoemjyKc&D;wGif udk,fwdkif
wnfaxmifay;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/ þusr;f udk xdck &D;pOftqk;H owf? tEÅtw k Nf rKd UrSaeí
AD 49 ckEp
S cf efUrSm a&;jcif;jzpf&m? tapmqk;H vuf&m[k qdEk ikd o
f nf/ xdu
k sr;f pmudk
a&;NyD;aomtcg a,½k&Sviftoif;awmfaumifpD tpnf;ta0;BuD;udk ol
wufa&mufcJhonf/ (wrefawmf? 15)

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
þ*vmwdMo0g'pmudk "r®ynm&Sifrsm;pGmwdkUu c&pf,mefbmom0ifwdkY \
vGwfvyfa&;aMujimpmwrf;[k ac:qdkMuonf/ xdkMo0g'wGif ,k'ynwfawmf
orm;rsm;ESifholwdkY\ xkH;wrf;pOfvmrsm;udk tifwdkuftm;wdkuf awmfvSefxm;
onfjzpfí þodUk ,lpMJG ujcif;yifjzpfavonf/ c&pf,meftoif;awmfrsm; taejzifh
"r®a[mif;usr;f rS tcrf;tem;tpOftvmrsm;\ csnaf ESmifru I kd cHpm;íaecJMh u&m
wrefawmfBuD;&Sifaygvkonf tqdkygrSm;,Gif;aom usifhpOfwdkY udk acszsufvsuf
,kMH unfjcif;w&m;tm;jzifoh m ajzmifrh wf&modUk a&mufonf/ oefU&Si;f aom 0dnmOf
276
awmftm;jzifhom tjypfw&m;rS pifMu,fapEdkifonf[laom tqifhjrifh or®m
w&m;udk csjyxm;avonf/
xdjYk yif,'k bmoma&;orm;rsm;onf u,fwifjcif;w&m;udk vGaJ csmf aMujimrItjyif
&Sifaygvk\ trIawmfaqmif&GufrIudkvnf; ao;odrfatmif vkyfaqmifcJhMu
onfjzpfí &Siaf ygvkonf yXrtcef;Bu;D ESpcf ük rdr\ d wrefawmf b0? rdr\ d w&m;
a'oem wdo Yk nf &Sijf yefxajrmufawmfral om c&pfawmfxrH S wdu k ½f u
kd q f if;ouf
jcif; jzpfaMumif; azmfjyvsuf wkHYjyefacsycJhavonf/ xdkaemuftcef;BuD; 3 ESifh
4 wdkUü aus;Zl;arwåmawmf\ t&if;cHtrSefw&m;? ,kHMunfjcif;w&m;\ tjypf
vTwyf ikd cf iG whf Ukd udk zGix
hf w
k af zmfjyxm;avonf/ þMo0g'udk qifjcifww Hk &m;r&Sb
d J
zwf½o I t
l csKd Uu þusr;f tm;jzifh tjypfukd usL;vGecf iG v
hf ikd pf ifcsay;ovdk c&pf,mef
vGwfvyfjcif;tm; txifvGJ rSm;wwfMu onfjzpf&m xdkodkYaom zsif;nHhonfh
t"dyÜg,fr&Sd? ,kHMunfolwdkU\ vGwfvyf jcif;qdkonfrSm 0dnmOfawmf\ wefcdk;udk
cH,v l su0f n d mOfvrf;jyonfh toufwmudk avQmufvrS ;f jcif;jzpfonf/ Zmwdyuwd
taoG;tom;qE´\ aemufodkU vkdufygjcif;r[kwf? 0dnmOfawmf\ toD;udk
oD;aomtoufwmom jzpf&rnf[l í tcef; 5 ESifh 6 wdkUrSm qufvuf azmfjy
xm;aMumif; awGUygvdrfhrnf/

c&pfawmftm;*vmwdMo0g'pmüawGUjrif&ykH
c&pfawmf\ aojcif;ü aoMu&aom ,kHMunfolwdkYonf ynwfw&m; tm;jzifh
aoMu&vsuf c&pfawmfESifhtwl touf&Sifjcif;tcGifhudk &&Sdonf/ (2;20)
,kHMunfjcif; w&m;tm;jzifh vlom;wdkUonf tjypfw&m;\ taESmiftzGJUrS
vGwfajrmufvmMuNyD; (tcef; 5) ppfrSefaom vGwfvyfa&;t&omudk cHpm;Mu
&onf/ c&pfawmftaocHawmfrlaom um;wdkifawmfonf ynwfawmf wdkY\
used q
f rkd ?I tjypf\wefc;kd ESihf rdr\
d tvdq
k E´rsm;rS vGwaf jrmufMu&avonf/ (1;4?
2;20? 3;13? 4;5? 5;16? 24? 6;14)

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ yk*K¾d vaf &;? aus;Zl;arwåmawmf\owif;aumif;? ,kMH unfjcif;tm;jzifh tjypf
vTwfjcif;tcGifhudk umuG,fjcif;/ (1;1-2;21)
u.ed'gef; (1;1-9)
277
c. aus;Zl;ESifh arwåmawmfowif;udk Asm'dwfcH&ykH (1;10-24)
*. aus;Zl;arwåmawmfEiS hf u,fwifjcif;w&m;udk a,½k&v
S iftoif;awmfrS
twnfjyKjcif; (2;1-10)
C.u,fwifjcif;w&m;udk oufaocH&if; &Sifayw½kudk tjypfwifykH
(2;11-21)
2/ tajccH,kHMunfcsufoabmw&m;? u,fwifjcif;aus;Zl;awmf? ,kHMunfjcif;
tm;jzifh tjypfvGwfjcif;udk &Sif;vif;jcif;/ (3;1-4;31)
u.*vmwdom;wdkUtawGUtBuKH? ,kHMunfjcif;tm;jzifh 0dnmOfwefcdk;udk
cHpm;&/ (3;1-5)
c. tmjA[H\ Oyrm/ ,kHMunfjcif;aMumifh ajzmifhrwf&modkU a&mufonf?
tusifhtm;jzifh r[kwf (3;6-9)
*. ajzmifhrwfjcif;tcGifhudk ,kHMunfjcif;u ay;pGrf;onf? ynwfawmfu
ray; (3;10-4;11)
C.*vmwdvlwdkYonf ,kHMunfjcif;aMumifh aumif;BuD;rsm;cHpm;&onf/
ynwfawmftusifhw&m;aMumifh r[kwf (4;12-20)
i. ynwfawmfESifh aus;Zl;arwåmw&m;onf tvdktavsmufqefYusif
onf/ (4;21-31)
3/ vufawGU? aus;Zl;arwåmESihf u,fwifjcif;? ,kMH unfjcif;ESihf ajzmifrh wfjcif;udk
udk;um;azmfjyrI (5;1-6;18)
u.vGwfvyfjcif;tajctae? cdkifrmpGmapmifhxdef; (5;1-12)
c. vGwfvyfjcif;udk usifhokH;? wpfOD;udk wpfOD;arwåmxm; (5;13-15)
*. vGwfvyfjcif;\tiftm;? 0dnmOfawmfvrf;jyonfudkcH,l (5;16-26)
C.vGwfvyfjcif;udk azmfxkwf? vlom;t;vkH;udk tusdK;jyK (6;1-10)
i. ed*kH; (6;11-18)
278

{zufMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ <u,f0jynfhpkHjcif;udk aqmifcJhol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
axmifwGif;Mo0g'rsm; wpfckpD\ tzGifhusrf;ydk'frsm;wGif a&;ol&Sifaygvk tjzpf
ed'gef;ysdK;avh&Sdonf/ ]]{zufNrdKUüaeaom oefU&Sif;olwnf;[laom a,½Ic&pfudk
,kHMunfaomolwdkUudk Mum;vdkufyg\}} (1;1)

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 60-61

usrf;a&;om;pOfumvü &Sifaygvkonf tusOf;om;wpfa,muf jzpfaecJhonf/


({zuf? 3;1? 4;1? 6;20)/ þusrf;udk &Sifaygvka&;om;cJh pOf]uJo&d} tusOf;
axmif rSmvm;[k tjiif;tckHtcsdKU&Sdzl;onf/ wrefawmf (24)rSwfwrf;rsm;t&
þodkUjiif;ckHjcif; jzpfNyD; xdktcsdefonf AD 57-59 0ef;usifjzpfygonf/ a&mr
tusO;f axmifoUkd aygvka&mufcsed o f nf AD 60-62 jzpfí xdt k csed rf mS usr;f pmudk
a&;onf[k ydkrdk,lqoifhygonf/ {zuf? zdvdydÜ? aumavoJ? zdavrkefMo0g'rsm;
tm;vk;H onfvnf; xdt k csed rf mS yif a&;om;[ef&o dS nf/ (zdvyd ?Üd 1;7? aumavmoJ?
4;10? zdavrkef? 9) {zufMo0g'ü &SifaygvkaxmifrS vGwfajrmufjcif;taMumif;
rsm;ryg0ifbJ (zdvyd ?Üd 1;19-26? zdavrke?f 1;22 wdUk wGio f m taxmuftxm;rsm;
awGU&av&m {zufMo0g'pm onf a&mrtusOf;axmifü tusOf;cH&onfh
tapmqk;H tcsed f AD 60 üa&;om; jcif; jzpfrnf? olUudx k pkd Ofu tus,cf sKycf sxm;
onf (wref?28;30)[kjrif &onf/ xdrk v S wG af jrmufaomtcg wdarmaoMo0g'pm
yXrapmifESifh wdwk Mo0g'pmrsm;udk a&;om;cJhNyD; xyfrHtusOf;cscH&jyefcsdefwGif
wdarmaoMo0g' pm'kw, d apmifukd a&;om;cJNh y;D aemuf olu Y kd a&mrNrKd UwGif okwf
oifcMhJ uavonf/
279

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fonfhtaMumif;t&if;
{zufMo0g'pmtm;jzifh toif;awmfonf c&pfawmf\ cE¨mudk,f jzpfaMumif;udk
eufeo J nfbh ek ;f wefc;kd tjzpf azmfjycJo
h nf/ c&pfawmfonf toif;awmf\OD;acgif;
(1;22?23)ESiw hf pfuG ,kMH unfot l m;vk;H onf c&pfawmf tm;jzifh aumif;Bu;D r*Fvm
rsm; cHpm;Mu&onf (1;3? 2;11-22) odUk jzpfí wpfv;Hk wpf0wnf; wnfraDS eMu&
onf[k azmfjyavonf/
wrefawmfBuD;\ qdkvdk&if;tcsufrSm rdrd\cE¨mudk,fjzpfaom toif;awmfESifh
OD;acgif;jzpfawmfro
l l c&pfawmfxrH S twdik ;f tqr&So d nfh aumif;Bu;D r*Fvmrsm;udk
,kHMunfolwdkUcHpm;&jcif; taMumif;yif jzpfay\/ þtaMumif;w&m;tm;jzifh
Mo0g'pm\ OD;wnfcsuf 2ckukd azmfxw k Ef ikd o
f nf/ a&S;OD;yXrcsed w
f iG f c&pfawmfxrH S
<u,f0onfah umif;Bu;D tcsKd Uudk xkwEf w
k af zmfjy í xdak umif;Bu;D rsm;ESihf oufqikd f
onfh xm0&qkaus;Zl;rsm;udk aumif;uifbEHk iS hf ajrBu;D ay:rSm c&pfawmftm;jzifh
bk&m;ocif tb,f&nfreS ;f csujf zifh csxm; ay;oem;awmfro l nfukd odem;vnfay
onf/ 'kwd,tcsufrSm azmfjyyg <u,f0jcif;rsm;ESifhoufqdkifí ,kHMunfolrsm;
oduRrf;em;vnf? cH,lvdkufavsmufí c&pfawmf\ac:awmfrljcif;? c&pfawmf\
aumif;uifqkaus;Zl;rsm;ESifh xdkufwefpGmtouf&Sifap&ef qkr®azmfjyjcif;yif
jzpfavonf/
þMo0g'pmapmifukd jyKp&k mü wrefawmfBu;D onf tao;pdwq f efaom vlwUkd \
tm;enf;csurf sm;udk azmfxw k qf ;Hk rjcif;r&Sb
d ?J c&pfawmfü Bu;D &ifjh cif;? em;vnf;jcif;?
rSeu
f efpmG cH,jl cif;r&Sí
d jzpfaeMu&aom jyóemrsm;udk umuG,&f efom OD;wnf
xm;onf/ ,if;wifjycsurf sm;wGif ,kMH unfow l Ukd ESihf pmwefrm&fewf wdu
k cf u
kd &f ykH
(6;10-18)udk tusOf;rQxnfhoGif;xm;onf/ xdkYaemuf,kHMunfolwdkU\ <u,f0
csr;f omjcif;? toufwmc&D;pOf? b0wdu k yf rJG sm; taMumif;udk azmfjyxm;avonf/

c&pfawmfudk {zufMo0g'pmü awGUjrif&ykH


]]c&pfawmfü}}? ]]c&pfawmfEiS }hf } [laomtok;H tEI;H rsm;udk þusr;f ü 35Burd rf Q awGU
&onf/ aygvkonfo\ l Mo0g'rsm;ü þodUk a&;om;avh &Sad omfvnf; þusr;f wGif
trsm;qkH;awGU&jcif;jzpfonf/ þazmfjyrIrSwpfqifh u,fwif&SifxHawmfyg;rS
280
qkr*Fvmrsm;udk &,lMu&mwGif olwdkYonf c&pfawmfü&Sdonf (1;1)/aumif;BuD;
r*Fvm rSeforQudk c&pfawmftm;jzifh cHpm;Mu&onf/ (1;3)/ a&G;aumufjcif;cH&
onf (1;4) bk&m;ocif\ arG;pm;jcif;udk cH&onf/ (1;5)/ cspfawmfrljcif;udk
cH&onf (1;6)/ u,fwifjcif;udk &&Sdonf (1;7)/ tarGawmfudkcH&onf (1;1)?
c&pfawmf\ bkef;awmfudk axmyemjyKcGifh&onf (1;12)/ 0dnmOfawmfESifh
wHqyd cf wfjcif;udk cH&onf (1;13-14)? touf&iS í f aumif;uifbrHk mS pd;k pH&aom
tcG i f h & S d o nf (2;5-6)? c&pf a wmf E S i f h t wl aumif ; jrwf a omtrI a wmf u d k
aqmif & G u f & onf / (2;10)? *wd a wmf r sm;ud k rQa0cH p m; &onf ( 3;6)?
bk&m;ocifxHwufvSrf;Edkifaom tcGifh&&Sdonf (3;12) . . . ponfjzifh
azmfjyxm;avonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ EIwfcGef;qufjcif; (1;1-2)
2/ cH,lcsufa&;&m/ toif;awmfudkac:,ljcif; (1;3-3;21)
u. a&G;aumufcH&jcif;twGuf csD;rGrf;jcif; (1;4-14)
(1) tbbk&m;\a&G;cs,fjcif; (1;4-6)
(2) om;awmf\ u,fwifjcif; (1;7-12)
(3) 0dnmOfawmfwq
H yd cf wfEydS jf cif; (1;13-14)
c. ynmawmfudk awmif;cHonfh Asm'dwf (1;15-23)
(1) qkawmif;jcif;\ taMumif; (1;15-18(u))
(2) qkawmif;csufrsm; (1;18(c)-23)
*. tqift
h wef;owfrw
S rf rI sm; (2;1-22)
(1) aumif;uifbkH\ ae&mopfrsm; (2;1-10)
(2) tdrfawmfü ae&mopfrsm; (2;11-22)
281
C. eufeJaom &Sif;vif;csufrsm; (3;1-13)
(1) Asm'dwfawmfrS qif;oufonfheufeJjcif; (3;1-6)
(2) aMujim&ef wm0efay;tyfcH&onfh trIawmfaqmif
(3;7-13)
i. trSefw&m;twGuf qkawmif;jcif; (3;14-21)
3/ Mo0g'pm\ vufawGUusaomtydkif;? toif;awmf\ avQmufvSrf;rI
(4;1-6;24)
u. ,kHMunfolwdkUnDñGwfpGm (4;1-16)
(1) nDñGwfEdkifatmif awmif;yefrI (4;1-3)
(2) nDñGwfjcif;tajccH (4;4-6)
(3) nDñGwfjcif;t"dyÜg,f (4;7-16)
c. ,kHMunfolwdkU\ ajzmifhrwfpGm &yfwnfrI (4;17-5;18)
(1) b0a[mif;ykHpH (4;17-19)
(2) ,ckb0opfü (4;20-32)
(3) igwdkUavQmuf&mvrf;\ykHpH (5;1-7)
(4) bmaMumifh þodkUajymif;vJaMumif; (5;8-13)
(5) þodUk avQmufvrS ;f &ef b0tm;rmef&&Sjd cif; (5;14-18)
*. urÇmavmutv,f (5;19-6;9)
(1) udk,fhb0ESifh toif;awmftwGuf (5;19-21)
(2) udk,fhrdom;pktwGif; (5;22-6;4)
282
(3) udk,fhvkyfief;cGiftwGif; (6;5-6)
C. ta&;BuKHaom umv,kHMunfolwdkUb0 (6;10-20)
(1) vufeufrsm;jyifqif&ef (6;10-13)
(2) csy0f wfwefqmqifjref;&m (6;14-17)
(3) csy0f wfwefqmBuKd wifjyifqifyg (6;18-20)
i. ed*kH; (6;21-24)

zdvdydÜMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ zlvkHjcif;udkaqmifcJhol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
&Sifaygvka&;om;onf/ rmaua'gedjynfü oludk,fwdkifwnfaxmifcJh aom
zdvyd t
Üd oif;awmftwGujf zpfonf/ zdvyd üÜd &Sad om oif;tkyw
f EYkd iS hf oif;axmufwrYkd S
a,½Ic&pf\oefU&Sif;oltaygif;udk Mum;vkdufyg\ (1;1) [kqdkonf/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 60-61

{zufMo0g'enf;wl þzdvdydÜMo0g'pmtm; tusOf;usaeaom &Sifaygvk


a&;om;jcif;jzpf\/ a&mrt&m&SdwpfOD;OD;\ taMumif;udk &nfñTef;í aomf¤if;?
ol\ aojcif;ESifhywfoufazmfjycsufrsm;t&aomf¤if; axmufxm;\/ þpmudk
a&mrwGif a&;om;jcif;jzpf&ygrnf/ (1;13? 1;20-26) taocHz&Ykd ef tajctaerSm
283
&Sad omfvnf; vGwaf jrmuf&efvnf; ol,MHk unfarQmv
f ifch ahJ vonf/ xdt
k csuw
f Ukd
t& zdvdydÜ Mo0g'pmudk {zufMo0g'\ aemufydkif; AD 60-61 üa&;om;jcif;
jzpfrnf[k wGufq&onf/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
{zufMo0g'pmrSmvdkyif c&pfawmf\ udk,fcE¨monf toif;awmfjzpf vsuf
toif;awmf\OD;acgif;onf c&pfawmfjzpfaMumif;udk azmfjyonf (1;22-23)/
0dnmOf qkaus;Zl;rsm;udk ,kHMunfolwdkUrQa0cHpm;Mu&í wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; cspfcif
pnf;vkH;rnfudk {zufMo0g'uJhodkUyif today;onf/ (1;3? 2;11-22) zdvdydÜ
toif;awmfom;rsm;onf c&pfawmfazmfjyonf nDñGwfjcif;udk rysufruGuf
apmifx h ed ;f Muovdk c&pfawmf\ aus;Zl;awmfü wnfae&jcif;twGuf 0rf;ajrmufrI
&SMd uonf (1;27? 2;2? 4)/ þMo0g'pm\ OD;wnfcsuo f nf c&pfawmfü 0rf;ajrmuf
jcif;ESifh nDñGwfjcif;yif jzpfavonf/
&Sifaygvküvnf; þMo0g'twGuf &nf&G,fcsufrsm;&SdcJhonf/
(1) olonfzdvdydÜtoif;awmfrSay;ydkUvdkufaom vufaqmiftwGuf olwdkY
tay:rSm arwåmwkefUjyefvsuf aus;Zl;wif&Sdonf (1;5? 4;10-19)/
(2) ol\tajctaersm;udk wifjyvdkonf (1;12-26? 4;10-19) /
(3) c&pf,mefwdkUtm; ESdyfpufjiif;yef;jcif; tygt0ifb,ftajctaerSmrqdk
,kHMunfjcif; NrJNrHcdkifcefUap&ef tm;ay;vdkonf (1;27-30? 4;4)/
(4) ESdrfhcsaom oabmESifh nDñGwfrI&Sdapcsifonf (2;1-11? 4;2-5)/
(5) ol\wynfw h ad rmaoESihf {yajzm'dww
f Ukd tm; zdvyd t
Üd oif;awmfoUkd apvTwf
vdo
k nf (2;19-30)/
(6) zdvdydÜtoif;awmftm; pnf;urf;r&Sdtusifhraumif;aomolrsm;? ,k'
t,loD; orm;rsm;ESifh ywfoufí owday;vdkonf (tcef;BuD; 3)/
284

c&pfawmftm;zdvdydÜMo0g'wGif awGUjrif&ykH
þusrf;pmwGif c&pfawmftaMumif;udk &Sif;vif;wifqufí qdkzGJU oavmuf
tjcm;b,fusrf;wGifrS qdkzGJYjcif;r&Sd? ocifvlUZmwdcH,ljcif;? or®m w&m;jzpfjcif;?
obm0usjcif;wdu Yk kd azmfjy&mü tvGeyf jD yifonf/ (2;5-8) c&pfawmf aqmif&uG f
cJNh y;D aomtrIawmf? aqmif&u G v
f wHaå omtrIawmfrsm;ESihf ywfoufí c&pfawmf
onf ,kHMunfolwdkU\-
(1) toufvrf; (1;21)
(2) pHjyK&rnfhESdrfhcsaomolESifh oufpGefUarwåm&Sif (2;4-5)
(3) uREkfyfwdkU\edrfhusaom vlUb0udk ol\bkef;awmfESifh ywf&pfaom &Sifoef
jcif; ay;rnfhocif (3;21)ESifh
(4) b0\rnfodkUaom tajctaerSmrqdk cGeftm;ESifh jynfpkHapaombk&m;
... [lí azmfjycJhonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm; 79
1/ EIwfcGef;qufjcif;ESifh aus;Zl;awmfudk csD;rGrf;jcif; (1;1-11)
2/ aygvk\a&mrwGif awGU&aomtajctaersm;? c&pfawmftaMumif;
oGefoifrI (1;12-30)
3/ c&pf,mefb0? a,½I\pdwfoabmawmf (2;1-30)
u.ESdrfhcsMu&ef oGefoifjcif; (2;1-4)
c.ESdrfhcsjcif;\ Oyrmawmf (2;5-11)
*.ESdrfhcsjcif;udk usifhokH;jcif; (2;12-18)
C.wdarmaoESifh {yajzm'dwfwdkUü awGU&onfhESdrfhcsjcif; (2;19-30)
4/ c&pf,mefb0\ qkvmbf? c&pfawmfudk oduRrf;&jcif; (3;1-21)
u.,k't,loD;olrsm;twGuf ay;aomowd (3;1-4(u))
285
c.&Siaf ygvkOyrm (3;4(c)-14)
*.tjcm;yk*d¾Kvfrsm;tm; wdkufwGef;jcif; (3;15-21)
5/ c&pf,meftoufwm\ Nidrfoufjcif;? c&pfawmf&SdaeawmfrlaMumif;udk
odjcif; (4;1-23)
u.tjcm;olrsm;ESifhtwl Nidrfoufjcif; (4;1-3)
c.rdru
d ,
kd w
f ikd Nf ird o
f ufjcif; (4;4-9)
*.b,ftcsed t
f cgürqdNk ird o
f ufjcif; (4;10-23)

aumavmoJMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ jynfh0BuD;jrwfrIudkaqmifcJhol)

usrf;a&;olSESifhusrf;trnf
&Sifaygvk\EIwfcGef;qufjcif;udk 1;2wGif awGY&NyD;aumavmoJNrdKU üaeaom
nDtpfudkwdkUtwGuf[k yPmrjyKxm;onf/ (1;2)

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 60-61

a&mrtusO;f axmifrmS yxrtBurd f axmifuspOftawmtwGi;f wrefawmfBu;D


&Sifaygvkonf Mo0g'pm 4apmifudk a&;cJhonf/ t"dyÜg,frSm AD 60-61 wdkUü
a&;om;jcif;yifjzpfonf/ ({zufMo0g'ESihf zdvyd MÜd o0g'pmrsm;rS &ufp&JG iS ;f vif;csuf
rsm;udjk yefíavhvmyg)
286

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
0rf;ajrmufz, G u f ,fwifjcif;w&m;rS ay;tyfaom<u,f0jynfph o Hk nfh cGet
f m;aMumifh
c&pfawmf\ udk,fcE¨mESifhwlaom toif;awmfonf BuD;jrwfjcif; &Sdonf/
OD;aqmiftzGJUtpnf;jzpfonf/ tzufzufu jynfhpkHvkHavmufjcif;&Sdonf [k
cHpm;em;vnfEdkifonf/ þusrf;i,ftm;jzifh &Sifaygvkazmfjyaom ]c&pfawmf\
Hk mT } udak wGU&onf/80 c&pfawmfa,½I\ yDjyifaomb0o½kyf ESihf Ny;D ajrmuf
½kyyf v
aomtrIawmftaMumif;udk aumavmoJMo0g'pmrSm azmfusL;vsuf ,kMH unfo\ l
½lyg½kHjrifuGif;twGif;rS ocifhudkarQmfwjcif;tm;jzifh yifvQif aus;Zl;awmfaMumifh
b0jynfhpkHbdouJhodkY cHpm;Edkifonf? pkHvifjcif;&SdEdkif onf (2;10)/ bk&m;pifppf-
vlpifppfjzpfaomocif\ jynf0h rI? ocifh aqmif&u G rf w I o
Ykd nf ,kMH unfow l Ukd tm;
ocifEiS t hf wl jynf0h ? pkv
H if? wif;wdrf a&mif&h aJ pEdik Nf y;D pMumF 0Vmudk zefqif;tkypf ;kd
aom ocifonf vlom;wdkUtwGuf umvtpOfvdktifrsm;udk jynfhpkHaponf/
xdkocifonf zefqif;ol? xdef;csKyfol? u,fEIwfol? vlESifhwpfuG pMum0Vmudk
oyÜg,frQwapol[lí aumavmoJ Mo0g'pmonf oGefoifay;avonf/

c&pfawmftm;aumavmoJMo'pmüawGYjrif&ykH
"r®ynm&Sif WILKINSON ESihf MOA wdUk \tqdt k & . . .c&pfawmf qdik &f m
pHjyKusr;f [k qd&k avmufatmif ajymifajrmufaom usr;f jzpf í c&pfawmfukd trSwf
jyK&mwGif txG#t f jrwf\? tmPmpuf&o dS rQukd tkypf ;kd ol (2;10)/ zefqif;awmf
rlorQwdkU\ ocif(1;16-17)? vlom;ESifhbk&m;udk rdwfo[m,zGJUapol (1;20-
22) (2;13-15)[lí azmfjyonf/ xdkrQomru xdkocifonf ,kHMunfol\
arQmfvifhp&mtkwfjrpf (1;5? 23? 27)? b0opf twGuf tiftm; (1;11? 29)?
u,fwifolESifh &efNidrf;apol (1;14? 20-22) (2;11-15)? bk&m;ocif
oP²mefawmfukd cH,jl cif; (1;15? 19) (2;9)/ t&m&mudzk efqif;ol? xde;f odr;f ol
(1;16-17)? toif;awmf\ OD;acgif;(1;18)? &Sijf yefxajrmufonfh vlom; (1;18)
(3;1)/ vdo k rQuzkd vl aHk paom u,fwif&iS f (1;28) (2;3, 20) (3;1-4) ponfjzifh
azmfjyxm;aMumif; awGU&ygonf/ 81
287

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm; 82
1/ tajccH,MHk unfcsuq
f ikd &f m/ c&pfawmf\ vlUb0ZmwdEiS hf vkyaf qmifcsuf
(1;1-2;3)
u.ed'gef; (1;1-14)
(1) aumavmoJ,kHMunfolrsm;tm; aygvkEIwfqufjcif; (1;1-2)
(2) aumavmoJvlom;wdkU,kHMunfjcif;aMumifh aus;Zl;wifjcif;
(1;3-8)
(3) aumavmoJ\ wdk;wufrItwGuf qkawmif;jcif; (1;9-14)
c. c&pfawmf\ b0oP²mef (1;15-18)
(1) tbcrnf;awmfESifh qufoG,frI (1;15)
(2) zefqif;jcif;ESifh oufqdkifrI (1;16-17)
(3) topfaomzefqif;jcif;ESiq
hf ikd í
f (1;18)
*. ocifhvkyfaqmifcsuf (1;19-2;3)
(1) c&pfawmf\tvkyfudk &Sif;jyjcif; (1;19-20)
(2) ocifhtvkyfudk Munfhí cH,l&ef (1;21-23)
(3) ociftvkyftm;jzifh BuD;xGm;aprI (1;24-2;3)
2/ tm;jydKifrI? c&pfawmfü wnfaerIudk zsufqD;aom jyóemrsm;
(2;4-3;4(u))
u. rSm;,Gi;f aomoGeo
f ifrrI sm;owdxm; (2;4-8)
(1) vSnfhzsm;aomq&mwdkU\ y&d,m,f(2;4-5)
(2) ,kHMunfjcif;toufwmBuD;yGm;&m (2;6-7)
288
(3) rSm;,Gif;aomtbd"r®mrsm; (2;8)
c. w&m;ppfw&m;rSef (2;9-15)
(1) c&pfawmfü ,kHMunfoltqifhtwef; (2;9-10)
(2) ta&zsm;vDS;onfqdk&mrSm (2;11-12)
(3) ,kHMunfoltusdK;aus;Zl; (2;13-15)
*. ppfrSefaomMo0g'ESifh qufEG,fvQif (2;16-3;4)
(1) oufomcGi/hf ynwfw&m;tusirhf sm;rSvw G jf cif;
(2;16-19)
(2) oufomcGi/hf bmoma&;pnf;urf;rsm;rSvw
G jf cif;
(2;20-23)
(3) cHpm;cGihf / aumif;uifom;b0odkU (3;1-4)
3/ vufawGU? c&pfawmftm;jzifh avhusifhjcif; (3;5-4;6)
u. twGif;oabm (3;5-17)
c. rdom;pka&; (3;18-4;1)
*. tjyifvu©Pm (4;2-6)
4/ yk*d¾Kvfa&;? wrefawmfBuD;\ pDrHcsufESifh? yk*d¾Kvfa&;&mrsm; (4;7-18)
u. ol\txl;udk,fpm;vS,frsm; (4;7-9)
c. ol\EIwfcGef;qufjcif;rsm; (4;10-18)
289

oufomavmedwf
Mo0g'pmyXrapmif
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ uwdawmfudkaqmifcJhol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
tcef; 1;1 ESifh 2;18 wdkUwGif azmfjycsuft& &Sifaygvka&;om;cJhonf/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 51-52

aum&dEÅKNrdKUBuD;wGif 18vcefUaexdkifpOfumvtawmtwGif; þMo0g'pm


2apmifukd jyKpck o
hJ nf/ (wrefawmf 18;1-11) yXrapmifukd ol\wynfh wdarmao
onf oufomavmedwfrS jyefvnfa&muf&SdvmNyD; toif;awmf\wdk;wufrI
owif;aumif;rsm; Mum;em&csed w f iG f a&;onf/ 'kw,
d pmapmifukd aemufxyf&uf
odUk r[kwf vtenf;i,f wGi;f qufvufa&;om;onf/ teD;pyfq;Hk jzpfEikd o f nfrmS
AD 51-52 twGif;jzpfonf/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
oufomavmedwfwGif &Sifaygvkonf 3ywfcefUom aecJh&onf/ (wref 17;2)
odUk jzpfþ vkaH vmufaom ñTeMf um;csurf sm;udk toif;awmfopftwGuf ray;Edik f
cJah y/ xdUk aMumifh þMo0g'\ OD;wnf&nfreS ;f csurf sm;udk tusO;f csKH ; qifjcifpOf;pm;
&onf&Sdaomf oufomavmedwftoif;awmf,kHMunfolwdkUtm; jyKawmfrlaom
bk&m;ocif\ aus;Zl;awmfukd cs;D rGr;f jcif; (1;2-3)/ rdr\ d trIawmfaqmifjcif;udk
ao;odraf tmif jyKrrI sm;twGuf umuG,jf cif; (2;1-12)? ,kMH unfow l tYkd m; b0
a[mif;tusiahf [mif;rsm; jyefí vky&f efweG ;f tm;ay; onfh zdEydS rf rI sm;udk BuBHY ucYH H
290
&yfwnfMu&ef (3;2-3) (4;1-12)/ aoaom ,kMH unforl sm;\ a&SUa&;ESiq hf ikd af om
udpt
ö wGucf ,
H cl surf sm;xm;zd&Yk ef ar;cGe;f rsm;ajzMum;jcif; (4;1-13)/ bk&m;ocif\
aeU&uftaMumif;udk ajzMum;jcif; (5;1-11)/ toif;awmfopfü BuHKawGU&onfh
jyóemtcsdKUudk ajz&Sif;ay;jcif; (5;12-13? 19-28)

c&pfawmftm;oufomavmedwfMo0g'pmyXrapmifü awGY&ykH
ocif\jyefvnf<uvmawmfrjl cif;udk tcef;wdik ;f rSm xnfo h iG ;f azmfjyí c&pfawmf
onf ,kHMunfolwdkUtwGuf u,fwifjcif;udk ,ckay;ovdk oljyef<uvm csdefwGif
ay;vdrfhrnftaMumif; arQmfvifhaponf/ xdkodkYocifjyefvnf<uvmaom tcg
uyfumv 'kuq © if;&Jjcif;ESihf uif;pifapvdrrhf nf? (1;10) (5;4-11) qkr*Fvmrsm;
oGef;avmif;rnf (2;19)? jynfh0pkHvifaprnf (3;13)? &Sifjyefxajrmufaprnf
(4;13-18)? xdkrQru olUudk ,kHMunfolwdkUtm; oefU&Sif;apí apmifha&Smufrnf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ twdwf/ ,kHMunfjcif;\ tvkyf(1;1-3;13)
u.oufomavmedwfvlrsm;tm; ñTefMum;jcif; (1;1-10)
(1) &Sifaygvk\ rSwfcsuf (1;1-4)
(2) b0\oufao (1;5-7)
(3) b0oufaocHcsufrsm;udk &Sif;vif;jcif; (1;8-10)
c. wrefawmfBuD;ESifh aemufvdkufrsm;\ a&SUaqmifrI (2;1-12)
(1) oufaocHcsuf (2;1-2)
(2) olwdkU\ or®mvrf; (2;3-7(u))
(3) olwdkU\ vkyfaqmifcsuf (2;7(c)-12)
*. oufomavmedwfvlwdkU\ aumif;rIrsm; (2;13-16)
(1) EIwfuywfawmfudk vufcHMuykH (2;13)
291
(2) EIwfuywfawmfudk wkefUjyefMuykH (2;14)
(3) EIwfuywfawmfudk jiif;qefrIrsm; (2;15-16)
C.wrefawmfBuD;olwdkUtwGuf cHpm;&ykH (2;17-20)
(1) ESvkH;om;rS cHpm;csuf (2;17)
(2) pmweftaESmuft,Suf (2;18)
(3) oufomavmedwftwGuf olpdwfcscJhykH (2;19-20)
i. oufomavmedwftwGuf twnfjyKcsuf (3;1-10)
(1) wdarmaotm; apvTwfjcif; (3;1-5)
(2) wdarmao\wifjycsuf (3;6-10)
p. ed*kH;qkawmif; (3;11-13)
(1) wpfacgufwpfcgjyefvmEdik rf nft
h aMumif; (3;11)
(2) oufomavmedwaf rwåmpdwBf u;D xGm;ap&ef (3;12)
(3) oefU&Sif;jcif;yg&rDtNrJwnfap (3;12)
2/ ypöKyeÜ /f arwåmw&m;twGuf tm;xkwfjcif; (4;1-12)
u.bk&m;ocifudkcspfí aqmif&ef (4;2-8)
c. nDtpfudkcsif;cspfí aqmif&ef (4;9-10)
*. tjyifvlwdkUtm; cspfEdkifap&ef (4;11-12)
3/ arQmfvifhcsufaumif;rsm;jzifha&SUodkU (4;13-5;28)
u.c&pfawmf\ aeU&ufrSm cGeftm;&&Sda&; (4;13-18)
(1) oefU&Si;f olwUkd jyefvnfE;ld x&m0,f (4;13-16)
(2) oefU&Sif;í touf&SifolwdkUtm; odrf;qnf;jcif; (4;17-18)
292
c. ocifhaeU&ufESifh oufqdkifí (5;1-11)
(1) c&pfawmfwpfzef<uvmOD;rnf (5;1-5)
(2) c&pf,mefwUkd toufwmrSm (5;6-10)
(3) tcsKyftm;jzifh (5;11)
*. ,kHMunfoltzGJUtpnf;twGif; jyKrlusifhBuHjcif; (5;12-28)
(1) tNyD;owfñTefMum;rIrsm; (5;12-22)
(2) tNyD;owfawmif;qk (5;23-24)
(3) tNyD;owfpmom;pk (5;25-28)

oufomavmedwf
Mo0g'pm'kwd,apmif
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ qkvmbfudkaqmifcJhol)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
þ'kwd,ajrmufMo0g'pmudk Mo0g'pm\ (1;1)ESifh(3;17)azmfjycsuf rsm;t&
wrefawmf&Sifaygvka&;om;aMumif; odEdkifonf/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 51-52

ordkif;aMumif;jzpfpOfrsm;tvGefwlnDonfudk axmuf½Ií þ 'kwd,apmifudk


yXrapmifa&;NyD; rMumrDrSma&;onf[k,lqMuonf/ tvGefqkH; 6vcefYom
uGmjcm;rnf[k trsm;oabmwlMuonf/ (1;4-5) azmfjycsurf sm; t& toif;awmf
293
tm; zdEydS rf rI sm;ydrk v
kd m[ef&o
dS nf/ xdUk twGuaf Mumifyh if tjcm;aomtaMumif;rsm;
ESifhtwl &Sifaygvkonf þpmapmifudk aum&dEÅKrSm qufvufa&;om;cJhjcif;
jzpfonf/ xdt k csed f wGif odvESihf wdarmaowdUk onf oufomavmedwo f Ukd yXr
Mo0g'pmudk ,lomG ;Ny;D aemuf aum&dEKÅ jyefa&mufvm Ny;D vQif oufomavmedw\ f
aemufxyfjzpfay:wdk;wufrIrsm;udk tpD&if cHMuojzifh þ'kwd,pmapmifudk
qufvufa&;om;jcif;jzpfonf[k ,kHMunf& onf/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
þMo0g'pm'kwd,pmudk ta&;wBuD;a&;om;ap&eftwGuf wrefawmfBuD;
&Siaf ygvkonf oufomavmedwNf rKd UtaMumif; 3rsKd ;udk Mum;cJ&h onf/ ,if;wdUk rSm
(1)oufomavmedwf\ ,kHMunfolwdkUonf bmoma&;t& zdESdyfrIrsm;udk wdk;í
&ifqdkifaeMu&onf (1;4-5)/
(2) ocifa,½I<uvmawmfrrl nfh tem*wftcsed t f aMumif;udk aygvk\ Mo0g'
pmtwkrsm;? vdrfvnfvSnfhzsm;azmfjyrIrsm;&SdaejyD (2;1)/
(3) ,if;vdrfvnfrIrsm;aMumifh tcsdKU,kHMunfolrsm;awGa0í? xdkodkU<uvm
awmfrljcif;udk taMumif;jyKum rdrdwdkU\ tvkyfrsm;udk rvkyf? ysif;&dí
aeMuonf/ pnf;urf;r&SdbJ jzpfaeMuonf (3;5-15)/
odkUjzpfí aygvkonf þMo0g'jyKpOftcgwGif vlom;wdkUtm; pdwfNidrf
oufjcif;&&efEiS hf trSew
f &m;twdik ;f jzpf&ef &nfreS ;f csuf 3csuu
f kd tok;H jyKchJ onf/
(1) bk&m;ocif<uvmaomtcgwGif qkaus;Zl;r*FvmESit hf wl tjypf pD&ifjcif;
udkvnf; csrSwfvdrfhrnfudk azmfjyonf (1;3-10)/
(2) ocif < uvmaomaeU&uf ü t"d u jzpf a y:rnf h t aMumif ; w&m;rsm;
taMumif;udk &Sif;vif;azmfjyonf (2;1-2)/
(3) tvkyrf vkyb
f aJ eMuolrsm;ESihf ywfoufítoif;awmfu ta&;,l aqmif
&Guf&ef vkyfief;tqifhqifhudk ta&;pdwf tao;pdwf a&;om;azmfjy
ay;onf/ (3;6-15)
294

c&pfawmftm;oufomavmedwfMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifüawGUjrif&ykH
þMo0g'pm\ t"duusaom tcef;Bu;D 1ESi2hf wdUk onfc&pfawmf\ jyefvnf<u
vmjcif;udk azmfjyíolu
Y kd qefUusiyf ek u
f eforl sm;tm; tjypfay;pD&if rnft
h aMumif;
udk wifjyxm;onf/ odUk jzpfí Mo0g'pm'kw, d pmapmifukd w&m;pD&ifrnfh ocif
c&pfawmftm;arQmv f ifah pmifph m;apaom usr;f [kqEkd ikd yf grnf/
t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ EIwfqufjcif;ESifh ed'gef; (1;1-2)
2/ toif;awmftm; ESyd pf ufñiS ;f yef;rItwGuf bk&m;ocif\ tvdak wmfukd
azmfjyvsuf tm;ay;ESpfodrfhjcif; (1;4-12)
3/ bk&m;ocif\ aeU&ufESifh ywfoufí t,lvGJrIrsm;udk jyifqifvsuf
pdeaf c:azmfjyjcif; (2;1-17)
u. ypöKyÜefumvESifh pyfqdkifí (2;1-2)
c. azmufjyefrIrsm;ESifh oufqdkifí (2;3(u))
*. ysufpD;jcif;\om; odkUr[kwf 'kp½dkufvl (2;3(c)-4)
C. qD;wm;aESmuf,Sufaomol (2;5-9)
i. ,kHMunfolrsm;ESifh ywfoufí (2;10-12)
p. ,kHMunfolrsm;ESifh ywfoufí (2;13-17)
4/ tvkyfrvkyfvdkaomolrsm;twGuf tjypfpD&ifjcif; (3;1-16)
u. wrefawmfBuD;\ pdwfcs,kHMunfrI (3;1-5)
c. wrefawmfBuD;\ ñTefMum;apcdkif;rIrsm; (3;6-15)
5/ wrefawmfBuD;aumif;BuD;r*Fvmay;í EIwfqufjcif; (3;16-18)
295

wdarmaoMo0g'pmyXrapmif
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocifESifh vlom;udk aphpyfay;ol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
{zuftoif;awmfrS vli,f"r®q&m wdarmaoonf toif;awmfEiS hf ywf0ef;usif
wGif jyóemtrsKd ;rsKd ;ESihf &ifqikd af e&onf/ wdarmaotwGuf tbq&mBu;D jzpf
aom &Sifaygvku ,if;jyóemrsm;ESifh ywfoufí 2apmif a&;om;ay;ydkYum
twdik yf ifctH BurH sm;jyKcohJ nf/ xdek nf;wl ua&aw uRe;f uav;rSm a&muf&adS e
aomolUwynfhwdwkqDudkvnf; Mo0g'pmwpfapmif a&;om;ay; ydkYcJhonf/
xdUk aMumifh þMo0g' 3apmifukd oif;tkyMf o0g'rsm;[k pkaygif;ac: a0:Muygonf/

usrf;udka&;om;aomckESpf
AD 63

wrefawmf0wåKESifh Mo0g'pmrsm;udkwljydKifavhvmjcif;tm;jzifh ,ckwdarmao


Mo0g'pmyXrapmifESifh wdwkMo0g'wdkUudk a&mrwGif tusOf;us aeaom wref
awmfBuD; &Sifaygvkonf olyXrOD;pGm vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh&csdefrSm a&;om;jyKpk
aMumif; odEdkifonf/ xdkYwGufqcsufrsm;t& &Sifaygvk þMo0g'udk a&;om;csdef
onf eD;½dk;bk&ifu c&pf,mefrsm;tm; pwifESdyfpufñSif;yef;jcif; jyKaom AD
64 rwdkifrDjzpfaom AD 63 ckESpfaEGOD;aygufjzpfvdrhfrnf[k em;vnf&onf/
xdktcsdefonf olaxmifrS vGwfcgptcsdefyifjzpfonf/ wdwkMo0g'pmudkrl AD
65 wGiv f nf;aumif;? wdarmaoMo'pm'kw, d apmifukd AD 66 wGiv f nf;aumif;
a&;jcif;jzpfrnf[k cefUrSef;Edkifygonf/ ueOD; toif;awmf\ zcifBuD;jzpfaom
EUSEBIUS \ tqdt k & wrefawmfBu;D onf AD 57 wGif aoqk;H oGm;cJo h nf/
a&mrEdik if o
H m;taejzifh olUudak cgif;jzwf uGyrf sucf NhJ y;D &Siaf yw½krmS rl um;pifwif
cHcJh&onf[k qdkayonf/
296
&Sifaygvk\omoemjyKc&D;pOfrsm;onf AD 48-56 twGif; c&D;pOfrsm; jzpfí
AD 56-60 umvü olonfa&mrw&m;½k;H rsm;rSm trIrsm;&ifqi kd v
f suf a&mrNrKd UodYk
aemufqkH;rSm a&muf&SdoGm;av\/ AD 61-62 wdkYwGif olUudk tus,fcsKyfjzifh
xde;f odr;f cJNh y;D aemuf vGwNf ird ;f cGijhf yKc&hJ m AD 62-67 wdUk ü tweftoifh vGwv f yf
cGifh&&SdNyD; {zuftoif;awmfü wdarmaoudkvnf;aumif;? ua&awuRef;ü
wdwUdk udv k nf; aumif;trIawmfaqmifrsm;tjzpfcefUtyfco hJ nf? xdo k wl Ukd twGuf
Mo0g'pmrsm;udv k nf; a&;om;ay;ydUk cJo h nf/ xdUk aMumifh ,ckwad rmao Mo0g'pm
yXrapmifEiS hf wdwMk o0gpm rsm;udak &;om;csed rf mS AD 63-65 jzpfrnf/ aemufxyf
wpfzeftzrf;cH&jyefvsuf axmifuscsed f . . . wenf;tm;jzifA h D 66 ckEpS w f iG rf l
wrefawmfBuD;onf wdarmaoMo0g'pm 'kwd,pmapmifudk a&;om;jcif; jzpf&
vdrhfrnf? odkUjzpfí wdarmaoMo0g'pm 'kwd,apmifonf aygvk\ ]aemufqkH;
Mo0g'} jzpf&rnf[kynm&Sif trsm;pku oabmwlxm;Muyg\/ 83

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
wdarmaoMo0g'pmyXrapmifwiG f &nfreS ;f csuf 5ckukd tenf;qk;H awGU Edik yf grnf/
(1) wdarmaotaejzifh rdr\ d wm0ef0wå&m;udk odrw S &f ef tm;ay;onf/ 0dnmOf
qkaus;Zl;udk cH&aMumif;odaponf/ þenf;tm;jzifh 0dnmOfa&;owdw å ;kd yGm;
ap&ef &nf&G,fa&;om;onf/ (1;3) (4;14)/ xdkUtwlwdarmao\
aumif;jrwf aom 0efccH suu f v kd nf; azmfjyay;onf (6;12)? wdarmaotm;
tajccH ,kMH unfjcif;udk tyfEaHS Mumif;udv
k nf; azmfjyowday;onf (6;20)/
(2) wd a rmaotaejzif h a umif ; jrwf a om ,k H M unf j cif ; tajccH r l w d k U ud k
apmifha&Smufvsuf vdrfnmvSnfhzsm;onfh q&morm;rsm;\ trSm;rsm;udk
or®musrf;pmESifhtnD &ifqdkifajz&Sif;&ef tm;ay;xm;onf (1;3-11? 18-
20) (4;1-16) (6;3-10)
(3) toif;awmf\ udk;uG,f0wfjyKjcif;usifhpOfudk csrSwf&ef&nf&G,fonf
(2;1-15)/
(4) toif;awmf\rsm;pGmaom jyóemrsm;udk udkifwG,fajz&Sif;&eftwGuf
vrf;ñTefvdkonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh toif;awmfacgif;aqmifydkif;ü &Sd&rnfh
297
t&nftcsif;rsm; jyóemjzpfonf/ (3;1-16) xkdrQru toufBuD;olESifh
rkqdk;rrsm;tygt0if c&pf,mef,kHMunfoltm;vkH;ü oifhwifhavsmufywf
aom tusifhrsm;ESifh aexdkifjyKrlMu&ef (5;1-16)ESifh
(5) ½kyf0wåKypönf;rsm;tm; wyfrufjcif;\ qdk;,kwfrIudk owday;&ef (6;11-
19) [laom &nfrSef;csufrsm;&SdcJhavonf/
wdwMk o0g'pm? wdarmaoMo0g'pm 'kw, d apmifwUkd ESihf wlnrD &I pdS mG jzifh þMo0g'
pmyXrapmif\t"duOD;wnfcsufrSm ]]aumif;aomppfudkwdkufapjcif;}} (1;18)
jzpfonf/ ,if;OD;wnfcsuof nf toif;awmftwGuf vkyif ef;vrf;ñTef .wenf;
tm;jzifh bk&m;ocif\ tdraf wmftwGuf wm0efukd azmfjyjcif;yifjzpf onf (3;15)

c&pfawmftm;wdarmaoMo0g'pmyXrapmifüawGUjrif&ykH
0gusEiS phf maMumif;rsm;pGmwdUk onf u,fwif&iS \
f vlUb0ESihf trIawmf taMumif;
udk owday;vsuf&Sdonf/ xdkocifonf uREkfyfwdkYtm; qifhac:jcif;? uREkfyfwdkU
twGuf ay;tyfaomcGeftm;? arQmfvifhcsufESifh cspfjcif;arwåmwdkU\ t&if;cH
jzpfonf/ trIawmfudk aqmif&Guf&eftwGuf ,if;tcsufwdkUonf vdktyfonf
(1;12-14)/ xdkocifonf tjypfvlom;rsm;twGuf u,fwif &ef<uvmcJhol
jzpfonf (1;15)/ bk&m;ocifESifh vlwdkUpyfMum;rSm vljzpfaom a,½Ic&pfwnf;
[laom tmrcHwpfO;D wnf;&S\ d (2;5)/ bk&m;ocifonf ud,
k cf E¨may:xGe;f awmf
rljyD/ [kwfrSefawmfrljcif;taMumif;onf 0dnmOfawmf tm;jzifh xif&Sm;jyD?
aumif;uifwrefwdkUonf udk,fawmfudk ½Ijrif&MujyD? wpfyg;trsdK;om;wdkUonf
owif;awmfudk Mum;&MujyD? avmuDom;wdkUonf ,kHMunf&MujyD? bkef;toa&
ESifhwpfuG txufodkUaqmif,ljcif;udk cHawmfrljyD (3;16)/ ,kHMunfaomolwdkUudk
u,frawmfral om bk&m;ocif (4;10) . . . ponfjzifh c&pfawmf\ taMumif;
udk azmfjyxm;avonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ EIwfcGef;qufojcif;rsm; (1;1-2)
2/ tajccH,kHMunfcsufrsm;twGuf ñTefMum;csufrsm; (1;3-20)
298
u. t,lvGJrSm;rIrsm;twGuf owday;jcif; (1;3-11)
c. aus;Zl;arwåmawmfudk &SifaygvkoufaocHjcif; (1;12-17)
*. wdarmaotm; wm0efay;jcif; (1;18-20)
3/ 0wfjyKudk;uG,frItwGuf ñTefMum;csuf (2;1-2;15)
u. qkawmif;rIESifh ywfoufí (2;1-7)
c. a,musfm;rsm;? rdef;rrsm;ESifh ywfoufí (2;8-15)
4/ acgif;aqmifrsm;qdkif&m ñTefMum;vTm (3;1-16)
u. toif;awmfvBl u;D ydik ;f twGuf (3;1-13)
c. Mum;jzwf&iS ;f vif;wifjycsurf sm; (3;14-16)
5/ tEÅ&m,frsm;pGm owdjyK&m (4;1-16)
u. tEÅ&m,frsm;udk azmfjyjcif; (4;1-5)
c. tEÅ&m,frsm;udk umuG,f&ef wm0efESifh &ifqdkif&ef (4;6-16)
6/ rsm;pGmaomwm0efrsm; (5;1-6;10)
u. t&G,t
f vdu
k ef mcHxu
kd af p (5;1-2)
c. rkqdk;rrsm;odkU (5;3-16)
*. toif;awmfvlBuD;rsm;odkU (5;17-25)
C. uRefESifhocifrsm;odkU (6;1-2)
i. yg;pyfbk&m;? vufum;,m;rsm;odkU (6;3-10)
7/ wdarmao . . . aemufqkH;taejzifh (6;11-21)
u. bk&m;ocifEiS w
hf pl mG touf&iS yf g (6;11-16)
c. vlcsrf;omwdkUem;qifyg/ (6;17-19)
*. usef,kHMunfolrsm;twGuf wdkufwGef;csuf (6;20-21)
299

wdarmaoMo0g'pm'kw,
d apmif
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ w&m;pD&ifol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
wdarmaoMo0g'pmyXrapmifudk jyefí avhvm&ef

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 66

wdarmaoMo0g'pmyXrapmifudkjyefí avhvm&ef

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
wdarmaoMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifonf uREkfyfwdkU\ tpOftvmtwdkif; wnf&SdcJh
aom cHpm;csufrsm;udk ½kwfw&ufajymif;vJapEdkifrnfhusrf;[k qdkcsif ygonf/
rSeyf gonf/ xdMk o0g'pmudk ra&;rDwiG f uREyfk w
f Ukd awGUjrifc&hJ aom ,cif Mo0g'yXr
apmifESifhwdwkMo0g'pmwdkYudk a&;om;csdefwGif&Sifaygvkonf vGwfvyf aomol?
vIyf&Sm;oGm; vmcGifh&SdoljzpfcJhNyD; ,cktcsdefwGifrl aordefYudk apmihfqdkif; &aom
tusOf;om;wpfa,muf jzpfaeygjyD/ ol\&ifxJü r[m&nfrSef;csuf 2ckjzifh
þMo0g'udk ola&;om;cJhavonf . . .
(1) wdarmaotm; a&mrNrdKUodkU tjrefqkH;vma&mufí olraorDtcsdef twGif;
olESifhawGUqkH&ef (4;9, 21 ESifh 4;6-8)
(2) wdarmaotaejzifh cdkifcefUaom ,kHMunfjcif;tm;jzifh tcufcJ[lorQudk
&ifqdkif ausmfvTm;&ef? uREkfyfwdkU\ toufwmü pkHprf;aESmuf,Sufjcif;rsm;ESifh
BuKHawGU ae&rnfjzpfaMumif;udk owdjyKMu&ef . . .&nfrSef;csufrsm; csxm;cJh
ayonf/
300
Mo0g'yXrapmifuJhodkY... yk*d¾Kvfa&;t&azmfjyxm;onfh OD;wnfcsufrsm;udk
awGU&onf/ yk*d¾Kvfa&;&mt& Mo0g'jyK&mwGif (1;6) t& . . .
]]odkYjzpfí igvufwifaomtm;jzifh oifü bk&m;ocifay;awmfrlaom qkudk
EdI;aqmfrnfhtaMumif;? igonf oifhudk owday;\}} [kazmfjyxm;onf/
tjcm;rSjD irf;ud;k um;oifah om usr;f rsm;taejzifh (1;14) (2;1,2) (2;15) (4;5)wdUk udk
avhvmEdkifonf/ toif;awmftzGJUtpnf;taejzifh c&pfawmf\tapcH?
c&pfawmftwGuf tepfemcHolppfom;rsm;tjzpf trIawmfudkxrf;aqmif&ef
tm;ay;xm;onf (2;2-4)/ ,if;uJo h Ukd trIawmfü yg0ifjcif;onf tqk;H wdik af tmif
aumif;pGm wdkufvSefjcif;jzpfaMumif;udk azmfjyxm;avonf (4;6-7)

c&pfawmftm;wdarmaoMo0g'pm'kwd,apmifüawGUjrif&ykH
trIawmfaqmif&u G jf cif;\ t"dutcsuEf iS hf trIawmfaqmif&u G &f ef cGet
f m;owdå
tvkH;pkHwdkYonf c&pfawmftay:üom tajccHonf/ xdkUaMumifh c&pfawmftm;
,kHMunfjcif;w&m;onf trIawmfaqmifjcif;\ tajccHtkwfjrpf jzpfonf/
xdt
k csuu f kd (1;10)t& ]]xdo k cifonf aojcif;taMumif;udk y,f&mS ;í touf&iS f
jcif;taMumif;ESihf razmufjyefjcif;taMumif;udk {0Ha*vd w&m;tm;jzifh xif&mS ;ap
awmfrjl y}D } [kazmfjyxm;ygonf/ aojcif;rSxajrmufonfo h cif(2;8)/ u,fwif&iS f
jzpfí xm0&bke;f wefc;kd udk ay;ydik o f l (2;10) ,kMH unfjcif;w&m;udk apmifah &Smuf
olrsm;twGuf aomfvnf;aumif;? or®mw&m;vrf;ü avQmufomG ;olrsm; twGuf
aomfvnf;aumif;? olEiS t hf wl pk;d pH&aomtcGiu hf kd &&Srd nf (2;11-13) (4;8)[lí
azmfjyxm;aMumif;udk awGUjrifEdkifonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ EIwfcGef;qufjcif; (1;1-2)
2/ wdarmaotm;aus;Zl;wifaMumif;azmfjyjcif; (1;3-7)
3/ wdarmao\ wm0efrsm;udk owday;azmfjyjcif; (1;8-18)
4/ opöm&Sdaom wynfhawmf\ vu©Pmrsm; (2;1-26)
301
u.aus;Zl;arwåmawmfü cGeftm;BuD;rm;ol (2;1)
c. olwyg;twGuf opömw&m;udk a0rQol (2;2)
*. ppfom;yrmwnfMunfol (2;3-4)
C.tm;upm;orm;uJhodkUpnf;urf;vdkufemí v,form;uJhodkY tvkyf
BudK;pm;aomol (2;5-13)
i. BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwt
f vkyv
f yk o
f l (2;14-19)
p. oefU&Si;f pifMu,faomwefqm (2;20-23)
q.wpfyg;trsdK;om;tapcHuRef (2;24-26)
5/ opöm&St
d apcHowdjyK&ef (3;1-17)
u.or®mw&m;vrf;rSaoGzDvQif (3;1-9)
c. vrf;rvGJap&ef umuG,fjcif; (3;10-17)
6/ or®mw&m;udak [majym&efapcdik ;f jcif; (4;1-5)
7/ ,kHMunfí opömapmifhaom tapcHuReftwGuf ESpfodrfhjcif; (4;6-18)
u.toufwmudk aumif;rGefpGm tqkH;owfjcif; (4;6-7)
c. þb0rSvGefaomcg (4;8)
*. rdwfaqGrsm;\taMumif; (4;9-18)
8/ ed*;Hk csKyEf w
I cf eG ;f qufjcif; (4;19-22)
302

wdwkMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\Muifemjcif;u½kPmudkaqmifcJhol)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
oif;tkyMf o0g'rsm;tm;vk;H tm; wdarmaoMo0g'pmyXrpmapmifrmS NcKiH aHk vhvm
cJNh y;D jzpfonf/
wdw[ k al omtrnfukd wrefawmf0wåKwiG f rjrif&yg/ odUk aomf wrefawmfBu;D \
qkH;rMo0g'rsm;wGif olUtrnfudk 13BudrfcefU udk;um;azmfjyxm; onf/ xdkusrf;
ydkif;rsm;tm;jzifh wdwkonf wrefawmfBuD;\ teD;uyfqkH;ESifh pdwftcs&qkH;
trIawmfaqmif wpfyg;tjzpfem;vnf&onf/ bk&m;ocif\ 0rf;ajrmufbG,f
u,fwifjcif;aus;Zl;w&m;udk aqG;aEG;&eftwGuf tEdÅtkwfNrdKUrS a,½k&SvifodkU
xGufcGmcsdefwGif (wrefawmf? 15;1rSpí avhvm&ef) wrefawmfBuD;onf
wdwkudkac:oGm;NyD; ta&zsm;vSD;rcHbJESifh u,fwifjcif; aus;Zl;awmfudk cH,l
EdkifaMumif; oufaojycJhonf (*vmwd? 2;1-3)/ &Sifaygvk\ tqdkygjyóem
tay:ü cH,lcsufonf rSefuefaMumif;udk xdkusrf;ydkif;ü xif&Sif;pGmawGU&onf
(*vmwd? 2;3-5)/ xdu k sr;f csurf sm;udk axmufíwdwo
k nf aygvk\ av;pm;bG,f
vkyfazmfaqmifzuftjzpf owfrSwfEdkifonf/ &Sifaygvk\ wwd,c&D;pOfwGif
wdwkonf {zufNrdKUü wrefawmfBuD;ESifhtwltvkyf vkyfcJhonf[k ,lq&onf/
xdkrSwpfqifholYudk wrefawmfBuD;onf aum&dEÅKNrdKU toif;awmftm; Munfh½I&ef
apvTwfcJhonf (2aum? 2;12-13) (2aum? 7;5-6? 8;6)

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 65
þMo0g'pm\aemufaMumif;jzpfpOfrsm;onf a&;om;csdefudk cefUrSef; awG;qap
Edkifonf/ &Sifaygvkonf a&mrNrdKUwGif tus,fcsKyfrS vGwfajrmufcsdefjzpfonf/
(wrefawmf0wåKed*kH;ydkif;udk avhvm&ef)/ aygvkonf a&mrEdkifiHom; jzpf,kHru?
303
trIpJG avmufaomtjypf&mS í r&aomaMumifh uJombk&ifa&SUwGif trIrwifEikd b f J
oluY kd vTwaf y;vduk &f jcif;jzpfonf (wref? 24-25? 28;30)/ xdv k w G af jrmufcsed w
f iG f
&Siaf ygvkonf {zufNrKd UodUk oGm;í wdarmaotm; oif;tkyq f &mwGif cefUxm;Ny;D
aemuf? rmaua'gedjynfodkU c&D;qufcJhonf/ *&dEdkifiHajrmufydkif;rmaua'gedrSm
wdarmaoMo0g' pmyXrapmifudk ola&; om;cJhonf/ (1wd? 1;3-5)/ xdkUaemuf
ua&aw (CRETE) uRef;odkU0ifa&mufí wdwktm; toif;awmfvkyfief;rsm;
vkyfapcJhonf/ NyD;rSwpfzef *&djynf awmifydkif; &Sd tcg,jynfedaumyvdodkY
c&D;qufco hJ nf (wdw?k 3;12)/ ,ckMo0g'pmudk edaumyvd odrYk [kwf rmaua'ged
rSaeí a&;om;í wdwktm;ay;vsuf Mo0g'jyKjcif; jzpf&ygrnf/ xdkt&yfa'o
rsm;rS wpfzefwrefawmfBuD;onf wa&mNrdKUodkY oGm;a&mufcJhNyD;aemuf (2wd?
4;13)jyefí tzrf;cH&jyefvsuf a&mrodkYac:aqmifum tusOf;csjcif;cH&onf?
aemufq;Hk wGif acgif;jzwf uGyrf sujf cif;cH&onf/ Ny;D cJah om tydik ;f rsm;ü azmfjycJoh vdk
a&mrtusOf;axmif xJrSm&SdpOf olonf wdarmaoMo0g'pm 'kwd,apmifudk
a&;cJhjcif;jzpfonf/ xdkjzpfpOfrsm;tm;vkH;onf AD 62-67 twGif;jzpf&yfrsm;yif
jzpfavonf/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
t"duOD;wnfcsuEf iS hf taMumif;&if;rsm;pGmudk þMo0g'pmü awGjY rif &onf/ (1)
ua&awuRef;&Sdtoif;awmfrsm;wGif vdktyfaeaom toif;awmf a&;&mudpö
rsm;tm; ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf wdwktm;vkyfaqmifoifhonfrsm;udk ñTefMum;&ef/
(2) wdw&k ifqikd af e&aom qefUusirf rI sm;ESihf ywfoufí rdr\
d tcGit
hf mPmESihf
aqmif&u G &f ef/
(3) tqdyk gqefu Y sirf rI sm;tm; tb,fuo
hJ Ukd &ifqikd &f rnfukd ñTeMf um;í ,kMH unf
jcif;? aqmif&Gufjcif;wdkYtwGuf txl;owdjyK&ef&Sdonfrsm;udk azmfjyum?
t,lvrJG mS ;aom t&mrsm;ESihf ywfoufí wif;MuyfpmG owday;xm;onf (1;5?
10-11)/ aqmif;umvwGif edaumyvdNrdKUü wdwkESifh qkHawGU&ef pDpOfcJhonfudk
azmfjyonf/ (3;12)/ xdktpDtpOfjzpfajrmufjcif;&Sdr&SdudkuREkfyfwdkUrod&yg/
wdwo k nf ua&awuRe;f ay:ü aowyefoufwpfq;Hk trIawmfaqmifco hJ nf[k
ajymxk;H &Syd gaMumif;/
304
þusrf;\tESpfom&rSm c&pfawmf\ toufwmtm;jzifh awGY&aom bk&m;
ocif\ aus;Zl;arwåmawmfEiS w hf pfuG bk&m;ocifrESpo
f ufonfrsm;udk a&SmifMuOf
vsuf bk&m;ocif\ or®mw&m;vrf;twdik ;f ajzmifrh wfwnfMunfpmG tvkyv f yk Mf u
&ef wdkufwGef;jcif;jzpfonf/
ta&;BuD;onfhudpö&yfrsm;taejzifh toif;awmfacgif;aqmifvlBuD;wdkY \
t&nftcsi;f (1;5-9)? touft&G,t f vdu
k af qmif&u
G &f ef ñTeMf um;csurf sm; (2;1-
8)? rif;tpdk;&ESifh qufqHjcif; (3;1-2)/ tusifhw&m;ESifh 0dnmOfawmf\ jyKjyif
EdiI ;f ,SOcf suf (3;5)/ bk&m;ocif\ om;orD;rsm;ü aumif;aom tusihf w&m;rsm;
jzpfay:ap&ef aus;Zl;awmf\ jyKjyifjcif; (2;11-3;8)taMumif;rsm;udk azmfjyxm;
ygonf/

c&pfawmftm;wdwkMo0g'pmüawGUjrif&ykH
&Sifaygvk\tjcm;aom Mo0g'pmrsm;ESifh wpfvkH;wpf0wnf;jzpfí c&pfawmf\
b0ykHpHESifh trIawmfaqmif&Gufjcif;onf c&pf,mef,kHMunfolwdkY tm; twdwf?
ypöyKÜ e?f tem*wftwGutf b,foUkd usiBhf uaH exdik &f rnfukd azmfjyaMumif; Mo0g'jyK
xm;onf/ c&pfawmf\ bk&m;bkef;awmfxif&Sm;jcif;? u,fwifydkif&Sif jzpfjcif;
(2;12)wdkUudk azmfjyvsuf (2;13)azmfjycsuft& atmufygtwdkif; awGU&onf/
]]igwdkUudku,fwifawmfrlaom t&Sifocifa,½Ic&pf\ bkef;toa& awmf
xif&Sm;ay:xGef;jcif;udk¤if;? igwdkYonf arQmfvifhvsuf? bk&m;rJhw&m;rJh aejcif;?
avmuDwyfrufjcif;udk y,f&mS ;vsu?f ,ckb0ü £a`Ea´ pmifjh cif;? w&m;ojzifu h sihf
jcif;? bk&m;0wfüarGUavsmjf cif;wdu
Yk kd jyKae&rnftaMumif; igwdu
Yk q
kd ;Hk roGeo
f ifí
vltaygif;wdkYudk u,fwifwwfaom bk&m;ocif\ aus;Zl;awmfonf xif&Sm;
ay:xGe;f vsu&f \
dS }} xdUk twl (2;14)wGif atmufyg twdik ;f qufvufazmfjyxm;
av\/
]]xdkocifa,½Ic&pfonf cyfodrf;aom'kp½dkufrSigwdkUudk a&G;EIwfjcif; iSg¤if;?
aumif;aomtusib hf ufü pdwt f m;Bu;D í ydik x
f u
kd af wmfral om tusKd ;udk rdrt
d bdUk
pifMu,fapjcif;iSg¤if;? udk,fudkudk,fpGefYBuJawmfrljyD}}
305

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ EIwq
f ufjcif;ESit
hf zGiphf um;rsm; (1;1-4)
2/ toif;awmfvlBuD;rsm;tm; a&G;cs,fcefUxm;jcif; (1;5-9)
3/ toif;awmfudk rxDrJhjrifjyKolrsm; (1;10-16)
4/ toif;awmf\ vkyfief;pOfrsm; (2;1-3;11)
u.wdwktwGufwm0efrsm; (2;1-10)
c. aus;Zl;arwåm ñTefMum;vTm (2;11-15)
*. bk&m;ocift
h rIawmfo½kyaf zmf (3;1-11)
5/ ed*kH;ñTefMum;csufrsm;ESifh EIwfqufjcif; (3;12-15)

zdavrkefMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfbk&m;ocif\ ,kHMunfpdwfcsjcif;udkcH&ol)

usrf;a&;olESifhusrf;trnf
tjcm;axmifwiG ;f ay;pmMo0g'rsm;jzpfonf - {zufMo0g'pm? zdvyd MÜd o0g'pmESihf
aumavmoJMo0g'pmrsm;uJo h Ukd þMo0g'pmudk yXrtBurd f a&mrü tzrf;cH&pOf
&Siaf ygvka&;om;cJo
h nf/ þpmonf ]Moaeodr}f trnfwiG f ol? a&mrtifyikd , f m
twGi;f u oef;aygif;rsm;pGm&So
d nfh uRerf sm;teufrS uRew f pfa,mufEiS hf ywfouf
í ol\ocifjzpfaom zdavrkef xHoUkd &Siaf ygvka&;om;ay;ydUk jcif;jzpfavonf/
Moaeodrf onfocifypönf;udk acs;,lí tdrfrSxGufajy;vmNyD;aemufa&mrodkU
a&mufvmcJ&h m? wrefawmfBu;D &Siaf ygvkEiS hf awGUqkNH y;D aemuf a,½Ic&pfukd ,kMH unf
ajymif;vJvmcJhonf (1;10) xdkenf;tm;jzifh ocifzdavrkefESifh uRefMoaeodrf
306
wdkUonf c&pf,meftcsif;csif; wpfOD;udkwpfOD; wm0ef,l&rnfh tajctaeodkU
a&mufcJhonf/ Moaeodrfonf olUocifxHodkU jyefoGm;&rnfjzpfovdk? ocif
zdavrkeof nf olu
Y ckd iG v
hf w
T í
f BuKd qv
kd ufcu H m nDtpfuckd si;f uJo
h Ukd oabmxm;
&rnf/ omreftm;jzifh tjypfuykd if cHxu dk af om uReaf jy;jzpfaomfvnf;? &Siaf ygvk
onf Moaeodrfudk,fpm; toem;cHavQmufxm;cJhaMumif;udk awGU&ygonf/

usrf;udka&;om;aomckESpf
AD 60-61

&SifaygvkyXrtBudrfa&mrNrdKUü tusOf;uscsdefwGif a&;om;jcif;jzpfí AD 60-


61 [k ,lq&onf/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
rl&if;&nfreS ;f csurf mS yk*K¾d vaf &;qefaom þpmjzifMh oaeodrt f wGuf zdavrkeo f nf
cGiv
hf wT &f ef? jyefvnfvufc&H ef? u,fwifjcif;w&m;\ t&dyf atmufwiG f cspaf om
nDtpfudk? tapcHuReftcsif;csif;tjzpfoabmxm;&ef azmfjyonf/ (1;10-17)?
zdavrkeftaejzifh Moaeodrf\jypfrSm;jcif;? a<u;wifjcif;udk aygvkuudk,fpm;
qyfay;ygrnf[q k o
kd nf/ þenf;tm;jzifh uREyfk w f uYdk , kd pf m; tjypfuq kd yfay;onfh
c&pfawmf\ taMumif;udk o½kyaf zmfjy onf[k qdEk ikd o f nf (1;18)/ aemufwpfqifh
pOf;pm;vQif c&pfawmf\ toufwmudk cHpm;&onfh uREkfyfwdkUtaejzifh trSef
wpfu,f toufwmwGif ajymif;vJNy;D aemuf vufawGUusaom arwåmo½kyu f kd
rdrdwdkU\ vlrIb0e,fy,f toD;oD;rSm jyooGm;&ef tm;ay;xm;aMumif;awGU
&onf/ þtopfaom oabmw&m;udk ({zuf? 6;5-9) (aumavmoJ? 3;22
ESihf 4;1)wdw Yk iG f avhvmEdik f onf/ ,ckMo0g'rSwifqufro I nf tvGeaf umif;rGef
onf/ Oyrmyifjzpfonf/ aemufqkH;rSwf&eftcsufrSm zdavrkeftwGuf olonf
aus;Zl;awmfukd cs;D rGr;f aMumif;ESiw hf pfuG rdrad xmifrv S w G af jrmufygu rdrwd nf;cdb
k Ukd
&ef jyifqifay;rnfh taMumif; arwåm&yfcHjcif;jzpfonf/ (1;4-7? 22)
xdkUaMumifhþMo0g'pmonf b0udk ajymif;vJapEdkifonfh tiftm;udk u,fwif
jcif;w&m;onf ay;pGr;f Edik jf cif;ESiw
hf pfuG xdw
k &m;udk cH,w
l nfaqmuf jcif;tm;jzifh
307
wif;Muyfaom csnfaESmifjcif;rS nD&if;tpfudkyrm arwåmw&m; yGm;rsm;EdkifykHudk
em;vnfapEdik af yonf/
aumavmoJtoif;awmfü uRefydkif&Sifocifaygif;rsm;pGm&Sdonf/ (aumavmoJ?
4;1)/ odUk jzpfí þMo0g'pmonf zdavrkeo f mrubJ tjcm; c&pf,mef,MHk unfol
ocifrsm;twGuv f nf; rdrw d Ukd \ tapcHuRerf sm;ESihf qufqMH u&mwGif vrf;jyxm;
onf/&Siaf ygvkonf zdavrkerf rd \ d uRew f pfa,mufukd pdwBf uKd ut f a&;,lEikd af om
tcGit hf a&;&So
d nfukd rjiif;ay/ odUk aomf c&pfawmfü nDtpfuu kd ohJ Ukd aom pdw"f gwf
xm;&S&d ef zdavrket f m; arwåm&yfcx H m;onf (1;16)/ wpfcsed w f nf;rSmyif ]Moae
odr}f jyefvnfay;qyf &ef&o dS nfrsm;twGuf &Siaf ygvkonf yk*K¾d vaf &;t& wm0ef
,lco hJ nf/
þMo0g'pmonf uRefpepfudk qefUusifwdkufcdkufaom oabmr&Sdyg/ odkUaomf
. . c&pf,mefocifEiS hf tapcHuRew f Ukd onf xdak cwfEiS x
hf pkd epftwGi;f tb,fuhJ
odUk ,kMH unfjcif;w&m;udk apmifah &Smufoifah Mumif; vrf;ñTejf yonf/ zdavrkeo f nf
Moaeodrftm; vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;í aygvkxHodkY jyefvnf apvTwfjcif;
jzpfEdkifonf (1;14)/ tcsdKUaom okawoDwdkY\ tqdkt& Moaeodrfonf
"r®trIawmfaqmifwpfO;D jzpfvmNy;D {zuftoif;awmfü *kP d ;f tkywf pfO;D jzpfcohJ nf
84
[k ,lq&yg onf/

c&pfawmftm;zdavrkefMo0g'pmü awGUjrif&ykH
þMo0g'pm\ o½kyfazmfjyrIt&c&pfawmfü awGUjrif&onfh tjypf vTwfjcif;
oabmw&m;udk vSypGmcHpm;xdawGUEdik o f nf/ tvGet f jypfBu;D rm; aom Moaeodrf
(1;11, 18)onf &Siaf ygvk\ ud, k pf m;cHarwåmaMumifh pdwv f yI &f mS ;ch&J onf (1;10-
17)/ &Sifaygvkonf rdrd\tcGifhtmPmrsm;udk eab;csdwfí (1;8)Moaeodrf\
tjypfta<u;rsm;udk tpm;xd;k cH,cl o hJ nf (1;9)/ zdavrke\ f arwåmaus;Zl;aMumifh
Moaeod r f o nf jyef v nf j yKjyif j cif ; ud k cH , l í topf a om quf q H r I u d k
&,lEdkifcJhonf/ (1;15-16)/ þMo0g'\ wifpm;csuf t& uREkfyfwdkY\b0onf
MoaeodrfuJhodkUyif jzpfonf/ &Sifaygvk\ zdavrkefxH avQmufxm;csufonf
c&pfawmf\ tbbk&m;ociftm; qkawmif;rIESifhwlnD onf/ Moaeodrfonf
ynwfw&m;t& tjypfudk cH&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; aus;Zl;u½kPmawmftm;jzifh
u,fwifjcif;udk &&SdcJhavonf/ 85
308

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ zdavrkeftwGuf aus;Zl;awmfudk csD;rGrf;qkawmif;jcif; (1;1-7)
2/ MoaeodrftwGuf arwåm&yfcHjcif; (1;8-18)
3/ aygvkrS zdavrkefodkU ay;aomuwd (1;19-21)

4/ yk*d¾Kvfa&;udpö&yfrsm; (1;22-25)

tydkif;(3)

Mo0g'pmrsm;
ed'gef;
,cktcsed w f iG f "r®opfusr;f pmrS aemufq;Hk Mo0g'pm ]*} apmif\ tydik ;f odUk uREyfk w f Ukd
a&mufvmygjyD/ ,if;usrf;rsm;teuf ]7}apmifudk GENERAL odkUr[kwf
CATHOLIC Mo0g'pmrsm;[k trnfay;xm;&m ,if;wdUk twGi;f rSm a[NAMJ o0g'
pmudk pm&if;rxnfhoGif;Edkifay/ CATHOLIC [líqdk&jcif;rSmurÇmwpf0Srf;ESifh
qdik o f nf? taxGaxGoabmaqmifonf[k qdv k jkd cif;jzpfNy;D &Siaf ygvk\ usr;f rsm;
rSmrl toif;awmfrsm;? vlyk*d¾Kvfrsm;xH &nfpl;a&;om;xm;ojzifh oD;oefUcGJjcm;
jci;fyif jzpfavonf/86 &Siaf ,m[ef Mo0g'pm'kw, d apmifEiS hf wwd,apmifwrYkd S
wpfyg; ,cktaxGaxGMo0g'pm tm;vk;H onf usO;f ajrmif;aom tpktzGw YJ pfcrk mS
uefo Y wfrxm;bJ OD;wnfrI us,yf sUH onf? Oyrmtm;jzifh &Si, f mukyo f nf t&yf&yf
wdkUü uGJjym;aom wpfq,fh ESpfyg;aomtrsdK;wdkYudk Mum;vdkufyg\[lí tcef;udk
zGivhf pS x
f m;&m xdak cwfumv ü urÇmtESUH a&muf&adS eol ueOD;toif;awmfrsm;ESihf
*sL;c&pf,meftm;vkH; qDodkY &nfpl;aMumif;odEdkifonf/ xdkUtwlMo0g'pm
yXrapmiftpydik ;f ü ]]t&yf&yfwUkd ü uGjJ ym;aom {nfo h nf t*EÅKwUkd udk Mum;vdu k f
yg\} [kqdkíykEdÅjynf? *vmwdjynf? uyÜa'gudjynf? tm&Sdjynf? AdokedjynfrS
309
ponfhte,fe,ft&yf&yf&Sd ,kHMunfoltm;vkH;udk tBuKH;0ifapaMumif; awGUEdkif
avonf/ rnfoUkd qdak p &Siaf ,m[efMo0g'pm'kw, d ESihf wwd,apmifwu Ykd ykd grcGJ
. . . a[NAJMo0g'pm udkvnf; trsm;ESifha&maESmvsuf tm;vkH;taxGaxG
Mo0g'usrf;rsm;jzpfonf[k owfrSwfvdkufNyD; þtydkif;wGif usrf; ]*} usrf;udk
taxGaxGMo0g'rsm;tjzpf avhvmMu&ygrnf/ taxGaxGMo0g',ckusrf; ]*}
qlpvk;H onf a[NAMJ o0g'pmrSvíJG a&;om;aomusr;f q&mwdUk \ trnfemrrsm;udk
,laqmifazmfjyxm;jcif;jzpf&m? &Siaf ygvk\Mo0g'rsm;ESirhf wlnaD Mumif; owdjyKEikd f
ygonf/
a,bk,stm;jzifh &Si, f mukyMf o0g'pmESihf &Siaf yw½k Mo0g'pm yXrapmif wdUk onf
aumif;uifbkH\ pHowfrSwfcsufjzpfaom trSefESifhtrSm;udk tajccHvsuf
,kMH unfow l \
Ykd usi0hf wfew
D rd sm;udk azmfjyonf/ ,kMH unfowl Ukd tm; ocifEiS t
hf wl
oefU&Sif;pGm avQmufvSrf;&efazmfjyonf/ &Sifayw½kMo0g'pm 'kwd,apmifESifh
&Sif,k'Mo0g'pmwdkUonf tem*wdåa&;usrf;pmjzpfí vSnfhzsm;wwfaom
q&mrsm;\ tEÅ&m,fukd owday;um ,kMH unfjcif;ü NrNJ raH p&eftwGuf ,kMH unfol
rsm;udk owday; xm;avonf/
a[NAJMo0g'pmESifh &Sifa,m[efMo0g'pmrsm;wdkYonf c&pfawmf\ taMumif;udk
tajccsí c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\ tNyD;owfAsm'dwfawmf jzpfonf?
"r®a[mif; usr;f rsm;\ jynfph jHk cif;jzpfonf? odjYk zpfí ol\xm0& toufuckd ,
H ?l
0rf;ajrmufbG,f {0Ha*vdw&m;xufbmudkrQ pdwfr0ifpm;bJ c&pfawmfESifhtwl
aumif;aomtusifhrsm;udk usifhokH;&ef wdkufwGef;xm;jcif;yif jzpfavonf/
or®musr;f pmwpftyk v f ;Hk \ ]10}&mcdik Ef eI ;f yif r&Sad om ,cktaxGaxG Mo0g'rsm;
onf þtcsKd ;tpm;ESirhf rQatmif ,kMH unfow l Ukd \ toufwmudk vTr;f rd;k xm;onf
[kqdk&ygrnf/ c&pf,mefwdkYtwGuf or®mw&m;tm;jzifh <u,f0csrf;omrIudk
&S i f a ygvk \ Mo0g' ]13}apmif E S i f h aygif ; pyf j znf h p G u f v suf tzuf z uf r S
jynfhpkHaponf/ &Sif,mukyf? &Sifayw½k? &Sifa,m[ef? &Sif,k'ESifh a[NAJMo0g'
q&mwdo Yk nf olwUkd \½Ia'gift h oD;oD;rSaeNy;D þMo0g'pmrsm; tm;jzifh {&mrtrI
awmfBuD;rSm yg0ifcJhMuonf/ xdkyk*d¾KvfBuD; 5OD;xJrSm ]1}OD;\ usr;fudkz,fxkwf
vdkuf,kHrQESifh wrefawmf0wåK\aemufydkif; "r®opfusrf;\ Asm'dwfawmfonf
tBuD;tus,f tESpfom&uif;rJhoGm;rnf[k qdkcsifygonf87
310

a[NAJMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonf t&m&mxufBuD;jrwfonf)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
AD 400 rS1600 wdi
k Ef pS af ygif; 1200twGi;f 0,fþusr;f udk ]]aygvkrS a[NAv
J rl sKd ;
rsm;odkUay;ydkUaom Mo0g'pm}} [k trSwfonmjyKcJh\/ odkUaomf þpmapmifudk
a&;olEiS yhf wfoufí rloabmwlnrD [ I í
l wpfcgrQr&Scd MhJ uyg/ odUk jzpfí a&S;tus
qk;H ESihf pdwt
f cs&qk;H acgif;pOfrmS ]a[NAvJ rl sKd ;rsm;odUk } odUk r[kwf ]a[NAMJ o0g'pm}
yifjzpfygonf/
þusrf;a&;ol\udpöESifh ywfoufí tqdkwifoGif;rIawGtrsm;tjym; &Sdvsuf
ynm&Siwf Ukd \ tjiif;tckrH sm;vnf;tao;pdwqf efqefjzpfymG ;cJyh gonf/ odUk aomfxkd
usrf;üa&;ol\ trnfudk b,frSmrQrawGU&ovdk? trSefwu,fyif a&;om;&m
t&yf? aeUpGJESifh zwf½IolwdkUtaMumif;rsm;vnf; bmrQrodMu&yg/
rnfodkU&Sdap ... rl&if;usrf;pmudk zwf&olrsm;onf þusrf;ESifh ywfoufí
b,fou l rQ tjiif;ryGm;cJo
h vdak &;om;oluv kd nf; odcMhJ uaMumif; xifxif&mS ;&Sm;
ouf aojyEdik o f nf (13;18-24)/ wpfcsed w f nf;ü toif;awmf ordik ;f wGif þudpö
twGuf uGJjym;rIawGudk wpfqufwnf;awGUvm&jyefonf/ tcsKdUu &Sifaygvk?
tcsdKUu AgeA? tcsdKUuvkum? tcsdKUu CLEMENT ponfjzifh trsdK;rsdK;,lq
cJMh uNy;D tcsKd Uuawmh ]trnfrodjcif;} udyk if ausauseyfeyfEiS hf ESpNf cKd upf mG cH,xl m;
Muonf/a[NAMJ o0g'pm\ tESpo f m&ESihf t&Sed w
f efc;kd yg0ifru
I rkd l b,fvrkd Qapm'u
rwufEdkifbJ 0dnmOfawmfrIwfoGif; onfh usrf;tjzpfvufcH&rnfjzpfyg\/
&Sifaygvk\Mo0g'rsm;uJhodkY zwf&aom y&dowfrsm;taMumif;udk razmfjyaomf
vnf; wpfcak omtcsuu f akd wmh jywfom;pGmajymEdik yf gonf/ "r®a[mif;usr;f rsm;udk
ud;k um;yk?H ,Zfyal Zmfjcif;udk tav;teufxm;ykEH iS hf þusr;f \ oabmobm0t&
... þusr;f pm\ t"duy&dowfrmS *sL; odrYk [kwf a[NAv J rl sKd ;rsm;om jzpf&rnf
[laom tcsufayyif/
311
"r®ynm&Sif ZANE C. HODGES \tqdkwGif atmufygtwdkif; awGUjrif&
ygonf/
a&;om;oludkrod&ovdkzwf½Ioly&dowfudkvnf; twdtus rowfrSwf Edkifyg/
oD;oefUqefaom tpktzGJUwpfckck[lírl txift&Sm;oabmxm;Edkif ygrnf/
pOf;pm;Edkifaom tcsufrsm;taejzifh xdkpmzwfy&dowfwdkUü cdkifrmaom ordkif;
aMumif;&SNd y;D ,if;udk ]]txufumvtcsed u f kd atmufarhMu}} [lonfh azmfjycsuEf iS hf
oufaojyEdkifonf (a[NAJ? 10;32-34)/ usrf;a&;olonfvnf; olwdkU\
twd w f u d k o d í xd k t csd e f w G i f ol w d k U onf tjcm;c&pf , mef r sm;tay:rS m
&ufa&maomapwemxm;jcif;udkyg odxm;onf (6;10)/ xdkrQru xdktcsdefü
xdky&dowf\ 0dnmOfa&;tajctaeudkvnf; odESifhNyD;jzpfonf (5;11-14)/
usrf;q&monf oly&dowfESifh tquftoG,f&Sdvsuf olwdkYxHodkY tvnfoGm;
a&muf&efyif qE´&SdaMumif;azmfjyxm;av&m wdarmaoESifhtwl oGm;vdk[ef
&Sdonf (13;19? 23)/ xdkolwdkYtm; olUtwGuf qkawmif;ay;&efvnf; arwåm
&yfcHonf/ (13;18)/
tb,frnfaom½Ia'gifhrSjzpfap ... avhvmqef;ppfygu a[NAJ Mo0g'pm\
y&dowfonft"dutm;jzifh *sL;a[NArJ sm;t"dujzpf&rnf/ Mo0g'pmü yg0ifaom
taMumif;rsm;ud, k w f ikd f xdt
k csuu f kd rD;armif;xd;k jyaeonf/ a&S;tpOftvmt&
a[NArJ sm;[k acgif;pOfwyfxm;jcif;onf obm0us ygonf/ tcsKUd u wpfyg;trsKd ;
om;rsm;udk t"duOD;wnfonf[k qdkapumrl *sL;tpGJtvef;BuD;olrsm;udkom
pma&;olonf tm½kpH ;l pdu k xf m;rSe;f odomonf? txl;ojzifh a&S;umv,Zfya&m
[dwfpHepfudk qefUusif a&;om;jcif;onf *sL;rsm;udktpOftvma[mif;odkU rul;
ajymif;ap&eftwGuf OD;wnfjcif;yif jzpfonf? "r®a[mif;usrf;rsm;\ MoZm
vTrf;rdk;rIrsm;twGuf jyif;xef;pGm ajz&Sif;csuf xkwfjcif;onf xdkvTrf;rdk;rI
t&dyfatmufrS y&dowftwGufom jzpf&ygvdrfhrnf/ 88
usrf;udka&;om;aomckESpf
AD 64-68
312
tjzpfEdkifqkH;aom ckESpfyifjzpfonf/ ueOD;toif;awmfacgif;aqmifBuD; ELE-
MENT OF ROME onf AD 95 wG i f tqd k y gusrf ; pmud k yXrqk H ;
udk;um;aMumif; udk awGU&ojzifh xdkusrf;onf xdktcsdefü wnfaejyDjzpfaMumif;
odomonf/ 'kw, d tcsut f aejzifh xdu
k sr;f udk a,½k&v
S ifNrKd Utzsuq
f ;D rcH&csed f
AD 70 rwdkifrDa&;om;jcif; jzpf&ygrnf/ taMumif;rSm -

(1) pma&;olonf ,ZfylaZmfrItpOftvmcsKyfNidrf;aMumif;udk a&;om;&mwGif


AdrmefawmfzsufqD;cH&jcif;udk xnfhoGif;jcif; rjyKyg/
(2) pma&;olazmfjyaom ,Zfya&m[dwv f yk if ef;aqmifwmrsm;onf xdt
k csed rf mS
aumif;pGm jyKvkyfaeqJ vu©Pm&Sdaeonf (5;1-3) (7;23? 27)(8;3-5)
(9;6-9? 13? 25) (10;1? 3-4? 8? 11) (13;10-11)/
(3) usrf;a&;olonf wdarmaotm; tjcm;odkUvTwfvdkufjcif;tm; azmfjyxm;
onf (13;23)/ þazmfjycsufonf trIawmfESifh a&mrwGif a&mufaeaom
&Siaf ygvkEiS hf qufpyfMunfhygu AD 60 \ aemufydkif;rSm}} jzpfaMumif;xif&Sm;
aponf/

OD;wnfonfh&nf&G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
c&pfawmf\ Bu;D jrwfawmfrjl cif;udk azmfjyvsuf c&pf,mefbmomonf "r®a[mif;
ynwfawmfrsm;xufomvGeBf u;D jrwf? Bu;D jrifaMumif; odaponf/ ,if;tcsuu f kd
]omíaumif;rGeaf om} ]jynf0h pkvH ifaom}? ]aumif;uifbEHk iS hf qdik af om} [lonf
a0g[m&rsm;jzifh xif&Sm;pGm o½kyfazmfjyxm;onf/ ,if;onf ol\tajccH
&nf&G,fcsuf jzpfonfhtavsmufc&pfawmf\ omvGefBuD;jrwfjcif;udk tcsuf
]5}csufjzifh wifjycJhonf/
(1) ocifonf "r®a[mif;umvya&mzufwdkUxufBuD;jrwfonf (1;1-3)/
(2) aumif;uifwrefwUkd xufBu;D jrwfonf (1;4-2;18)/
(3) arma&SxufBuD;jrwfonf (3;1-6)/
(4) a,m½IxufBuD;jrwfonf (3;7-4;16)/
(5) ,Zfya&m[dwrf if;tm½kex
f ufBu;D jrwfonf (5;1-10;18)/
313
þ&nfrSef;csuf\ yef;wdkifrSm c&pfawmfxHrS tESpfom&rsm;udk pGefYvsuf ynwf
w&m;\ t&dyrf sm;aemufoUkd vdu k yf groGm;&ef owdw&m;&Sad pa&;yif jzpf\(10;1)/
odkYjzpfí pmzwfolwdkYtwGuf &ifhusufjcif;&Sd&ef? opöm&Sd ,kHMunfolrsm;tjzpf
qkaus;Zl;udk &,l&ef aumif;uifbkHrS ac:awmfrljcif;udk jynfhpkHpGm em;vnf&ef
a&;om;azmfjycJhonf/ þuJhodkUNrJNrHap&eftwGuf c&pf,mefwdkU\ ,kHMunfjcif;
Bu;D yGm;aptHih gS usr;f ydik ;f 5ydik ;f udk cGjJ cm;í pdeaf c:xm;aMumif; avhvmEdik yf gonf
(2;1-4) (3;1-4;13) (5;11-6;20) (10;26-39) (12;14-29)/

c&pfawmfudk a[NAJMo0g'pmüawGUjrif&ykH
c&pfawmf\ BuD;jrifhí BuD;jrwfjcif;taMumif;udk atmifjrifpGm azmfjyjcif;jzifh
a[NAJMo0g'pmonf "r®opfusrf;ü taumif;qkH;aom c&pfawmf qdkif&m
usr;f wpfql jzpfvmcJo h nf/ bk&m;ocifu, kd pf m;jyKí tvGeaf wmufy xif&mS ;aom
om;awmfudk tESpfom&jynfh0pGmawGY&onf (1;3? 12? 13)/ bk&m;ocif\
vusmf awmfbufü xdik af omol (1;3? 13)? tbbk&m;ocif ud, k wf ikd u
f om;awmf
udk bk&m;ociftjzpf aMujimrI (1;8-9)? xm0& zefqif;&Sif (1;10-12)
arvcdaZ'ufuo hJ Ukd aom xm0& ,Zfya&m[dwrf if;Bu;D (tcef; 7)[lí ac:jyyg&Sd
onf/ þMo0g'pmt& c&pfawmfonf bk&m;pifppf jzpfaom ya&mzuf? ,Zfya&m
[dwfrif;? &Sifbk&if[laom tjzpfawmfrsm;udk udk,fpm;jyKxm;onf/ ocifonf
ol\nDtpfudkvlom;rsm;ESifhtwl vlZmwd b0udk cH,lNyD;aemuf,m,DrQom
wnfwahH om ,Zfyal Zmfjcif;jzifh rajz&Si;f Edik f onfh tjypfrsm;\ vufru S REyfk w
f Ukd udk
u,fEw I af y;aomt&Sijf zpfonf/ xdrk Qru aumif;uifbo Hk Ykd wuf<uNy;D onfaemuf
uREk f y f w d k Y \ tm;enf ; jcif ; tjypf r sm;twG u f pmemaxmuf x m;wwf a om
,Zfya&m[dwrf if;tjzpfumvtpOf wnf&adS eayonf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1/ c&pfawmfonf ynwfawmfumvacgif;aqmifrsm;xuf Bu;D jrwfawmfro
l nf
(1;1-7ESi2hf 8)
u."r®a[mif;umvya&mzufwUkd xufBu;D jrwfjcif; (1;1-3)
c. aumif;uifwrefwUkd xufBu;D jrwfjcif; (1;4-2;18)
314
*. arma&SxufBuD;jrwfjcif; (3;1-6)
C.a,m½IxufBuD;jrwfjcif; (3;7-4;13)
i. ,Zfya&m[dwrf if;tm½kex f ufBu;D jrwfjcif; (4;14-7;28)
(1) &J&ifhpdwfxm; (4;14-16)
(2) ,Zfya&m[dwf*kPfowdå (5;1-10)
(3) 0dnmOf&ifhusufa&;odkYwuf (5;11-6;2)
(4) bk&m;ocif\uwdwnfMunf\ (6;13-20)
(5) c&pfawmfonf xm0&,Zfya&m[dwrf if;Bu;D jzpfaMumif; (7;1-28)
2/ BuD;jrwfaom ,Zfya&m[dwfrif;BuD;\ jrifhjrwfaom,ZfylaZmfjcif;
(8;1-10;39)
u.ydkí omvGefaumif;jrwfaom y#dnmOf (8;1-13)
c. omvGefaumif;jrwfaom wJawmf (9;1-12)
*. omvGefaumif;jrwfaom ,Zf (9;13-10;18)
C.wdkufwGef;EdI;aqmfcsuf (10;19-39)
3/ ,kHMunfjcif;w&m;udk apmifha&SmufMu (11;1-12;29)
u.twdwu f mv,kMH unfjcif;ol&aJ umif;rsm; (11;1-40)
c. ,kHMunfjcif;w&m;udk apmifha&Smuf&ef tm;ay;jcif; (12;1-11)
*. ,kHMunfjcif;w&m;udk apmifha&Smuf&ef wdkufwGef;jcif; (12;12-17)
C.,kHMunfjcif;w&m;udk apmifha&Smuf&ef vIHUaqmfjcif; (12;18-29)
4/ ed*kH; (13;1-25)
u.c&pf,meftoufwm\vufawGUrl0g'rsm; (13;1-17)
c. qkawmif;Muavmh (13;18-19)
*. aumif;BuD;ay;jcif; (13;20-21)
C.yk*d¾Kvfa&;rSwfwrf;rsm; (13;22-23)
i. EIwfqufjcif;ESifh qkawmif;ay;jcif; (13;24-25)
315

&Sif,mukyfMo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonf Oyrm)

usrf;a&;olESifh usrf;trnf
]]bk&m;ocifEiS hf t&Siaf ,½Ic&pf\ uRef ig,mukyof nf? t&yf&yfü uGjJ ym;aom
wpfq,fhESpfyg;aom trsdK;wdkUudk arwåmESifh Mum;vdkufyg\}} [laom ed'gef;jzifh
usrf;udkpwifonf/ ,mukyf[laomtrnfjzifh "r®opfusrf;wGif yk*d¾Kvf 4 OD;udk
awGU&onf/ ¤if;wdkUrSm -
(1) aZaA'J\om; a,m[ef\nDtpfudkawmfol (rmuk? 1;19)
(2) tmvzJ\om; ,mukyf (rmuk? 3;18)
(3) ,k'\ocif (vkum? 6;16)ESifh
(4) ocifc&pfawmf\ ratwlzatuGn J aD wmf (*vmwd? 1;19)wdUk yifjzpfonf/
"r®ynm&Sif RYRIE \tqdkudk½Iyg/
,mukyt f rnfwiG af om yk*K¾d vf 4 OD;teuf þ&Si, f mukyMf o0g'pmudk a&;om;Edik f
olrSm ESpfOD;jzpfonf/ a,m[ef\ nDtpfudk aZaA'Jom;,mukyfESifh c&pfawmf
a,½I\ nD0rf;uGJ,mukyfwdkUjzpfMuonf/ xdkESpfa,mufteuf aZaA'Jom;
,mukyo f nf AD 44 wGif trIawmftwGuf towfccH &hJ onf (wrefawmf? 12;2)/
odUk jzpfonftwGuf a,½k&v S iftoif;awmf\ acgif;aqmif jzpfvmcJah om a,½I\
nDawmf,mukyf (wref? 12;17)(15;13)(21;18)onf þusr;f udak &;oljzpf&rnf[k
em;vnfEikd o f nf/ þtcsuu f kd þusr;f wGif awGU&onf/ *&dctJ oH;k tEIe;f rsm;onf
a,½k½v S iftoif;awmfaumifpüD ,mukyaf jymqdak om rdecYf eG ;f rS toH;k tEIe;f rsm;
wlnaD erIu cdik v f pkH mG oufao jyoaeonf/(,muky?f 1;1)ESi(fh wref? 15;23)wdu Yk kd
,SOMf unhEf ikd o
f nf? xdt k wl (,muky?f 1;27)ESifh (wref? 15;14)udv k nf;aumif;(,m
ukyf? 2;5)ESihf (wref? 15;13)wdkYudk4if; avhvmEdkifonf/ 89
316
ol\ Mo0g'udk cH,o l rl sm;tm; ,mukyu f az:jyyHEk iS yfh wfoufí ½Si;f vif;oiho f nf/
]]t&yf & yf ü uJ G j ym;aom wpf q ,f E S p f y g;aomtrsd K ;wd k Y u d k arwå m ES i h f
Mum;vdu k yf g\}}(1;1) [k oltpysKd ;xm;onf/(1;19)ESi(fh 2;1?7)wdw Yk iG f igcspaf om
nDtpfudkwdkY}} [lí olqdkxm;av&m t&yf&yfodkY uJGjym;jcif;qdkonfrSm AD 66-
70 usrS uJGjym;onfudk rqdkvdkbJ a½S;,cifuwnf;u uJGjym;ysHESYH aejcif;udk
qdvk jkd cif;jzpfygonf(róJ?1;11?12?17)/ wrefawmf 0w¦Ka½Y yS ikd ;f az:jycsurf sm;t&
*sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;wdo Yk nf urÇmt&yf&yfraS eí yifawukawåyaGJ eY udk wufa&muf&ef
a,½k½v S ifrmS pk½;kH a&muf½adS ecJMh uonf/(wrefawmf? 1;5)/ xdak jrmufrsm;pGmaom
*sL;vl r sd K ;wd k Y o nf xk d y if a wuk a wå y J G a eY ü tH h M obG , f a om jzpf f & yf r sm;ud k
awGUMuKH &vsuf a,½Ic&pfawmfukd ,HMk unfomG ;cJMh uonf/ xdak emufrS xd*k sL;wdo Yk nf
rdrwd Ykd oufqikd &f m urÇmt&yf&yfoYkd jyefomG ;cJMh uNy;D jzpfav&m xd, k MkH unforl sm;
twGuf ,ckMo0g'pmudk a&;om;aejcif;jzpfygonf/

usrf;udka&;om;onfhckESpf
AD 44-46

þ½Si, f mukyMf o0g'pmonf tapmqH;k aom Mo0g'[k ynm½Sirf sm;u az:jyvsuf


AD 45 cefr Y mS a&;om;onfq\ kd / taMumif;jycsurf sm;taejzihf 1/ *sL;wd\
Yk p½du
k f
vu©Pmrsm;tvGefyDjyifay:vGifonhf usrf;jzpfonf/ toif;awmfonf
*sL;tpOftvmwdkY vTrf;rdk;aeqJ jzpfaMumif; odomonf/ 2/ wpfyg;trsdK;om;
,HMk unforl sm; ta&zsm;vS;D cHoihf rcHoihf jyóemudk raz:jyao;ay/ 3/ toif;
awmf\ [laom toH;k tEI;H udk rawGU&bJ w&m;p&yf[í l om awGU&onf(2;2)/
4/ a,½k½v S ifpnf;a0;yJüG *sL;c&pf,mef ESifh wpfyg;trsKd ;om; c&pf,mefrsm;tMum;
jzpfymG ;aeonhf jyóemrsm; taMumif;udk ud;k ug;az:jyrI ryg0ifay/(wrefawmf
0wåK? 15udk avhvm&ef/ tcsed u f gvAD 49) xdt k csed x
f ufapmpGm a&;om;jcif;jzpf
aMumif; xif½mS ;ae \/ 5/ c&pfawmf\ Mo0g'rsm;udk ud;k um;&mü c&pf0ifusr;f vm
pum;rsm; tvGefenf;onfudk axmufvsif c&pf0ifusrf;rsm;xufapmí
a&;om;jcif;jzpf& ygrnf/ 90
317

OD;wnfonfh &nf½G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
touf½iS af om ,HMk unfjcif;w&m;udk wnfaqmuf&ef ½Si;f vif;pGm OD;wnfxm;
onf/ xdk,HkMunfjcif;onf t"duusonf tiftm;½Sdonf? vufawGY tvkyf
oabmyg0ifonf/ yk*Kd¾ vwf pfO;D csi;f jzpfap? tpktzJjYG zihf jzpfap touf rygaom
,HkMunfjcif;w&m;\ qdk;usdK;rsm;udk cH,lEdkif&ef az:jyowday;vsuf 0dnmOf
toufwm BuD;yGm;&mtwGuf vrf;ñTefxm;onf/

c&pfawmftm; ½Sif,mukyfMo0g'pmüawGYjrif&yHk
(1;1)(2;1)wkdYwGif u,fwif½Sifocifa,½Ic&pfawmf\emrawmfudk az:jyí
xdo
k cif\<uvmawmfrjl cif;udk arQmv
f ihaf z:jyonf/(5;7-8)/ usr;f yd'k if ,f]100}
csufyg0ifonf/ þMo0g'pmonf "r®a[mif;usrf; 22usrf;udk rSDjirf;udk;um;í
c&pfawmf\awmifay: a'oemrS tqHk;trrsm;udk 15Budrf xif[yfaz:jy
xm;ygonf/ 91

t"duta&;BuD;onhftcsufrsm; 92
1 ,HMk unfpw
d cf s½iS o
f efMu (1;1-27)
u EIwq
f ufítpysKd ;jcif; (1;1)
c trsdK;rsdK;aom pHkprf;jcif;ü 0rf;ajrmufap (1;2-12)
1 pHpk rf;jcif;tay:oabmxm; (1;2)
2 pHpk rf;jcif;\tusKd ; (1;3-4)
3 pHkprf;jcif;twGuf taxmuftul (1;5-12)
* tjypfaoG;aqmifjcif;rsm;? cGeftm;ESihf wkefYjyef(1;13-18)
1 tjypfaoG;aqmifrI? b,futpjyK (1;13-14)
2 aojcif;txd? tqihfqihf½Sd\ (1;15-16)
3 tjypfaoG;aqmifrItm; ajz½Sif;enf; (1;17-18)
318
C or®mw&m;ü wnfrSDjcif; (1;19-27)
1 or®mw&m;udk cH,ljcif; (1;19-21)
2 or®mw&m;udk wkefYjyefjcif; (1;22-25)
3 or®mw&m;av;pm;vdu
k ef m (1;26-27)
2 u½kPmw&m; vufudkifxm;í (2;1-26)
u olwpfyg;udk vufcH (2;1-13)
1 vlwkdif;udk av;pm; (2;1-4)
2 u½kPmyGm; vltrsm;odkY (2;5-9)
3 jynhpf akH pavmh (2;10-13)
c axmufyu
hH n
l MD u&rnf (2;14-26)
1 ,HMk unfjcif;oufaojyEdik af p (2;14-17)
2 ,HkMunfjcif; vu©PmckdifrmpGm(2;18-20)
3 ,HkMunfjcif; Oyrmxif½mS ;&m (2;21-26)
3 ajymqdkpum; owdxm; (3;1-18)
u tajymwGifqifcsif (3;1-12)
1 vQmwGif tpGrf;wefcdk;½Sdonf (3;1-5)
2 vQmonf azgufjyefajymif;vJGwwfonf (3;6-8)
3 vQmonf npfjirf;onf (3;9-12)
c tawG;tjrifrSm owd½Sd (3;13-18)
1 ynmonf ESdrfhcsjcif; jzpf\ (3;13)
2 ynmonfbk&m;ocif\ aus;Zl;urÇmjzpf\ (3;14-16)
319
3 ynmonf jidrfoufjcif;udk jzpfap\ (3;17-18)
4 aemifwESihf0efcHjcif; (4;1-17)
u trkef;w&m;? a'gorsm;rS ESdrfhcsjcif;odkY (4;1-6)
1 y#dyu©wdkYtp (4;1-2)
2 y#dyu© jyóem t00 (4;3-4)
3 y#dyu©wdkY jidrf;ap&ef (4;5-6)
c tjypfpD&ifjcif;rS vGwfajrmufcGihfodkY (4;7-12)
1 vGwfajrmufcGihftwGuf tMuHjyKjcif; (4;7-9)
2 ajzmihfrwfjcif;w&m;\ tm;omcsuf (4;10-11)
3 ajzmihfrwfjcif;w&m;udk ydkifaomol (4;12)
* 0g<um;rIrS ,HkMunfjcif; b0odkY (4;13-17)
1 0g<um;oH (4;13)
2 0g<um;jcif;ESihf pD&ifjcif; (4;14)
3 0g<um;jcif;twGuf ajz½Sif;csuf (4;15-17)
5 a0rQ MuukefpdkY (5;1-20)
u ydkifqdkifrIrsm;udk rQa0jcif; (5;1-6)
1 csrf;omjcif;\ 'ku© (5;1)
2 csrf;omjcif;\ ,dk,Gif;rI (5;2-3)
3 csrf;omjcif;twGuf usdefpm (5;4-6)
c onf;cHpdwfudk a0rQjcif; (5;7-12)
1 onf;cHjcif;\ tESpfom& (5;7-9)
320
2 onf;cHjcif;\ om"u (5;10-11)
3 onf;cHjcif;\ oufao (5;12)
* qkawmif;a0rQ arwåmjy (5;13-20)
1 vdktyfolrsm;twGuf cHpm;csufjzihf (5;13)
2 vdktyfolrsm;twGuf qkawmif;csuf (5;14-18)

3 vdktyfolrsm;twGuf t"duvdktyfcsuf (5;19-20)

½Sifayw½kMo0g'pmyXrapmif
(c&pfawmfonf qif;&J'ku©udk cHpm;jcif;twGuf yHkOyrm)

usrf;a&;olESihf usrf;trnf
(1;1) az:jycsuft& wrefawmfBuD; ½Sifayw½konf þusrf;udk a&;om;ol
jzpfonf/ ,if;trSefw&m;udk ueOD;toif;awmfonf urÇmhtoif; awmfrsm;
uk, d pf m; oufaocHNy;D jzpfonf/ ol\ usr;f tpwGif ]]a½G;aumufawmfrl aomol
wnf;[laom ykEåKjynf? *vmwdjynf? uyÜumudjynf? tm½Sdjynf? Adokejynf? }}
rSa½G;aumufawmfrlaom olrsm;[lí az:jyxm;\/ ,m,Dwnf;cdk aomolrsm;?
wdik ;f wpfyg;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESifh urÇmt
h ESYH ysEYH aYHS om vlrsKd ;awmfrsm;odYk wdik af tmif OD;wnf
aMumif;odEikd of nf/ 93 ½Siaf yw½k\ pdwx f üJ *sL;rsm;? wpfyg; trsKd ;om;rsm; rcJjG cm;
twlwpfuG wnf½SdcJhrnf[k qdkcsifygonf/
þusr;f onf a&mrtifyikd , f mtwGi;f ysEYH UHS vsuf wnf½adS eaom c&pf,mefrsm;xH
OD;wnfxm;onf/ txl;ojzihf tm½Srdkif;em; uRef;qG,f odkYr[kwf wl&uDjynf
ajrmufzufjcrf; a'otoif;awmfrsm;yif jzpfonf/ xdak 'otoif;awmfrsm;wGif
321
*sL;toif;awmfrsm;? wpfyg;trsKd ;om; toif;awmfrsm; tpH½k adS eonf/ usr;f wpf
apmifvHk;wGif "r®a[mif;usrf;rS udk;um;csufrsm;pGm yg0ifonf/ ]]t&yf&yf
uJjG ym;aom}}(1;1) [laom pum;rSm DIASPORA [lonhf txl;jyK a0g[m&rS
qif;oufonf/ a,½k½v S if\jyifyrS *sL;rsm;tm;vH;k onf DIASPORA (ysEYH aYHS e
jcif;) b0rSm a&muf½Sdaeonf[k qdkEdkifonf/
wpfyg;trsKd ;om;rsm;udk þMo0g'(1;14)tm;jzihf twdwu f mvu arSmifru kd wf iG f
usifvnfcJh&aomfvnf; ,ckwGif usifhMuHjyKrljcif; ½SdorQü oefU½Sif;Muap&ef
wdkufwGef;xm;onf/ wpfyg;trsdK;om;wdkYonf arSmifrdkufwGif usifvnfcJh&
aomfvnf; ,cktcsed w f iG f bk&m;ocif\ ydu k xf u
kd af om vlrsKd ;awmf rsm; jzpfaeMu
jyD[lí(2;10)t&tm; ay;xm;onf/ odkYjzpfí ½Sifayw½konf þusrf;jzihf
*sL;odrYk [kwf wpfyg;trsKd ;om;toif;awmfrsm;tm;vH;k udk pepfwus xnho f iG ;f qH;k r
94
cJhonf/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD. 63-64

toif;awmfordik ;f onf ½Siaf yw½k\aESmif;ydik ;f tcsed rf sm;udk a&mr NrKd UawmfBu;D ESifh
qufpyfxm;ygonf/ (5;13)t& awG&Y aom AgAkvek f [laom trnfonf a&mr
NrKd UBu;D tm; trnf0u S tf jzpf oH;k pJo
G nf[k qdMk uav&m ayw½konf þpmtkyu f kd
a&mrrSma&;onf? eD½dk;bk&ifu c&pf,mef toif;awmfudk ñ§if;yef;ESdyfpufonhf
AD 64 rwdi k rf D AD 63 cefY jzpfrnf[k wGuq f Muonf/ ½Siaf yw½konf a&mrudk
c&pf,mefw\ Ykd tEå&m,faumifBu;D tjzpf oabmrxm;jcif;udk (1ayw½k?2;13-
17)t& awGEY ikd o f nf/ odaYk omf rMumrDwiG f {u&mZfe;D ½d;k \ ñ§i;f yef;ESyd pf ufrrI sm;
aMumihf c&pf,meftoif;awmfü 'ku©qif;&Jrsm;cHpm;cJh&onf/

OD;wnfonhf &nf½G,fcsuf taMumif;&if;


½Siaf yw½kMo0g'pm yXrapmifonf tajccH,MkH unfcsurf sm;udk az:jyí c&pf,mef
toufwmESihf wm0efrsm;udk ½Sif;vif;ay;onf/ ol\OD;wnf &nfñTef;csufwdkY
onf ,HkMunfjcif;aMumihf ñ§if;yefESdyfpufjcif;rsm; cHpm;&jcif; jyóemrsm;udk
tajccHonf/ þusrf;udk tarSmifvTrf;aeaom urÇmavmuBuD; ü {nhfonf
322
tm*EåKrsm;? oHwrefrsm;tjzpf touf½SifMu&ol c&pf,mefwdkYtzdkY vufudkifjyK
&rnhfusrf;[k owfrSwfcJhMuavonf/ (1;1?13-21)(2;11-12) (3;14?17)
(4;1?13?15?16?19)/ twdtus az:jyñTeMf um;csurf sm;taejzihf ñ§i;f yef;ESyd pf uf
rIukd MuKH awG&Y vsif ,HMk unfol c&pf,mefwYkd b,fenf;b,fykH touf½iS &f rnfukd
rD;armif;xd;k az:jyonf/ 3/ c&pfawmf\<uvmawmfrjl cif;? a½G;EIwu f ,fwifawmf
rljcif; aus;Zl;awmfudk A[dkjyKcH,l&ef(1;3-12)/ (2) 'ku©a0'emcHpm;&mwGif
c&pfawmftm; jynh0f pHv k ifpmG OyrmjyK í cH,&l ef/ (2;21-24)/ (3)a½G;aumufí
ac:awmfrjl cif;cH&aom bk&m;\vlrsm;tjzpf urÇmavmuBu;D twGi;f aumif;rGef
pGm oufaojyaexdkifMu&ef(2;4-12)(4;1-19)/ tjcm;az:jycsufrsm;taejzihf
,HkMunfcsufESihf vufawGYvdkufemjcif;udk qufpyfay;onf (5;12)/ bk&m;ocif
qE´awmfESihf nDnGwfonfh acgif;aqmifrI? bk&m;ocif\odk;pkudk aumif;rGefpGm
apmihfxdef;rIrsm;(5;1-4)onf &efvdkaeaom urÇmBuD;twGif;ü toif;awmf\
t"duvkyfief; vdktyfcsufjzpfaMumif; az:jyonf/

c&pfawmftm; ½Sifayw½kMo0g'pmyXrapmifü awGYjrif&yHk


þMo0g'pmonf c&pfawmf\taMumif;? c&pfawmf\trIawmfrsm;ESifh jynh0f ae
aom usrf;jzpfonf/ c&pfawmf\ ½Sifjyefxajrmufawmfrljcif;rSpí touf½Sif
aom arQmfvihfcsuf? razsmufzsufEdkifaom tarGrsm;&½SdcHpm;& aMumif;(1;3-4)
az:jyonf/ ae&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm;wGif c&pfawmf\ bkef;wefcdk;awmfESihf
ay:xGe;f rnhf Asm'dwaf wmfukd az:jyonf(1;7?13) (4;13)(5;1)/ c&pfawmfonf
bk&m;ocif\odk;oi,ftjzpf um;wdkifay:wGif uREfkyfwdkY tjypfrsm;twGuf
toufpGefY u,fwifcJhaMumif; az:jyonf(1;18-19)(2;24)/ c&pfawmfonf
uREykf w
f Ykd cHpm;& 'kua© 0'emrsm;twGuf taumif;qH;k yHo
k ufaojzpfonf(2;21-
24)/ c&pfawmfonf aumif;aom odk;xdef;BuD;jzpfí uREfkyfwdkYudk apmifhxdef;
awmfrlonf/ (2;25)(5;4)

t"duta&;BuD;onhftcsufrsm;
1 ,HkMunfolrsm;tm; u,fwifjcif; (1;1-12)
u EIwfqufjcif; (1;1-2)
323
c tem*wfoYkd touf½iS af omarQmv
f ihcf suEf iS ,
fh ckppfaq;cH&jcif;(1;3-9)
* ,cku,fwifjcif;ESihf twdwfuAsm'dwf (1;10-12)
2 ,HkMunfolrsm;tm; oefY½Sif;apjcif; (1;13-2;12)
u oefY½Sif;ap&ef ac:,ljcif; (1;13-21)
c pifMu,fpw
d Ef iS cfh spaf rwåm (1;22-25)
* EIwfuywfw&m; EdkYppftm;jzihf (2;1-3)
C ESv;kH om;0dnmOft"duyif (2;4-10)
i 'kp½du
k af ½Smif? okp½du
k u
f akd qmif(2;11-12)
3 ,HkMunfolwdkY\ 0efcHjcif; (2;13-3;12)
u rif;tpd;k &ud0k efcH (2;13-17)
c tvkyfü opöm½Sd (1;18-25)
* tdrfaxmifa&; opöm (3;1-8)
C t&m&mü ajzmihfrwfjcif; (3;9-12)
4 ,HkMunfolwdkY qif;&JcH&jcif; (3;13-5;14)
u qif;&JcH&pOfcg usihfaqmif&m (3;13-17)
c c&pfawmfudk yrmjyK (3;18-4;16)
* cHpm;Muap (4;7-19)
C cHpm;&csdef odk;xdef;rsm; (5;1-9)
i ed*Hk;ESihfaumif;BuD;ay;jcif; (5;10-14)
324

½Sifayw½kMo0gpm 'kwd,apmif
(c&pfawmfonf EIwfuywfawmf\ vHkavmufrI)

usrf;a&;olESihf usrf;trnf
usrf;a&;olonf ½Sifayw½kjzpfonf(1;1) usrf;pmwGif; az:jycsufrsm; t&
yk*¾dKvfa&;az:jyrItydkif;wGif tdkrif;&ifha,mfaeonfh zcifBuD;\aemufqHk;
rSwfwrf;obG,f a&;om;onf(1;14)/ olonf ocifc&pfawmf\ udk,fa&mif
udk,f0g ajymif;vJjcif;udk udk,fwdkifoufaocHonf/(1;16-18)(½SifróJ? 17;1-
5)/ þpmapmifjzpfaMumif; pmzwfou l kd odaponf(3;1)/ wrefawmf ½Siaf ygvktm;
cspfaomnDaygvk[lí &if;ESD;pGm az:jyonf(3;15)/ 'kwd, pmapmif[lí
yXrpmapmifESihf cJGjcm;xm;onf/
yXrpmapmifuo hJ yYkd if wlnaD om y&dówftwGuf a&;om;onf/ ol\ aemufq;kH
owday;aom pmapmif? oufaocHcsuf[k qdkEdkif\/ (1;14)(2;1-22)(3;3)
ygEåKjynf? *vmwdjynf? uyÜa'gudjynf? tm½Sjd ynf? Adoek jd ynfww
Ykd iG f ½Sad om *sL;ESifh
wpfyg;trsdK;om;toif;awmfrsm;odkY OD;wnfxm;onf/(½Sifayw½k Mo0g'pm
yXrapmif 1;1)/

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD. 67-68

aemufq;kH EIwq f ufaom oabmjzihf olt Y vkyNf y;D qH;k csed w


f iG f a&;om;onf (1;12-
14)/ toif;awmfordkif;OD;ynm½Sif(EUSEBIUS)\ tqdt k & ½Siaf yw½konf
eD½;kd bk&ifacwfwiG f owfjzwfjcif;cH&onf/ ,if;tcsed f onf AD. 67-68 jzpfNy;D
xdktcsdefrSmyif oltNyD;owf a&;cJhjcif; jzpf&ygrnf/
325

OD;wnfonhf &nf½G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
½Siaf ygvkonf wdarmaoMo0g'pm 'kw, d apmifjzihf azgufjyef ajymif;vJrrI sm;udk
olraocifrmS owday;cJo h vdk ½Siaf yw½konfvnf; þusr;f rSwpfqihf owday;
xm;onf/ ,if;owday;jcif;onf a½S;ya&mzufrsm;\ tem*wå?d ocifc&pfawmf
\Asm'dwfESihf wrefawmfwdkY\ owday;csuftwdkif;yif jzpfonf (2;1)(3;1-3)/
þodaYk z:jy&jcif;onf toif;awmf&ifqikd af ecJ&h aom tEå&m,f rsm;? txl;ojzihf
q&mtwkta,mifrsm;\ tEå&m,fudk umuG,f&ef jzpfonf/
touf½iS jf cif;? bk&m;ocifü arGaY vsmjf cif;rsm;udk bk&m;ocifonf ay;tyfNy;D jzpfí
c&pfawmfü &ihfusufBuD; yGm;jcif;½Sd&ef Mo0g'jyKonf(1;3)/ Mo0g' jyK&mwGif
arwåmoabmESihf odrfarGYpGm jyKjyifjcif; jzpfonf/ ysif;&djcif;ESihf tusdK;rJhjcif;
r½Sdap&ef wdkufwGef;onf(1;8)/ þtajccHaumif;ay:wGif t,l vJGrSm;onhf
ya&mzuf twkta,mifwt Ykd m; umuG,w
f m;qD;&ef qH;k rxm;onf/ olt
Y wGuf
tcsed rf ½Sad wmhaMumif; (1;13-15)ESifh toif;awmfü tEå&m,f&dS aeaMumif;(2;1-
3)owday;cJhonf/ ½Sifayw½konf ,HkMunfolwdkY\ qifcsifwHk w&m;?
rSwfrdaomOmPfwdkYudk tm;opfavmif;ay;cJhonf(1;13)(3;1-2)/ þenf;jzihf
qH k ; rMo0g'ud k cd k i f N rJ a ponf (1;15)/ &if h u suf a om ,H k M unf o l r sm;
jzpfaptHhaomiSm bk&m;ocif\ aus;Zl;arwåmESihf u,fwif½Sifudk od<urf;jcif;
ESihf BuD;yGg;apzdkY txl;tm;ay;xm;onf(1;2-11)(3;18)
zsufqD;wwfaom rdpämq&mrsm;udk csKyfxdef;umuG,f&eftwGuf EIwfuywf
awmfonf taocsmqHk;aom tkwfjrpfjzpfaMumif;udk az:jyonf (1;12-21)/
xdkrdpäm0g'Drsm;\ tEå&m,frsm;udk az:jy&if; xdkolwdkY cHpm;&rnhf pD&ifcsufrsm;
udv
k nf; xnho f iG ;f az:jyonf(2;1-22)
ed*;kH ydik ;f wGif c&pfawmfjyefvnf <uvmrnf taotcsmjzpfaMumif;udk twnfjyK
onf (3;1-16)/ ocif<uvmawmfrljcif;ESihfywfoufí toif;awmfxH ed*Hk;
pum;udk jywfom;pGmjzihf þodkY olqdkxm;onf/
]odjYk zpfí cspo f w l Ykd rw&m;aomolw\ Ykd y&d,m,ftm;jzif?h oifwo Ykd nf vnf; aoG;
aqmif&modYk vdu k í f oifww Ykd nfMunfjcif;rS raY½G avsmrh nftaMumif;? þt&m
rsm;udk odEiS jfh yjD zpfí ud, k u
f u
kd , kd f apmihaf ½SmufMuavmh? aus;Zl;awmfü4if;? igwdu
Yk kd
326
u,fwifawmfral omt½Sio
f cif a,½Ic&pfukd oduRr;f jcif;ü4if;? Bu;D yGm;Muavmh?
xdkocifonf ,ckrSpí xm0&aeY&ufugvywfvHk;bkef;toa& ½Sdapawmf
rlownf;/ tmrif}}

c&pfawmftm; ½Sifayw½kMo0g'pm 'kwd,pmapmifü awGYjrif&yHk


bk&m;ocifüarGYavsmfjcif;ESihftouf½Sifjcif;twGuf c&pfawmfonf t"du
jzpfaMumif;udk az:jyonf? c&pfawmfudk A[dkjyK&mwGif ]ocifESihf u,fwif½Sif}
jzpfaMumif; (4)Budrfaz:jycJhonf/ ocif[lí(14)Budrfaz:jyonf/ awmifukef;
wpfckay:rSm bkef;wefcdk;ESihf udk,fa&mifudk,f0g ajymif;vJcsdefudk olaz:jyvsuf
ocif'kwd,tBudrf <uvmrnfhtaMumif;udk az:jyonf/ xdktcsdefugvwGif
ayw½kESihfwynfhawmf2a,muf wdkYawGYjrifcJh&ovdk urÇm avmuwpfckvHk;onf
ocifu h zkd ;l awG&Y rnf[o
k q
l akd vonf/

OD;wnfonfh &nf½G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
1 EIwfcGef;qufjcif; (1;1-2)
2 c&pf,mefpw
d "f gwfzNYHG zKd ;ap&ef (1;3-21)
u ,HkMunfjcif; BuD;xGm;&ef (1;3-11)
c ,HkMunfjcif;\tajccHtcsufrsm; (1;12-21)
3 rdpämya&mzufrsm;tm; ½Iwfcsjcif; (2;1-22)
u olwdkYtEå&m,fESihf vkyfyHkawG (2;1-3)
c olwdkY zsufqD;jcif;ESihf ½Iwfcsjcif; (2;4-9)
* olwdkY vu©Pm? olwdkYtrlt&m (2;10-22)
4 tem*wfa&; arQmfawG; ,HkMunf (3;1-18)
u rdpämq&mwdkY vrf;vJGrI (3;1-7)
c ocif<uvmrnfah eY&ufcsujf cif;r[kw(f 3;8-9)
* ocif<uvmcsed f tjzpfrsm;(3;10-13)
C odjyDjzpfí wnfMunfpGm apmihfMu (3;14-18)
327

½Sifa,m[efMo0g'pm
yXrapmif
(c&pfawmfonf bk&m;ocif\cspfjcif;)

usrf;a&;olESihf usrf;trnf
a&;ol\trnfudk usrf;ürawGY&yg? odkYaomfudk,fwdkif u,fwif½Sifudk odaom?
&if;ED;S uRr;f 0ifaom ½Siaf ,m[efjzpfaMumif;nDnw
G pf mG twnfjyKMuonf
(1;1-5)/
Mo0g'wpfavsmufv;kH ü ,HMk unfow l ynhaf wmfrsm;xH ½Siaf ,m[ef a&;om;aMumif;
odomapaom xif½Sm;onhf usrf;ydk'frsm;udk awGY&onf (2;1?12-14?19) (3;1)
(5;13)/ okaYd omf ½Siaf ,m[efonf tb,ft&yf½dS b,fox l aH &;aMumif; az:jy
jcif;r½Syd g/ odjYk zpfí toif;awmfrsm;pGm xHjzefaY 0 onf[k ,lq&onf/ txl;ojzihf
okawoDrsm;u a,m[eftm;{zuf toif;awmfrmS aemufq;kH trIxrf;cJo h nf[k
owfrw S x
f m;aomaMumihf {zuf t&yfa'otoif;awmfrsm; jzpfrnf[k ,HMk unf
Edik yf gonf/ þMo0g'pm yXrapmifukd {zufwnf½adS om tm½Srikd ;f em; (rsuaf rSmuf
acwfwl&uD) wGif OD;pGmtoHk;jyKcJhonf? tJvufZEé;NrdKUrS omoemhacgif;aqmif
CLEMENT u a,m[efonf xdkt&yf½dSysHESHYaeaom toif;awmfrsm;wGif
oif;tkyfvkyfcJhaMumif; az:jycJhayonf/ 95

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD. 85-90

tcsdefowfrSwf&ef cufcJygonf/ tESpfom&ydkif;rsm;onf ½Sifa,m[ef c&pf0if


az:jycsufrsm;ESihf qifwlojzihf c&pf0ifusrf;a&;NyD; aemufydkif;rSm þMo0g'pm
udka&;jcif; jzpfygrnf/ odkYaomf AD. 65wGif DOMITIAN bk&if\ c&pf,mef
328
rsm;tm; ESdyfpufñ§if;yef;rIrwdkifrD a&;cJh[ef½Sdojzihf AD. 85-90twGif;[k
cH,Ml uygonf/

OD;wnfonhf &nf½G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
ocifc&pfawmftm;jzihf bk&m;ocifEiS hf rdó[m,zJEYG ikd &f ef OD;wnf az:jyonf/
(1;3-7)/ pmzwfol ,HMk unforl sm;onf xdak cwfü a&yef;pm;ae onhf (GNOS-
TICISM) t,ltqt& tppt&m&monf raumif;qdk;,Gm; rsm;omjzpfNyD;
vGwfvyfrIqdkonfudk todOmPfynmtm;jzihfom &½SdEdkifonf qdkaom t,l
wif;rIBuD;ESihf&ifqdkifvsufae&onhf tcsdefumvjzpfonf/ ½Sifa,m[efonf
,if;t,lvJGrSm;rIudk umuG,fí bk&m;ocifonf tvif; jzpfonf? cspfjcif;
arwåmjzpfonf/ toufvrf;jzpfonf[lí qdkcJhonf/(1;5) (4;8?16)(1;1-2)
(5;11-13)/ bk&m;ocifEiS fh rdó[m,zJaYG omtcg tvif;w&m;ü usiv f nfí
bk&m;ocif\toufvrf;udk xdawG&Y onf/ ol\ cspjf cif;arwåmawmfukd em;vnf
cHpm;&NyD; ajzmihfrwfjcif;w&m;udk &½Sdonf/ xdkodkY rdó[m,zJGYEdkifjcif;udk
oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;ESifh qef;ppfEikd f aMumif; wifjyonf/ tcsKd U ,HMk unf
olrsm;u ,if;udk u,fwifjcif; aus;Zl;tm; ppfaq;Munhf½IYjcif;[k qdkygonf/
rnfodkYqdkap tESpfom&ydkif;t& rdpämq&morm;rsm;taMumif; oGefoifcsuf?
Mo0g'cH,l&ol ,HkMunfolrsm;\ taetxm;rsm;udk axmufí rdó[m,
w&m;\ opömudk qef;ppfrt I jzpf4if;? u,fwif½iS o
f ciftm; oduRr;f í ocifEiS hf
twl touf½Sifjcif;jzihf b0opfodkY ajymif;vJjcif;tm; qef;ppfjcif;tjzpf4if;?
oabmaygufc, H ol ihaf yonf/
bmomt,l0g'vJrG mS ;jcif;ESifh ywfoufítoif;awmf&ifqikd af e&yHu k kd twdtus
rpGypf EGJ ikd af omfvnf; þMo0g'pmyXrapmifwiG f bk&m;ocif\ vlZY mwdc, H jl cif;
opömudkvufrcHjcif;? tjypf'kp½dkufrsm;onf bk&m;ESihf rdó[m,zJGYjcif;udk rxd
cdu
k [f al omt,l½jdS cif;rsm;taMumif;udk awG&Y ygonf/ odjYk zpfí ½Siaf ,m[efonf
cspof m;wdYk [lí tpcsu D m(2;1?18?28) (3;7?18) (5;21) t"dutcsu5f csuu f kd
wifqufay;avonf/
(1) ppfrSefaom rdó[m,zJGYrIudk tm;ay;&ef(1;3)? (2) 0rf;ajrmuf
jcif;udk jynhf0pGm &½Sd&ef (1;4) (3) ppfrSefaom rdwfo[m,w&m;tm;jzihf
329
oefY½Sif;jcif; ½Sdap&ef (1;6-2;2) (4) t,lvJGrSm;rIrsm;tm; wm;qD;umuG,f&ef
(2;18-27)ESihf (5) tmrcHcsuf tcdkiftrmaz:jy&ef(5;11-13)wdkY jzpfavonf/

c&pfawmftm; ½Sifa,m[efMo0g'pm yXrpmapmifüawGYjrif&yHk


þusr;f onf u,fwif½iS o f cifukd ,HMk unfow l t
Ykd oufwmrSm trIawmfaqmif
jcif;taMumif;udk A[djk yKxm;onf/ ocifaemufwpfzef <uvmjcif;taMumif;udk
Asm'dwfjyKxm;onf/ ol\taoG;awmfonf ,HkMunf olwdkY\ tjypfrsm;udk
tqufrjywf aq;aMumay;aeonf(1;7)/ rdr\ d tjypfrsm;udk 0efcsawmif;yefvsif
rdrdwdkY vGefusL;&m tjypfrsm;tm;vHk;rS vGwfajrmufí ajzmifhrwfjcif;tcGihfudk
&½So
d nf(1;9)/ c&pfawmfonf trSef wu,fyifvsif tbbk&m; ocifa½Y aS rSmuf
wG i f uREf k y f w d k Y t wG u f ajzmih f r wf a om trI a wmf a qmif j zpf o nf ( 2;1)/
xdktrIawmfonf avmuom;tm;vHk;twGuf vnf;jzpfonf(2;2)/ a,½Ionf
vlom;tjzpf <uvmawmfral om c&pfawmf u,fwif½iS jf zpfonf(2;22)(4;2-3)/
olonf a&tm;jzihf4if;? taoG; tm;jzihf4if;? <uvmonf(wpfenf;)a&ü
AwådZHay;í vuf0g;uyfwdkifwGif taoG;oGef;cJhonf(5;6)/ xdkocifonf
aemufwpfzef<uvmaomtcg uREfkyfwdkYonf olYudk zl;awGYvsuf olESihfwlMu&
vdrrhf nf(2;28-3;3)/

t"duta&;BuD;onhftcsufrsm;
1 ed'gef;ESihf Mo0g'pm\&nfrSef;csuf (1;1-4)
2 rdwfo[m,zJGY&ef vdktyfcsufrsm; (1;5-2;2)
u tvif;ü avQmufvSrf;jcif; (1;5-7)
c tjypf0efcsawmif;yefjcif; (1;8-2;22)
3 rdwfo[mw&m;ESihf tnD usihfMuHjyKrl&rnf (2;3-27)
u c&pfawmfESihfwlpGm touf½Sifyg (2;3-11)
c avmuDt&mrsm;udk rpJGvef;ESihf (2;12-17)
330
* owd? tEådc&pf½Sdaeonf (2;18-28)
4 rdwfo[m,zJGYjcif;\ vu©Pmrsm; (2;28-5;3)
u aumif;aomarQmfvifhjcif;ESihf oefY½Sif;jcif; (2;28-3;3)
c oufpeG aYf rwåmudak xmufxm;?ajzmihrf wfjcif;w&m;udu
k siafh pmihf
(3;4-24)
* 0dnmOfrsm;udk pHkprf;ppfaq;jcif; (4;1-6)
C c&pfawmf\cspfjcif;arwåmonfrdó[m,w&m;üxif½Sm;íaeonf
(4;7-5;3)
5 rdwfo[m,w&m; tusdK;aus;Zl;rsm; (5;4-21)
u avmuudk atmifjcif; (5;4-5)
c om;awmftm; txl;jyKavhvmjcif; (5;6-12)
* xm0&toufudk rvJGraoG&rnf (5;13)
C qkawmif;vsif&rnf (5;14-17)
i tem*wfwGif? tjypfrsm;udk atmifrnf (5;18-21)
331

½Sifa,m[efMo0g'pm
'kwd,apmif
(c&pfawmfonf vlUZmwdcH,laombk&m;)

usrf;a&;olESihf usrf;trnf
aMujimrxm;bJESihf a,m[efa&;om;aMumif; vufcHMuonf/ olu ]touf
BuD;ol} tjzpfudk,hfudkudk,f az:jyxm;&m c&pf0ifusrf;ESihf Mo0g'pm yXrapmif
rsm;ESihf xyfwloabmaqmifonf/ ½Sifa,m[efMo0g'pm wwd,apmif\
rdwq f ufyEkH iS v
fh nf; wlno
D nf/ þ]toufBu;D ol} [laom toH;k tEIe;lf t& ol\
y&dowfEiS fh ol\ &if;ES;D uRr;f 0ifru
I kd odomEdik o
f nf/ xdak 0g[m&onf ol\&mxl;
wHqdyf [lívnf; qdkEdkifonf? xdkyk*¾dKvfa&;? taqmif ta,mifudk trsm;pku
ESpNf cKd uv
f ufcx H m;Muonf/
tpOftvmt& þusrf;udkvnf; ½Sifa,m[efc&pf0ifusrf;ESifh qufpyf
xm;Muonf/
(1;1?4-5)t& jrwfaomocifrudk4if;? om;orD;wdkYudk4if; Mum;vdkufyg\ [k
az:jyonf/ tao;pdwftaMumif;tcsufrsm;udk raz:jyEdkifyg/

usrf;udka&;aom ckESpf
AD 85-90

owfrw S &f efcufcoJ nf? odaYk omf Mo0g'pm yXrapmifEiS fh wpfcsed wf nf; a&;om;
[ef½o
dS nf/ ½Si;f vif;csurf sm;udk Mo0g'yXrapmif ½Si;f vif;csurf sm; wGif jyefvnf
avhvm&ef/
332

OD;wnfonhf &nf½G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
t"dutaMumif;taejzihf pm½Iol ,HkMunfolwdkYtm; or®mw&m;vrf; ESihf
ynwfawmfrsm;twdik ;f wnfMunfpmG qufvuf touf½iS &f ef &nfp;l onf (1;4-
6)/ odkYjzpfí(1;7)wGif tEå&m,fudk ñTefjyowday;xm;&m ]]vlYZmwdtm; jzihf
<uvmawmfrlaom a,½Ic&pfudk jiif;y,fvsuf? vSnhfjzm;aomoltrsm;wdkYonf
avmuxJodkY 0ifMujyD}} [líawGY&onf/
½Siaf ,m[efonf c&pfawmf\w&m;udk trSet f wdik ;f roGeo
f ifbJ vrf;vJaG eonfh
rdpämq&mwdkY\ vSnhfzsm;jcif;rS umuG,f&ef þpmapmifudk a&;onf(1;9)/
þenf;tm;jzihf OD;wnfcsuf2ckudk awGYEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ (1) jynhf0pHkvifaom
tusKd ;aus;Zl;udk rqH;k ½I;H apa&;twGuf umuG,&f ef (1;8?9)/ (2) xdo
k r®mw&m;udk
jiif;y,faomolrsm;tm; q&morm;rsm;tjzpf vufcBH uKd qdjk cif;rjyK&ef ñTeMf um;
onf/ þae&mwGif todtrSwfrjyK&efom ñTefMum;jcif; jzpfvsuf &efrl&ef?
trSefw&m;udk oufaocH&efjiif;y,f&ef r[kwfaMumif; owdrl&ygrnf/

c&pfawmftm; ½Sifa,m[efMo0g'pm 'kwd,apmifü awGYjrif&yHk


yXrpmapmifenf;wl c&pfawmf\ vlZY mwdc,
H jl cif;qdik &f m EIwu
f ywf or®mw&m;udk
umuG,fxm;onf/ a,½Ic&pf\ vlYZmwdESihf<uvmjcif;udk r,Hkaomolrsm;\
trSm;rsm;udk oufaojyxm;onf/

t"duta&;BuD;onfhtcsufrsm;
1 yPmrcGef;qufjcif; (1;1-3)
2 or®mw&m;ü avsmufoGm;Mu (1;4)
3 tcsif;csif; cspfarwåm (1;5-6)
4 vSnhfzsm;olwdkYtm; owday; (1;7-11)
5 ed*Hk;rSwfcsufrsm;ESihf EIwfqufjcif; (1;12-13)
333

½Sifa,m[efMo0g'pm
wwd,apmif
(c&pfawmf\emrawmf)

usrf;a&;olESihf usrf;trnf
wrefawmf½iS af ,m[efyif pma&;oljzpfí 'kw, d pmapmifenf;wl toufBu;D ol
[k udk,fudk &nfñTef;onf/ pmapmif 2ckpvHk;\ yPmr cGef;qufoHwGif
]]rSefuefaomcspfjcif;arwåm½Sd\}} [kqdkcJhonf/ xdkY]twl or®mw&m;ü usifvnf
jcif;} [laom tcsufudk pmapmif2ckpvHk;\(1;4)wGif qufvufawGYjrif&onf/
½Sifa,m[efa&;orQaom pmapmifrsm;wGif þwwd,pmapmifonf yk*¾dKvfa&;
tqefqHk;jzpfonf/ ,ckpgtpwGif ]]cspftyfaom *g,kodkY}} [k tpcsDxm;
aMumif;udk awGY&onf(1;1)/ toif;awmfa&;&mrsm;ESihf qufpyfvsuf *g,kxH
a&;om;jcif; jzpfonf/ *g,ktaMumif; aemufxyfraz:jyaomfvnf; tm½Srikd ;f em;½Sd
toif;awmfrsm;wGif ½Siaf ,m[ef raorSD trIawmfaqmifpOf *g,konf xdak 'oü
xif½Sm;aomol jzpf&ygrnf/ "r®opfusrf;wGif tjcm; *g,krsm;vnf; yg0ifcJh&m
aum&dEÅKrS *g,k(a&mr? 16;23) rmaua'gedrS *g,k(19;29)/ a'&aANrdKUom;
*g,k(wrefawmf? 20;4)wdkYudkawGY&onf/ odkYaomf olwdkYESihf a,m[ef\
tquftoG,f ½SdyHkrsm;udk tao;pdwf rod½Sd&yg/

usrf;udka&;aom ckESpf
o0g'pm yXrapmif? 'kwd,apmifwdkYuJhodkYyif a&;om;csdef wlnDaMumif;
tbufbufrS xif½Sm;onf/
334

OD;wnfonhf &nf½G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
"r®trIawmfaqmif {nhfonfrsm;tm; {nhf0wfjyKjcif;? ½kyfydkif;qdkif&m tultnD
ay;jcif;ESihfywfoufí a&;om;xm;onf/ *g,k\trIawmf aqmif½Gufjcif;?
c&pf,mefarwåmESifh pdwaf pwemjynh0f jcif;tygt0if or®m w&m;ESijfh ynh0f yHu
k kd
rdrdtm; qefYusifjiif;y,fí tBuD;tuJvkyfcsifol ]'a,mw&yf} trnf½Sd
vlwpfa,mufEiS fh EIid ;f ,SOaf z:jyonf/
wdusaom OD;wnfcsufrsm;tjzpf(1) *g,ktm; csD;rGrf;axmrem jyKjcif;[1;1-
6(u) ](2) rd r d a pvT w f v d k u f a omol r sm;tm; *g,k t aejzih f quf v uf
tultnDay;&ef wdkufwGef;jcif;(1;6(c)-8) (3) 'a,mw&yf} \wpfudk,f
aumif;qefrt
I wGuf tjypfwifjcif;(1;9-10) (4) 'arw&dtwGuf oufaocHjcif;
(1;12)/ (5) rdrd\ pdwfqE´ESihf tvnfvma&mufvdkjcif;udk *g,kodap&ef
rdrda&mufvmaomtcg tcuftcJ rsm;twGuf wdkifyifaqG;aEG; &ef(1;10(u)-
13?14)/

t"duta&;BuD;onhftcsufrsm;
1 EIwfqufíyPmrysdK;jcif; (1;1)
2 *g,ktm; csD;rGrf;jcif; (1;2-8)
u *g,k\ oefY½Sif;pifMu,fjcif; (1;2-4)
c *g,k\ pdwfoabmxm;jynhf0jcif; (1;5-8)
3 'a,mw&yftm; tjypfwif½Iwfcsjcif; (1;9-11)
u 'a,mw&yf\pdwf"gwf (1;9)
c 'a,mw&yf\ wpfudk,faumif;jyKrlrI (1;10-11)
4 a'arw&Dtm; csD;rGrf;jcif; (1;12)
5 ed*Hk;rSwfcsufrsm; (1;13-14)
335

½Sif,k'Mo0g'pm
(c&pfawmfonf vlYabmif\vHkjcHKrI)

usrf;a&;olESihf usrf;trnf
rdrdudk,fwdkif ½Sif,k'jzpfaMumif; az:jyxm;onf(1;1)/ *&dcfpmaywGif ,k'udk
JUDAS [kac:qdkaomfvnf; ,k'½Sug½kwfESihf jcm;em;ap&ef ynm½Sifrsm;u
t*Fvyd pf mjzihf JUDE [k rSnahf c:avonf/ ,k'a,½Ic&pf\ uRe?f ,muky\ f nD
tjzpf ud, k uhf ukd ,
kd f rdwq
f ufxm;onf(½Sirf óJ? 13;55) (½Sirf muk? 6;3)wdt
Yk &
a,½I\tarwl? tazuJG nDawmfpyfonf/
þtydkif;wGif rSwfom;&ef pmpkwpfpkudk az:jyvdkygonf/
]],k'onf a,½I\nDawmfol jzpfaomfvnf; ESrd chf saomoabmjzihf 0g<um; rIr½S?d
tpfudkt&if;jzpfol ,mukyf\nDtjzpfom az:jyonf/ ]uRef} [laom pum;
tm;jzihf a,½Ic&pfEiS fh aoG;om;awmfpyfru
I kd t"durxm;vkd aMumif; xif½mS ;onf/
odaYk omf rdr\
d taMumif;rSeu f dk twdtus cJjG cm;&ef vdt k yfaMumif;udk olem;vnf
onf/ xdak cwfugvü ,k'[laom trnfrmS vlo;kH rsm;cJNh y;D ? a,½I\wynhaf wmf
rsm;xJrmS yif opömazmuf,'k ESifh tjcm;,k' wpfO;D wdYk ½Scd ahJ v&m olonf ,muky\f
96
nDtjzpf jznhfpGuf½Sif;vif;cJh&ayonf/}}
þMo0g'pmonf ,HkMunfoltm;vHk;udk &nfpl;xm;ojzihf tcef;udk pwifaom
(1;1)wGif ]]crnf;awmfb&k m;ocifoef½Y iS ;f apawmfrí l a,½Ic&pf ac:xm; apmifr
awmfral om olwu Ykd kd Mum;vdu
k yf g\}} [k olqzkd x
YGJ m;avonf/ qufvufí xdo k l
rsm;tm; ]]cspfolwdkY}} [k olac:qdkcJhjyefonf(1;3)/

usrf;udka&;aom ckESpf
AD 70-80
336
usr;f tajccHoabmw&m;onf ½Siaf yw½kMo0g'pm 'kw, d apmifEiS fh qifwo
l nf/
odkYaomf ½Sifayw½kpmwGif(2ayw½k?2;1)t& ]]rdpämq&mwdkYonf oifwdkYwGif
½SdMuvdrfhrnf}} [k awGYjrif&NyD; ½Sif,k'wGifrl ]]t"r®vltcsdKYwdkYonf y&d,m,fESihf
trSww f rJh 0ifMujy}D }(1;4) [lí ajymif;vJaz:jyavonf/ ½Siaf yw½k\ Mo0g'pm
'kwd, apmifonf xdkjyóemudk BudKwifwGufqjcif;jzpfNyD; ,ck½Sif,k' wGifrl
vuf½dS jzpfpOftaejzihf az:jyxm;jcif;udk awG&Y onf/ odjYk zpfí ½Siaf yw ½kMo0g'
'kwd,apmifudk a&;om;onf/ AD 67-68 \aemufydkif; AD 70-80 wGif
½Sif,k'Mo0g'pmudk a&;jcif;jzpfygrnf/

OD;wnfonfh &nf½G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
&sSif,k'onf vlom;wdkif;twGuf u,fwifjcif; aus;Zl;w&m;taMumif; udk
az:jy&ef &nf½, G &f if; ½Sad omfvnf; xdak cwfumvü tBu;D tus,yf sEYH v YHS m aeaom
(GNOSTICISM)\vJGrSm;aom t,ltqrsm; toif;awmftwGif; wdwfw
qdwf 0ifa&mufvmjcif;udk umuG,&f eftvdiYk mS ,HMk unforl sm;tm; rdrw d Ykd ,HMk unf
jcif;udk apmihaf ½SmufbYkd wGe;f tm;ay;a&;om;cJ&h onf/ GNOSTICISM t,ltq
t& ½kyfypönf;tm;vHk;wdkYonf raumif;qdk;&Gm;rsm;jzpfNyD; 0dnmOf avmu"gwf
wpfckvHk;onf aumif;jrwfonfcsnf; jzpfaeav&m rdrdwdkY\ pdwfESvHk;xJu
BuKd uEf pS o
f ufaomt&m rSeo f rQukd uk,d cf E¨mu vdu k yf g vkyaf qmif&ef tm;ay;ae
avonf/ þenf;tm;jzihf tjypf'pk ½du k rf sm;udk aysmaf ysmBf u;D usL;vGeaf ecsed w f iG f
½Sif,k'onf þMo0g'jzihf toif;awmfudk qHk;roGefoifjcif; jzpfavonf/ 97
OD;wnfcsuf 2-&yfudk owdjyKEdkifygonf/
(1) toif;awmfukd 0ifa&mufvmonfh pm&dwyå sujf ym;aeolrsm;aMumifh ,HMk unf
olrsm;tm; ysufpD;aponf/
(2) ,HMk unforl sm;taejzihf ,HMk unfjcif; w&m;wGif Bu;D yGm;vsuf cdik cf efjY rjJ raH p&ef?
or®mw&m;vrf;aMumif;twdkif; ½SifoefapMu&ef az:jyxm;ayonf/
337

c&pfawmftm; ½Sif,k' Mo0g'pmü awGYjrif&yHk


c&pfawmfü &½Scd pH m;&aom ,HMk unfow
l t
Ykd wGuf pdwcf svjkH cKH ru
I kd rsuaf rSmufjyK&ef
az:jyonf(1;24)/ xm0&toufqak us;Zl; (1;21)taMumif; udk owday;onf/
c&pfawmfaemufwzef taotcsm <uvmawmfrlrnf(1;21)udk a&;om;onf/
tbbk&m; ocif\ aY½aS wmfarSmufoYkd 0ifa&mufEikd &f ef a,½Ic&pfawmfu vrf;zGifh
ay;aMumif;udk odaptyfayonf(1;25)/

t"duta&;BuD;onhf tcsufrsm;
1 EIwq
f ufjcif;ESi&fh nf½,
G cf suf (1;1-4)
2 t"r®vlwdkYtaMumif;udk xkwfaz:jyojcif; (1;5-16)
u xdkolwdkY\ twdwfumvtjypf'Pf (1;5-7)
c xdkolwdkY\ ,ckvu©Pmrsm; (1;8-13)
* tem*wfwGif pD&ifjcif;cH&OD;rnf (1;14-16)
3 ,HkMunfolrsm;tm; umuG,fjcif;ESihf wdkufwGef;jcif; (1;17-23)
4 aumif;BuD;ay;jcif; (1;24-25)
338

tydkif; 4
ya&mzufusrf;Asm'dwfusrf;
(c&pfawmfjyefvmOD;rnf)

ed'gef;
Asm'dwfusrf;odkY a&mufavjyD/ þusrf;tm;jzihf bk&m;ocifxHrS vlwdkYtwGuf
pD&ifawmfrl&m Asm'dwfawmfjzpfaom or®musrf;pmawmfjrwfonf ed*Hk;urSwf
tqH;k owf &ygrnf/ urÇmOD;usr;f onf or®musr;f udk ed'gef;ysKd ;í ,ckAsm'dwu f sr;f
ESifh tqH;k owfay;vdu k yf gonf/ olt Y m;jzihf r[muyfurÇm\ aemufq;kH jzpfpOfrsm;?
bk&m;ocifjyefvnf <uvmawmfryl ?kH tNy;D owf pd;k pHawmfryl EkH iS fh ol\Edik if aH wmfwu Ykd kd
awG&Y rnf jzpfygonf/ EIwu f ywf or®musr;f pmudk jzwfoef;avhvmol wpfa,muf
taejzihf r[mqefvaS om t"dutcsuBf u;D rsm;udk awGjY rifcNhJ y;D jzpf&m? aumif;uif
ESihf ajrBuD;? tjypfw&m;? tjypfaMumihfa&mufvmaomusdefpm? aMuuJG0rf;enf;
&jcif;? vlom;ESifh olcpH m;&aom u,fwifjcif;? pmwefrm&fewfEiS fh ol\usq;kH cef;?
olc&H vwHaom tcsKyt f aESmif? £oa&vwnf;[laom vlrsKd ;awmf? vlrsKd ;awmf
jzpfwnfvmcJhyHk? vlrsdK;awmfcHpm;&m aumif;BuD;ESihf pnf;urf;owfrSwfcsufrsm;?
tjcm;EdkifiHawmfESihf vlrsdK;rsm;? AgAkvkefEdkifiHESihf AgAkvkef t,l0g'? avmuDrif;
wd\ Yk Edik if aH wmfrsm;ESifh aumif;uifEikd if aH wmf ... ponfjzifh awGjY rifcMhJ u&ygjy/D
,cktcsdefrSmawmh tqHk;pGefaomtm;jzihf txufaz:jyyg t"du taMumif;
jcif;&mrsm;onf rdrdwdkY\ qdkif&mqdkif&m tem*wfa&; jynhfpHkrIrsm;ESihf twl
NyD;jywfoGm;Mu&rnfom jzpfav\/ 0rf;ajrmufbG,f u,fwifjcif; owif;rsm;
[l onfh c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;ESifh Mo0g'usr;f rsm;taejzihf þtcsKyt f jcm ed*;kH ydik ;f udk
aygif;pkí o½kyfjytrTrf;wifcJhonf[k qdktyfaomfvnf; ,ckAsm'dwfusrf;odkY
raygufa&mufrcsi;f uREykf w f tYkd wGuf ½lyg½Hjk rifuiG ;f onf ½Si;f vdrrhf nf r[kwyf g/
pwifavhvmMuygpd/Yk
339

Asm'dwfusrf;? or®musrf;pm\
jynhfpHkjcif;
"r®a[mif;ESihf "r®opfusrf;rsm;

aumif;uifESihfi&J
vlom; - zefqif;jcif;? usqHk;jcif;ESihf u,fwifjcif;
tjypf-taMumif;w&m;? usdefpm? 0rf;enf;aMuuJG&jcif;
pmwef-vu©Pm? usqHk;jcif;? csKyfaESmifcH&jcif;
vlrsdK;rsm;-em;raxmifjcif;? udk;uG,frIrsm;
£oa&v-a½G;aumufjcif;? aumif;BuD;? pnf;urf;
uwdxm;aombk&m;-trIawmf?tkypf ;kd jcif;?
Edik if aH wmf\uwd?pDru
H ed ;f

usrf;a&;olESihf usrf;trnf
Asm'dwfusrf;\ udk,fwdkifaz:jycsuft& ½Sifa,m[efa&;om;jyKpk onf(1;4?9)
(22;8)/ olonf ya&mzufwm0ef,&l onf(22;9)/ olonf tm½Srikd ;f em;a'orS
toif;awmfrsm;\ acgif;aqmifBuD; jzpfcJhNyD; ,ckusrf;udk xdktoif;awmfrsm;xH
&nfñeT ;f a&;om;xm;onf(1;4)/
tpOftvmcH,lcsuft& ½Sifa,m[efonf c&pfawmf\ wynhfawmfa,m[ef
yif jzpfonf/ pmayxH;k zJrYG I yHpk o
H nf ,ckAsm'dwu
f sr;f ESifh ½Siaf ,m[efc&pf0ifusr;f
yHkpHcsif; rwlMuyg/
340

usrf;udka&;aomckESpf
AD 96
a&mr{u&mZf DOMITIAN onf AD 81-96 twGif; tkyfpdk;cJhonf? "r®ynm
½Sif IRENAEUS \ tqdkt& þusrf;udk DOMITIAN \acwftwGif;
ywfrkuRef;rSm ½Sifa,m[efa&;om;cJhjcif;jzpfNyD;? ,if;tcsufudk CLEMENT
ESifhEUSEBIUS paom ueOD;toif;awmfzcifBuD;rsm;u axmufcHcJhonf/
"r®ynm½Siftrsm;pkuvnf; vufcHxm;NyD; AD 81-96 [k oabmwlMuonf/
þenf;tm;jzihf "r®opfusrf;wGif aemufqHk;jzpfaom þusrf;udk ½Sifa,m[ef
c&pf0ifESihf ½Sifa,m[efMo0g'pm yXrapmif? 'kwd,apmifESihf wwd,apmifwdkY
tNyD;wGif a&;om;jcif;jzpf&ygrnf/

OD;wnfonhf&nf½G,fcsuftaMumif;&if;
Asm'dwfusrf;\ t"dutESpfom&rSm raumif;qdk;&Gm;odkYr[kwf rdpämudk udk,fpm;
jyKí pmwefrm&fewf\ tiftm;udk &,lxm;aom yk*Kd¾ vrf sm;\ y#dyu©rsm;? urÇmESifh
csDí us,fjyefYaom pmwef\pDrHudef;BuD;rsm;? ,if;t&m tm;vHk;wdkYudk acsrIef;
atmifjrifaom u,fwif½iS o f cif\ atmifyEGJ iS w
fh uG ol\aumif;uif Edik if aH wmf
udk tESpw
f pfaxmif(Asm'dw2f 0)wnfaxmifjcif;? teEåumv pd;k pHjcif;taMumif;
yifjzpfonf/
þtaMumif;rsm;udk ½Sifa,m[efrSwpfqifh ½lyg½Hk&½Sdvsuf urÇm avmutwGif;
aMumufrufbG,f? pdwfysufíatmhESvHk;embG,fwifjycsufrsm; tjzpf usrf;pm
avhvmolrsm;udk jyooGm;jcif; jzpfygonf/ Asm'dwaf wmfonf jcaoFt h rsKd ;jzpfaom
'g0d'rf if;rS qif;oufonhf ,k'vlrsKd ;wdüYk atmifjrifEikd f aom cGet
f m;½Syd ?kH xdjk caoFh
onf towfcH&aom odk;oi,fuJhodkY &yfaeyHk? odkYaomf toufESihf jynhfpHkí
trsufa'go½Sdvsuf tjypf'kp½dkufrsm; usL;vGefum awmfvSefykefuefaeaom
urÇmBu;D tm; bk&m;ocif\tHMh obG,f oef½Y iS ;f jcif;ESifh tnD tjypfp&D ifvu kd yf rkH sm;
udk az:jyxm;ygonf/
rdrw
d t
Ykd cef;u@tavsmuf ta&;Bu;D aom o½kyaf qmif yk*Kd¾ vrf sm; þusr;f wGif
yg0ifonf/ 4if;wdrYk mS u,fwif½iS o
f cifa,½I? pma&;ol ½Siaf ,m[ef? oufaocH
341
ESpfOD;jzpfonf yifv,frS xGufvmaom om;&JBuD;? rdpämya&mzufESihf ocifESifh
jyefvmol owdkYorD;unmwdkYyif jzpfonf/

c&pfawmftm; Asm'dwfusrf;ü awGYjrif&yHk


þAsm'dwfusrf;onf a,½Ic&pf\ Asm'dwfawmfjzpfonfhtavsmuf ol\
bkef;wefcdk;awmf? ynmOmPfESihfcGeftm;(1;1-20)? ol\toif;awmfü tcsKyf
tjcmjzpfy(kH 2;1-3;22)? ol\urÇmavmuBu;D twGuf pD&ifyikd af om tcGit fh mPm
½SdyHkrsm;udk az:jyygonf/ c&pfawmf\ Asm'dwfyDopGmjzihf o½kyfaz:ay;aom
bJt YG rsKd ;rsKd ;udk awGEY ikd o
f nf/ ,if;wdrYk mS a,½Ic&pf(1;1)tm; opöm½Sad om oufao?
aoolwdkYwGif om;OD;? avmuDbk&ifwdkY\txG#f(1;5)? tOD;qHk;aomol . .
aemufqHk;aomol(1;17) touf½Sifaomol(1;18)? bk&m;ocif\ om;awmf
(2;18)? oefY½Sif;aomol . . [kwfrSefaomol (3;7)? tmrif? opöm½Sdí
[kwfrSefaom oufaocH? bk&m;ocif\ a0ae,sowå0gwdkY txG#f(3;14)?
,k'trsdK;\ jcaoFh? 'g0d'f\tjrpf(5; 5) odk;oi,f (5;6)? opömESihfor®m[laom
trnf(19;11)? bk&m;ocif\EIwfuywfawmf(19;13)? bk&ifwkdY\bk&if?
ocifwdkY\ocif(19;16)? tmvzvnf;jzpf\? MoarCvnf;jzpf (22;13)?
xGef;awmufaom rdkCf;aomufMu,f(22;16)? igwdkYocifa,½Ic&pf(22;21)

t"duta&;BuD;onhf tcsufrsm;
1/ yPmrpum; (1;1-8)
2/ jzpfcJhNyD;aom t&mrsm; (1;9-20)
3/ jzpfaeqJt&mrsm; (2-3)
u.{zuftoif;awmfodkU (2;1-7)
c. prk&etoif;awmfodkU (2;8-11)
*. ay&*Htoif;awmfodkU (2;12-17)
C.oGmwd&toif;awmfodkU (2;18-29)
342
i. om'dtoif;awmfodkU (3;1-6)
p. zdva'vzdtoif;awmfodkU (3;7-13)
q.avm'dudtoif;awmfodkU (3;14-22)
4/ jzpfvwHåUaomt&mrsm; (4;1-22;5)
u.'kuq
© if;&JcpH m;&mumv (4;1-19;21)
(1) aumif;uifbkHrS yv’if(4;1-11)
(2) wHqdyf ]7} csufcwfaompmapmifESifh odk;oi,fjcaoFh (5;1-14)
(3) wHqyd cf wfxm;aompD&ifcsurf sm; (6;1-17)
(4) Mum;jzwfumv? 'ku©qif;&Jjcif;uyftwGif;rS vGwfajrmufolrsm;
(7;1-17)
(5) yXrwHydk; ]4} ckESifhpD&ifjcif;rsm; (8;1-13)
(6) yOörwHydk;? qXrwHydk;ESifh tr*FvmrsdK; (8;1-21)
(7) aumif;uifwrefESifh pmtkyfi,f (10;1-11)
(8) Adrmefawmf? oufaocH ]2}yg;ESifh owårwHydk; (11;1-19)
(9) aumif;uifü jzpfaomppf(12;1-17)
(10)om;&JESifh rdpämya&mzuf (13;1-18)
(11)txl;aMujimcsufrsm; (14;1-20)
(12)aemufqkH;ab;'Pf ]7} yg;\ tBudK (15;1-8)
(13)zvm;rsm;oGef;avmif;í pD&ifjcif;rsm; (16;1-21)
(14)bmoma&;AmAkvek u
f pkd &D ifjcif; (17;1-18)
(15)pD;yGm;a&;AmAkvek u
f pkd &D ifjcif; (18;1-24)
343
(16)c&pfawmf'w
k ,
d tBurd <f uvmjcif; (19;1-21)
c. c&pfawmfpdk;pHjcif; (tESpfwpfaxmif)ESifh jzLaomyv’ifBuD;?
(20;1-15)
(1) pmwefudk csnfaESmifjcif; (20;1-3)
(2) oefU&Si;f olu&kd iS jf yefíxajrmufjcif; (20;4-6)
(3) tjypfom;wdkU ykefuefjcif; (20;7-9)
(4) pmwefrm&fewftwGuaf 0'em (20;10)
(5) tjypfom;rsm;tm; w&m;pD&ifjcif; (20;11-15)
*. bk&m;ocif\EdkifiHawmf (21;1-22;5)
(1) a,½k&SvifNrdKUopf\jzpfwnfrI (21;1-8)
(2) a,½k&SvifNrdKUopf\ *kPfj'yfrsm;(21;9-27)
(3) a,½k&SvifNrdKUopf\ 0rf;ajrmufjcif; (22;1-5)
C.tqkH;owfpum; (22;6-21)
344

tcef; (4)

bmomjyefqdkjcif;\
tajccHrlrsm;
345

ed'gef;
tcef;av;udk oifwef;om;twGuf bmomjyefqjkd cif;\ tajccHpnf;rsO;f ig;ckEiS hf
tajccHrl0g'q,fhig;ckwdkYudk rdwfqufay;vdkufygonf/ þtcef;wGif? pnf;rsOf;
[lonf bk&m;ocif\EIwu f ywfawmfukd uREykf w
f Ykd pl;prf;avhvm&m &aomtcsed f
wdkif;ü wdusaomvrf;ñTefcsufrsm;udk qdkvdkygonf/ rl0g'onf pnf;rsOf;xJwGif
tygt0if jzpfNyD; tokH;jyK&mwGif ta&;BuD;aomfvnf; tcsdefwdkif;twGuf
tusKH;r0ifay/ þtydkif;oifcef;pmudk avhvmonfESifh oifwef;om;onf þ
tcef;wGif rdwq f ufay; xm;onfh rl0g'rsm;udk rnfonft h csed w
f iG f rnfot
Ykd ok;H jyK
&rnfudk od&Sdem;vnfvm rnfjzpfygonf/
bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfudk rSefuefpGm bmomjyefqdka&&Gwfjcif;onf
wpfoufvkH;vdkufavQmuf&rnfjzpfonf/ wpfOD;wpfa,mufu usrf;pmxJü
rnfonfhae&mtm; zGifhMunfh&rnf odkYr[kwf pmaMumif;rsm;\ qdkvdk&if;udk
wpfcgwnf; rnfodkYem;vnf& rnf[lí ykHaoenf;r&Sdygacs/ oifwef;om;onf
trSefw&m;r&&SdEdkifonfhtwGuf pdwfr&IyfaxG;apoifhay/ uREkfyfwdkYonf
0dnmOfawmfukd trSoD [JjyKMS uap&ef bk&m;&Sif onf ol\ EIwu f ywfawmfxw J iG f
cufcJaomt&mrsm;udk &nf&G,fcsufjzifh xm;&Sdawmf rlcJhonf (1aum? 3;10-
16)/ tcsKdUpmaMumif;rsm;onf em;vnf&vG,fulygaomfvnf; xm0&t&mrsm;
taMumif;ESihf ywfoufvmvQirf l em;vnf&cufcw J wfayonf (1aum? 13;12)/
bk&m;ocif\ EIwu f ywfw&m;awmfukd ykaH oenf;jzifh bmomjyef &Gwq f Ekd ikd rf nf
qdv
k Qif r,kMH unfaomolonfvnf; EIwu f ywfawmftm;vk;H udk bmomjyefqrkd nf
jzpf\/ uREfkyfwdkY\ 0dnmOfqdkif&mBuD;xGm;rItwGuf bk&m;&Sifonf ol\ aemuf
awmfvdkufrsm;tm; olUudk &SmazGapvdkNyD; olUEIwfawmfxGufpum;rsm;udkvnf;
oifMum;apvdyk gonf (2wd? 2;15)/ þpnf;rsO;f rsm;ESihf rl0g'rsm;udk oifv h rf;ñTef
tjzpftok;H jyKNy;D oef&Y iS ;f aom0dnmOfawmfukd or®mw&m;tvif;&&SEd ikd b
f tYdk wGuf
tm;udk;,kHMunf vdkufyg (a,m? 16;13)/
346
uREfkyfwdkYoifMum;avhvmrnfh pnf;rsOf;rsm;ESifh rl0g'rsm;udk atmufygtwdkif;
tusO;f csKypf m&if;jzifah z:jyEdik o
f nf/
pnf;rsO;f wpf/ / usrf;pm&Sd EIwfuywfawmftm;vkH;udk avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh
bk&m;ocifEiS hf c&pfawmftaMumif;udk rSeu
f efwu
d saom tcsut
f vuf rsm;jzifh
&SmazGjcif;/
u/ rl0g'wpf/ / bk&m;*kPfawmftESpfom&udk avhvmjcif;/
c/ rl0g'ESpf/ / c&pfawmf\ xif&Sm;az:jyykHudk &SmazGjcif;/
pnf;rsO;f ESp/f / &Sif;vif;aompmydk'fudk vrf;nTeftjzpftokH;jyKjcif;tm;jzifh
rSefuef wdusaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk em;vnf&ef &SmazGjcif;/
u/ rl0g'okH;/ / aY½SodkYwdk;wufrI½Sdonhftwdkif; bmomjyefqdkjcif;
c/ rl0g'av;/ / rl&if;twdkif; bmomjyefqdkjcif;/
*/ rl0g'ig;/ / wduspGm tao;pdwfbmomjyefqdkjcif;/
C/ rl0g'aNcmuf/ / tajccHusaom usrf;ydk'frsm;udk bmomjyefqdkjcif;/
i/ rl0g'ckESpf/ / vlqE´tavsmuf qH;k jzwfcsuEf iS t
f h nD bmomjyefqjkcd if;/
p/ rl0g'&Spf/ / y#dnmOfzJGYjcif;ESihfqdkifpGm bmomjyefqkdjcif;/
pnf;rsO;f ok;H / / usr;f pmudk usr;f pmjzifh EdiI ;f ,SOjfcif;tm;jzifh vdrm® yg;eyfpmG &SmazGjcif;/
u/ rl0g'udk;/ / uGJjym;jcm;em;rIudk &SmazGjcif;/
c/ rl0g'wpfq,f/ / taMumif;&if;ay: tajccHí bmomjyefqdkjcif;/
*/ rl0g'q,fhwpf/ / EIdif;,SOfíbmomjyefqdkjcif;/
C/ rl0g'q,fhESpf/ / oabmxm;nDnGwfpGm bmomjyefqdkjcif;/
i/ rl0g'q,fhokH;/ / acwfumvtydik ;f tjcm;ESit
fh nD bmomjyefqjkd cif;/
p/ rl0g'q,fhav;/ / ya&mzufjyKcsufudk owdxm;í bmomjyefqdkjcif;/
347
pnf;rsO;f av;/ /bk&m;ocif\ EIwu
f ywfawmfukd rSeu
f efpmG tok;H jyKjcif;tm;jzifh
c&pf,meftoufwmjzifh aexdkifusifhBuHrIudk &SmazGjcif;/
u/ rl0g'q,fhig;/ / qDavsmfpGm tokH;jyKjcif;onf qDavsmfpGm bmom
jyefqdk jcif;tay:ü rlwnfonf/
c/ qDavsmfatmif vdkufavQmuf&ef tqifh(5)qifh/
*/ qDavsmfatmif bmomjyefqdkjcif;twGuf t[efYtwm; (6)ck/
C/ vdkufemcH,l&ef usqif;wwfaom enf;vrf; (8)rsKd;/
348

tydkif; 1
pnf;rsOf;wpf
pnf;rsO;f wpf/ /usr;f pm&Sd EIwu
f ywfawmftm;vk;H udk avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh bk&m;
ocifESifh c&pfawmftaMumif;udk rSefuefwdusaom tcsuftvufrsm;jzifh
&SmazGjcif;/
bk&m;ocif\ tajccHtoGiv f u©PmtESpo f m&onf ud,
k af wmf\ *kPaf wmfrsm;
tjzpf rSefuefpGm bmomjyefqdkrItwGuf ta&;BuD;ygonf/xdk*kPfawmf
tESprf sm;onf b,ftcgrQ rqDavsmjf cif;? tavsmt h wif;ñ§,d &l jcif;[lí r½Syd g/
bk&m;ocif\ obm0xl;uJjrihfjrwfrIudk od½Sdoavmuf udk,fawmf az:jy
rdefYqdkcsufwdkYudk em;vnfMu rnf (zdvdyÜd? 3;10)/

crnf;awmf? om;awmfESifh oefY½Sif;aom0dnmOfawmfü ½Sdaom*kPfawmf tESpf


om&rsm; udk usr;f pmu oH;k yg;wpfqt l jzpf oufaoxlxm;onf/ oH;k yg;wpfql
[lonfrSm crnf;awmf? om;awmf? oefY½Sif;aom 0dnmOfawmf[lí bk&m;jzpf
aMumif;udk xif½Sm;pGm az:jyygonf/ olwdkYü twdkif;;twm (3)rsdK;½Sdonf/
crnf;awmfonf tMuHtpnfawmf xm;½Sdol (wref? 2;23)? om;awmfonf
pDraH qmif½u G o
f l (a,m[ef? 5;36)? oef½Y iS ;f aom0dnmOfawmfonf zGi[
fh az:jyol
(a,m[ef? 16;13) jzpfonf/ xdkodkY rwlnDaom twdkif;twmrsm;taMumif;
avhvmvQif oHk;yg;wpfqljzpfjcif;udk cJGjcm;bdkY rBudK;pm;oihfyg/ bk&m;wpfql
wnf;½SNd y;D (w&m;? 6;4) crnf;awmf? om;awmf? oef½Y iS ;f aom 0dnmOfawmfonf
bk&m;jzpftif *kPfawmftESpfom&rsm;udk ydkifqdkifaombk&m; jzpfygonf/
aemufydkif;oifcef;pmwdkYwGif oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m;taMumif; ydkíavhvm
Murnf/
349

u/ rl0g'wpf/ /bk&m;*kPfawmftESpfom&udk avhvmjcif;/


bk&m;ocif ydik q
f ikd af wmfral om *kPaf wmftESpo
f m& q,fcsu&f ydS gonf/ tvGwf
usufNyD; xyfzefwvJvJ &Gwfqdkoifhygonf/
1/ xl;uJjrihfjrwfjcif; (Sovereignty)
bk&m;ocifonf xl;uJjrifjh rwfjcif;½So d nf/ qdv k okd nfrmS olonf &Sib f &k ifjzpfNy;D
xdkodkYjyKrlwwfonf/xl;uJjrihfjrwfjcif;t"dyÜg,frSm obm0vGef wefcdk;tmPmü
wnf½dS í aqmif½u G v
f yk u
f ikd jf cif;jzpfonf/ zefqif;jcif;tm;vH;k tay:ü tkypf ;kd Edik rf I
tmPm onf tueft Y owfrjhJ zpfonf/ bk&m;ocifonf zefqif;cH&ol r[kwb f J
udk,fwdkif zefqif;½Sifjzpfonf (a&mr? 1;20?25)/ xdkYaMumifh bk&m;ocifonf
rdr\d tMut H pnf? ynwfEiS fh pD&ifjcif;wdu Yk kd ud,
k w f ikd v
f yk Ef ikd af om tpGr;f wefc;kd
½So
d nf/ tMut H pnf awmfukd em;vnf&ef cufcaJ omfvnf; rdrad ½G;cs,o f nht f wdik ;f
vkyEf ikd pf rG ;f ½So
d nf/
2/ ajzmihfrwfjcif; (Righteousness)
bk&m;ocif\ tvHk;pHkajzmihfrwfjcif;onf t&mcyfodrf;ü pHkvifjcif; oabm
jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocifonf t&mcyford ;f ü ajzmihrf wfjcif;pHcsed f xl;uJaomaMumihf
uREfkyfwdkY twk,lvdkufavQmufoihfonf ({zuf? 5;1)/
3/ w&m;rQwjcif; (Justie)
bk&m;ocifonf jynfh0pHkvifaom w&m;rQwoljzpfonf/ bk&m;ocif\ w&m;
rQwjcif;onf ajzmihrf wfjcif;aMumihjf zpfonf/ ud,
k af wmfonf ]]olwpfyg;Munfñkd
jcif;}} aMumihf ajzmihfrwf&jcif; r[kwfyg (a&mr? 2;11)/ wpfykdif;wpfpaz:jy
jcif;vnf; rvkyfyg/ (ynwfudk vGefusL;aom) tjypf½Sd&mü udk,fawmf\w&m;
rQwjcif;vnf; ½Sdonf (a&mr? 5;13)/
4/ cspjf cif;arwåm (Love)

>cif;csufr½Sd pHkvifaomt<uif;rJharwåmonf bk&m;ocifüom½Sdonf/ cspfjcif;


arwåm qdo k nfrmS rdrcd pH m;csuu
f kd rESpNf rKd Uaomfvnf; olwpfyg;twGuf taumif;
qH;k vkyaf qmifay;jcif; oabmrsKd ;jzpfonf/ c&pf,mefwo Ykd nf xdak rwåmoabmudk
350
aqmifNy;D wpfyg;olwYkd bk&m;udo
k v
d mapbdYk vkyaf qmif&jcif;jzpfonf (a,m[ef?
13;34-35)/
5/ xm0&touf (Eternal Life)

bk&m;ocifonf xm0&toufjzpfawmfrl\/ ajymif;vJjcif;r½Sd tpOftjrJwnf


onf/ xm0&touf[o l nf tpr½Sd tqH;k r½S/d c&pf,mefjzpfaom uREykf w
f o
Ykd nf
xdkodkYaom tqHk;tpuif;onfh xm0&toufudk ydkifqdkif&onf/ bk&m;ocif\
xm0&touf onf aojcif;ü tb,ftcgrQ rESpfNrdKYaMumif; xif½Sm;onf/
6/ t&mcyfodrf;udk wwfpGrf;onf (Ommipotent - All power)

t"dyÜg,frSm bk&m;ocifonf t&mcyfodrf;udk wwfEdkifaMumif;jzpfonf/ t&m


cyford ;f udk wwfEikd jf cif; erlemonf aumif;uifEiS afh jrBu;D zefqif;jcif;ü awG&Y onf
(urÇm? 1;1)/ ]]EIwfawmfxGufpum;}} jzihf aumif;uifudk zefqif;í ]]EIwfawmf
touf}}tm;jzihf aumif;uifwefqmrsm;udk zefqif;onf (qmvH? 33;6)/
7/ ae&mwdkif;ü ½Sdawmfrlonf (Ommipotent - At All Places)

t"dyÜg,frSm wcsdefwnf;rSm ae&mwdkif;ü ½Sdawmfrlonf/ bk&m;ocifonf t&m


cyfodrf;jzpfjcif; r[kwfyg/ ae&mwdkif;ü ½Sdkjcif;udkqdkonf/ bk&m;yuwd jzpfjcif;
oabmudk az:jyjcif;jzpfonf/
8/ t&mcyfodrf;udk odawmfrlonf (Ommipotent - All Knowing)

bk&m;ocifonf twdwf? ypöKyÜKef? tem*wf? tm;vHk;udk odawmfrlonf/ bk&m;


ocifonf jzpfysufvmrnfh t&mtm;vHk;udk taotcsmod,Hkru jzpfEdkifonfh
t&mudyk g odawmfro
l nf/ tajctaetm;vH;k \ tcsed t
f cgESiq
fh ;kH jzwfcsucf srnfh
t&mtm;vHk; txd odawmfrl\/ tMuHtpnfawmfonf ESpfumvwpfavQmuf
tusdK;oufa&mufrI twGuf jzpfap&onf (a&mr? 8;28-30)/
9/ ajymif;vJjcif;r½Sd (Immutable - un changing)
bk&m;ocif\ *kPfawmftESpfom&wdkYonf b,ftcgrQ ajymif;vJjcif;r½Sdyg/
351
10/ opömESifhjynhfpHkjcif; (Truthful)
bk&m;ocifonf opömESihf vkH;0jynhfpHkonf/ bk&m;ocif vkyfaqmiforQ
tm;vHk;onf ,HkMunfEdkifbG,fjzpfaMumif; þtoGifvu©Pmtm;jzihf od&onf
(w&m;a[m? 23;19)/ bk&m;ocif rkom;ajymbdkY rjzpfEdkifyg (wdwk? 1;2)/
c/ rl0g'ESpf/ /c&pfawmf\ xif&Sm;az:jyykHudk &SmazGjcif;
'kw,d pnf;rsO;f u ordik ;f &mZ0iftm;vk;H wdo Yk nf c&pfawmfukd a&SU&IaeMuygaMumif;
jyefvnfodjrifvmjcif;jzpfonf/ 4if;wdkYrSm c&pfawmfonf t&mcyfodrf;
zefqif;aMumif; (a,m[ef? 1;1?3?14? aumavm? 1;16-17)? tmvzESiMfh oarC
]]tpOD;ESifh tqH;k jzpfaMumif;}} (Asm'dw?f 1;8)? vlZY mwdc,
H al om wpfyg;wnf;aom
bk&m;jzpfaMumif; (zdvdyÜd? 2;6-8) wdkYjzpfMuonf/
bk&m;&Si\ f EIwu f ywfawmfukd em;vnfb&Ykd mS azGaomtcg uREykf w f Ykd &Gwq
f akd om
pmaMumif;u ocifa,&Ic&pfawmftaMumif; or®mw&m;ESifh rnfodkYqufpyfrI
&Sad Mumif; qk;H jzwf&rnfjzpfonf/ þodjYk yKvyk &f ef enf;vrf;wpfcrk mS usr;f pmxJ&dS
wpfpkHwpfOD;? wpfae&m&m? t&mwpfckck odkYr[kwf tjzpftysufwpfckckpDu
uREykf w
f \Ykd ociftaMumif;udk rnfoo Ykd ifjyxm;aMumif; qk;H Nzwf&rnfjzpfonf/
uREfkyfwdkYudk ]]aumif;aomt&mrsm;?}} rSefuefaomor®mw&m;? uREfkyfwdkY\ ocif
a,&Ic&pf taMumif;wdkYudk oifMum;avhvm&efESifh &SmazG&efwdkufwGef;xm;NyD;?
xdkaumif;aom t&mrsm;\ ]]t&dyf}} rQomjzpfaom ynwfa[mif;udkom
rMunfrh ad p&ef owday;xm; \ (a[NA?J 10;1? a,m? 14;6)/ "r®a[mif;usr;f xJ&dS
þvlom;rsm;? ae&mrsm;ESihf tjzpftysurf sm;udk ud, k af wmftm; ydí k em;vnfEikd f
ap&ef bk&m;&Sio f nf uREykf w
f Ykd twGuf yko
H ufaoom"ursm;tjzpf ay;xm;jcif;
jzpfonf (1aum? 10;1-6)/
vlom;ykoH ufaotaejzifh ud, k af wmf&iS tf aMumif;ajymjyaom ykOH yrmudk yka&m
zuf a,mepmtkyw f iG f awGU&S&d ygonf/ oifrw S rf o
d nft h wdik ;f ? a,meonf bk&m;
ocif apcdkif;onfh tm&Id&djynfodkYoGm;&ef jiif;qefcJhonf/ xdkodkYroGm;bJ tjcm;
a'oodYk oabFmjzifh vdu k o
f mG ;cJ\
h / avrkew f ikd ;f wdu
k cf wfvmNy;D ? a,meudk oabFm
ay:rS csum? ig;Bu;D \ 0rf;Adu
k x f aJ &muf&o dS mG ;Ny;D aemuf? ok;H &ufajrmufaomaeYwiG f
352
tm&Id&dyifv,f urf;em;odkY ig;BuD; tefxkwfvdkufonfwGif a,meygoGm;NyD;?
bk&m;ocifapcdik ;f &modYk vdu
k o
f mG ;&avawmhonf/ ok;H &ufEiS o
hf ;Hk nudk ]]ya&mzuf
a,me\ trSwfvu©Pm}} ac:prSwfjyKMuNyD; (róJ? 12;39-40)? ocFsKdif;*lxJü
a,&Ic&pf aecJh&onfhtcsdefudk az:jyjcif;jzpfonf/
ae&muvnf; ud, k af wmf&iS t
f aMumif; yko
H ufaoaqmifEikd yf gonf/ a,&Ionf
]]rkefYtdrf}} [kt"dyÜg,faqmifonfh AufvifNrdKUwGif (rdu©m 5;2) arG;zGg;vmrnf
jzpfonf/ trSefwu,fyif? a,&Ionf aumif;uifbkHrS <uqif;vmawmfrlaom
toufrkefUjzpfNyD; 0dnmOfa&;toufwmudk wnfwHhcdkifNrJapoljzpfvmygonf/
(a,m? 6;35)/
bk&m;ociftaMumif;udk wdu k &f u
kd af jymjyaom t&m0w¬Kajrmufrsm;pGm&Syd gonf/
wJawmfEiS hf Adrmefawmfwo Ykd nf þu@ü yg0ifMu\/ rEérek cYf sxm;onfh pm;yGaJ wmf?
a&TjzifhjyKvkyfxm;onfh rD;xGef;wdkifESifh tarT;eHUomwkdYjzifh oif;BudKifaeaom
,Zfyal Zmf&m wdjYk zifh 0ef;&Hxm;onfh oef&Y iS ;f jrifjh rwfonfah e&mudk jrifa,mifvm
aomtcg c&pfawmf a,&Iudk udk,fpm;jyKaz:usL;xm;aMumif; oabmaygufMu
ygonf/ aemufNy;D ? ud, k af wmf onf toufrek jYf zpf\ (a,m? 6;35)/ ]]avmu\
tvif;}} vnf;jzpf\ (a,m? 8;12)/ uREykf w f \Ykd qkawmif;oHukd em;anmif;awmf
rlaomocif (tarT;eHYomrsm;u oefY&Sif;olwdkY\ qkawmif;csufrsm;udk udk,fpm;
jyKxm;NyD; [Asm'dwf? 8;3-4] qkawmif;jcif;onf ]]qufuyfylaZmfjcif;}} [a[NAJ?
13;15-16] rnfayonf/
av0dyak &m[dwrf sm;u jyKvyk af vh&o h aYkd om tjzpftysuf
dS nfh qufuyfjcif;rsm;uJo
vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;onf ud, k af wmft&Sio f ciftaMumif;udk ajymjyygonf/ ylaZmf
quf u yf j cif ; tm;vk H ; (0wf j yK? 1-7) wd k Y u ]]tcsd e f t m;vk H ; twG u f
wpfco k mylaZmfjcif;}} jzpfonfh a,&ItaMumif;udk (a[NA?J 10;10-12) uREykf w f t
Ykd m;
ñTefjyajymqdkygonf/ trSefpifppf udk,fawmfonf ]]þavmu\tjypfudk
aqmifoGm;aombk&m;ocif\ odk;oi,f}} (a,m? 1;29) yifjzpfonf/
oifwef;om;onf usr;f pm&Sd pmtkyw
f pftyk pf \
D t"du&nf&,
G cf suEf iS hf a,&Ic&pf
awmfonf t"dutaMumif;t&mjzpfaMumif; avhvmEdkifonf/ 98
353
urÇmOD;? zefqif;½SifESihf rdef;rrSrsdK;EG,f (1;1? 3;15)
xGuaf jrmuf? tjypfom;twGuf taocHaom odk;oi,f
(12;1-13)
0wfjyK? uREfkyfwdkY\ ,Zfya&m[dwfrif; (wpftkyfvHk;)
awmvnf? ,mukyt f rsKd ;rSMu,f (24;17)
w&m;a[m? arma½SuJhodkY ya&mzuf (18;15)
a,m½I? aumif;uifAv kd af jctaygif;\t½Sio f cif (5;13-15)
w&m;olBuD;? w&m;olBuD; (11;27)
½ko? a½G;EIwaf omtcg tEG,f (3)
"r®&mZ0if? bk&ifwumwdkY\ ocif (2"r®? 7;18-20)
3&m^&mZ0ifcsKy?f aumif;uifajrBu;D t½Sio f cif (tkyv f ;kH )
{Z&? jyefvnf&,lol (1;1)
ae[rd? opöm½So d l (9;32)
{owm? armf'DuJ (10)
a,mb? ½Sifjyefxajrmufí jyef<uvmrnfh a½G;EIwfocif
(19;25)
qmvH? aumif;BuD;cHaomol (1)
bk&m;om;awmf (2)
taocHaomol (22)
xajrmufaomol (23)
<uvmaomol (24)
tkyfpdk;aomol (72)
csD;rGrf;jcif;udk acgif;aqmifol (150)
okwåH? uREfkyfwdkY\OmPfynm (4)
a'oem? vpfvsL½Ixm;aom ynm½Sd (9;14-15)
a½Smvrkeo
f cD si;f ? igESpfouf&mocif (2;16)
a[½Sm,? udk,fpm;cHaom ocif(53)
a,&rd? ajzmihrf wfjcif;\ocif (23;6)
jrnfwrf;pum;? 0rf;enf;idka<u;ol (1;12-18)
a,Zausv? yv’iaf y:xkdifol (1;26)
354
'Ha,v? NzKd zsuaf omausmufw;kH (2;34)
a[ma½S? 'g0d'f\bk&if (3;5)
a,mv? 0ajymapaomocif (2;18-19)
tmrkwf? £oa&vudk u,f,lol (3;12)
MoA'd? Zdtkefawmifay:rS u,fvTwfol (i,f17)
a,me? oN*dKvfNyD;xajrmufaom u,fwif½Sif (wpftkyfvHk;)
rdu?© xm0&bk&m;ocif (5;2)
em[Hk? trsufawmfumv'dkif;vTm; (1;7)
[AuúKw?f ,HkMunfjcif;'dkif;vTm; (2;4)
aZzed? pD&ifjcif;ESifh oefY½Sif;jcif;tv,fü½Sdol (3;5?15)
[*¾J? jydKvGihfaom odk;xdef; (2;17)
Zmc&d? tñTef; (3;8)
rmvcd? ajzmihfrwfjcif;w&m;awmf aerif; (4;2)

róJ? *sL;½Sifbk&if (2;1)


rmuk? a,a[m0g\uRef (wpftkyfvHk;)
vkum? pHkvifaomvl\ om; (3;38? 4;1-13)
a,m[ef? bk&m;om;awmf (1;1)
wrefawmf? wuf<uaomt½Sif (1;8-9)
a&mr? uREfkyfwdkY\ ajzmihfrwfjcif; (3;22)
1aum? tOD;oD;aom xajrmufol (15;20)
2aum? uREfkyfwdkYtwGuf tjypf'gPfcHol (5;21)
*vmwd? ynwfw&m;tqH;k (3;10?13)
{zuf? uRefkyfwdkY\ vufeufpHk (6;11-18)
zdvyd ?dÜ vdtk yforQukd axmufyo hH (l 4;19)
aumavmoJ? a½S;rpGuwnf½o dS l (1;18)
1ouf? jyef<uvmrnfo h cif (4;15-18)
2ouf? þavmuodjYk yefvmí w&m;pD&ifrnfhol (1;7-9)
1wdarmao? tusdK;aqmifocif (2;5)
2wdarmao? o&zltyfay;ol (4;8)
355
1wk? Bu;D jrwfaombk&m;ESihf u,fwif½Sif (2;13)
zdavrke?f tusO;f cHo\ l rdwfaqG (1;9)
a[jAJ? NyD;jynhfpHkjcif;ESihf ,HkMunf (9-11)
,mukyf? qmb'f\ ocif (5;4)
1ay? "r®a[mif;ya&mzuftaMumif;jynhpf o kH l (1;10-11)
2ay? onf;cHaom u,fwif½Sif (3;9)
1a,m? toufwmtwGuf EIwfuywfawmf (1;1)
2a,m? tefwdc&pfudk csdef½G,fol (1;7)
3a,m? or®mw&m;\ocif (1;3-4)
½Si,
f 'k ? ,HkMunfolwdkYudk umuG,fol (1;24-25)
Asm'dw?f bk&ifwumwd\ Yk bk&if? ocifwumwd\Yk ocif
(19;11-16)
356

tydkif; 2
pnf;rsOf;ESpf
pnf;rsO;f ESp/f /&Sif;vif;aompmydk'fudk vrf;ñTeftjzpf tokH;jyKjcif; tm;jzifh
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357
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358
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rdrdudk,fudk ar;cGef;xkwfyg/ ]]igü pdwf½Snfonf;cHjcif;½Sdovm;?}} ]]Muifemwwf
ygovm;?}} ]]remvdkpdwf ½Sdaeovm;?}}
þrl0g'\ tNcm;aomOyrmwpfcu k kd ]]bk&m;ociftwGuf jynfph aHk om ppf0wfwef
qm}} ({zuf? 6;10-17) wGif awGU&onf/ ,kHMunfol\ 0dnmOfydkif;qdkif&m
ppf0wfwefqmtjynfhtpkHudk þae&müom wpfpkwpfpnf;wnf;az:jyxm;\/
]]opömwnf;[laom cg;ywfupkd nf;vsu}f } [kaz:jyxm;aom cg;ywfukd a[&Sm,?
11;5 wGif &nfnTef;cJhNyD;jzpfonf/ ]]&iftkyfwefqm}} ESifh ]]oHcarmufvkH;}} wdkYudk
1ouf? 5;8 wGif &nfneT ;f az:jyygonf/ ]]vufeufp}Hk } odrYk [kwf ppf0wfwefqm\
tpdwf tydkif;wpfckjzpfonfh ]]"m;}} vufeufudk a[NAJ? 4;12 wGif tokH;jyKxm;
onf/
362
i/ rl0g'ckESpf/ /vlUqE´tavsmuf qHk;jzwfcsufESihftnD bmom
jyefqjkd cif;/
þrl0g'onf bk&m;ocifu vlukd a½G;cs,yf idk cf iG afh y;xm;csuEf iS t
fh nD vGwv
f yfpmG
vkyfaqmifapNyD; xdkwm0eftwdkif; aqmif½Gufjcif;jzpfonf (a,m? 3;18? *v?
6;7)/ vlom;wdkY\ a½G;cs,frI rl0g'onf tm'HESihf {0\ jzpf&yfyHkom"uü
xif½Sm;pGm awGY&onf (urÇm?2-3)/ t&mcyfodrf;udk odawmfrlaom bk&m;ocif
onf wm;jrpfxm; onhf ]]aumif;raumif; oduRrf;aponfh tyifrS toD;udk
olwdkYpm;rdMurnf}} [kodawmfrlaomfvnf; bk&m;ocifonf wm;jrpfxm;aom
npmrpm;bdYk zefw;D aom bk&m;r[kwyf g/ tm'HEiS {fh 0ud, k üf u a½G;cs,í f pm;rdMu
jcif;aMumihf jzpfonf/ xdak Mumihf olwüYkd wm0ef½v
dS mMuNy;D {'ifO,smOfrS xGucf MhJ u
&onf/
usr;f pmü qH;k jzwfcsutf qd;k taumif;wdo Yk nf vlom;rS jzpfvmonf[k rSww f rf;
wifxm;onf/ þonfrmS vlpY w d t f wGi;f ½d;k om;rIukd oufaojyjcif; wpfcjk zpfap
onf/ vlom;wdkY a½G;cs,frItwGuf rsm;pGmaom a0g[m&ESihf pmwrf;rsm;½SdMu&m
rSwo f m;bG,f pum;&yfwrYkd mS ]],HMk unfr}I } ESihf ]],Hpk m;jcif;}} wdjYk zpfonf/ ,if;wdrYk mS
*&dpum;wpfv;kH wnf;ü t"dygÜ ,fay:vGio f nf/ bk&m;ocifonf t&mcyford ;f udk
odawmfryl gojzifh rnfoo l nf om;awmfa,½Ic&pfukd ,HMk unfí u,fwifjcif;odYk
a&mufrnfudkvnf; odawmfrlonf (a&mr? 8;29? 1ay? 1;1-2)/ udk,fawmf\
BuKd wifojd rifjcif; OmPfawmfonf ,HMk unfbYkd vkt d yfcsurf sm;udk z,fxw k rf oGm;
ygacs/
usrf;pmwGif vlom;u jyKvkyfcJhonfh taumif;tqdk;qkH;NzwfcsufESpfrsKd;pvkH;udk
rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf/ þtcsufu 4if;\ twGif;ydkif;&dk;&Sif;rIudk oufaojy
ae\/ þrl0g'tm;jzifh vlw\ Ykd qd;k 0g;aom qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;taMumif;udk usr;f pmü
rSwfwrf;½SdaMumif;udk az:xkwfonf/ vl\ tvdkqE´twdkif; qHk;jzwfvkyfaqmif
Mujcif; jzpfNy;D ? tMutH pnfawmftwdik ;f jzpfygaomfvnf; bk&m;ocif b,faom
tcgrS trdeaYf wmfay;jcif;r&Scd yhJ g/ vlonf bk&m;ocif cGiv hf w
T af wmfral omaMumifh
olUvkyf aqmifcsuu f kd jyKvyk af e&onfr[kwaf Mumif; usr;f pmu rSww f rf;wifxm;
\/ a,&I c&pfawmfonf ,k'½Sum½kwu f vSnNhf zm;vdrrhf nfjzpfaMumif; odawmf
363
rlNy;D xdo
k Ykd rjyKvyk b
f Ykd owday;awmfrcl o
hJ nf (róJ? 26;24)/ odaYk omf ,k'½Sum½kwf
u udk,fawmf udk vSnfhpm;cJhNyD; tusKd;qufrsm;udk olcHpm;cJh&onf/
bk&m;ocifu vlom;udk vGwv f yfpmG a&G;cs,yf ikd cf iG ahf y;xm;onf/ odaYk omf tcsed f
wdik ;f ü >cif;csurf &Sd a&G;cs,rf jI yKEikd pf rG ;f udrk l bk&m;&Siu
f ray;/ xdaYk Mumifh uREykf w
f \
Ykd
bmomjyefqjkd cif;wGif vlom;trsK;d \ qd;k &Gm;onfh tjypf&adS om a&G;cs,rf rI sm;udk
qifjcif&rnfjzpfonf/
p/ rl0g'&Spf/ / y#dnmOfzJGYjcif;ESihfqdkifpGm bmomjyefqkdjcif;/
þenf;pepfonf vlEiS b fh &k m;tMum; oabmwlnrD w I pfcu
k kd csKyq
f jkd cif;oabm
jzpfonf/ vl\ >cif;csuu
f akd xmufNy;D csKyq
f jkd cif;ESifh bk&m;ocif\ EIwu f ywfawmf
w&m;tppftrSefaMumihf >cif;csufrJhcsKyfqdkjcif;[lí ESpfrsdK;½Sdonf/
y#dnmOf[lonf bk&m;ocifu rdrd\vlwkdYESihf qufqHjcif;taMumif; ordkif;
aMumif;rS jzpf&yftajccHukd jcKH io
kH ;kH oyf&ef jzpfaomaMumifh tvGetf a&;Bu;D ygonf/
y#dnmOfwdkYudk uREfkyfwdkYem;vnfNyD; rdrdwdkYb0ü vrf;ñTeftjzpfcH,lvQif trSm;
t,Gi;f r½Sb d J usr;f pmudk em;vnfoabmaygufMurnf/ Oyrm? £oa&vwdo Yk nf
vlo
Y rdik ;f wpfavQmufwiG f tcuftcJrsm;ESifh 'kut © a&mufq;kH vlom;[k od&aomf
vnf; (0wfjyK? 26)? bk&m;ocifonf olwdkYudk tumtuG,f jyKonhftwdkif;
xdkjzpf&yfwdkYrS raY½Gavsmh oGm;yg/
wpfO;D csi;f pDavhvmbdYk y#dnmOf(9)rsKd ;½So
d nf/ usr;f pmtñTe;f twdik ;f xdyk #dnmOf
rsm;udk twdkcsKH;az:jyNyD; rSwfpkjyKvkyfyg/
1/ / {'ifO,smOfqdkif&m y#dnmOf
þy#dnmOfonf bk&m;ocifESihf tm'HtMum; {'ifO,smOfü csKyfqdkaom
y#dnmOfjzpf onf (urÇm? 1-2)/ 4if;onf vlwdkY\ em;axmifjcif;tay:rSm
rlwnfNyD; bk&m;ocif aumif;BuD;ay;rIvnf; yg0ifonf/ xdkaumif;BuD;wdkYrSm
ywf0ef;usiaf umif;rGejf cif; (2;8)? tpm;tpmjynhpf jkH cif;? pdw½f iT v
f ef;jcif; (2;9)?
aumif;rGefaom &moDOwk (1;6-7? 3;8)? >cif;csufuif;aom vdifqufqHjcif;
(2;21-25)? aeYpOfbk&m;ocifESihf rdwfo[m,zJGYjcif; (1;26-27? 3;8) wdkYjzpfMu
onf/ xdyk #dnmOfwuYkd kd vluvufc&H &SNd y;D wm;NrpfaomtoD;udk pm;jcif;jzihf csK;d zsuf
364
&modkY a&mufcJh&onf/
{'ifO,smOfqdkif&m y#dnmOfonf tusKd;oufa&mufrIr&Sdawmhygaomfvnf;
aumif;Bu;D r*Fvmajrmufrsm;pGmwdrYk mS rl aumif;uifEiS hf ajrBu;D opf acwfa&muf&dS
aom umvwGif vlwdkYtay: wnf&SdwnfNrJaernfjzpfonf (Asm'dwf? 21-22)/
1/ /tm'HESihfqdkif&m y#dnmOf
þy#dnmOfonf tm'Husqif;Ny;D {'ifO,smOfü bk&m;ocifEiS fh tm'H csKyq
f akd om
t&m jzpfonf (urÇm? 3;14-19)/ 4if;onf >cif;csurf ½Sd wdusjywfom;rI½o
dS nf/
þy#dnmOfonf ]]usqif;jcif;}} [kac:onfh rlvtjypf\ tusKd;qufaMumihf
jzpfvm&onf/ bk&m;ocifonf vSnfhjzm;rIwefqmudk usdefqJvdkufNyD; (3;14)
tm'HESihf a>rwdkYrS qif;oufvmaom trsdK;tEG,fMum;rSm ,SOfjydKifwdkufvSefjcif;
wpfcuk x kd m;½Sv
d u
kd o
f nf (3;14-15)/ rde;f ronf tkypf ;kd jcif;udk 0efcNH y;D om;zGm;jcif;
a0'emudk emusifpGm cH&onf (3;16)/ ajrBuD;onfvnf; usdefjcif;udkcHí toD;
tESH zGHUNzdK;rIcufcJonf (3;17-19)/vla,musfm;ESifh vlrdef;rwdkYonf udk,fcE¨mü
ao&NyD; (3;19?2;17) jynhfpHkwifhw,faom O,smOfxJrS ESifxkwfjcif; cH&onf
(3;17-19)/
tm'HESihfqdkif&m y#dnmOfonf acwftqufqufwnf&SdNyD; bk&m;ocifu ewf
rdpämudk rdavedacwfNyD;aemuf rD;tdkifxJ vTifhypfvdkufonfhtcsdeftxd tusKd;
oufa&mufrI &Srd nfjzpfonf (Asm'dw?f 20;7-10)/ tm'Husq;Hk jcif;\ tusK;d quf
onf vlom;rsKd;EG,fpkwpfckvkH;udk oufa&mufapaMumif; uREfkyfwdkYodem;vnf
oifhonf (a&mr? 5;12-14)/

3/ /aem{qdkif&m y#dnmOf
þy#dnmOfukd urÇm? 8;20- 9;17 üawG&Y Ny;D a&vTr;f rd;k tNy;D aem{ESifh bk&m;ocif
csKyq
f jkd cif;jzpfonf/ 4if;onf >cif;csurf hJ y#dnmOfjzpfNy;D a&vTr;f rd;k jcif;udk &ifrqdik f
&cif vlom;rsK;d EG,u f kd zsuqf ;D rnft
h aMumif; az:jycsujf zpfonf/ aemufwpfBurd f
a&vTrf; rdk;jcif;jzifh urÇmYvlom;tm;vHk;udk rzsufqD;zdkY uwdawmfvnf;ygonf/
vlO;D a&jyefvnf wd;k yGg;zdYk (9;1)? wd&pd mä eftom;udk pm;&rnft h aMumif; (9;2-4)?
365
vlUtoufudkowfvQif tjypf'gPfpD&ifrnfhtaMumif; (9;5-6) bk&m;ocif\
rdeq
Yf ckd suv
f nf;yg0ifonf/ þy#dnmOfEiS yhf wfoufí aumif;uifwiG f oufwefu
Y kd
ay:apjcif;tm;jzifh bk&m;ocif\ opömwnf½SdrIudk az:jyrnfjzpfaMumif; vu©
Pm ay;cJhonf/
aem{qdik &f my#dnmOfonf a&vTr;f rd;k jcif;rStpjyKcNhJ y;D xm0pOfwnf&w dS nfNrrJ nfjzpf
onf/ ae&ma'otvdu k jf zpfay:wwfaom a&vTr;f rd;k jcif;rsm;rSmrl &Sad ernfjzpfyg
aomfvnf; wpfurÇmvkH;udk zsufqD;Edkifonfh a&vTrf;rdk;rIrsKd;&Sdawmhrnfr[kwf/
wd&pd mä eftom;udk pm;Edik jf cif;tcGiu
hf kd ay;xm;cJjh yjD zpfygaomaMumifh vlom;tm;vk;H
twGuf toD;t&Gufompm;&rnf[k ('H? 1) rajymEdkifaMumif; uREfkyfwdkY qifjcif
Mu&rnfjzpfonf/ þy#dnmOf\ aemufyikd ;f wGif olrsm;toufuo kd wfvQif bk&m;
ocif 'gPfcwf rnfjzpfaMumif;jzpfNyD; ,aeYxd tusKH;0ifygao;\/
4/ /tmjA[Hqdkif&m y#dnmOf
tmjA[HEiS q fh ikd af om *wdawmfy#dnmOfukd urÇmOD; 12;1-3 wGif awG&Y Ny;D ? aemuf
ydkif;wGif xyfí ½Sif;vif;csufrsm;ukd jznfhpGufay;xm;onf/ 4if;udk tmjA[HESihf
csKyq f Nkd y;D bk&m;ocifawmif;qdck suu f kd olawG½Y o
dS nftxd >cif;csuw
f pfct
k aejzihf
½SdcJhNyD;aemuf wGif ol\ trsdK;tEG,fwdkYü >cif;csufrJh qufvufwnf½Sdonf/
tmjA[HEiS *fh wdxm;csKyq
f akd om y#dnmOfü yk*K¾ v
d af &;qdik &f mcHpm;&rnfh aumif;Bu;D
r*Fvm? ra&rwGufEdkifaom om;pOfajr;qufrsm;? NrdKUjytdk;tdrf? wdkif;a&;jynf&Gm
tvduk f aumif;Bu;D r*Fvm? umuG,af pmifah &Smufrw I t
Ykd jyif trsKd ;tEG,rf S ar½S,
d
qif;oufvmjcif;txd yg0ifonf (urÇm? 17;1-8)/
tmjA[HEiS qfh ikd af om y#dnmOfonf tmjA[HxaH y;xm;cJah om *wdawmfrS pwif
cJo
h nf/ ar&S, d qif;oufvmjcif;onf a,&Ic&pfawmf yxrtBurd <f uvmawmf
rlaomtcg wGif NyD;jynfhpkHcJhonf (*vm? 3;16)/ y#dnmOfESifh qufEG,fywfouf
onfh ½ky0f w¬Kyikd ;f qdik &f maumif;Bu;D r*Fvmrsm;rSm ordik ;f wpfavQmuf tcsKUd ae&m
rsm;wGif ay;xm;cJyh gaomfvnf; txGwt f xdyrf mS rl rdavedacwfü ay;awmfrrl nf
jzpfonf/ þy#dnmOf onf tmjA[HacwfrS rdaveacwfwikd af tmif acwftquf
quf wnf&SdwnfNrJrnf jzpfonf/
366
bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfxJwGif &IyfaxG;eufeJaom pmydk'frsm;udk ajz&Sif;
&mwGif tmjA[HESihfqdkifaom y#dnmOfrl0g'udk tokH;jyKjcif;tm;jzifh ydkíem;vnf
oabmayguf vG,u f al pygonf/ pmyk'd u
f kd róJ? 11;20-24 ü atmufygtwdik ;f
awGU&SEd ikd o
f nf/
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k cg rsm;pGmaomwefc;kd awmfukd jyawmfral omNrKd U&Gmwdo Yk nf aemifw
r& aomaMumif?h xdNk rKd Uwdu Yk kd þodu Yk &hJ UJ jypfwifawmfr\
l / tdak cg&mZdeNf rKd U?
oifonf tr*Fvm&Sd\/ tdkAufZJ'NrdKU? oifonf tr*Fvm&Sd\/
taMumif;rlum; oifwdkYwGif jyaomwefcdk;udk wk½kNrdKUESifhZd'kefNrdKUwdkYwGif
jybl;vQi?f xdNk rKd Uwdo
Yk nf a&S;umvü avQmaf wt0wfu0kd wfí? jymESiv hf ;l
vsuf aemifw&Muvdrfh rnf/ igqdkonfum;? w&m;qkH;NzwfaomaeYü
oifwo Ykd nf wk&Nk rKd UESiZhf 'd ek Nf rKd U xufomí cH&MuvwH/h tdu k ay&aemifNrKd U?
oifonf rdC k ;f aumif;uifwikd f atmif ajrmS ufpm;jcif;udk cH&aomfvnf;?
r&PEdkifiHwdkifatmif ESdrfhcsjcif;udk cH&vwåHU/ taMumif;rlum;? oifüjy
aom wefc;kd udk aom'kNH rKd Uü jybl;vQi?f xdNk rKd Uonf ,ckwikd af tmif wnf&m
\/ igqdo k nfum;? w&m;qk;H jzwfaomaeYü oifonf aom'kNH rKd Uxufom
í cH&vwHh[k rdefYawmfrl\/}}
aus;Zl;*½kPmawmftm;jzifh? £oa&vonf tmjA[HESihfqdkifaom *wdawmf
y#dnmOfaMumifh aemifw&&ef tcsed yf í kd ay;tyfcohJ nf/ £oa&vonf aemifw
r&&Syd gu? yJjh yifq;Hk rrIonf jyif;xefrnfjzpfygaomfvnf; olww
Ykd ikd ;f jynfukd zsuq
f ;D
rnfr[kwf/ ordkif;rS z,f&Sm;ypfrnfvnf;r[kwfacs/

5/ /arma½Sqdkif&m y#dnmOf
þy#dnmOfukd bk&m;ocifonf odeawmifay:rSm arma½SEiS fh csKyq f o
kd nf/ xGuf
ajrmuf&musr;f 20 wGiv f nf;aumif;? 0wfjyK&musr;f ? awmvnf&musr;f ESifh w&m;
a[m&musr;f wdüYk &So
d nfh tcsKUd pmyd'k rf sm;wGiv
f nf; awG&Y onf/ 4if;onf emcHjcif;
tay:rSm tajccHonf/ em;axmifaomolonf aumif;Bu;D cH&Ny;D jiif;qeforl mS
usdefjcif;cH&onf (0wf? 26)/
367
arma½Sqikd &f my#dnmOf\ tajccHrv
l &nf½, G cf surf mS u,fwif½iS v
f t
kd yfaMumif;udk
jyojcif;jzpfonf (*v? 3;24-25)/ bk&m;ocif\ udk,fusifhw&m;ydkif;qdkif&m
Oya'rsm;udk &Si;f vif;pGmaz:jyxm;onf/ £oa&vwdu Yk kd av0dtrsKd ; ,Zfyak &m
[dwf ESihf wJawmfqdkif&mwdkYtwGuf ñTefMum;csufrsm;udk csrSwfay;onf/
a,&Ic&pfawmfonf y#dnmOf\ Oya'tm;vk;H udk apmifx h ed ;f vdu
k ef mEdik o
f t
l jzpf
þy#dnmOfudk NyD;jynfhpkHap&ef vma&muf<uvmawmfrlcJhygonf (róJ? 5;17)/
þy#dnmOfukd £oa&vacwf tawmtwGi;f twGuo f m ay;xm;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/
xdkacwfrSm? arma½Sqdkif&my#dnmOfay;cJhonfh tcsdefrSpwifNyD; (xGuf? 20)?
toif;awmf pwifwnfaxmifcJhonfh yifwdukawaeYtxdjzpfonf/
"r®a[mif;usrf;&Sd pmaMumif;tawmfrsm;rsm;onf arma&Sy#dnmOfatmufü
jzpfysufcJhaomtcsdefrsm;udk &nfnTef;aMumif; uREfkyfwdkYem;vnf&rnf/ Oyrm?
wd&pd mä eftawmfrsm;rsm;onf ]]roef&Y iS ;f aMumif;}} rdeaYf wmfrNl y;D tom;rpm;Mu&ef
wm;Nrpfco hJ nfrsm;vnf;&Scd o
hJ nf (0wfjyK? 11)/ ,aeYwiG f þt&monf uREykf w f Ykd
twGuf tusK;H 0ifjcif;r&Sad wmhay/ taMumif;rSm a,&Ic&pfawmfonf rnfonfh
tpm; tpmrqdk ]]oefY&Sif;aMumif;}} &Sif;vif;awmfrlaomaMumifhjzpfonf (rmuk?
7;14-18)/
6/ /'g0d'q
f ikd &f my#dnmOf
þy#dnmOfonf 'g0d'fESihf csKyfqdkjcif;jzpfNyD; 2"r®&mZ0if 7;8-19 ESihf qmvH 89
wdkYwGif awGY&onf/ 'g0d'f\ tdrfawmftwGuf trsdK;om; OD;pD;tkyfcsKyfrIqdkif&m
twGuf >cif;csufrJhy#dnmOfjzpfNyD; vlwpfrsdK;EG,fvkH;udk xm0pOf tkyfcsKyfrnhf
]]BuD;jrwfaom om;awmf}} taMumif; *wdawmfxm;½Sdjcif;jzpfonf/
'g0d'fqdkif&my#dnmOfonf 'g0dwfrif;vufxuftwGif; tusKd;oufa&mufrI
&Sv
d monf/ þy#dnmOf\ wpfcsKUd wpfa'orSm ]]Bu;D jrwfaom om;awmf}} jzpfonfh
a,&Ic&pfonf yxrtBudrf <uvmawmfrlaomtcg jynfhpkHvmygonf (vkum?
1;32)/ tusKd;&v'frSm xm0pOfwnf&SdwnfNrJaernfjzpfonf/
wpfcsdefwGif 'g0dwfrif;qufxJrS &SpfESpft&G,fom&Sdao;onfh a,m&Sdqdkol\
vufxo J Ykd xD;eef;a&muf&cdS b
hJ ;l avonf (4&m? 22;1)/ þtcsed t
f cgü ,k'vlrsK;d wdYk
onf bk&m; ocif\ *wdawmftay: tajccHxm;onfh arQmv f ifch su&f cdS MhJ uonf/
368
þy#dnmOfukd jynfph aHk pjcif;tm;jzifh a,&Ionf &Sijf yefxajrmufawmfrcl NhJ y;D aemuf
(róJ? 28;18) aumif;uifEiS ahf jrBu;D wpfavQmuf tkycf sKyrf t
I mPm&&Sad wmfrrl nf/
,aeY,MHk unfou l c&pfawmfa,&Ionf aumif;uifyv’iaf wmfay:wGif pd;k pHawmf
rlNyD; (a[NAJ? 8;1) ol\ ajrBuD;qdkif&m xD;eef;udkvnf; wpfaeYvma&muf
wnfaxmifawmfrv l rd rhf nf[k (róJ? 25;31) odem;vnfjcif;tm;jzifh ESpo f rd rhf &I &Sd
Edik yf gonf/
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þy#dnmOfonf tmjA[Hqdkif&my#dnmOf\ tqufjzpfonf/ ,k'vlrsdK;rsm;\
em;raxmifjcif;aMumihfjzpf&aom uJGvGihfoGm;jcif;taMumif;jzpfonf/ odkYaomf
aemifw&aomtcg jyefvnfpkpnf;rdMuonf (w&m;a[m? 30;1-10)/
þy#dnmOfonf £oa&vacwftwGujf zpfNy;D ,k'vlrsK;d rsm;onf 'kw, d <uvm
awmf rljcif;ü obm0vGeftHhMozG,f jyefpkrdMuaomtcg (róJ? 24;31? rmuk?
13;27)? tJ*kwåKjrpfrS ,lza&;wpfjrpftxd us,fjyefYaom tmjA[HxH *wdawmf
ay;cJhonfh wdkif;jynf (urÇm? 15;18) udkwnfaxmifonfhtcg NyD;jynfhpkHvmrnf
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J iG o
hf mG ;cJMh uonfrmS
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&rnf jzpfonf/
8/ /£oa&vwdt
Yk wGuf y#dnmOftopf
þy#dnmOfonf £oa&vtdrfawmfü csKyfqdkjcif;jzpfNyD; (a,&rd? 31;31-34)?
a[jAJwGif xyfíajymxm;onf (a[NAJ? 8;8-12)/ 4if;onf c&pfawmf\
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oef½Y iS ;f aom0dnmOfawmf ude;f atmif;í <u,f0jcif;aumif;Bu;D cHpm;&m (a,&rd?
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rnf/ EIwu f ywfawmfavhvmoifMum;onft h cg þy#dnmOfü bk&m;ocifjyKawmf
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hJ nfh *wdawmfonf *sL;,kMH unforl sm;twGuo f mjzpfaMumif; em;vnfzYkd vGepf mG
ta&;Bu;D ygonf/ ,k'vlrsK;d wdik ;f udk olw\
Ykd trsK;d tEG,af Mumifh þy#dnmOftm;jzifh
369
aumif;BuD;ay; awmfrlvdrfhrnfr[kwf/
9/ /toif;awmftwGuf y#dnmOfopf
þy#dnmOfopfonf "r®opftoif;awmftwGuf csKyfqdkjcif;jzpfonf (róJ?
26;26-28)/ c&pfawmfü ,HkMunfolrsm;twGuf >cif;csufr&Sdy#dnmOfjzpfNyD;?
um;wdkifay: tajccHjcif;jzpfum (a[jAJ? 9;11-14)? ocifbk&m;\ yJGawmfudk
atmufarhí usi;f y& jcif;jzpfonf (1aum? 11;25)/ ,kMH unforl sm;onf vlom;
tm;vHk;qdkif&m awmf0if ,Zfyka&m[dwfrsdK;jzpfvmMu&rnfjzpfNyD; (a[NAJ? 9;11)?
,ckumvESifh xm0&umvwdYk twGuf jynfph aHk prnfh *wdawmfrsm;jzpfonf/ þ
y#dnmOftwGuf c&pfawmfonf trIaqmifocif (Mum;cHvl) jzpfvmcJhonf
(a[NAJ? 9;15)/
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aqmifomG ;rnf vnf;r[kwaf Mumif; oifwef;om;u em;vnfoifo h nf/ xdaYk Mumifh
toif;awmfacwf ,kHMunfolonf toufwmü rnfrQyif tcuftcJESifh
BuKaH eapumrl ud,
k af wmf&iS f bk&m;onf pGev
Yf w
T jf cif;vk;H 0rjyK - olwUkd udk rnfonfh
tcg ürQ pGefYvTwfvdrfhrnfvnf; r[kwf (róJ? 28;18-20)/
370

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pnf;rsOf; 3
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f o
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371
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ud,
k cf E¨mav;vHaom vlwpfa,mufonf tvGeaf o;i,faom BuKd ;wpfacsmif;ESifh
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tusihfonf c&pfawmfü uREfkyfwdkY\ ,HkMunfjcif;udk az:xkwf&ef bk&m;ocif
yHck srw
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l Ykd vHjk cKH pw
d cf srt
I aMumif;ESihf tjypfEiS fh
jynhfaom b0toufwmtaMumif; jcm;em;rIjzpfonf/
372
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5;6-10)/
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onf/ aygvku? ]]bk&m;ocif u,fvw T af wmfral omaMumihf a,½Ic&pfü wnfí
Zmwdyuwdtwdik ;f rusi?fh 0dnmOfyuwdtwdik ;f usiafh omolwo Ykd nf tjypfp&D if
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k af wmfukd jiif;vQif uReykf w
f u
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373
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c/ rl0g'wpfq,f/ / taMumif;&if;ay: tajccHí bmomjyefqdkjcif;
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f jGJ zpfay:vmaom
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uREykf w
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taMumif;&if;rJph mG usr;f yd'k u
f kd xkwí
f toH;k jyKjcif;onf ud,k o
hf abmqE´twdik ;f
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oifcef;pm (4) ü aqG;aEG;cJhNyD;jyD/
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u em;axmifaMumif; usrf;ydk'f\ t"dyÜg,ftcsdefugvae&mwdkYudk pmzwfolwdkY
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taMumif;t&if; trsdK;tpm; (3) rsdK;&Sdygonf/ 4if;wdkYrSm?
1/ /eD;uyfaomtaMumif;&if;
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c&pfawmfonf igwdu Yk kd vTwaf wmfral om vTwjf cif;tcGiüfh wnfaeojzihf uRecf &H m
xrf;ydk;udk xrf;í csnfaESmifjcif;udk wzefrcHMuESihf}} (C? 5;1)/ þusrf;ydk'ft&
uREykf w
f o
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l sio
fh ;kH wwfMu
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vyfpGm wpfOD;udkwpfOD;cspfcifbdkYjzpfonf/ (*v? 5;13)
374
2/ /Mum;ü½Sad omtaMumif;&if;
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v,fü½Sdaom olESpfa,mufwdkYwGif wpfa,mufudk odrf;,lí wpfa,mufrlum;
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ac:aqmifNyD; qdk;npf olusefcJhrnfavm/ c&pfawmfonf rdavedumvEdkifiH
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eD;uyfaomtaMumif;&if;u þar;cGef;twGuf tajzray;Edkifyg/
róJ? 13;49 rS tajzay;xm;ygonf/ aemufq;kH aomumvwGif ajzmihrf wfaom
olwtYkd xJrS qd;k npfaomolukd EIw,
f cl x
JG m;í rnfou
Yl kd ac:aqmifomG ;Ny;D rnfol
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tBudrf <uvmjcif;udk &nfñTef;onf/
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wpfy'kd u
f kd avhvmbdv
Yk o
kd nf/ róJ? 24 tpydik ;f udk OD;pGmavhvm½HEk iS fh tajz&&ef
rvG,fyg/xdkróJ 24 wpfcef;vHk;udk zwfrSom tajzxGufvmayrnf/
3/ /tvSrf;uGmaom taMumif;&if;
EIwuf ywfawmf\ twGi;f usus worwfwnf; qDavsmrf u I kd jzpfaponf/ usr;f pm
wpftyk v
f ;kH rS usr;f yd'k rf sm;xkw,
f Nl y;D oD;jcm;usr;f yd'k w
f pfcu
k kd qifjcifo;kH oyf&jcif;
jzpfonf/
tvSr;f uGmaom taMumif;&if;udk avhvm&eftwGuf usr;f yd'k w f pfco
k nf tjcm;
tvSr;f a0;aom usr;f yd'k Ef iS fh oabmxm;udu
k n
f &D ef jzpfonf/ Oyrm? aus;Zl;awmf?
,HkMunfjcif;? cspfjcif;arwåmponfjzihf acgif;pOfa½G;cs,fNyD; usrf;ñTef;udkMunhfí
avhvm&jcif;jzpfonf/
usrf;ñTef;pmtkyfwpfckonf pum;vHk;wpfvHk;jcif;? usrf;ydk'fwpfckjcif;taejzihf
½SmazG od½SdEdkifonf/
375
tvSr;f uGmaom taMumif;t&if;onf ya&mzufbmomjyefqjkd cif;ü4if;? ]]yHq k pf}}
ESihf ]]yHkaqmifjcif;rsm;}} udk em;vnf&eftwGuf4if;? rl0g'rsm;pGm ay;xm;onf/
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awmf\ udk,fcE¨mtom;[lí ukd,fpm;jyKjyefqdkxm;onf/
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ta&;Bu;D onf/ uReykf w
f o
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onf eD;uyfaom taMumif;t&if;? Mum;aetaMumif;t&if;? tvSrf;uGmaom
taMumif; t&if;wdüYk usr;f pmESifh qDavsmaf tmif azmfxw k Ef ikd &f rnf/ uREykf w
f \
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f nf usr;f pmESirfh nDvQif t,l0g'twGuf ar;cGe;f rsm;ay:vmrnf/
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Ykd tESpaf v;q,fah jcmuf
382
ESpyf wfv;kH þAdrmefawmfukd wnfaqmuf&Mu\/ oifru l m; oH;k &ufwnf;
ESifh wnfaqmufrnfavm[k qdMk u\/ xko d rYdk ed aYf wmfr&l mü rdru
d , kd w
f nf;
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tcsKdUya&mzufjyKcsufwdkYonf þusrf;ydk'fuJhodkY bmomjyef&ef vG,fulMuonf/
bk&m;ocifonf owday;csurf ½Sb d J &mpkEpS w
f u
Ykd akd usmí
f vkyaf qmifEikd af Mumif;
udv
k nf; odrw
S yf g/ usr;f yd'k w
f pfcw
k nf;üyif &mpkEpS u f mvwdu
Yk akd usmí
f vkyaf qmif
awmfral Mumif; vkum? 4;18-21 ESifh a[½Sm,? 61;1-2 wGif c&pfawmf\ ud;k um;
csufudk MunhfvQif awGY&onf/
2/ /ya&mzufjyKcsufonf ordkif;aMumif;t& jynhfpHkcJhNyD;jzpfaMumif;
odrw
S cf ,
H jl cif;
usr;f yd'k t
f csKUd wdo
Yk nf jynhpf ckH NhJ y;D aom ya&mzufjyKcsujf zpfaMumif;udk azmfjyxm;
jcif;udk OD;pGmod½SdbdkY avhvm&rnf/ þodkYjzihf rnfonhfya&mzufjyKcsufonf
rjynhfpHkao; aMumif; uREfkyfwdkY\ tem*gwfumvrS jynhfpHkrnfjzpfaMumif;wdkYudk
od½&dS rnf/
Oyrmwpfcrk mS aem{acwfa&vTr;f rd;k jcif;jzpf&yfonf ESpaf ygif; 120 cefu
Y BuKd wif
Asm'dwfay;xm;jcif;jzpfonf (urÇm? 6;3)/ þjzpf&yfonf jynhfpHkcJhNyD;jzpfaMumif;
usrf;pmu az:jyonf (urÇm? 7-8)/
bk&m;ocifonf £oa&vwdu Yk kd jyefvnfppk nf;rnft h aMumif; usr;f pmu az:jy
onf (aZ? 9;14? róJ? 24;31)/ þya&mzufjyKcsufonf rjynhfpHkao;yg/
usr;f pmt&omru ordik ;f aMumif;jzpf&yfuyg oufao½Sad Mumif;od&onf/ tcsKd U
aom ya&mzufjyKcsuw f Ukd jynhpf jkH cif;taMumif;udk ydí
k od½&dS ef tjcm;ordik ;f aMumif;
jzpf&yfpmtkyfwdkYudkyg zwfí avhvmoihfonf/ avmu\ ordkif;aMumif;jzpf&yf
pmtkyw f rYkd mS 0dnmOfawmfrw I o
f iG ;f í rxm;aMumif; owd&bdv Yk Nkd y;D usr;f pmoifow
l Ykd
rSm bk&m;ocif\ pum;udk wdusrSefuefonf[k cH,lMu&rnf/
3/ /ya&mzufjyKcsuf bmompum;udk odrSwfcH,ljcif;
ya&mzufjyKcsufwdkYü ocifbk&m;udk &nfñTef;ajymqdkaompum; ]],k'tEG,frS
jcaoFh}} ]]bk&m;ocif\ odk;oi,f}} (Asm'dwf5)? yHkaqmifjcif;taMumif; (Asm'dwf?
383
13wGiyf gaom om;&J)? yHpk rH sm; (xGu?f 25-40 wGiyf gonhf ajrBu;D ay:rS wJawmf)
ponfwkdYudk qifjcifí cH,lowfrSwf&onf/ uREfkyfwdkYonf ya&mzufjyKcsuf
bmom&yfpum;udk ½Si;f vif;xm; aom usr;f pmt"dygÜ ,fukd OD;pGmMunhrf w S jf cif;jzihf
odomxif½mS ;Edik yf gonf/
rSe;f qjcif;onf bmomjyefqjkd cif;r[kwyf g/ vlonf rdrrd eS ;f qcsuu
f kd rdrt
d ,l0g'
tjzpf ajymif;vJypfbdkY vG,fulygonf/ rnfodkYyifqdkap ya&mzufpum;wdkYonf
oifhavsmfaom tcsdefumvra&mufrSDtxd tcsdKUpum;wdkYudk em;rvnfEdkifao;
aMumif; odrSwfMu&rnf ('Ha,v? 12;4?8-10)/
384

tydkif; 4
pnf;rsOf; 4
pn;frsOf;av;/ / bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmfudk rSefuefpGm
tok;H jyKjcif;tm;jzifh c&pf,meftoufwmjzifh
aexdkifusifhBuHrIudk &SmazGjcif;
a,m[ef? 7;17 rS c&pfawmfaz:jycsut f wdik ;f ay:xGuv f maom rl0g'jzpfonf/
EIwu f ywfawmfukd trSew f u,f ]]od}} vdv
k Qif xdEk w I u
f ywfawmftwdik ;f ]]jyKvyk }f }
(touf½iS )f vdpk w d ½f &dS rnf/ þrl0g'onf EIwu f ywfawmfukd avhvmbdYk tm;ay;
wdu
k w f eG ;f jcif;½S\
d / rdrt d ,ltq oabmxm;rsm;udk z,fí 0dnmOfawmf xGe;f vif;
jcif;udk ½d;k om;pGm cH,&l rnf (1aum 2;14)/ rdrw d \
Ykd oef½Y iS ;f jcif;vu©Pmonfyif
wefbdk;owfrSwfEdkifaMumif; twGif;0dnmOfpl;prf;jcif;oabmvnf; oufa&muf
onf (2aum? 13;5)/
uREfkyfwdkYonf tmrcHcsufr½Sdaom t,ltqESihf udk,fwdkifoabmxm;rsm;udk
udik q
f x
GJ m;&ef vG,u
f Nl y;D rS usr;f pmtwdik ;f oufaoxif½mS ;½Sad pbdYk pl;prf;Edik o
f nf/
xdkenf;pepfonf tjcm;aomvrf;aMumif;udk ñTef;onhfusrf;ydk'fudk rjrifrdap&ef
4if;tjcm;t&mESifh csed x
f ;kd bdYk az:jyonf/ usr;f yd'k u
f kd rawGrY ad p&ef 4if;umqD;wwf
aomaMumihf wpfpHkwpfckom xif½Sm;rIjzpf,Hk½Sd\/
Oyrm? 'g0d'fonf Amoa½SbESihf jzpfysufaomudpöudk oHk;oyfNyD; udk,fhpdwfBudKuf
,lqwwfMuonf (2&m? 11)/ vlonf olrY ,m;ESihf jypfrmS ;jcif;? vlowfjcif;trIukd
jyKEdkifonf[k þusrf;ydk'fudk qJGudkifí tcsdKUu qifajcay;Muonf/ ynwfawmf
10 yg;üygaom vlowfjcif;? olYr,m;udk jypfrSm;jcif;ponfwdkYonf bk&m;ocif
vufcEH ikd af omt&mr[kwaf Mumif; xdu k sr;f yd'k Ef iS fh ,SOw
f í
GJ zwfbv
Ykd nf;vdo
k nf
(xGuf? 20;1-17)/ bk&m;ocifonf 'g0d'f\ aemifwudk odrSwfjyKaomaMumihf
olonf ½Sifbk&if&mxl;jyKwfroGm;yg (qmvH? 51)/ odkYaomf tjypfa<u;rsm;udk
aMumufrufbG,fay;qyfcJh&onf/
385
u/ rl0g'q,fhig;/ / qDavsmfatmif vdkufavQmufjcif;onf avsmfnDpGm
bmomjyefjcif;jzifh wnfaqmufxm;onf/
EIwu f ywfawmfukd avsmn f pD mG vku d af vQmufEikd b f Ykd avsmn
f pD mG bmomjyefjcif;udk
vdt
k yfonf/ usr;f pmü usio fh ;kH &ef rsm;pGm½Sad omfvnf; bmomjyefqrkd w I pfcw k nf;
t"dygÜ ,freS u
f efr½I &dS rnf/ Oyrm? (1wd? 3;1-7) t& toif;awmftyk x f ed ;f ol\
t&nftcsi;f udk Munhaf omtcg ajymif;vJot l opfwpfa,mufr[kw&f bJ toif;
awmfü 4if;acgif;aqmifwüYkd OD;aqmifEikd af om &ihu f suo f nht f &nftcsi;f rsm;udk
qdvk okd nf/
c/ qDavsmfatmif vdkufavQmuf&ef tqifhig;qifh
tqifh 1/ 0dnmOfa&;&mrl0g'rsm;udk qDavsmfatmif usihfoHk;vdkufemjcif;?
em;vnfoabmaygufjcif;? jyefvnfaumufEIwfjcif;wdkYtwGuf qkawmif;
yg/ (,m? 1;5)
tqifh 2/ a½G;cs,Nf y;D aomusr;f yd'k u f kd rSeu
f efjynh0f pGm em;vnfbYkd BuKd ;pm;
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rS pmapmifwpftyk v f ;kH txd4if; pmyd'k q
f ufpyfí Ny;D pD;Edik o
f nf/ þtqihu f kd
aemufydkif;wGif ydkí aqG;aEG;rnf/ (wdwk? 2;15)
tqifh 3/ usrf;ykd'fwpfckpDudk bmomjyefqdkjcif;rS ay:aygufvmaom
0dnmOf a&;&mwdu Yk kd owfrw S yf g/ 0dnmOfa&;&monf tcsed u f mvabmifcwf
xm;jcif;ESihf ,Ofaus;rI"avhwdkYudk jzwfausmfonf/ Oyrm? vdifazguf
jyefjcif;onf tcsed u f mvabmifcwfxm;jcif;ESihf ,Ofaus;rI"avh tm;vH;k udk
jzwfausmv f mNy;D tjypf'pk ½du
k [f í l a&SmifusO&f efjzpfonf/ (a&m? 13;8-10)
tqifh 4/ usrf;pm\ rl0g'tcsdKUudk rdrdukd,fwdkifrvdkufemrdjcif;twGuf
bk&m;ocifü ½dk;om;pGm0efcHNyD; trSm;jyifqifjcif;udk vufcHyg/ qmvH 51
wGif ygaom 'g0d'o
f nf Amoa½SbESifh rSm;,Gi;f rdí aemifw& qkawmif;jcif;
taMumif;udk zwfyg/ (2aum? 13;5)
tqifh 5/ aus;Zl;awmfEiS fh ,HMk unfjcif;ü vduk af vQmufyg/ ]]aus;Zl;awmfukd
csD;rGrf;jcif;ESihfwuG ,HkMunfjcif; wdk;yGg;jynhfpHkvsuf xdkocifü usif
386
vnfMuavmh}} (aumavmoJ? 2;6)/
*/ /qDavsmaf tmifbmomjyefqjkd cif;twGuf t[eft
Y wm;ajcmufck
EIwu
f ywfawmfukd bmomjyef&mü rsm;pGmaomt[eft Y wm;½Sad omfvnf; t"du
6 rsdK;udk oHk;oyfMurnf/ rnfolrQ rrSm;bJr½SdaMumif; owd&yg/ 1aum? 10;12
wGif aygvka&;om;csufudk rSwfbdkYvdkonf/ ]]tMuifolonf rdrdwnfMunfvsuf
aeonf[k rdrdxifrSwfvsuf½Sd\/ xdkolonf rvJjcif;iSm owdjyKap/}}
1/ /Zmwdoabm
bmomjyefqrkd I t[eft
Y wm;wpfcrk mS Zmwdoabmjzpfonf/ tjypfEiS fh ñSpd eG ;f aom
b0udk qufvuf½SifoefNyD; ZmwdyuwdzHk;vTrf;jcif;jzpfonf (1aum? 3;3)/ ,Hk
Munfolonf 0dnmOfawmf\ yJhjyifrIudk vdkufemonfxuf Zmwdyuwdtvdkudk
ydí
k vdu
k w
f wfMuonf (*v?5;19-23)/ aemifwr&bJ tjypfukd awmif;yefjcif;r½Sd
aomb0 jzpfonf (1a,m? 1;9? 2aum? 12;21)/
Zmwdyuwdtvdu k kd usr;f pmü avhvmvQiaf wG&Y onf/ ]]olrY ,m;udk jypfrmS ;jcif;?
rw&m;aomarxHük rS0D jJ cif;? npfnL;pGmusijfh cif;? udavomvGeu f sL;jcif;? ½kyxf uk kd
udk;uG,fjcif;? olwpfyg;udk jyKpm;jcif;? &efjidK;zJGYjcif;? &efawGYjcif;? *kPfjydKifjcif;?
trsux f u G jf cif;? jiif;cHjk cif;? tcsi;f csi;f uJjG ym;jcif;? oif;uJjG cif;? oltY usKd ;udk jiLpljcif;?
vlYtoufudk owfjcif;? ,ZfrsdK;udk aomufMuL;jcif;? yJGvkyfjcif;}} (*v? 5;19-
21)/ Oyrm? vdiu f pd jö ipd eG ;f aom q&mwpfO;D onf xdu k sr;f yd'k yf gtusiu fh kd vdu
k ef m
usihfoHk;jcif; oabmjzpfonf/
0dnmOfawmfonf or®mw&m;udk az:jyonhfwdkif (a,m? 16;13) Zmwdvlonf
xd0k n
d mOfawmf\ yJjh yifru
I kd a½SmifbYkd a½G;cs,o
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f ywfawmf\
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Zmwdvo l nf omrefvEl iS fh wlnrD t
I csKd U½Sad omfvnf; odompGmuJjG ym;onf (1aum?
2;14)/ omrefvlonf r,HkMunfoludk qdkvdkNyD; bk&m;ocif\ 0dnmOfa&;rsm;udk
vufrcH/ Zmwdvlonf 0dnmOfawmfESihf rdwfo[m,rzJGYovdk omrefvlüvnf;
0dnmOfa&;&m bmrQr½Sd/ usrf;pmtaMumif;vnf; rSefuefpGm em;rvnfyg/
387
2/ /tewåjzpfjcif;
vlwdkYta&;ay;cH&rIESihf ausmfMum;rIudk vdkvm;jcif;onfvnf; tewåoabm
jzpfonf/xdkoabmxm;aMumihf bmomjyefqdkrI rqDavsmfjcif;jzpfonf/ okwåH?
16;18 ü owday;xm;onf/ ]]rmeonf ysufpD;jcif;t&if? axmifvTm;aom
oabmonf ½Iwfcsjcif;t&ifü ae&muswwf\/}}
EIwuf ywfawmfukd tm;xkwí f avhvmovdk trSet f wdik ;f pJu
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k af wmfu4kd if;? olwpfyg;ud4k if;? cspaf ompdwEf iS fh
jzpf&rnf/ rdrd\ tajctae xif½Sm;vdkpdwfaMumihf rjzpf&yg (rmuk? 12;29-
31)/ 0dnmOf&ihfusufbdkY topfaomtaMumif;w&m;rsm;udk wdk;íavhvmjcif;
vkdtyfaomfvnf; olwpfyg;üom xif½Sm;aomtusdK;oufa&mufrIudk Munhfae
rnfqdkvQif rdrdoabm rpifMu,faomaMumifh tcsnf;ESD;jzpf&onf/
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aqmifaomoljzpfMu\/ a,½Ic&pfü ,k'vlr½S?d a[vovlr½S?d uRerf ½S?d
vlvGwfr½Sd? a,musFm;r½Sd? rdef;r r½Sd/ xdkocifü oifwdkYtaygif;onf
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tEG,fyif jzpfí *wdawmftwdkif; tarGcH\t&mü wnfMu\/}} (*v?
3;27-29)
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d ½f v
dS Qif wpfyg;trsKd ;om;rsm; u,fwifjcif;&rnfr[kw/f
388
4/ /worwfwnf; rjzpfjcif;\ Oya'o
usr;f pmudk BuKd ;pm;í jyefqMkd uaomfvnf; 0dnmOfa&;Oya'owdüYk worwfwnf;
rjzpfvQif bmomjyefqdkrIvGJrSm;EdkifaMumif; awGU&SdMurnf/
(u) rdrdudk,fudk wefbdk;xm;í 0efcHaomOya'o
uRefkyfwdkYü ,HkMunfjcif;½Sdr½Sd udk,fwdkifppfaq;bdkY 2aum? 13;5 wGif az:jy
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vdo
k nf/ tm;enf;aomtcg ocifb&k m; a&SUarSmufwiG f 0efcNH y;D cGet f m;,lbYkd
vdok nf/
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½So
d rQEiS fh uif;pifapjcif;iSm bk&m;ocifonf opömw&m;ESi4fh if;? ajzmihrf wf
jcif;w&m;ESihf 4if; jynhfpHkawmf\}} (1a,m? 1;9)/
tm;enf;usqif;jcif;onf EIwu f ywfawmfukd rSm;&if;½Iyaf xG;pGm cH,rl ad paom
Zmwdpdwfudk jzpfay:aponf/
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]]awmif;Muavmh? awmif;vQif&rnf/ ½SmMuavmh? ½SmvQifawGYrnf/ wHcg;udk
acgufMuavmh? acgufvQif zGihfrnf/ awmif;aomolrnfonfum;&\/ ½Sm
aomolvnf;awGY\/ acgufaomoltm;vnf;wHcg;udkzGihf\/}} (róJ? 7;7-8)/
tm;enf;usqif;jcif;onf bk&m;ESihf rdwfo[m,zJGYrIudk usdK;ysufaponf/
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2wd? 2;15 wGif usrf;pm\ ta&;BuD;aomtydk'frsm;udk tm;xkwfpJGudkifbdkY
az:jyxm;onf/ ]]oifru l m; 0efcaH wmfral omol? ½Suaf Mumufp&mtaMumif;
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f efpmG ydik ;f jcm;wwfaom q&morm;jzpfvsuf bk&m;
ocifa&SUü ud,
k u
f u
kd ,
kd f qufojcif;iSm BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwaf vmh}} (2wd? 2;15)/
usr;f pmudk worwfwnf;avhvmrIr½Sv d Qif oD;oefu
Y sr;f yd'k w
f pfcw
k nf;ü w0J
vnfvnfpv GJ rf;Ny;D tm;enf;usqif;wwfonf/
389
5/ /,dkifeJYaom enf;pepfOya'o
bmomjyef&ef enf;pepfwdkYonf wdusaocsmjcif;udk t[efYtwm;jzpfaponf/
taMumif;t&mudk tajccHNy;D ,HMk unfro
I nfvnf; ud,k wf ikd ef m;vnfovdk tusKd ;
oufa&mufaponf/ Oyrm? usr;f pmudk bk&m;ocif rIwo f iG ;f xm;aMumif;r,Hv k Qif
usrf;pmüygaom edrdwfvu©PmwdkYudk odyÜHynmESihf taMumif;jyNyD; qifjcifay;
wwfonf (2wd? 3;16-17)/ odaYk omf? usr;f pmonf bk&m;ocif rIwo f iG ;f xm;í
twdtus rSefuefaMumif; ,HkMunfvQif erdwfvu©PmwdkYudk bk&m;wefcdk;awmf
aMumihf jzpfysufcJh aMumif;vufcHvmrnf/
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uay;aMumif; tcsdKU,HkMunfMuonf/ ,HkMunfolonf ,Zfya&m[dwfrsdK; jzpf
aMumif; usrf;pmu az:jyí (1ay? 2;5 ? 9) bk&m;ocif\ yv’ifawmf&if;odkY
wd;k 0ifciG ½fh MdS uonf (a[jA?J 4;16)/ 0dnmOfawmfu uREykf w
f u
Ykd kd wdu
k ½f u
kd ñ
f eT Mf um;
onf/ (1aum? 2;15)
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onf ½Iwaf xG;apwwfaomaMumihf twdtusjzpfbYkd vdt k yfonf/ o½kyaf z:jcif;
pepfonf vnf; Edik if &H yfjcm;t"dygÜ ,fukd taMumif;&if;xJrS rajymif;vJay;Edik yf g/
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trSew f &m;az:jyrI tvGeef yJ g;vSonf/ aem{a&vTr;f rd;k jcif;udpu ö kd ao;i,faom
trItjzpf oH;k oyfvQif urÇmESit fh 0Sr;f jzpfysuaf omtrIBu;D jzpfí rSw D if;aexdik f
olwt Ykd wGuf '@m&DozG,f cH,Ml uvdrrhf nf/ '@m&DyjkH yifwiG f trSew f &m; tenf;
i,frQudk vdrfnmrItaygif;u 0dkif;0ef;xm;onf[k ajymEdkifayonf/
tcsKd Uonf c&pfawmf\ taocHjcif;? ½Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;taMumif;udyk if '@m&D
Zmwfvrf;uJo h Ykd o½kyaf z:í jyefqMkd uonf/ olw\ Ykd jyefqrkd o
I nf trSejf zpfcv hJ Qif
c&pfawmftaocHjcif;? oN*Kd vjf cif;? ½Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;? a½G;EIwjf cif; ponfjzihf
uREfkyfwdkYtwGuf rnfodkYrQ tusdK;r½SdaMumif; aygvku ajymxm;onf (1aum?
15)/
390
yHkpHtaetxm;udk qifjcifoHk;oyfNyD; wdkuf½dkufbmomjyefqdkjcif;pepfonfyif
trSm;t,Gi;f ½SEd ikd o
f nf/ Oyrm? a½Smvrkeo
f cD si;f onf obm0vGeí f jyefqx
kd m;
aom pmtkyjf zpfonf/ rl&if;twdik ;f bmomjyefqrkd üI rSeu f efaom enf;pepfyg0if
ae&NyD; yHkpHtaetxm;ESihf bmom&yfpum;wdkYudk todtrSwfjyKEdkifonf/ rl0g'
(9) ü xdktaMumif;udk aqG;aEG;rnf/
6/ /rcdkifNrJaom taMumif;jycsuf
vlw\ Ykd taMumif;jycsuo f nf bk&m;ocif\ Bu;D jrwfjcif;taMumif;udk tjynht f 0
em;vnfatmif raz:jyEdik yf g/ vlUoabmtwdik ;f bk&m;taMumif;udk tjynft h 0
em;vnfvQif vlonf tjypfro hJ jl zpfomG ;ayrnf/ ]]xm0&bk&m;udk pdwEf v
S ;kH t<uif;
rJh udk;pm;avmh/ udk,fOmPfudk trSDrjyKESihf? oGm;av&m&mü xm0&bk&m;udk rsuf
arSmuf jyKavmh/ odkYjyKvQif oif\ vrf;c&D;wdkYudk yJhjyifawmfrlvdrfhrnf/ igonf
ynm½Sd\[k udk,fudkudk,f rxifESihf/ xm0&bk&m;udk aMumuf½GHUí 'kp½dkufudk
a½Smifavmh}} (okwåH 3;5-7)/ uREfkyfwdkYonf em;vnfEdkifaom pGrf;&nftay:
rSmr[kwb f J ,HMk unfjcif; tay:rSmom vdu k af vQmufbYkd bk&m;ociftvd½k o dS nf/
uREfkyfwdkYonf wpfaeYvQif ocifbk&m;udk aumif;pGmem;vnfawGYjrif&rnf[k
*wdawmf½o dS nf/ ]],ckwiG f igwdo
Yk nf rSet
f m;jzihf &dyrf v
d suo
f maeMu\/ xdt k cgrl
um; rsufarSmufxifxifjrif&vdrfhrnf/ ,ckwGif ig todtjrif rpHkvifjzpf\/
xdt
k cgrlum; olwpfyg;onf ighukd odouJo h Ykd igod&vdrrhf nf}} (1aum? 13;12)/
bk&m;ocifESihf awGYaomtcg tajzr½Sdaom ar;cGef;rsm;twGuf tm;vHk;od&
Murnf/
yxr&mpkEpS f *sL;wdt
Yk wGuf rcdik Nf raJ omtaMumif;jycsuf jyoemrSm c&pfawmfukd
ar½S,
d tjzpf vufrcHEikd jf cif;jzpfonf/ róJ? 22;41-46 wGif ygaom c&pfawmfEiS fh
zg&d½SJwdkY\ tajctwifajympum;udk oHk;oyfyg/
]]zg&d½w
JS oYkd nf pka0;í aeMupOfwiG f a,½Iu? ]]oifwo Ykd nf c&pfawmfukd
tb,foYkd xifrw S Mf uoenf;/ tb,fo\ l om;jzpfoenf;}} [k ar;awmf
rl vQi?f ]]'g0d'\
f om;jzpfonf}} [kavQmufMuaomf? odjYk zpfvQif 'g0d'o
f nf
c&pfawmfukd ocif[í l 0dnmOfawmftm;jzihf tb,faMumihaf c:oenf;/
391
'g0d'f\ pum;rSm xm0&bk&m;u oif\ &efolwdkYudk oif\ajcwif&m
igrcs rxm;rSw D ikd af tmif ighvusmf bufü xkid af eavmh [k ig\ociftm;
rdeaYf wmfro
l nf [k 'g0d'q f okd wnf;/ xdo
k Ydk 'g0d'o
f nf c&pfawmfukd ocif
[lí ac:vQif tb,foYkd ol\om;jzpfoenf;[k ar;awmfro l nf½adS omf
tb,forl Q pum; wpfceG ;f udk jyefavQmufjcif;iSm rwwfEikd Mf u/ xdak eYrpS
í aemufwzef tb,f olrQ rar;ravQmuf0HhMu/}}
c&pfawmfonf qmvH? 110;1 udk udk;um;í ajymaejcif;jzpfonf/ ar½Sd,onf
bk&m;ocifEiS hf vlwpfjyKd ief ufjzpfjcif;onf qdik jf yKd iaf om taMumif;jycsuf r[kwf
ygvm;/
C/ vdkufemcH,l&ef usqif;wwfaom enf;vrf;&SpfrsdK;
1/ ocifbk&m;ü rSDcdkí cGeftm;awmif;NyD; vdkufemcH,lrIr½Sdjcif;/
2/ bk&m;ocif\ or®mw&m;udk qefYusifaom tjyKtrloabmxm;
ajymif;vJbdkY [efYwm;jcif;/
3/ rl0g' trSeftuefjzpfaMumif; odvsufESihf em;raxmifjcif;/
4/ avmuDqefaom zdtm;ay;jcif;wdkYü ½IH;edrfhjcif;/
5/ rdrb
d 0ESiofh ufqikd í
f vdu
k af vQmuf&rnfEh w
I u
f ywfawmfukd
pdw0f ifpm;rI avsmeh nf;jcif;/
6/ tjypfuk d w&m;0ifjcif;? rxif½mS ;jcif;ponfeh nf; trsKd;rsKd;jzihf qifajcay;jcif;/
7/ ynmOmPf½o
dS nht
f wdik ;f a½G;cs,&f rnftpm; cHpm;rIukd OD;pm;ay;jcif;/
8/ ysi;f &djcif;? wzufapmif;eif;jcif;? tpJx
G m;jcif;wdjYkzihaf wG;awmí
½Iwaf xG;aejcif;/
392

tcef; (5)

bk&m;ocif\ tjzpfawmf

] tajccHrlBuD;rsm; }
393

tydkif; - 1
oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m; (BwdeDwD)
(u) oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m; (BwdeDwD)udk t"dyÜm,fowfrSwfazmfjyjcif;

ppfrSefaombk&m;ocif wpfqlwnf;om&SdawmfrlaMumif; uREfkyfwdkY


&Sif;vif;pGm azmfjy ajymqdkEdkifygonf (w&m;? 4;35? 6;4? aum? 8;4-6? {zuf?
4;3-6? ,muky?f 2;19)/ xdbk &k m;ocifonf rdru d ,
kd u
f kd crnf;awmf (a,m? 6;27)?
om;awmf (a,m? 1;1)ESifh oef&Y iS ;f aom 0dnmOfawmf (wref? 5;3-4) [lí xif&mS ;
azmfjyawmfryl gonf/ bk&m;ocif\ twGi;f ydik ;f usus vkyaf qmifawmfrcl suw f \
Ykd
oabmobm0udkrl uREfkyfwdkY rod&SdEdkifyg/

oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m; (The Trinity) [laom a0g[m&pum;vHk;udk


pHkvifNyD;jynhfpHkaom t"dyÜm,fzGihfqdkcsufudk owfrSwf&efrSm cufcJvSygonf/
tb,faMumihfqdkaomf bk&m;ocifonf uREfkyfwdkYem;vnfjcif; ÓPfrDorQ
tm;vHk;wdkYxuf ausmfvGefNyD; &SdaeawmfrlaomaMumihf jzpfygonf/ trSefpifppf
olonf bk&m;ocifjzpfawmfrl\ (a&mr? 11;33)/ uREfkyfwdkYc&pf,mefwdkY\
touf&iS v f u kd af vQmufjcif;rSm olUtm; auseyfEpS of rd ahf pawmfr&l ef ,HMk unfjcif;
tm;jzihf touf&iS v f u
kd af vQmufjcif;jzpfygonf (a[NA?J 11;6)/ aumif;uift&mudk
rMunhfjrifygu uREfkyfwdkYonf ywf0ef;usiftjrifay:üom touf&Sifvdkuf
avQmufMu&ygrnf/ þodaYk om aeY&ufumvrsm;ü uREykf w f o
Ykd nf bk&m;ocif\
394

taMumif;udk jynhpf pkH mG od&MdS u&ygvdrrhf nf (1aum? 13;12)/ okaYd omfvnf; ,ckwiG f
uREfkyfwdkY jynhf0pHkvifpGm em;rvnfaom t&mwdkYudk ,HkMunfjcif;tm;jzihf vufcH
Mu&ygrnf/ oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m;ESihf ywfoufí OyrmwpfckrSm MuufOwpfvHk;ü
awGUjrifEikd yf gonf/ xdMk uufOü tum? tcGEH iS fh tESpf [lí&SNd y;D ? þt&m oH;k rsK;d wdYk
rSm woD;wjcm;pD jzpfMuygonf/ odkYaomfvnf; MuufOwpfvHk;om jzpfygonf/

oH;k yg;wpfqb l &k m; (The Trinity) ESiyfh wfoufí o½kyaf qmif wm0ef
,ljcif; toGifyHko@mefoHk;rsKd;tm;jzihf uREfkyfwdkY&Sif;vif;pGm azmfjyEdkifygrnf/
crnf;awmfonf pDrHoljzpfí (wrefawmf? 2;23)? om;awmfrSm taocHaomol
jzpfgonf/ qkv d o kd nfrmS BuKd wifprD cH suu
f kd o,fy;kd aomol[í
l jzpfygonf (a,m?
5;36)/ oef&Y iS ;f aom 0dnmOfawmfonf zGijfh yaomoljzpfygonf (a,m? 16;13)/
xdkolwkdY\ uGJjym;jcm;em;aom wm0ef,l&onhf tcef;u@udk uREfkyfwdkYavhvm
aomtcg uREfkyfwdkYonf oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m;udk uGJjym;jcm;em;ap&ef &SmazGjcif;
rjyK&yg/ crnf;awmf? om;awmfESihf oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOfawmftm;vHk;wdkY\
trltusihfyHko@mefawmfrSm bk&m;ocifomvQif ydkifqdkifEdkifygonf/

þtaMumif;rSm uREykf w f tYkd wGuf jyóemawmhr[kwyf g/ uREykf w f o Ykd nf


twGi;f ydik ;f usus vkyaf qmifawmfrcl surf sm;udk em;vnfoabmaygufjcif; r&SEd ikd yf g/
odaYk omfvnf; uREykf wf o Ykd nf tpjyKawmfrjl cif;ESifh uREykf w
f \
Ykd c&D;vrf;qH;k odaYk &muf
aom tusK;d &v'frsm;udk awGUjrif&ygonf/ uREykf w f o
Ykd nf bk&m;ocif\ oabm
obm0udk oljyKawmfral om t&mrsm;tm;jzihf awGUjrifEikd yf gonf (a&mr? 1;20)/
(c) oufaotaxmuftxm;

oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m;udk oufaotaxmuftxm;jyqdk&mwGif txufü


uREykf w
f ñ
Ykd eT jf yxm;cJo
h nht
f wdik ;f crnf;awmf? om;awmfEiS fh oef&Y iS ;f aom0dnmOf
395

awmfwdkYrSm ]]bk&m;ocif}}[lí ac:qdkjcif;udk awGUjrif&ygonf/ tu,fí


crnf;awmf? om;awmfEiS fh oef&Y iS ;f aom0dnmOfawmfwo Ykd nf bk&m;ocifomvQif
ydik q
f ikd Ef ikd af om t&nftaoG;rsm;ESifh bk&m;ocifomvQif jyKEikd af wmfral om trl
t&mrsm;wdkYudk jyKEdkifvQif xdk]]oHk;yg;}} wdkYrSm ]]bk&m;ocif}}jzpfawmfrlaom ]]ol}}
trSefjzpfawmfrlaMumif; &Sif;vif;xif&Sm;ygonf/ tcef;BuD; (4)ü tydkif;(1)wGif
]]bk&m;ocif\ twGif;ydkif;qdkif&m ta&;tBuD;qHk;aom oabmw&m;ay:ü
tajccHí teufzGihfqdk jcif;jzpfygonf/}} uREfkyfwdkYonf ,ckwGif bk&m;ocif\
trltusihfrsm;ESihf oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m;wGif wpfOD;ESihf wpfOD; qufpyfrIqdkif&m
trltusihfwdkYudk tus,fw0ihf &Sif;vif;azmfjyMu&ygvdrhfrnfjzpf\/

þt&mrSm ta&;BuD;aom avhvmjcif; tcef;u@wpfckjzpfygonf/


þusrf;csufrsm;wdkYrSm EIwfuywfawmftaMumif;udk avhvmaeaomolrsm;
b,faomtcgrQ rarhEikd o f nhf or®musr;f pmESiq
fh ikd af om tajccHusonhf tkwjf rpf
ESpcf w
k u
Ykd kd wnfaqmufxm;ygonf/ yxrtajccHtw k jf rpfrmS ]]bk&m;ocif wpfql
wnf;omvQif &Sdawmfrl\}} [lí jzpfygonf/ 'kwd,rSm ]]igonf xdkolr[kwf}}
[laom tcsufyifjzpfygonf/

(*) bk&m;ocif\ twGi;f ydik ;f qkid &f m ta&;Bu;D qH;k aom trltusi1fh 0&yf
yxruGif;puGif;ydwf ( )onf crnf;awmfbk&m;udk ñTefjyygonf/
'kwd, [ ]rSm om;awmfudk ñTefjyaom usrf;csufrsm;jzpfNyD;? wwd, { }
rSm oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOfawmfudk ñTefjyaom usrf;csufrsm;tjzpf avhvmMu&ef
jzpfygonf/
396

1/ tcsKyftjcmtmPmawmf
bk&m;ocifonf bkef;wefcdk;awmfESihf pdk;pHawmfrlaomol jzpfygonf/
qdv k okd nfrmS olonf rdeaYf wmfro l nft h wdik ;f vkyaf qmifawmfral om &Sibf &k ifjzpfyg
onf ('H? 4;17? 1wd? 1;17? qm? 47;2? 7)/ [Asm? 19;16? a,m? 5;21]/ {Zm?
4;6? 1ay? 4;14? 1aum? 12;11}/ tcsKyt f jcm tmPmawmf (bke;f wefc;kd awmfEiS fh
pdk;pHawmfrljcif;)[k qdk&mü ]]MoZme,fy,f wpfcktwGif;ü txG#ftxdyfodkY
a&mufaom wefcdk;tmPmjzihf vkyfaqmifjcif;}}[lí jzpfygonf/ bk&m;ocif
onf tjyifyikd ;f qdik &f m xde;f csKyrf rI S vGwu
f if;jcif;&So d nf[k qd&k mwGif txG#t f xdyf
qH;k odaYk &mufaom wefc;dk tmPmawmfjzihf zefqif;awmfral om t&mrsm; tm;vH;k
wkdYay:ü tkyfpdk;awmfrljcif;udk qdkvdkygonf/ olonf zefqif;jcif;udkcH&aomol
r[kwfyg (a&m? 1;12? 25)/
bk&m;ocifonf rdrdtBuHtpnfawmf? rdrdukd,fydkifynwfawmfrsm;ESihf
rdru d , kd yf ikd f w&m;pD&ifcsurf sm;ay:ü wefc;kd tmPmwnf&adS wmfryl gonf/ twdck sK;H
qdk&aomf? bk&m;ocifonf ola&G;cs,fawmfrlonhftwdkif; wefcdk;awmftm;jzihf
jyKawmfr\ l / ol\tBut H pnfawmfonf em;vnfz&Ykd ef cufcaJ omfvnf; jyKawmfrl
&ef ola&G;cs,fqHk;jzwfonftwdkif; jyKEdkifawmfrlaom bk&m;ocifjzpfygonf/

2/ ajzmihfrwfawmfrljcif;
bk&m;ocifonf ajzmihrf wfawmfrjl cif;ESifh jynhpf akH wmfr\ l / qdv
k o
kd nfrmS
olonf cyfodrf;aomt&mwdkYü pHkvifawmfrljcif;udk qdkvdkygonf (a,m? 17;25?
1a,m? 1;5)/ [1a,m? 2;1? vk? 1;35? a[NAJ? 7;26]/ {a[&Sm? 32;15-18?
qm? 143;10? ae? 9;20}/ olonf cyford ;f aomtrIt&mwdüYk ajzmihrf wfawmfrl
aom pHEeI ;f jzpfawmfryl g\/ olonf usi0fh wfw&m;ydik ;f ü jynhpf akH wmfr\
l / uREykf w
f Ykd
twk,lzdkY&ef wnfxm;aom pHowfrSwfcsufjzpfygonf ({zuf? 5;1)/
397

3/ w&m;rQwjcif;

bk&m;ocifonf ajzmihrf wfí w&m;rQwawmfral omoljzpf\/ olonf


vH;k vH;k vsm;vsm;ESit fh jynht f 0 w&m;ojzihf jyKral qmif&u
G af omoljzpfyg\ (a[&Sm?
45;21? a,mb? 37;23)/ [a,m? 5;22-30? Asm? 19;11]/ {a[&Sm? 4;4? 28;6}/
bk&m;ocif\ w&m;rQwjcif;onf ol\ajzmihrf wfawmfrjl cif; jzpfygonf/ bk&m;
ocifonf vl\rsufESmudk axmufxm;wwfol r[kwfyg (a&m? 2;11)/ olonf
rsuEf mS vdu k jf cif; &Sod rl [kwyf g/ tjypfw&m;ay:vmaomtcg (ol\ ynwfawmf
udk csKd;azmufjcif;) (a&m? 5;13)/ w&m;rQwjcif;onf ay:vGifxif&Sm;vmyg\/

vlonf bk&m;ocif\ ajzmihfrwfjcif;udk trDvdkuf&ef auseyftm;&


apjcif;iSm rwwfEdkifyg/ odkYjzpfí bk&m;ocif\ w&m;rQwjcif;udk rcHEdkifbJ
]]trsufajy}} apawmfrlrnftaMumif; ar&Sd,u,fwif&Sifudk vdktyfaeygonf/
u,fwif&Sif ocifa,½Ic&pfawmfonf vuf0g;uyfwdkifay:ü avmuDom;
tm;vHk;wdkY\ tjypf'kp½dkufrsm;twGuf ay;qyf&ef taocHawmfrljcif;tm;jzifh
w&m;rQwrIudk aqmif MuOf;ay;vdkufonf/ trsufajy auseyfapjcif;udk
NyD;jynhfpHkapchJygonf (1a,m? 2;1-2)/
4/ cspfjcif;arwåm

bk&m;ocifonf cspfjcif;arwåmjzpfawmfrl\/ qdkvdkonfrSm pHkvifí


tajctaeay:ü wnfjcif;r[kwaf om cspjf cif;arwåmudk olxY üH awGU&ygaMumif;
qdkvdkygonf (1a,m? 4;8-10? wdwk? 3;4? a,m? 17;24-25)/ [a,m? 15;9]/
{*vm? 5;22}/
þodkYaom bk&m;ocif\ trltusihfwdkYrSm vlom;taygif;wdkYudk
a&G;EIwu
f ,fwifjcif;iSm a,½Ic&pfawmfukd apvTw&f aom tajccHtaMumif;&if;
398

jzpfygonf (a,m? 3;16)/ cspfjcif;arwåm[lonfrSm uREfkyfwdkY tjypf'kp½dkufrsm;


tm;vH;k twGuf ay;qyf&ef vuf0g;uyfwikd af y:ü ocifb&k m;udk csnaf ESmifjcif;
taMumif; jzpfygonf {vk? 23;34}/ xdt k &mrSm yxrOD;qH;k aom oef&Y iS ;f aom
0dnmOfawmf\ ]]toD;}}jzpfygonf [*vm? 5;22]/
cspjf cif;arwåm[lonfrmS rSeaf omt&mudk vkyaf qmifjcif;ESifh tjcm;aom
olwdkYtwGuf taumif;qHk; vkyfaqmif&eftwGufjzpfygonf/ xdkodkYjyKrl&mwGif
rESpNf rKd UzG,af om cHpm;csurf sm;ay:üyifvQif jynhpf akH pjcif; jzpfygonf/ c&pf,mefwYkd
onf bk&m;ocif\ cspfjcif;arwåmudk txl;cHpm; ay;a0rQaomolrsm;ESihf
xdkarwåmudk tjcm;aomolwdkYay:üvnf; jyefYESHUapaomolrsm; jzpfMuygonf/
odkYjzpfrSom vlom;taygif;wdkYonf bk&m;ocifudk odjrifvmMuygrnfjzpf\
(a,m? 13;34-35)/
5/ xm0&touf

bk&m;ocifonf xm0&toufjzpfygonf/ olonf tpOftNrJ&Sdawmf


rlNyD;? tpOfxm0& touf&Sif wnf&Sdrnfjzpfygonf (a[&Sm? 57;15)/ {a,m?
8;54? 1a,m? 5;11-12? rd? 5;2? Asm? 1;8-17}/ [a[NAJ? 9;14]/

xm0&touf[lonf tpvnf;r&Sd? tqHk;vnf;r&Sdyg/ uREfkyfwdkYonf


xm0&rukefqHk;Edkifaom toufudk trSefwu,fydkifqdkifMuaom c&pf,mefrsm;
jzpfMuygonf/ xdktoufrSm tp&SdNyD;? tqHk;r&Sdaom toufjzpfygonf/
bk&m;ocif\ xm0&touf[kqdk&mü olonf tpOftNrJ xm0pOfaojcif;ESihf
vTwfawmfrlaMumif;udk oGefoifxm;ygonf/
399

6/ teEÅwefcdk;&Sifjzpfawmfrl\/

bk&m;ocifonf teEÅwefcdk;&Sif jzpfawmfrl\/ qdkvdkonfrSm olü rnf


onhf trIudkrqdk jyKEdkifaom wefcdk;&Sdawmfrljcif;udk qdkvdkygonf (rm? 14;36?
1ay? 1;5)/ {róJ? 28;18? Asm? 19;6}/ [2wd? 1;7? a&m? 15;13]/

ol\teEÅwefcdk;&Sdawmfrljcif; OyrmwpfckrSm aumif;uifESihfajrBuD;udk


zefqif;&mwGif awGUjrifEikd yf gonf/ (urÇm? 1;1)/ ]]ol\ EIw>f rufawmfral ompum;}}
tm;jzihf aumif;uifrsm;udk zefqif;awmfro l nf/ ol\ ]]rIwo f iG ;f awmfrjl cif;tm;jzifh
aumif;uift&mrsm;tm;vHk;wdkYudk zefqif;awmfrlaMumif; uREfkyfwdkYtm; ajymjy
xm;ygonf (qmvH? 33;6)/

7/ ae&mwdkif;rSm &Sdawmfrl\/

bk&m;ocifonf ae&mwdik ;f rSm &Sad wmfral om bk&m;ocifjzpfygonf/ qdv k kd


onfrSm udk,fawmfonf ae&mwdkif;ü wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyif wlnDaom t[kefjzihf
&Sad eawmfral Mumif; qdv k ykd gonf (okw?Hå 15;3? 6&m? 2;6)/ (róJ? 18;20? 28;20)/
(qm? 139;7-16)/ þodq Yk &kd mü bk&m;ocifonf cyford ;f aomt&m jzpfawmfr\ l
(bk&m;trsm;)[lí qdv k jkd cif;r[kwyf g/ olonf ae&mwdik ;f ü &Sad wmfr\
l / þt&m
tm;jzihf uREykf w
f t
Ykd m; bk&m;ocif\ yk*Kd¾ vaf wmfa&;&m oabmobm0udk xif&mS ;
apjcif;jzpfygonf/

bk&m;ocifonf uGjJ ym;jcm;em;onfh t[kerf sm;jzihf wpfae&mwnf;wGif


&Sdawmfrljcif;r&SdaMumif; trltusihfrSvnf; uREfkyfwdkY awGUjrifEdkifygonf (qm?
139;7-17)/ olonf tjcm;aomolwdkYtay:ü tm½Hkpdkufjcif; &Sdonfxuf
400

tcsKUd aomolwaYkd y:ü enf;aomtm½Hpk u


kd jf cif;udk jyKawmfrjl cif;r&Syd g/ trSepf ifppf
olonf ae&mwdkif;rSm &Sdawmfrlonf[k qdk&mwGif olonf wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyif
wpfae&mxufruaom ae&mrsm;ü rdrdudk,fudk xif&Sm;jyo&ef wwfEdkifawmf
rljcif;udk qdkvdkygonf/

8/ cyfodrf;aomt&mwdkYudk odjrifawmfrljcif;

bk&m;ocifonf cyfodrf;aomt&mudk odjrifawmfrlaom ÓPfawmf&Sd


onf/ olonf twdwfumv? ypöKyÜefumvESihf tem*wfumvwdkYwGif jzpfysuf
orQonf cyford ;f aomt&mwdu
Yk kd odjrifawmfryl g\ (qm? 139;1-6? a[NA?J 4;13)/
{a,m? 2;24-25? 18;4? róJ? 9;4}/ [1aum? 2;10-11? a[&Sm? 11;2] /

olonf jzpfay:orQaom t&mtm;vHk;wdkYudk odjrifawmfrl\/ olonf


trSefjzpfay:aomt&mrsm;omru? jzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdaom t&mtm;vHk;wdkYudkvnf;
odjrifawmfryl g\/ olonf cyford ;f aomtcsed u f mvwdüYk jzpfay:vmrnht f &mrsm;
tm;vH;k wdu
Yk kd odjrifawmfryl g\/ xm0&umvESiq fh ikd af om ol\tBut H pnfawmf
rSm þtcsut f vufrsm;tm;vH;k wdu
Yk kd qifjcifjcif;jzihjf zpfygonf(a&m? 8;28-30)/

9/ ajymif;vJjcif;r&Sad om? rajymif;vJEikd af om t&Sijf zpfawmfr\


l /

bk&m;ocifonf ajymif;vJjcif;r&Sdaomol jzpfygonf/ qdkvdkonfrSm


b,faomtcgrQ rajymif;vJEdkifaom ol\twGif;oabm tESpfom&udk qdkvdk
ygonf (,m? 1;17? a[NAJ? 6;17? rm? 3;6)/ {a[NAJ? 13;8}/ [1aum? 12;4? {?
1;13] /
401

þtrltusirfh mS bk&m;ocifonf tpOftNrjJ yKawmfral om vlom;wdaYk y:


üxm;&Sdonfh uwdawmfrsm;\ tusKd;aus;Zl;qdkif&myifjzpfygonf/ olonf
rdrdpdwfESvHk;awmfudk b,faomtcgrQ ajymif;vJvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg/ olrdefYawmf
rlonfrmS ]]a,½Ic&pfü wnfí Zmwdyuwdtwdik ;f rusi?hf 0dnmOfyuwdtwdik ;f
usiahf om olwo Ykd nf tjypfp&D ifjcif;ESihf vGwMf u\}} (a&m? 8;1)/ ol\ pdwEf v S ;kH
awmfudk b,faomtcgrQ ajymif;vJvdrfhrnfr[kwfaMumif; uREfkyfwdkYtjynhft0
pdwcf scv
kd EHI ikd yf gonf/ olonf a,½Ic&pfawmfukd ,HMk unfu;kd pm;aom olwt Ykd ay:ü
xm0&toufudk ay;awmfrlrnf[k uwdawmf&Sdygonf/ odkYjzpfí olonf
þ{0H*vdw&m;udk y,fzsuv f rd rhf nfr[kwaf Mumif; uREykf w f o
Ykd &d EdS ikd yf gonf (a,m?
3;16)/ tu,fí bk&m;ocifonf oljyKawmfral om *wdawmfrsm;udk acszsuyf gu
olonf vdrn f maomoljzpfygvdrrhf nf/ xdo k q
Ykd akd omf olonf rajzmihrf wfaomol
jzpfoGm;ygrnf (a[NAJ? 6;17-18)/

þpBuFm0VmxJü &SdorQaom tjcm;aomt&m &SdorQtm;vHk;wdkYrSm


ajymif;vJvsu&f adS eygonf/ bk&m;ocifonf ajymif;vJjcif;r&Sad om wpfyg;wnf;
aomol jzpfyg\/ xdt k aMumif;wdaYk Mumihf olt
Y ay:ü arQmv
f ihjf cif;onf uREykf w
f \
Ykd
0dnmOfrsm;twGuf ]]ausmufql;}}ozG,fjzpfygonf (a[NAJ? 6;19)/

10/ or®mw&m;jzpfawmfrljcif;

bk&m;ocifonf vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; or®mw&m;jzpfawmfrlyg\ (w&m;?


32;4? a,m? 7;28? 17;3)/ [a[m? 14;6? 1a,m? 5;20]/ {1a,m? 5;7-8?
4;6? a,m? 14;17? 15;26? 16;13}/

þodaYk om trltusit fh m;jzihf uREykf w


f t
Ykd m; ajymjyonfrmS cyford ;f aom
bk&m;ocifred aYf wmfro
l rQwrYkd mS tjynht f 0 ,HMk unfavmufaom t&mjzpfygonf
402

(awmvnf? 23;19)/ odjYk zpfí rkom;ESihf vdrn


f majymqdjk cif;rSm bk&m;ociftwGuf
rjzpfEdkifaomt&mjzpfygonf (wdwk? 1;2)/

or®mw&m;rSm bk&m;ocifonf a,½Ic&pfawmf\ yk*¾dKvfawmftm;jzihf


rdrdukd,fudk xif&Sm;jyoawmfrl jcif;jzpfygonf (a,m? 14;6)/ ordkif;aMumif;
wpfavQmufvHk;\ rSefuefjcif;rSm wnf&Sdjcif;? azmfjyjcif; odkYr[kwf ed,mrwdkYjzihf
azmfjyxm;ygonf/ xdt k aMumif;wdaYk Mumihf rnfonht
f rlt&mürqdk vlom;wdo Yk nf
or®mw&m;udk ,HMk unfEikd &f ef a,½Ic&pfawmf\ EIwxf uG pf um;awmfEiS fh EIid ;f ,SOjf y&
ygrnf (1wd? 6;3)/

tydkif; - 2
bk&m;ocif \ emrawmfrsm;
ed'gef;

þtcef;u@ü or®musrf;pmxJwGif awGU&Sd&aom bk&m;ocif\


trnfemrawmfrsm; odrYk [kwf bGUJ emrawmfrsm;ay:ü tm½Hjk yK avhvmoGm;rnf/
bk&m;ociftm; ac:a0:aom trnfemr a0g[m& pum;vH;k rsm;ESifh ywfoufí
*&dbmomESifh a[NAb J momwdw Yk iG f uGjJ ym;jcm;em;aom a0g[m& pum;vH;k rsm;pGm
&Syd gonf/ xdt
k &mrsm;wdrYk mS bk&m;ocif\ touf&iS f wnf&adS wmf rljcif; odrYk [kwf
ol\trltusihfvu©PmwdkY\ xl;jcm;csufwdkYudk tm½HkjyKap&ef toHk;jyKcJhjcif;
jzpfygonf/
403

tcsKdUaom bmomjyefqkdcsufrsm;ü a[NAJbmom odkYr[kwf *&dbmom


a0g[m&pum;vH;k wdrYk mS xdpk um;vH;k wd\ Yk toHxu G rf sm;ay:tajccHí xdak 0g[m&
pum;vH;k wd\ Yk tESpo f m&udk em;vnfjcif;r&Sb
d J topfaom a0g[m& pum;vH;k
xJoYkd ½d;k pif;pGm ul;ajymif;apcJMh uygonf/ þavhvmjcif;ü rnfoyYkd ifqakd pumrl
bmomjyefqdk&mwGif a[NAJbmom odkYr[kwf *&dbmomrl&if;bGJUemr ESpfckpvHk;
udkavhvmaomolwdkYtm; azmfjyay;xm;ygonf/

u/ a[NAJbmoma0g[m&emrnfrsm;

1/ bk&m;ocif

a[NAb J mompum;ü ]]bk&m;ocif}}udk tDavm[D;rf ELOHIM[laom


a0g[m&pum;vH;k rS bmomjyef qdx k m;cJyh gonf/ xkad 0g[m&udk yxrOD;qH;k (urÇm?
1;1)ü awGU&Sd&NyD;? "r®a[mif;usrf;xJü tBudrfaygif; 2500 cefY ay:vmygonf/
þa0g[m&pum;vH;k \ t"dymÜ ,frmS bk&m;ocif\ jzpfawmfrjl cif;qdik &f m tm;vH;k
wdYk yg0ifNy;D ? ol\t&nftaoG;rsm; tm;vH;k wdrYk mS wpfcsed w f nf;rSmyif rsuaf rSmuf
xif&mS ;ygonf/ þa0g[m&pum; vH;k udk crnf;awmftm; azmfjy&mwGif Burd zf ef
rsm;pGm toHk;jyKcJhygonf/ oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m;jzpfawmfrlaomaMumihf þodkY
toH;k jyKawmfrjl cif;tm;jzihf om;awmfEiS fh oef&Y iS ;f aom 0dnmOfawmfuv kd nf; azmfjy
&ef toHk;jyKjcif;jzpfaMumif; avhvmaomolwdkY jrifMu&ygvdrhfrnf/

tDavm[D;rf ELOHIM[kqdk&mü trsm;udef; (wpfckxuf ydkí


rsm;aomol) pum;vH;k jzpfí ]]trsm;ESiq fh ikd af om Bu;D jrwfawmfrjl cif;}} [lí usr;f
wwfyk*¾dKvfrsm;tm;jzihf azmfjyxm;cJhMuygonf/ þbGJUemronf bk&m;ocif\
tueft Y owfrahJ om Bu;D jrwfawmfrjl cif;udk ñTejf yygonf/ þa0g[m&pum;vH;k rSm
trsm;udef;yHko@mefudk aqmifaomfvnf; toHk;jyKaom Bud,mrSm tenf;udef;
404

(wpfckudef;) jzpfí bk&m;ocifwpfyg;wnf;om &SdawmfrlaMumif;udk wpfzuf


azmfjyjcif;jzpfygonf (w&m;? 6;5)/

tDavm[D;rf [laom a0g[m&pum;vH;k rSm rMumcP qdo k vdyk iftjcm;


aom pum;vH;k ESiw
fh zJG ufí bk&m;ociftwGuf tjcm;aom bGUJ emrwpfck jzpfvm
ygonf/

(u) teEÅwefcdk;&Sif bk&m;ocif

]]teEÅwefcdk;&Sifbk&m;ocif}} [lí bmomjyefqdkjcif;rSm tJ-&S'dkif;


ELSHADDAI rS jzpfygonf/ EL [laom pum;vH;k rSm tDavm[D;rf; pum;
vH;k twdak umufac:a0:jcif;jzpfygonf/ xdak 0g[m&pum;vH;k tm; bk&m;ocif
onf rdrv d w l aYkd y:ü oGe;f avmif;awmfral om aumif;Bu;D r*Fvmrsm;udk azmfjy&mwGif
toH;k jyKcyhJ gonf/

þbGJUemrudk awGU&aom ae&mrsm;rSm (u? 17; 1? 28; 3? 35; 11? 43;


14? 48; 3? 49; 25? xGuf? 6; 3? awm? 24; 4-16? ½ko? 1; 20-21? a,m? 5;
17? 6; 4-14? 8; 3? 5? 11; 7? 13; 3? 15; 25? 21; 15-20? 22; 3? 17? 23? 25?
26? 23; 16? 24; 1? 27; 2? 10? 11? 13? 29; 5? 31; 2-35? 32; 8? 33; 4? 34;
10-12? 35; 13? 37;23? 40;2? qm? 68; 14? 91; 1? a[&Sm? 13; 6? a,? 1; 24?
10; 5? a,m? 1; 15)/
405

(c) tjrihfqHk;aom bk&m;ocif

]]tjrih f q H k ; aombk & m;ocif } }[l a om bG J U emrud k tJ v f - tJ v f & G e f


EL ELYON [laom a0g[m&pum;vH;k rS bmomjyefqjkd cif;jzpfí cyford ;f aom
trlt&mrsm; tm;vHk;wkdYay:ü BuD;Muyf tkyfpdk;awmfrlaomol[lí ñTefjyxm;yg
onf/

awGUjrif&aomae&mrsm;rSm (u? 14; 18-20? 22? 40; 17? awm? 24;


16? w&m;? 26; 19? 28; 1? 32; 8? a,m? 16; 5? 2&m? 22; 14/ 3&m? 9; 8? 4&m?
15; 35? 18; 17? 5&m? 7; 24? 6&m? 7; 21? 8; 5? 23; 20? 27; 3? 32; 30? ae?
3; 25? qm? 7; 17? 9; 2? 18; 13? 21; 7? 46; 4? 47; 2? 50; 14? 57;2? 73;
11? 77; 10? 78; 17? 35? 56? 82; 6? 83; 18? 87; 5? 89; 27? 91; 1-9? 92;
1? 97; 9? 107; 11? a[&Sm? 7; 3? 14; 14? 36; 2? a,? 20; 2? 36; 10? jrnf?
3; 35? 38? a,Z? 9; 2? 41; 7? 42; 5)/

(*) xm0&bk&m;ocif

]]xm0&bk&m;ocif}}[k azmfjycsurf mS tJvt f v kd rf EL OLAM[laom


a0g[m&pum;vH;k rS bmomjyefjcif; jzpfygonf/ a[NAaJ 0g[m&pum;vH;k tdv k rf
OLAM rSm xm0&umv (tqH;k r&Sad om)[lí oH;k EIe;f onfxuf xm0&umv
(tpr&S?d tqH;k r&S)d [lí oH;k EIe;f ygu ydrk í
kd aumif;rGepf mG em;vnfjcif; &Syd grnf/

xdb
k UJG emrudk (urÇm? 21; 33 ESifh a[&Sm? 40; 28)wdw Yk iG f awGU&ygonf/
bk&m;ocifonf xm0&umvESiq fh ikd í
f oH;k EIe;f &mwGif xm0& (tkv d rf)[laom
a0g[m&onf Budrfzefrsm;pGm ay:vmygonf/
406

2/ xm0&bk&m;

,ma0; YAHWEH [laom a0g[m&pum;vHk;udk ]]xm0&bk&m;}}


[lí Budrfzefrsm;pGm bmomjyefqdkxm;ygonf/ xdkodkYqdkaomf ]]ocif}} odkYr[kwf
]]t&Sif}} [laom bmomjyefjcif;wdkYrSm wpfrlxl;jcm;rI&SdaMumif;udk azmfjyygonf/
,ma0; YAHWEH [laom a0g[m&onf bk&m;ocif\ ]]yk*¾dKvfawmf}}ESihf
]]pDrHrI}}wdkYudk azmfjyxm;ygonf/

bk&m;ocif\ emrawmfjzpfaom ]]xm0&bk&m;}}[laom bGJUemronf


a[NAaJ 0g[m&pum;vH;k ,ma0; YAHWEHrS rsm;aomtm;jzihf bmomjyefqkd
xm;ygonf/ xm0&bk&m; ,ma0;onf bk&m;ocif\ ud, k yf ikd f trnfemrjzpfí
(xGw?f 3;14) 5300 Burd x f ufrenf; "r®a[mif;usr;f xJü awGU&ygonf/ xdb k UJG emr
onf rdrd wpfO;D wnf; touf&iS w f nf&EdS ikd af omol[íl jzpfygonf/ xm0&bk&m;
udk yxrOD;qH;k toH;k jyKonfukd (urÇm? 2;4) ü awGU&S&d Ny;D bk&m;ocif ELOHIM
ESifh qufE, f m bk&m;ocif xm0&bk&m; LORD GOD [lí bmomjyefqdk
G u
xm;ygonf/

AmAkvkefjynfodkY uRefjyKodrf;oGm;jcif;udk cH&NyD;aemuf (586-516 bDpD)


£oa&vvlrsK;d wdw Yk iG f bk&m;ocif\ ud, k yf ikd t
f rnfemrusr;f xJüom &Sv
d mcJyh g
awmhonf/ xdo k wl o Ykd nf bk&m;ocif\ emrawmfukd r>rufqMkd uyg/ xm0&bk&m;
[k ac:&rnfhtpm; tm'dkEdIif; ADONAI [lí ac:qdkcJhMu&ygonf/ at'D
ajcmuf ESihf ckESpf&mpkESpftwGif; tm'dkEIdif;[laom pum;vHk;\ o&oHxGufaom
pum;vHk; wdkYudk Asnf;oHxGufaom VHWH odkYaygif;xnhfum ]]Jehovah
a,a[m0g}} [lí toHxGufvmcJhjcif;jzpfygonf/
407

(u) xm0&bk&m;jyifqifawmfrlrnf

]]xm0&bk&m;jyifqifawmfrrl nf}}[laom bGUJ emrudk ]]a,a[m0g,da&}}


YAHWEH JIREH [laom a0g[m&pum;vH;k rS bmomjyefqx kd m;ygonf/
þbGJUemrudk (urÇm? 22; 14) ü awGU&NyD; xm0&bk&m;onf tmjA[Htm;
ol\om; £Zmuf udk,fpm; odk;oi,f,Zfaumifudk jyifqifay;awmfrljcif;udk
ñTejf yygonf/

(c) xm0&bk&m;onf ig\atmifvH


]]xm0&bk&m;onf ig\atmifv}H }[laom bGUJ emrawmfrmS ]]a,a[m0g
edód}} YAHWEH NISSI [laom a0g[m&pum;vHk;rS bmomjyefqdkxm;
jcif;jzpfygonf/ þbGJUemrudk (xGuf? 17; 15) ü awGU&Sd&NyD;/ bk&m;ocifonf
arma&SbufrSaeNyD; tmrvufvlwdkYudk wdkufcdkufacsrIef;awmfrljcif;rS ac:a0:
jcif;jzpfygonf/

(*) xm0&bk&m;onf Nidrfoufjcif;t&Sif


xm0&bk&m;onf Nird o f al om bGUJ emrudk YAHWEH
f ufjcif;t&Si[
SHALOMrS bmomjyefqx kd m;jcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;bGUJ emrudk (w&m;? 6;24)wGif
awGU&onf/

(C) aumif;uifAdkvfajct&Sif xm0&bk&m;

]]aumif;uifAdkvfajct&Sif xm0&bk&m;}}[laom bGJUemrawmfrSm


YAHWEH SABBAOTH a,a[m0g&Sbw k [
f al om a0g[m&pum;vH;k rS
bmomjyefqjkd cif;jzpfygonf/ ppfzufqikd &f m toH;k tEIe;f wpfcjk zpfí xm0&bk&m;
408

ocifonf aumif;uifwrefwyfrsm;ESihf £oa&vwyfrsm;wdkYay:ü AdkvfcsKyf


jzpfawmfral Mumif;udk qkv
d ykd gonf/ þbGUJ emrudk (1&m? 1; 3)ü yxrqH;k toH;k jyKchJ
ygonf/ wzef tBudrfaygif;wpf&mxufru toHk;jyKcJhygonf/

3/ xm0&bk&m;? ocif? ydkifqdkifol

tm'dEk idI ;f ADONAI [laom a0g[m&pum;vH;k rsmvnf; tDv[ kd ifrf


ELOHIM uJhodkYyif trsm;udef;jzpfNyD; BuD;jrwfawmfrlaom bk&m;ocif[lí
ñTefjyygonf/ rnfodkYyifqkdap ELOHIM ESihfrwlbJ tenf;udef;tjzpf
awGU&Sd&onfrSm ADON tm'Gef[líjzpfygonf/ ADON tm'Gef[laom
a0g[m&pum;vH;k \ qdv k &kd if;rSm ]]ocif}}[líjzpfNy;D ? ydik q
f ikd af omolukd azmfjyjcif;
jzpfygonf/ xdt Yk jyif tcGit fh mPmudv k nf; ñTejf y&ef toH;k jyKygonf/ (u? 18;
3)ü yxrOD;qHk; toHk;jyKNyD; tmjA[Honf þemrawmfjzihf xm0&bk&m;udk
ac:qkdcJhygonf/ xdka0g[m&pum;vHk;ESihfnDrQaom *&da0g[m&pum;vHk;rSm
ul&D;atmfpf KURIOS [lí jzpfygonf/

c/ *&da0g[m&trnfemrrsm;

1/ bk&m;ocif

]]bk&m;ocif}}twGufoHk;aom *&da0g[m&pum;vHk;rSm oDaMomfpf


THEOS [l í jzpf y gonf / a[NAJ a0g[m&pum;vH k ; rS m tD a vm[D ; rf
ELOHIM [líjzpfygonf/ þbGUJ emronf bk&m;ocif\ t&nftaoG; &So d rQ
tm;vH;k udk wcsed w
f nf;rSmyif azmfjyxm;ygonf/ xdak 0g[m&pum;vH;k oDaMomfpf
THEOS rSm tDavm[Dr;f ELOHIM uJo h yYkd if rMumcPqdo
k vdyk if pufwl
409

*sifh SEPTUAGINT ü bmomjyefqdkxm;ygonf/ (SEPTUAGINT


rSm *&dbmomjzihf bmomjyefqakd om a[NA"J r®a[mif;usr;f jzpfygonf/) (a,m?
1;1) ESifh (urÇm? 1;1) wGif azmfjyxm;aom bGJUemr tDavm[D;rf ELOHIM
twGuf oDaMomfpf THEOS udk tpm;xdk;í toHk;jyKxm;onfudk &Sif;vif;pGm
awGUjrif&ygonf/ xdkbGJUemrawmfESpfckwdkY\ qufEG,frIudk &Sif;vif;pGm azmfjy
xm;ygonf/

2/ xm0&bk&m;

*&dbmoma0g[m&wGif ]]xm0&bk&m;}}udk ul&aD tmfpf KURIOS [lí


jzpfygonf/ xdkbGJUemrudk "r®opfusrf;xJü tBudrfaygif; 700 xufrenf;
toHk;jyKNyD;? wefcdk;tmPmawmfESihf tkyfpdk;awmfrljcif;udk txl;jyKxm;ygonf/
þa0g[m&pum;vHk;udk ½dkaoav;jrwfjcif;[lívnf; toHk;jyKEdkifygao;onf/
THEOS oDatmfpfESihf ELOHIM tDavm[D;rf;wdkYrSm wlnDaom t"dyÜm,f
&SdMuaMumif;txufü uREfkyfwdkY awGUjrifcJhNyD;jzpfygonf/ xdkenf;wl KURIOS
ul&Datmf(pf)ESihf YAHWEH ,ma0;[laom bGJUemrwdkYrSmvnf; wlnDaom
t"dymÜ ,f&adS Mumif;udk uREykf w
f aYkd wGUjrifMu&ygvdrrhf nfjzpf\/ (rm? 11; 9) ü pma&;
olonf (qm? 118; 26)ü azmfjyxm;aom ]]xm0&bk&m;\ emrawmfESifh
<uvmawmfral omolonf r*Fvm&S\ d }}[lí azmfjyxm;aomtcsuu f kd ud;k um;xm;
jcif;jzpfygonf/ (qm? 118)ü a[NAJa0g[m&pum;vHk;rSm YAHWEH
,ma0[líjzpfNy;D KURIOS[laom pum;vH;k a0g[m&tjzpfoYkd bmomjyefqkd
xm;ygonf/
410

3/ ocif

]]ocif}}[laom pum;vH;k rSm DESPOTES 'Dpyf w kd ;D pf[al om a0g[m&


pum;vH;k odYk bmomjyefqx dk m;ygonf/ odaYk omfvnf; xdpk um;vH;k udk ]]ocifb&k m;}}
[lívnf; bmomjyefqx kd m;ygonf/ (vk? 2; 29? w? 4;24)/ ]]ocif}} [lonfrmS
KURIOS[laompum;vHk;ü azmfjytxl;jyKxm;onhf wefcdk;tmPmESihf
tkyfpdk;awmfrljcif;udk txl;jyKonfxuf ]]ydkifqdkifjcif;}}[laom oabmudk ydkrdkí
txl;jyKazmfjyxm;ygonf/ xdkpum;vHk;udk (1wd? 6; 1? 2? wd? 2; 21? wd? 2; 9?
1ay? 2; 18? 2 ay? 2; 1? ,k? 1; 4? Asm? 6; 10) wdkYwGif awGU&ygonf/

tydkif; - 3

crnf;awmfb&k m;
u/ yk*¾dKvfjzpfawmfrljcif;

crnf;awmfbk&m;udk azmfjy&ef taumif;qHk;aom enf;vrf;rSm ol


ud,
k w f ikd zf iG jfh yí toH;k jyKawmfral om olUEIwxf u
G pf um;tm;jzihf avhvmqef;ppf
jcif;yif jzpfygonf/ oH;k yg;wpfqb l &k m;taMumif; uREykf w
f Ykd avhvmrIü jynhpf NkH y;D
jzpfygonf/ crnf;awmf? om;awmfEiS fh oef&Y iS ;f aom0dnmOfawmfwrYkd mS wlnaD om
trltusifh p½du k v
f u©Pm&SMd uonfjzpfaMumif;udk uREyfk w f Ykd rSwo
f m;cJ&h ygonf/
411

,ckwiG f uREykf wf \Ykd aumif;uifb&kH iS t


f z taMumif;ESiyfh wfoufí uREykf wf t Ykd m;
oGeo f ifay;csurf sm;udk or®musr;f pmudk toH;k jyKí azmfjycsurf sm;ay:ü qifjcifMu
ygpd/Yk

crnf;awmf? om;awmf? oef&Y iS ;f aom0dnmOfawmfwt Ykd Mum;wGif xl;jcm;rI


&Syd gonf/ bk&m;ocifwpfqw l nf;omvQi&f ydS gonf (w&m;? 6; 4)/ or®musr;f pmxJ
ü oH;k yg;wpfqb l &k m;wdwYk iG f þusr;f csuo f nf rnfot Yl m; txl;jyKí ñTe;f qdok nf
jzpfaMumif;udk cGJjcm;owfrSwf&ef cufcJvSygonf/ þcufcJrIudk arQmfvihfzG,fESihf
em;vnf&cufygonf/ tb,faMumihq f akd omf bk&m;ocifonf oD;jcm;pD cGjJ cm;xm;
ír&yg odkYr[kwf uGJjym;jcm;em;í r&yg (a,m? 10; 30? 14; 9)/ crnf;awmf\
olUp½duk af wmfEiS yfh wfoufí qef;ppfavhvm&mwGif pum;vH;k rsm;ESifh pum;pkrsm;udk
a&G;cs,Nf y;D avhvmjcif;tm;jzihf olonf rnfojl zpfawmfral Mumif;udk od&edS m;vnf
jcif;ESihf oabmaygufjcif;wdkYudk wdk;yGm;apygonf/

Burd zf efrsm;pGm azmfjyxm;onhpf um;vH;k rSm ]]ig}}uJo h aYkd om pum;vH;k jzpfí


]]crnf;awmf}}ESit fh wl toH;k jyKcyhJ gonf/ þtcsut f m;jzihf crnf;awmf olUp½du k f
awmfjzpfjcif; oabmobm0udk azmfjyxm;ygonf/ ]]oif}} ]]ol\}} odkYr[kwf
]]olr\}} [laom pum;vH;k wdw Yk iG f ]]crnf;awmf}}[laom pum;vH;k odv Yk nf; aygif;
xnho f nfukd yk*Kd¾ vjf zpfjcif;ESifh qufE, G rf yI ikd ;f qdik &f m azmfjyxm;ygonf/ trsm;ude;f
jzpfonfh ]]uREfkyfwdkY}} ]]oifwdkY}} odkYr[kwf ]]olwdkY}} uJhodkYaom pum;vHk;rsm;rSm
yl;aygif;í qufEG,frIydkif;qdkif&mudk azmfjyxm;ygonf/
412

c/ crnf;awmf\ yk*¾dKvfjzpfawmfrlaMumif;udk atmufygtwdkif; azmfjy


xm;ygonf

]]teEÅwefc;kd Bu;D aom}} ol\wefc;kd ESifh aumif;Bu;D ay;&ef wwfEikd af wmfrl


jcif; t&nftaoG;wdkY yg0ifygonf (u? 49; 25? awm? 24; 4? 16? ½k? 1; 20-
21? a,m? 5; 17? 6; 4-14? 8; 3? 5? 11; 7? 13; 3? 15; 25? 21; 15-20? 22;
3? 17? 23? 25? 16? 23; 16? 24; 1? 27; 2? 10? 11? 13? 29; 5? 31; 2? 35? 32;
8? 33; 4? 34; 10? 12? 35; 13? 37; 23? 40; 2? qm? 68; 14? 91; 1? a[&Sm?
13; 6? a,Z? 1; 24? a,mv? 1; 15? Asm? 1; 8)/

ã ]]a&S;umvaeY&ufrsm;}} ol\ xm0&umvESiqfh ikd af om oabmobm0


udk ñTefjyygonf (u? 21; 33? a[&Sm? 317; 9? 13? 22? 40; 28)('H? 7;9? 13?
22)/

ã ]]xm0&bk&m;}}ol\ xm0&umvESifhqdkifaom oabmobm0udk


ñTefjyonf (u? 21; 33? a[&Sm? 40; 28)/

ã ]]opöm&Sdaombk&m;ocif}} ol\ rajymif;vJEdkifaom cspfjcif;arwåm


oabmobm0udk ñTefjyygonf (w&m;? 7; 9)/

ã ]]crnf;awmf\ bkef;toa&awmf}} bkef;toa&&Sd&SdorQtm;vHk;rSm


olYxHawmfrSjzpfaMumif;ñTefjy\ ({zuf? 1; 17)/

ã ]]aus;Zl;u½kPmESijfh ynhpf akH omtz}} ol\EIid ;f jyír&Edik af om aus;Zl;awmf


udk ñTefjy\ (2 aum? 1; 3)/

ã ]]tjrihq
f ;kH aombk&m;ocif}} pBumF 0Vmwpfcv
k ;kH \ tjrihq
f akH omwefc;kd udk
ydkifqdkifawmfrlaMumif; ñTefjy\ (u? 14; 18-20? 22/ qm? 57; 2? 78; 35?
a[NAJ? 7;1)/
413

ã ]]opömapmihfaombk&m; - ajzmihfrwfaombk&m;}} olonf tpOfxm0&


trSm;t,Gif;rjyKaMumif; ñTefjy\ (w&m;? 32;4)/

ã ]]bke;f Bu;D awmfral ombk&m;}} ol\xif&mS ;xGe;f awmufaom obm0udk


ñTefjy\ (qm? 29; 33? w? 7; 2)/

ã ]]bk&m;wd\
Yk t&Si}f } avmuDbmoma&;qdik &f m bk&m;&So
d rQtm;vH;k wdaYk y:ü
ol\BuD;MuyfuGyfuJjcif; wefcdk;awmfudk ñTefjy\ (w&m;? 10; 17? qm? 136; 2?
'H? 2; 47? 11; 36)/

ã ]]Nird o
f ufjcif;\ t&Sib
f &k m;ocif}} bk&m;ocifonf y#dyu©jzpfjcif;rsm;udk
tvdkawmfr&SdaMumif; ñTefjy\ (a&m? 15; 33? 16; 20? zd? 4; 9? 1ouf? 5; 23?
a[NAJ? 13;20)/

ã ]]touf&iS af om bk&m;ocif}} xm0&umvwnfaom oabmobm0


udk ñTefjy\ (róJ? 22; 32? rm? 12; 27? vk? 20; 38)/

ã ]]tjrihq
f ;kH aombk&m;ocif}} ol\tkypf ;kd awmfrjl cif;wGif MunfnKd av;jrwf
jcif;udk cHxdkufawmfrlaomol jzpfaMumif; ñTefjy\ (rd? 6; 6)/

ã ]]opömapmihaf wmfral om bk&m;ocif}} or®mw&m;udk t"dymÜ ,fziG afh wmfrl


aom bk&m;ocifjzpfaMumif; ñTefjy\ (qm? 31; 5? a[&Sm? 65; 16)/

ã ]]tvGefBuD;jrwfí aMumuf&GHUbG,fjzpfawmfrlaom t&Sifbk&m;ocif}}


xif&Sm;aom bkef;awmfESihf BuD;jrwf awmfrljcif;udk ñTefjy\ (w&m;? 7; 21? ae?
1; 5? 'H? 9; 4)/

ã ]]BuD;jrwfí r[mwefcdk;ESihf jynhfpHkvsuf aMumufrufzG,faombk&m;}}


xif&Sm;aom bkef;awmfESihf wefcdk;awmfudk ñTefjy\ (jrnf ?32; 18? ae? 9; 32)/
414

ã ]]bk&m;wumwdx Yk uf Bu;D jrwfaombk&if}} vlom;wdjYk yKaom bk&m;&So


d rQ
tm;vHk;wdkYay:ü tkyfpdk;awmfrl jcif;udk ñTefjy\ (qm? 95; 3)/

ã ]]aMumuf&UHG ½kad ozG,af ombk&m;}} MunfnKd av;pm;jcif;udk ydik q


f ikd af wmfrl
aomoljzpfaMumif; ñTefjy\ (qm? 76;11)/
ã ]]oefY&Sif;aomol}} ol\ ajzmihfrwfawmfrljcif;? pHkvifawmfrljcif;udk
ñTefjy\ (4&m? 19; 22/ a,m? 6; 10/ qm? 22; 3/qm? 71; 22? 78; 41? 89;
18/ ok? 9; 10? 30; 3? a[&Sm? 1; 41? 5; 19? 24? 10; 17? 20? 12; 6? 17; 7?
29; 19? 23? 30; 11-12? 15? 31; 1? 37; 23? 40; 25? 41; 14? 16? 20? 43;
3? 14? 15? 45; 11? 47; 4? 48; 17? 49; 7? 54; 5? 55; 5? 60; 9? 14/ a,?
50; 29? 51; 5/ a,Z? 39; 7/ a[m? 11; 9? 11; 12/ [A? 1; 12? 3; 3? 1a,m?
2; 20)/
ã ]]tjypf&o
dS nf[k ,Hv
k ,G af ombk&m;}} ol\tvdak wmft& ol\vlrsK;d wdEYk iS hf
ol \ tMum;wG i f tjcm;aom rnf o nh f b k & m;ud k r Q rud k ; uG , f & ef
qE´&SdawmfrlaMumif;udk ñTefjy\ (xGwf? 34; 14)/

ã ]]tjypf&Sdonf[k ,HkvG,fí 'Pfay;aombk&m;}} ol\vlwdkYudk cdk;,l&ef


&SmaomolwdkYay:ü w&m;pD&if vdrfhrnfjzpfaMumif; ñTefjy\ (em? 1;2)/

ã ]]bkef;BuD;aom&Sifbk&if}}olonftjrihfqHk;aom bkef;BuD;jcif;&Sdawmfrl
aMumif;udk ñTefjy\ (qm? 24;7-10)/

ã ]]touf&iS íf ppfreS af wmfral om bk&m;ocif}} tppftrSejf zpfí xm0&


umvESihfqdkifaomol\ oabmobm0 (1ouf? 1; 9)/

ã ]]teEÅwefc;kd ESifh jynhpf akH wmfral om xm0&t&Sib


f &k m;ocif}} ol\tcGifh
tmPm (xm0&bk&m;)? oabmobm0 (bk&m;ocif)ESihf wefcdk;awmf (teEÅ
415

wefcdk;) wdkYudk ñTefjy\ (Asm? 4; 8? 11; 17? 15; 3? 16; 7? 19; 6? 21; 22/ rm?
12; 29?/ w? 2; 39)/

ã ]]Nidrfoufjcif;}} ol\jynhfpkHaom vdkufavsmjcif; (w&m;? 6;24)/

ã ]]tjrifq
h ;Hk aom&Sib
f &k if}} ol\ydik q
f ikd af om tjrifq
h ;Hk ae&mESihf tmPm
&Sdawmfrljcif; (qm? 7;17?/ 47;2)/

ã ]]uRefawmfwdkY\ tzbk&m;}} ol\udk,fa&;oabmobm0ESifh tmPm


awmf (qm? 90;17? 'H? 9;9? 15? rmuk? 12;29? wref? 2;39)/

ã ]]cspjf cif;arwåm}} ol\oabmobm0xJü awGUjrif&aom tarGcjH cif;udk


ñTefjy\ (1a,m? 4; 8-16)/

ã ]]cspjf cif;oem;jcif; arwåmu½kPm}} ol\cspjf cif;arwåm trltusit


hf m;
xif&Sm;apaom opöm&Sdjcif;udk ñTefjy\ (xGuf? 34; 6-7/ w&m;? 5; 10? 7; 9?
12/ 3&m? 8; 23/ 5&m? 16; 34/ 6&m? 6; 14/ {Z? 3; 11/ ae? 1; 5? 9; 17/
a,m? 37; 13/ qm? 6; 4? 13; 5? 26; 3? 31; 16? 32; 10? 36; 5-7? 63; 3? 89;
2? 14? 103; 8? 11? 136; 1-2? 28? 138; 8/ jrnf? 3; 22? 32/ a,mv? 2; 13)/

ã ]]*kPftoa& bkef;tmEkabmf}} ol\tHhMozG,faumif;aom oabm


obm0udkñTefjy\ (2ay? 1; 17)/

ã ]]aumif;uifbHkü wefcdk;tmEkabmfawmf\yv’if}} ol\jrihfjrwfjcif;udk


ñTefjy\ (a[NAJ 1;3? 8; 1)/

ã ]]bkef;wefcdk;&Sif}} ol\jrihfjrwfjcif;udk ñTef;qdkonf (a,? 33;21)

ã ]]tjrihq
f ;kH aom bk&m;}} olonf cyford ;f aomt&m&So
d rQwaYkd y:ü &Sad wmfrl
aMumif;ñTef\ (awm? 24; 16/ w&m;? 32; 8/ 2&m? 22; 14/ qm? 7; 17? 9; 2?
416

18; 13? 21; 7? 46; 4? 47; 2? 50; 14? 57; 2? 73; 11? 77; 10? 78; 17? 35?
56? 82; 6? 83; 18? 87; 5? 91; 1? 9? 92; 1? 97; 9? 107; 11/ a[&Sm? 14; 14/
jrnf? 3; 35? 38/ 'Ha,? 3; 26? 4; 2? 17? 24? 25? 32? 34? 5; 18? 21? 7; 18?
22? 25? 27/ a[ma&S? 7; 16? 11; 7/ rmuk? 5; 7/ vk? 1; 32? 35? 76? 6; 35?
8; 28? wref? 7; 48? 16; 17/ a[NAJ? 7; 1)/

ã ]]ighoDcsif;}}aw;*DwESihfqdkif&m azmfjyjcif;oabmudk ñTefjy\

(xGuf? 15; 2/ qm? 118; 14? 119; 54/ a[&Sm? 12; 2)/

ã ]]wpfyg;wnf;aombk&m;}} bk&m;ocifjzpfawmfrlaMumif; ñTefjy\

(a,m? 5; 44/ 1wd? 1; 17/ ,k'? 1; 25)/

ã ]]wpfqlwnf;omvQif ynmESihfjynhfpHkawmfrlaom bk&m;ocif}} ol\


ÓPfynmawmfudk ñTefjy\ (a&m? 16; 27)/

ã ]]pHv
k ifaom}} ol\rnfonht f jzpf? rnfonht
f rSm;t,Gi;f wpfpw
kH pfcrk Q
r&SdaMumif; ñTefjy\ (róJ? 5; 48)/

ã ]]rSeaf ombk&m;ocif}} olonf vluzkd efqif;awmfrcl NhJ y;D ? vlonf bk&m;udk


zefqif;jcif;r[kwfaMumif; qdkvdkygonf

(6&m? 15; 3/ a,&rd? 10; 10/ 1a,m? 5; 20)/

*/ crnf;awmf\ vkyfaqmifjcif;tcef;u@

oHk;yg;wpfqlbk&m;ocif[laom BwdeDwDxJü crnf;awmf\ vkyfaqmif


awmfrljcif; tcef;u@udk aumif;uifESihfajrBuD; zefqif;awmfrljcif;rwdkifrD
tBuHtpnfawmftm;jzihf wnf&SdapawmfrlNyD;jzpfygonf ({? 1; 11? 3; 11)/
417

C/ crnf;awmf\ vkyfaqmifawmfrljcif; tcef;u@udk atmufyg


twdkif; azmfjyEdkifygonf

ã ]]cdkifcefYNrJNrHaomNrdKU}} twGif;ydkif;qdkif&mESihf tjyifydkif;qdkif&mwdkYwGif


wnfaqmufr&I o dS rQay:ü yHo k @mefEiS fh pDrcH suw
f u
Ykd kd csrw
S Ef ikd af omol\ t&nf
tcsif;ESihf wnfaqmufrItydkif;wpfckjcif;pDwkdY\ qufpyfrI&SdaMumif; wdkYudk
ñTefjyygonf (a[NAJ? 11; 10)/

ã ]]wnfaqmufaomol}} pDrHudef;tBuHtpnfawmfrsm;udk trSefwu,f


jzpfajrmufwnf&Sdap&ef ajymif;vJ ay;Edkifaom ol\t&nftaoG;udk ñTefjy\

(a[NAJ? 3; 4? 11; 10)/

ã ]]cspfoem;jcif; arwåmu½kPmESihf jynhfpHkaombk&m;}} vlom;wdkYay:ü


ol\pdwf&Snfonf;cHjcif;udk ñTefjy ygonf (xGuf? 34; 6)/

ã ]]trIa&mufaomumvü cdkvIH&m}} tm;enf;olwdkYtay:ü tEdkifxuf


jyKaomolwdkY\ wefcdk;tmPmudk ESpfoufawmfrljcif;r&SdaMumif; ñTefjyygonf
(a[&Sm,? 25; 4)/

ã ]]edpöxm0&bk&if}}ol\ xm0&umv pdk;pHawmfrljcif;udk ñTefjyygonf


(a,&rd ?10; 10)/

ã ]]tvif;wdkY\tz}} avmuudk tvif;ay;ap&ef qkaus;Zl;rsm;udk


ay;ydkifawmfrlaom t&SifjzpfaMumif; ñTefjyygonf (,m? 1; 17)/

ã ]]oem;jcif;u½kPm\tz ol\zefqif;jcif;tay:ü tpOfrjywf aus;Zl;


jyKawmfrlaMumif;udk ñTefjyxm;ygonf (1aum? 1; 3)/
418

ã ]]pdw0f n
d mOfw\
Ykd tz}} a,½Ic&pfü ,HMk unfaomolwt
Ykd m; 0dnmOfa&;&m
ESihfqdkifaom toufqkaus;Zl;udk ñTefjyygonf (a[NAJ? 12; 9)/

ã ]]rdbr&SdaomolwdkY\tz}} rdbr&SdaomolwdkYtay:ü ol\oem;jcif;


u½kPmudk jyygonf (qm? 68; 5)/

ã ]]tjypfukd ajzwwfaombk&m;}} vlom;wdt


Yk m; olw\
Ykd tjypf'pk ½du
k x
f rJ S
u,fwifvdkaomqE´udk ñTefjyygonf (ae[rd? 9; 17? qm? 99; 8)/

ã ]]toufprf;a&wGi;f }} xm0&umvü wnfaomtoufukd ay;ydik af wmf


rlaom t&SifjzpfaMumif; ñTefjyygonf (a,&rd? 2; 13? 17; 13)/

ã ]]rSefaompyspfEG,fyif}} 0dnmOfydkif;qkdif&m toD;udk xkwfvkyfay;&ef


ol\BuH&G,fawmfrlcsufudk azmfjy xm;ygonf (a,m? 15; 1)/

ã ]]£oa&vbke;f }} £oa&vvlrsK;d wdt Yk ay:ü ol\opöm&Sjd cif;ESifh wnfNrJ


apjcif;wdkYudk ñTefjyapjcif; (1&m? 15; 29/ rdu©m? 1; 15)/

ã ]]bk&m;ocifESihf igwdkYocifa,½Ic&pfawmf\tz}} a,½Ic&pfawmfESihf


ywfoufí bk&m;ocif\ zefqif;jcif;udk ñTefjyygonf

(a&mr? 15; 6/ 2aum? 1;3/ {zuf? 1; 3/ 1ay? 1; 3)/

ã ]]ihgudkzefqif;awmfrlaombk&m;}} vlcE¨mudk,fwnfaqmufrI ol\


ñTefMum;csuf yg0ifonfjzpfaMumif;udk ñTefjyygonf (a,mb? 35; 10)/

ã ]]ig\ausmufjzpfaom bk&m;ocif}} ,HMk unforl sm;twGuf wnfNird rf &I dS


jcif;udk rpawmfrlaMumif; ñTefjyxm;ygonf (qm? 42; 9)/
419

ã ]]tmjA[H? £Zmuf? ,mukyfwdkY\ bk&m;ocif}} tmjA[HESihfqdkifaom


y#dnmOfw&m;ü ol\aqmif&Guf csuftydkif;udk ñTefjyjcif;

(xGuf? 3; 16/ wref? 3; 13? 7; 32)/

ã ]]oufomjcif;trsKd;rsKd;wdkY\t&Sif}} 'ku©qif;&Jjcif;cH&mumvü ulnDrp


aomoljzpfaMumif; ñTefjyonf (2aum? 1; 13)/

ã ]]cyfodrf;aomowå0gwdkYudk tpdk;&aom bk&m;ocif}} tem*wftwGuf


ol\tpDtrHxJü uREfkyfwdkYtwGuf pdwfcsrI&Sdygonf (a&m? 15; 13)/

ã ]]arwåmud¤k if;? Nird ;f csr;f jcif;ud¤k if; ay;awmfral om bk&m;ocif}} y#dyu©


jzpfrIrsm;ü jyefvnf ausat;ap&ef ol\tvdkqE´udk ñTefjyygonf

(2aum? 13; 11)/

ã ]]ighukd u,fwifawmfral ombk&m;ocif}} wpfO;D csi;f ESiq


fh ikd &f m uREykf w
f \
Ykd
xm0&umv u,fwifjcif; oabmobm0udk ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 18; 46?
25; 5? 27; 9? 51; 14? 88; 1/ rdu©m? 7; 7/ [A? 3; 18/ vkum 1;47

ã ]]tuREfkyfcdkvHI&mbk&m;}} vlom;wpfOD;csif;wdkYtay:ü bk&m;ocif\


rpaxmufyHhawmfrljcif; oabm obm0udk ñTefjyjcif; (qmvH? 43; 2)/

ã ]]tusKd;tjypfay;wwfaom bk&m;ocifxm0&bk&m;}} rw&m;aom


olwdkYtay:ü w&m;pD&ifawmfrljcif;udk jyKawmfrlrnfjzpfaMumif; ñTefjyygonf
(a,&rd? 51; 56)/

ã ]]cyfodrf;aomowå0gwdkY\ touf0dnmOfudktpdk;&awmfrlaom bk&m;


ocifxm0&bk&m;}} touf&Sd owå0gtm;vHk;wdkYtay:ü wnf&Sdapawmfrlaom
obm0udk ñTefjyygonf (awmvnf? 27; 16)/
420

ã ]]igwdt
Yk zwnf;[laom bk&m;ocif}} ,HMk unforl sm;wdo Yk nf bk&m;ocif
ESit
fh wl rdom;pkqufE, G rf I &Sad Mumif; ñTejf yygonf (a&mr? 1; 7/ 1aum? 1; 3/
2aum? 1; 2/ *vm? 1; 3/ {zuf? 1; 2/ zdvdyÜd? 1;2/ aumvmoJ? 1; 2/ 2ouf?
1; 1? 2; 16/ zd? 1; 3/ ,mukyf? 1; 27)/

ã ]]igwdkYtpGrf;owådwnf;[laom bk&m;ocif}}wpfOD;jcif;ESihfqdkifaom
cGet
f m;udak y;aom t&if;tjrpf jzpfonfomru yl;aygif;jcif;ESiq
fh ikd &f m cGet
f m;
udkvnf; ay;awmfrlaom t&if;tjrpfjzpfaMumif; ñTefjyygonf (qm? 81; 1)/

ã ]]ajrBuD;ay:rSm&SdorQaom twdkif;wdkif; tjynfjynfwdkY\ bk&m;ocif}}


aumif;uifwrefrsm;ESihf vlom; tm;vHk;wdkYay:ü wnf&Sdaom rnfonhf tcGihf
tmPmwefc;kd rqdk xdt
k &mtm;vH;k wdt
Yk ay:ü pd;k pHaomoljzpfaMumif; ñTejf yygonf
(4&m? 19; 15/ a[&Sm? 37; 16)/

ã ]]crnf;awmfb&k m;}} cyford ;f aomt&mtm;vH;k wdu


Yk kd axmufyahH y;awmfrl
aom t&SifjzpfaMumif; ñTefjyygonf (a,m? 6; 27/ 1aum? 8; 6? 15; 24/
*vm? 1; 1/ {zuf? 5; 20? 6; 23/ zdvdyÜd? 2; 11/ aumavmo? 1; 3? 3; 17/
1ouf? 1; 1/ 2ouf? 1; 2/ 1wd? 1; 2/ wdwk? 1; 4? 1ay? 1; 2? 1ay? 1; 17?
2a,m? 1; 3? ,k'? 1; 1)/

ã ]]ihgbufü w&m;ojzihfpD&ifí vlpkwdkYudk ighatmufü ESdrfhcsaom bk&m;


ocif}} vlwpfOD;csif;wdkYESihf oufqdkifí rSm;,Gif;aomolwdkYtm; w&m;pD&ifawmf
rlaom t&SifjzpfaMumif;udk ñTefjyygonf (2&m? 22; 48/ qmvH? 18; 47)/

ã ]]onf;cHjcif;? oufomjcif;\ t&Sib


f &k m;ocif}} olonf ,HMk unfow
l \
Ykd
Muyfwnf;cufcJ&mumvü rpulnDaom t&SifjzpfaMumif; ñTefjyygonf
(a&mr? 15;5)/
421

ã ]]xm0&bk&m;onf rsm;jym;aom vlwdkYwGif w&m;pD&ifí}} olonf


vlrsK;d wdt
Yk ay:ü tusipfh ½du
k rf sm;udk y,fzsuaf y;ydik af om t&Sijf zpfaMumif; ñTejf y
ygonf (a,me? 4; 2)/

ã ]]ihgudkjrifawmfrlaombk&m;}} vlom;wdkYtay:ü owdESihf Munfh½Iawmfrl


jcif;udk ñTefjyygonf (urÇm? 16; 13)/

ã ]]rdbr&Sad omol\cdv
k &HI m}} bk&m;ocifonf rdbr&Sad omolwu
Ykd kd rpulnD
aMumif; ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 10; 14)/

ã ]]oifwu
Ykd kd ESpo
f rd ahf paom}} emusijf cif;a0'emrsm;udk aysmufuif;apEdik f
aomol\ t&nftcsif;udk ñTefjyygonf (a[&Sm? 51; 12)/

ã ]]olYpdwftBuHtpnfudk vltm;azmfjyaom}} ol\pdwfESvHk;awmfudk


vlom;wdkYtm; zGihfjyawmfrljcif;udk ñTefjyygonf (tmrkwf? 4; 13)/

ã ]]olw\
Ykd pdwEf v
S ;kH &So
d rQwu
Ykd kd zefqif;aomol}} vlom;wd\
Yk twGi;f ydik ;f
tusqHk;aom pdwfESvHk;udkyif wefcdk;awmftm;jzihf zefqif;awmfrlaMumif;udk
ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 33; 15)/

ã ]]igwdüYk jyKjyifaom wefc;kd awmftwdik ;f igwdaYk wmif;yef BupH nforQxuf


tvGex
f ;l jcm;pGm jyKjyifjcif;iSm wwfEikd af wmfral om bk&m;ocif}} tueft Y owfr&Sd
bwfprG ;f Ekid af wmfral omol\ vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;udk ñTejf yygonf ({zuf? 3; 20)/

ã ]]a,½Iudk aojcif;rSxajrmufapawmfrlaom 0dnmOfawmf}} a,½Ic&pf


awmf\ &Sifjyefxajrmufawmfrljcif;wGif crnf;awmf\ vkyfaqmifcsufudk
ñTefjyonf (a&mr? 8; 11)/

ã ]]oefY&Sif;awmfrlaomtz}} ol\ pHkvifawmfrlaom ajzmihfrwfjcif;udk


ñTefjyygonf (a,m[ef? 17; 11)/
422

ã ]]oifwwYkd iG af eí oef&Y iS ;f aombk&m;}} ol\ajzmihrf wfjcif;udk rsuaf rSmuf


umvü xif&Sm;apawmfrljcif; udk ñTefjyygonf (a[ma&S? 11; 9)/

ã ]]oif\vif}} ol\zefqif;awmfrjl cif;ü arwåmw&m; yGm;rsm;apawmfrjl cif;


udk ñTefjyygonf (a[&Sm? 54; 5)/

ã ]]rkq;kd rwdb
Yk ufrS w&m;pD&ifawmfr\
l }} tuG,t
f umrJah om olwt
Ykd ay:ü
*½kwpdkuf Munhf½Iawmfrljcif;udk ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 68; 5)/

ã ]]ajrBuD;vHk;udk pD&ifawmfrlaomocif}} ol\wefcdk;tmPmonf urÇm


wpf0rS ;f vH;k ay:ü oufa&mufwnf&dS awmfral Mumif; ñTejf yygonf (u? 18;25)/

ã ]]aumif;uifb\
kH t&Sib
f &k m;ocif}} ol\ yv’iaf wmfwnf&&dS mae&mudk
ñTefjyygonf ('Ha,v? 4; 37)/

ã ]]touf&Sifawmfrlaom crnf;awmf}} ol\rsufarSmufumv vIyf&Sm;


awmfrljcif;udk ñTefjyygonf (a,m[ef? 6; 57)/

ã ]]tpdk;&awmfrlaomt&Sif}} olonf ocifjzpfawmfrlaMumif;udk qdkvdk


ygonf (vkum? 2; 29)/

ã ]]xm0&bk&m;onf ig\atmifv}H } vlrsK;d awmfp\


k tvHuo hJ yYkd if uREykf w
f Ykd
tm½HkjyKOD;wnf&ef vdktyf awmfrlaMumif;udk ñTefjyygonf (xGuf? 17; 15)/

ã ]]tdkxm0&bk&m; tuREfkyf\ausmuf}} olonf ,HkMunfolwdkYtwGuf


wnfNidrfjcif;udkay;awmfrlaom t&SifjzpfaMumif;udk ñTefjyygonf

(qmvH? 19;14/ 28;1/ 144;1)/


423

ã ]]ajrBuD;wpfjyifvHk;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaomt&Sif}} ajrBuD;wpfjyifvHk;rSm


ol\wefcdk;tmPmatmufü &Sdawmf rlaMumif;udk ñTefjyygonf
(a[ma&S? 3; 13/ qmvH? 97; 5/ rdu©m? 4; 13/ Zmc&d? 4; 14)/

ã ]]aumif;uifEiS afh jrBu;D udk tpd;k &awmfral omtb}} pBumF Vmwpfcv


k ;kH udk
ol\wefckd;atmufü&SdaMumif; ñTefjyonf
(róJ? 11; 25/ vkum? 10; 21/ wref? 17; 24)/

ã ]]bk&ifw\
Ykd t&Si}f } ajrBu;D ay:ü &So
d rQaom&Sib
f &k iftm;vH;k wdt
Yk ay:ü
wefcdk;tmPm&Sdawmfrljcif; ('Ha,v? 2; 47)/

ã ]]igwdu
Yk kd zefqif;awmfral om xm0&bk&m;}} vlom;wdu
Yk kd zefqif;&mwGif
ol\wefcdk;tmPmudk toHk;jyK aMumif; ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 95; 6)/

ã ]]tuREf k y f w d k Y u d k umuG , f a wmf r l a ombk & m;&S i f } } ol \ vl w d k Y t m;


uG,fumrpEdkifaom tpGrf;owådudk ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 95; 11)/

ã ]]oifw\Ykd a&m*gudk Nird ;f apaomxm0&bk&m;}} a&m*ga0'emrsm;tay:ü


wefcdk;&SdaMumif; ñTefjyonf (xGuf? 15; 26)/

ã ]]oifwdkYudk oefY&Sif;apaombk&m;}} oifwdkYtm; avmut&mxJrS


oD;jcm;cGJxm;Edkifaom ol\wefcdk;udk ñTefjyygonf
(xGuf? 31; 13/ 0wfjyK 20; 8? 22; 32)/

ã ]]'Pfay;aombk&m;}} ol\vlwt Ykd ay:ü trsK;d rsK;d aom tcsed u


f mvwGif
qHk;roGefoifawmfrljcif;udk ñTefjyygonf (a,Zausv? 7; 9)/

ã ]]axmufyHhjcif;udk jyKawmfrlaomxm0&bk&m;}} ol\vlwdkYtm; Munhf½I


apmihfa&Smufawmfrljcif;udk ñTefjyjcif; (urÇmOD;? 22; 14)/
424

ã ]]oihu
f zkd efqif;aomol}} bk&m;ocif\ vufawmftm;jzihf zefqif;jcif;udk
ñTefjyygonf (a[&Sm,? 54; 5)/
ã ]]tvH;k pHw
k u
Ykd kd zefqif;awmfral om bk&m;ocif}} ol\ zefqif;jcif;trIukd
us,fjyefYapjcif; taMumif;udk ñTefjyygonf
(a'oem? 11; 5/ a,&rd? 10; 16? 51; 19)/
ã ]]aumif;uifbükH &Sad wmfral omocif}} wefc;kd tmPm&Sad om tjcm;olwu
Ykd kd
vnf; olonf cGJcefYrSwfom; awmfrlaMumif; ñTefjyygonf (aumavmoJ 4; 1)/
ã ]]ighoufao}} olonf uREfkyfwdkYtm; ckcHumuG,fay;&ef &yfaeonfh
taMumif;udk ñTefjyygonf (a,mb? 16; 19)/
ã ]]tuREykf af rQmv
f ihu
f ;kd pm;&m}} olt
Y ay:ü uREykf w
f \
Ykd ud;k pm;jcif; oabm
obm0udk ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 71; 5)/
ã ]]tuREykf u
f kd u,fwifawmfral ombk&m;}} u,fwifawmfrjl cif;taMumif;
oabmobm0udk ñTefjyyg onf (xGuf? 18; 4/ qmvH? 27; 9? 40; 17? 54; 4?
63; 7? 70; 5? 118; 7? 121; 1/ a[NAJ? 13; 6)/
ã ]]tuREykf cf v
kd &IH m awGUaomtrIukd odrw
S af wmfr\
l }} ol\ uREykf w
f t
Ykd ay:
ü uG,fumrpawmfrljcif;taMumif; oabmobm0udk ñTefjyygonf
(qmvH? 32; 7)/
ã ]]ig\arQmfvihfjcif;}} tem*wftaMumif;ESihfywfoufí bk&m;ocif
tm;udk;pm;jcif; oabmobm0udk ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 25; 21? 39; 7? 62;
5? 71; 5? 119; 74? 81? 114? wrefawmf? 23;6? 26; 6)/
ã ]]ig\tvif;}} bk&m;ocif\ vrf;jyydaYk qmifawmfrjl cif;udk ñTejf yygonf
(qmvH? 27; 1/ rdu©m? 7; 8)/
425

ã ]]ab;a&mufonfumvü tuREfkyfcdkvIH&m ab;vTwf&mjzpfawmfrl\}}


ab;'ku©cufcJrIay:ü uG,fumawmfrljcif;udk ñTefjyygonf

(a,&rd? 17;17? qmvH? 59; 16)/

ã ]]igrScD &kd m}} bk&m;ocif\ axmufyahH wmfrjl cif; oabmobm0udk ñTejf y


ygonf (2 &m? 22; 19/ qmvH? 18; 18)/

ã ]]oif\'kp½du
k t
f rIwu
Ykd kd ratmufarh oif\'kp½du
k t
f jypfwu
Ykd kd ajzvGwf
aomol}} bk&m;ocif\ tjypf vGwaf wmfrjl cif; oabmobm0udk ñTejf yygonf

(a[&Sm,? 43; 25)/


ã ]]uREfkyfwdkYcdkvIH&m}} olonf uREfkyfwdkY\ tdrfawmftrSefjzpfaMumif;
qdkvdkygonf (qmvH? 90; 1)/
ã ]]igwd\
Yk w&m;olBu;D }} vlrsK;d tm;vH;k wdt
Yk ay:ü ol\ w&m;pD&ifawmfrjl cif;
udk qkdvdkygonf (1&m? 24; 15/ a[&Sm,? 33; 22)/
ã ]]igwdkY\ynwfw&m;&Sif}} vlrsKd;tm;vHk;wdkYtay:ü wefcdk;awmftm;jzihf
pD&ifawmfrlrnfjzpfaMumif;udk qdkvdk ygonf (a[&Sm? 33; 22)/
ã ]]igwd k Y u d k a &G ; EI w f a omol } } vl o m;wd k Y t wG u f u,f w if j cif ; &&ef
a&G;0,fawmfrljcif;udk qdkvdkygonf (a[&Sm,? 47; 4? 63; 16)/
ã ]]igwd k Y c d k v I H & mjzpf í cG e f t m;ud k a y;awmf r l \ }} ol \ vl w d k Y t ay:ü
uG,fumrpjcif;udk qdkvdkygonf (qmvH? 46; 1)/
ã ]]aumif;uifajrBuD;&Sif tjrihfqHk;aombk&m;ocif}} cyfodrf;aomt&m
wdkYudk ydkifqdkifawmfrlaMumif; qdkvdkygonf (urÇmOD;? 14; 19? 22)/
426

ã ]]td;k xde;f orm;}} ol\vufawmftm;jzihf zefqif;yHo


k iG ;f awmfral Mumif;udk
qdkvdkygonf (a[&Sm? 29; 16? 45; 9? 64; 8/ a,&rd? 18; 4? 6/ aZc&d? 11;
13/ a&mr? 9; 21)/
ã ]]oifu
h akd &G;EIwaf omol}} wpfO;D csi;f \ u,fwifjcif;twGuf a&G;0,fjcif;
udkqdkvdkygonf (a[? 54; 5)/
ã ]]rdrdvlwdkY\ cdkvIH&m}} olYvlwdkYtwGuf umuG,frpjcif;udk ay;awmfrl
aMumif; qdkvdkygonf (a,mv? 3; 16)/
ã ]]rd;k oufrek w
f ikd ;f vGw&f m aea&mifu,
G u
f m&mjzpfawmfr\
l }} vlw\
Ykd qlyl
aomif;Murf;rIrS uG,fumaqmifrjcif; ay;awmfrlaMumif;udk ñTefjyonf
(a[? 25; 4)/
ã ]]w&m;awmfrlaomtz}} ol\ajzmihfrwfjcif;udk ñTefjyygonf
(a,m[ef? 17; 25)/

ã ]]w&m;ojzihf pD&ifaomol}} ol\rsufESmrvdkufyJ w&m;qHk;jzwfawmfrl


jcif;udk ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 7;11/ a,&rd? 11;20/ 2wd? 4;8)/

ã ]]igcdv
k &HI mausmuf}} ol\ uG,u
f maqmifrjcif;wGif wnfNird rf &I adS Mumif;udk
ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 94; 12)/

ã ]]ighukd tm;ay;aomausmuf}} cGet


f m;udjk zpfapaom wnfNird rf &I adS pjcif;
(qmvH? 62; 7)/

ã ]]igwdkYonf u,fwifjcif;odkYa&muf&mausmuf}} igwdkY\ u,fwifjcif;


csrf;omwnfNidrfjcif;udk ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 95; 1)/

ã ]]cdkvIH&m}} olonf vHkNcKHrIudkay;aom ae&mjzpfaMumif; ñTefjyygonf


(a[? 8; 14/ a,sZausv? 11;16)/
427

ã ]]u,fwifjcif;taMumif;}} olonf cdv


k &HI mjzpfawmfral Mumif; qdv
k ykd gonf
(qmvH? 28; 8)/

ã ]]aea&mifuG,fum&m}} zdESdyfjcif;jzpfay:vmaomtcg axmufyHhawmfrl


jcif; udk ñTefjyygonf (a[? 25; 4)/

ã ]]cGeftm;Av}} ol\wefcdk;udkay;awmfrljcif;taMumif; ñTefjyygonf


(a[&Sm,? 28; 6)/

ã ]]tuREykf Ef v
S ;kH \tpGr;f owå}d } ,HMk unfow
l \
Ykd ESv;kH om;xJwiG f olonf
vkyfaqmifí pGrf;tifudk ay;awmfrlaMumif; ñTefjyygonf (qmvH 73;26)/

ã ]]tuREfkyf\ u,fwifjcif;tpGrf;owåd}} uREfkyfwdkY u,fwifjcif;\


aemufuG,fü&Sdaomwefcdk; (qmvH? 140; 7)/

ã ]]ab;tEÅ&m,fa&mufonfumvcdkvIH&m}} vlwdkY\ zdESdyfñ§if;qJjcif;


atmufü &SdaeaomolwdkYtm; uG,fumrpawmfrljcif;jzpfygonf (qmvH? 9; 9)/

ã ]]ñ§i;f qJjcif;udck &H aomolw\ Ydk cdv


k &HI m}} rnfonhtf csed üf rqdk a&mufvm
aom zdEydS rf w
I rYkd S umuG,uf m aqmifrawmfrjl cif;udk ñTejf yygonf (qmvH? 9;9)/

ã ]]ihgtoufukd axmufyihaf omol}} 0dnmOfyikd ;f qdik &f m ol\rpaxmufyihf


awmfrljcif; oabmobm0udk ñTefjyygonf (qmvH? 54; 4)/

ã ]]q&m odkYr[kwf oGefoifEdkifol}} vlwdkYtm; oGefoifqHk;rjcif;udk


ay;Edkifaom t&nftcsif;udk ñTefjyygonf
(a,mb? 36; 22/ a[?&Sm 30; 20)/

ã ]]yXempum;udk em;axmifawmfral ombk&m;}} vlw\


Ykd awmifw
h aomqE´
udk em;vnfawmfrlaMumif; qdkvdkygonf (qmvH? 65; 2)/
428

ã ]]yd#dnmOfw&m;ESihf u½kPmw&m;udk apmihfa&Smufaomol}} olonf


cspjf cif;arwåmtjyif ol\ y#dnmOfw&m;udk apmihx
f ed ;f awmfral Mumif; qdv
k ykd gonf
(3&m? 8; 23/ 6&m? 6; 14)/

ã ]]ab;a&mufonfumv txl;ojzihf ulrawmfral Mumif;}} uREykf w


f o
Ykd nf
ulnDrpjcif;udk vdktyfaom tcg olonf uREfkyfwdkYESihftwl &SdawmfrlaMumif;
qdkvdkygonf (qmvH? 46; 1)/

tydkif; (4)
om;awmfjzpfaombk&m;ocif
u/ a,½Ic&pf\yk*¾dKvfawmf

om;awmft&Sifa,½Ionf vlYZmwdudk cH,lxm;aom bk&m;ocifyifjzpfonf/


olonf vloal wmfaumif;jzpfí bk&m;jzpfvmonfr[kw?f bk&m;tjzpfrS vltjzpf
ul;oef;jcif;jzpfonf (a,m? 1;1?14)/ bk&m;tjzpfrS vlYo@efudk wduspGm
cH,lcJhonf (a,m? 14;8-9/ a[NAJ? 1;3)/

1/ BudKwifwnf&SdESifhjcif;
taoG;tom;ESifh arG;zGm;í rvmrDuwnf;u ol&SdESifhonf ]]xdkom;awmfonf
aumif;uifay: ajrBu;D ay:rSm &So
d rQaom ½lyt&m? t½lyt&m? &mZyv’ijf zpfap?
429

tpdk;&jcif;wefcdk;jzpfap? txG#ftjrwfjzpfap? tmPmpufjzpfap? cyfodrf;aom


t&mwdkYudk zefqif;awmfrl\}} [lí (aumavmoJ? 1;16)ü az:jyonf/ (a,m?
8;58) wGif ocifudk,fwdkifu ]tmjA[HrjzpfrDigjzpf\} [k qdkxm;onf/

&Sifa,m[efc&pf0if\ ed'gef;ü
]]tptOD;ü EIwfuywfawmf&Sd\? EIwfuywfawmfonf bk&m;ocifESifh
twl&\ dS ? EIwu f ywfawmfonfvnf; bk&m;ocifjzpfawmfr\ l ? xdEk w
I u
f ywfawmf
onf tptOD;ü bk&m;ocifEiS t hf wl&\dS / xdEk w
I u
f ywfawmfonf cyford ;f aom
t&mwdu Yk kd zefqif;awmfr\ l / zefqif;awmfrjl cif;ESihf uif;vGwv f suf jzpfaomt&m
wpfpw kH pfcrk Qr&S}d } [kawGU&onf (a,m? 11;1-3)/ wpfzef (1;14)t& ]]EIwu f ywf
awmfonfvnf; vlZY mwd\tjzpfukd cH,í l aus;Zl;awmfEiS ¤hf if;? opömawmfEiS ¤hf if;
jynfph v kH suf igwdw Yk iG f wnfaeawmfro l nfjzpfí crnf;awmfü wpfyg;wnf;aom
om;awmf\ bkef;uJhodkY ol\bkef;awmfudk igwdkYonf jrif&MujyD}} [k qufí
awGU&onf/ ,if;az:jycsufrsm;tm;jzifh olonf teEÅumv\ ociftjzpf
wnf&SdaMumif; odomonf/

2/ bk&m;ESifhvltwlwl
a,½Ionf bk&m;ocifEiS v
hf t
l wl,OS w
f v
JG u
kd jf cif;jzpfonf/ olonfb&k m;pifppf?
vlpifppfjzpfonf/ em;vnf&ef cufrnftrSef? odkYaomfor®mw&m; jzpfonf
rSmvnf;trSeyf if/

c&pfawmfonf um;wdik af y:rSm taorcHrD tcsed t f enf;i,fuyifvQif zg&d&w JS Ykd


tm; ar;cGe;f wpfcx
k w
k jf yef cJ\
h / ]]ar&S,
d onf 'g0d'rf if;\ ocifjzpfovdk 'g0d'rf if;
430

\ om;vnf; tb,foYkd jzpfEikd rf nfenf;}} [laom ar;cGe;f jzpfonf (róJ? 22;41-


46)/ qefu
Y sizf v
D mjzpfaeonfh þjyóemwGif jzpfEikd af om vrf;rSm wpfcx k oJ m
jzpfonf/ ar&Sd,onf bk&m;pifppf vlpifppf jzpfjcif;aMumifhom jzpfEdkifjcif;yif/

3/ ol\ jynfh0pHkvifrI
tbufbufu jynf0h pHv k ifaom a,½Ijzpfonf/ bk&m;pifppfjzpf&mwGif olonf
t<uif;rJhjynfh0pHkvifonf/ vlpifppftjzpfrl tcsdKUaom ynm&Sifrsm;u oHo,
jzpfjcif;rsm; &Sdygonf/ ,if;udpötwGuf &Sif;jy&efvdkygonf/

(a&mr? 5;12)wGif ]]tjypfw&m;onf wpfa,mufaomoltm;jzifh þavmuodYk


0ifí tjypfw&m;tm;jzifh aojcif;w&m;0ifonfESifhtnD? vltaygif;wdkYonf
tjypf&Sd aomaMumifh aojcif;odkY a&muf&Mu\}} [kqdkygonf/

wpfa,mufaomoljzpfonfh tm'HaMumifh tjypfw&m;onf ESjYH ym;vsuf aojcif;


qif;&Jukd vlom;wdik ;f cHpm;Mu&jcif;jzpfonf (a&mr? 5;13-19)/ a,½I c&pfwiG f
avmuqdik &f m taz[lír&S?d oef&Y iS ;f aom 0dnmOfawmfonfom ]tb} jzpfav&m
(vkum? 1;35) bk&m;ocif\ om;awmftjzpf tac:cH&onf? xdjYk yif tm'HrpS aom
vlo Y rdik ;f udk Nipd eG ;f apaom tjypf'pk ½du
k Ef iS hf aojcif;w&m;onf olu Y kd ratmifjrif
cJyh g/ (wpfenf;) vl\ tjypfrsKd ;aphEiS hf uif;vGwcf o hJ nf? tm'H onf jynf0h pHv
k if&mrS
usqHk;cJh&aomfvnf; a,½Ionf usqHk;jcif;r&SdbJ jynfh0 pHkvifcJhygonf/

(1ay? 2;22)t& ]xdo k cifonf 'kp½du k u


f rkd jyK? EIwaf wmfrv S nf; rkomud&k mS rawGU}
[k jrif&onf/ (a[NAJMo0g'pm? 5;9 ESifh 7;28) t& a,½Ic&pfonf xm0&
jynfh0pHkvifjcif; (odkY) tNrJpHkvifjcif;odkY a&mufonf[kqdkav&m a,½Ionf
b,fenf;ESirhf Q vlwpfa,mufuo hJ Ykd tjypfr&SEd ikd yf g/ tjypfw&m;udk usio
hf ;kH rnfo
h l
rjzpfEikd yf g/
431

c/ a,½Ic&pf\ tcef;u@
bk&m;ocif\ pDrcH suEf iS t
hf nD vdt
k yfcsuu
f kd aqmif&u
G &f jcif;onf ol\ tcef;
u@yifjzpf\ (a,m? 8;28-29)? vlaY bmifavmu\ tjypfrsm;twGuf jyefvnf
ay;qyf&ef trlt&mrsm;tm;vHk;udk olonf NyD;ajrmufatmif wm0ef,lcJhonf
(2aum? 5;21)/
1/ vluav;toGiful;a&mufpOf
"r®a[mif;umv ya&mzufwdkY\ Asm'dwftem*wådrsm;twdkif; zGm;jrifjcif;udk
cH,lawmfrlonf/ txl;ojzifh a[&Sm, tem*wådrsm;\ az:jycsufrsm;udk
avhvmxdkufonf (a[&Sm,? 7;14) (9;6) (11;1) (53;2)/ wpfzefa,½Ionf
rdef;rrS qif;oufaomtrsdK;jzpfí vlom;pifppfjzpfonf (urÇmOD;? 3;15)/

olu
Y kd AufvifNrKd UrSm arG;zGm;rnf[k ya&mzuf rdum© Asm'dwjf yKco
hJ nf (rdum© ? 5;2)/
tmjA[H\ trsdK;rS ay:xGef;rnf[k qdkcJhonf (urÇm 22;18? róJ 1;1? *vmwd
3;16)/ £ZmufrS qif;oufrnf (urÇmOD; 21;12)? ,mukyf (urÇmOD;? 35;10-
12)? ,k' (urÇmOD;? 49;8-11)? a,&SJ (a[&Sm,? 11;1) ESihf 'g0d'rf sKd ;½d;k jzpf&rnf
(2&m? 7;12-16) (a,&rd? 23;5) (qmvH? 132;11)---- paom usr;f pum;rsm;ESihf
tcdik tf rmzGiq
hf ckd o
hJ nf/

2/ tysdKunmrdcif

bk&m;ocif\ pDrcH sutf & ar&S,


d u,fwif&iS o
f nf tysKd unmrS arG;zGm;&ygrnf
(a[&Sm,? 7;14)/ ,if;tcsuo f nf "r®ynmtjrift& tvGeyf jD yifpmG em;vnfEikd f
onf/ wpfcsdefxJrSm a,½I\ zGm;jrifjcif;onf tHhbG,faom wefcdk;edrdwftjzpf
owdcsyf&rnf/ ya&mzufjyKjcif;onf rm&dü NyD;jynfhpHkvifcJhygonf
(róJ? 1;20-23)/
432

3/ ol\ taocHawmfrljcif;

taocHawmfrjl cif;onf rsm;pGmaomtrIwu Ykd kd atmifaponf/ olonf ao'Pf


usco H ifo
h rl [kwf (vkum? 23;4)/ tjypf&o
dS v l o l m;tm;vH;k (a&m? 3;23) omvQif
ao'PfudkcHoifhonf (a&m? 6;23)/ odkYjzpfí vlom;rSeforQ aooifhMu&pNrJ
jzpfaeonf/ ,cktjypfp;kd pif;rQ r&Sí
d ao'PfrcHoifah om a,½Ionf oef&Y iS ;f í
ajzmifrh wfawmfral om bk&m;ocif\ a&SUarSmufrmS uREykf w f t Ykd m;vH;k \ tjypfrsm;
tm; jyefvnfay;qyf&eftvdkYiSm uREkfyfwdkY\ ae&modkY0ifí taocHvdkufayjyD

(a,m? 10;15-17)/
u/ udk,fpm;cHí tyfESHcJhjcif;

udk,fpm;cHjcif;onf uREkfyfwdkY\ udk,ftm; taocH&mum;wdkifodkY wufcJhjcif;udk


qdkvdkjcif;yifjzpfonf/ (1ay?2;24) wGif zGifhqdkonfrSm ]]igwdkYonf tjypfESifhqdkif
aomt&mü taojzpfí ajzmifhrwfjcif;t&mü touf&Sifaprnfh taMumif;?
igwdt
Yk jypfrsm;udk ud,
k af wmfwikd f opfwikd rf mS cHawmfrNl y/D 'Pfcsuaf wmfrsm;tm;jzifh
oifwdkYonf temaysmufvsuf &SdMu\}} [líjzpf\/

c/ a&G;EIwfjcif;

a&G;EIwjf cif;[lonf ta<u;udq k yfay; a&G;EIwv


f suf vGwNf ird ;f csr;f om&m tcGiu hf kd
cHpm;&&Sad pjcif;yif jzpfonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh ud, k w
f ikd yf ifrodygbJvsuf uReb f 0
odkY usqif;ae&qJ tqifhrSukd,fhb0 vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf wpfpHkwpfOD;u
ud,k uhf 0kd ,f,vl ukd af om oabmyifjzpfonf/ tjypfw&m;rS cGiv hf wT í
f a&G;EIwf
jcif;onf uREyfk w f u Ykd kd pmwef\ tmPmpufatmufrS bk&m;ocif\ Edik if aH wmfxJ
433

ul;a&mufapa&;twGufyif jzpfonf (aumavmoJ? 1;13-14)/

c&pfawmfonf xkdkufwefaom tcudk ay;í ]vlYabmif} udk a&G;,lcJhonf (2ay?


2;1)/ xdktzdk;tconf olYtaoG;awmfjzpfí? um;wdkiftxufrS oufpGefYarwåm
tm;jzifh pD;qif;cJhonf (Asm'dwf? 5;9-10)/ þuJhodkY olYtm;jzifh pmweft&dyf
atmufrS vGwfajrmufvmaom vlom;wdkYonf ocif\ tvdkawmfudk 0efcH&ef
twGuf tcGit hf a&;udk &,loifo h nf (1aum? 6;19-20)/ ,if;onf rwwfomí
wm0ef,ljcif;r[kwfbJ? ay;tyfvmaom aus;Zl;arwÅmtm;jzifh pD;qif;cJhonf
(Asm'dw?f 5;9-10)/ þuJo h Ykd olt
Y m;jzifh pmweft&dyaf tmufrS vGwaf jrmufaom
vlom;wdo Yk nf ocif\ tvdak wmfukd 0efc&H eftwGuf tcGit hf a&;udk &,loifo h nf
(1aum? 6;19-20)/ ,if;onf rwwfomí wm0ef,ljcif; oabmr[kwfbJ?
ay;tyfvmaom aus;Zl;arwåmawmfudk csD;rGrf;í axmremjyKjcif;yifjzpfonf/
BuD;jrwfaom bk&m;xHwGif tapcHonf/ tvdkawmfudkvdkufemonf qdk&m0,f
uREyfk w
f t
Ykd aejzifh ]tapcHuRe}f \ pdw"f gwfuakd rG;í vlt Y vdok rYkd vdu
k ?f Zmwdyuwd
pdwx f m;udk pGe&Yf ef? c&pfawmfuo kd m y"mejyK&ef vdak yonf (1aum? 7;19-23)/

zGiq
hf ckd o
hJ nfh ocifay;aom vGwvf yfru
I kd ]tm;xkwu f muG,&f ef} vnf; vdak yao;
onf (*vmwd? 5;1)/ vlom;wdkY obm0rSm tjypfESifh pHkprf;aESmifh,Sufjcif;udk
t½IH;ay;vdkvsuf ,HkMunfonfqdkNyD; r,HkMunfaomolrsm;ESifh xl;rjcm;em;
jzpfaewwfygonf ({zuf? 5;1-14)/ c&pfawmfay;onfh vGwfajrmufjcif;ESifh
aus;Zl;arwÅmawmfukd Zmwdpw d t
f vduk vkycf siwf ikd ;f vkyo
f u
Ykd hJ odrYk [kwf Zmwdpw
d f
udk jiif;y,fum vlom;urÇmü tcsif;csif; arwåma0rQ &SifoefMu&ef xdkaus;Zl;
arwåmawmfudk qufvuf toHk;jyKMu&ayrnf (*vmwd? 5;13)/
434

*/ jyefvnfoifhjrwfjcif;
trke;f yGm;aeaom tkypf rk sm; &Sad eonfqykd gpd/Yk jyefvnfoifjh rwfjcif;onf trke;f
w&m;udk z,f&Sm;onf/ þenf;jzifh Nidrf;csrf;a&;jzpfwnfvm\/

(a&mr? 5;10) t& c&pfawmfudk r,Hkaomolrsm;tm; ]bk&m;ocif\&efol}


[kawGU&Ny;D xdo k w
l o
Ykd nf bk&m;ocif\ trsuaf wmfoifjh cif;udk cHMu&onf (a,m?
3;16?18?36 ESifh {zuf? 2;3)/ þtajctaewGif a&G;aumufawmf rlaom
£oa&vESifhwuG vlYavmuBuD;wpfckvHk;twGuf bk&m;ocifESifh jyefvnf
qHak wGUcGiu
hf kd c&pfawmf pD&ifco
hJ nf ({zuf? 2;16)/ taoG;awmfjzifh Nird ;f csr;f a&;udk
&,lay;cJhjcif;yif (aumavmoJ? 1;22)/

þopömw&m; trSefudk (2aum? 5;19)t& awGUjrifEdkifNyD;vQif? urmÇavmuESifh


bk&m;ocif\ Mum;ü Nidrfoufjcif;udk aqmifMuOf;ay;bdkY&ef uREkfyfwdkYtm;
trIawmfukd aqmif&u G af p\ (2aum? 5;18-21) odjYk zpfí uREyfk w
f Ykd wpfO;D pDonf
Nidrf;csrf;a&;\ apwrefrsm;[k cH,lxdkufygonf (róJ? 5;9)/

bk&m;ocif\ teEÅarwåmawmfonf eufeJus,f0ef;vGef;vSonf (a&mr? 5;8?


vkum? 6;31-35) jzpfygí avmuBuD; wpfckvHk;twGuf ]jyefvnfoifhjrwfjcif;
w&m;}udk cHpm;Edkifayonf (aumavmoJ? 1;20)/
C/ awmif;yefjcif;

ajzmifhrwfawmfrljcif;ESifh w&m;rQwjcif;&Sdonfh oefY&Sif;jrifhjrwfawmfrlaom


bk&m;ocifukd awmif;yefjcif;trI? toem;cH&jcif;trIwu Ykd kd ]ylaZmfqufo} jcif;ESihf
yl;wGpJ Of;pm;&ygrnf/
435

vl\tjypfw&m;aMumifh bk&m;ocif trsufawmf&Sdonf/ ,if;or®mw&m;udk


"r®a[mif;usrf;? "r®opfusrf;wdkYrSm us,fjyefYpGm avhvmEdkifonf/ (w&m;a[m?
6;14? a,m½I? 23;16? qmvH? 78;21) ESihf (a,m[ef? 3;36? a&mrMo0g'? 1;18?
{zuf? 2;3? 1oufomavmedwf?2;16) ESifhwpfuG ae&maygif;rsm;pGm awGUjrif
Edik yf gonf/ wpfcsed xf rJ mS bk&m;ocifonf cspw
f wfaombk&m;? u½kP k mawmfEiS hf
jynf h p H k a ombk & m;jzpf a wmf r l a v\/ ,if ; taMumif ; rsm;ud k pmzG J U &mü
(CHARUESRMRIE) u...

]]þtaMumif;rsm;udk oabmaygufrnfqykd gu "r®a[mif;usr;f \ tESpo f m&onf


,kwådr&Sdaom toufrJhewfbk&m;BuD;udk ]ylaZmfyo}í qkawmif;&jcif;? yefMum;
&jcif;oabm vH;k 0r[kw.f .touf&iS í f ajzmifrh wfaom bk&m;ocifonf tjypf
w&m;udk rBuKd uo
f nft h wGuf ynwfawmfw&m;rsm;t& ylaZmfyo&jcif; jzpfonf/
xdok cifonf cspjf cif;arwåmtm;jzifv
h nf; olEiS hf rdwo
f [m,zGUJ &ef ynwfw&m;
]vrf;r}rsm;udk csay;cJhjcif;yifjzpfyg\99} }[lí xnfhoGif;az:jycJhygonf/

a,½Ic&pf\ toufawmfudk pGefYíylaZmfjcif;onf tjypfvlom;wdkYtay:rSm


oufa&mufvsuf wnf&Sdonfh trsufawmfudk ajzapavNyD (a&mr? 3;23-25)
(1a,m? 2;2)/ ,if;onf arwåmawmf\ o½kyftrSefyifjzpf\ (1a,m? 4;10)/
xdt
k csuw f u
Ykd m; bk&m;ocif\ tvdak wmfEiS t
hf nD c&pfawmf\ vlZY mwdawmfukd
cH,lvmcJhjcif; taMumif;&if;udk odomapawmhonf (a[NAJ? 2;17-18)/

4/ a,½Ic&pf\ &Sifjyefxajrmufjcif;
&Sifjyefxajrmufjcif; qdkonfrSm aemufaemif b,fcgrQ raoEdkifaom tjzpfodkY
ysufpD;,dk,Gif;jcif;r&Sd? taumif; yuwdtwdkif; aojcif;rS &SifjyefxajrmufrIyif
jzpfonf (1aum? 15;42?54)/ w'*Fr[kw?f tpOfxm0&jzpfonf (a,m? 11;43)/
436

usr;f pmazmfjycsurf sm;t& a,½Ionf trSeaf ocJo h nf/ (róJ? 27;62-66)? (rmuk?
15;39?44)? (vkug? 23;48-49)? (a,m[ef? 19;33)/ ocsKØ i;f *lonftem*wåt d &
jynfhpkHpGmwnf&SdNyD;jzpfonf(a[&Sm,? 53;9)? (róJ?27;57-58)? (rmuk?15;42-
45)? (vkug? 23;50-52)? (a,m? 19;38) tavmif;awmfukd xdak 'oxk;H pHtwkid ;f
usyx f yk pf nf;í oN*FK[ d cf o
hJ nf (róJ? 27;59-60)?(rmuk? 15;46)? (vkug? 23;53-
54)? (a,m? 19;40-42) ESifh (róJ? 27;62-66)/ *sL;vlrsdK;rsm;ESifh a&mrwdkY
ud, k wf idk o
f nf jrK§ yEf &HS mt&yfuakd &mufí? apmifMh uyfí? wHqyd cf wfEydS cf o
hJ nf (róJ?
27;62-66)/ *sL;wdkYonf aemufydkif;wGif tavmif;awmfudk wynfhawmfrsm;u
cdk;,loGm;jyD[k ajymifajymifwif;wif; vdrfvnfcJhMuonf

(róJ? 28;11-15 ESifh rmuk? 14;15)/

&SifróJ? 27;62wGif *&da0g[m& 'KULIO' [laompum;jzifh az:jycsuft&


ocsKØ i;f *l0udk ydwq
f x
Ykd m;aom ausmufw;Hk Bu;D onf uke;f jrifo
h aYkd &TUvsm;oGm;cJo
h nf/
,if;udk (&Sirf mukc&pf0if? 16;3-4)? (vkum? 24;2) ESihf (a,m? 20;1) wdt Yk &vnf;
awGUjrif&onf/ *&dpmayt& a&GUvsm;ykHomru ajr§mufíxm;onf[kqdkonf/
ocsKØ i;f wGi;f üvnf; ocift h avmif;r&Sad wmhyg (&Sirf óJ? 28;5-8)? (rmuk? 16;2-
8)? (vkum?24;1-8)? (a,m[ef? 20;1)/ tavmif;awmfukd ywf&pfaom t0wfpudk
omvQiaf wGU&S&d awmhonf/

omrnobm0r[kwfí ÓPfrrDEdkifonfhjzpfpOfrsm;omjzpfonf (a,m? 20;2-


10)/ a,½I\½kycf E¨monf tvdt
k avsmuf xdt
k &yfrS xGucf mG oGm;jcif;jzpfay\/

xdaYk emufu, kd u
hf u
kd ,
kd x
f if&mS ;jycJo
h nf/ rm*'gvrm&d(a,m? 20;14)? tjcm;aom
rdef;rrsm; (róJ? 28;9-10)? ayw½k (vkug? 24;24)? (1aum? 15;5)/ {armuf
&GmtoGm;c&D;vrf;ay:rS wynfah wmfEpS Of ;D (vkug? 24;13-33)? *gvdvyJ ifv,fwiG f
wynfah wmf]7}OD;(a,m? 21;1-23)? *gvdv&J adS wmifuek ;f wpfcw k iG f vlO;D a&]500}
437

(1aum? 15;6) nD0rf;uGJ,mukyf (1aum? 15;7)? aumif;uifodkY rwufrD


wynfhawmf 11 OD;(róJ? 28;16-20)? (vkug? 24;33-52)? (wref? 1;3-12)?
wuf<uNy;D aemufyikd ;f wrefawmfBu;D &Siaf ygvk (wref? 9;3-6) ESihf (1aum? 15;8)
---- [laomrSwfwrf;rsm;&Sdonf/

a,½Ic&pf\ &Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;onf urÇmb h momw&m;rsm;teuf c&pf,mef


wd\
Yk oD;oefjY cm;em;csuyf if jzpfayonf/ c&pf0ifusr;f rsm;\ toufaoG;aMumESihf
tESpo
f m&vnf;jzpfonf(1aum? 15;1-3)/

ocifa,½Iu, kd af wmfwidk u
f þodx Yk ajrmufjcif;taMumif;udk BuKd wifziG q
hf ckd o
hJ nf
(róJ? 16;21? 17;9-22-23? 20;18-19? 26;32) (rmuk? 9;10) (vkug? 9;22-
27)/ þodkY ordkif;aemufcHESifhrSwfwrf; pkHvifpGmr&SdcJhygrl? ocifhtrIawmfonf
t"dyÜg,fr&SdEdkif/ uREfkyfwdkYtzdkYvnf; tjypfw&m;\ zdpD;rIrS vGwfajrmufp&m
taMumif;r&Sdawmhyg(1aum? 15;16-17)/ tzbk&m;ocifonf c&pfawmf\
&Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;twGuf pDpOfaqmif&u G of l jzpfonfukd (augavmoJMo0g'?
2;12)? (1? oufomavmedwf? 1;10)? (1ayw½k? 1;21)? (a[NAJ? 13;20)wdkYwGif
awGU&ovdk oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOfawmftm;jzifh þtrIawmfjzpfwnfcJh&aMumif;
(wref? 2;24)? (a&mr? 8;11)? (&Sifayw½kMo0g'pmyXrpmapmif? 3;18)wdkYü
az:jyonf/

ocif&iS jf yefxajrmufjcif;onf ol\EIwu


f ywfawmfEiS hf trIawmf rSeuf ef aumif;
jrwfjcif;&Sad Mumif; taxmuftxm;yifjzpfonf/ c&pf,mefwt Ykd wGuu
f m; tajccH
,kHMunfcsufayyif(a&mr? 6;4)/
438

5/a,½Ic&pf\ aumif;uifbkHodkYwuf<ujcif;
þajravmurSwzef aumif;uifbkHodkYwuf<uNyD;aemuf c&pfawmfonf crnf;
awmf tzbk&m;ocif\ vuf,mawmfbufü usdef;0yfvsuf&Sdonf/ pBuFm0Vm
teEÅ tjrifq h ;Hk ae&mayyif (qmvH? 110;1)? ({zuf? 1;20)? (aumavmoJ? 3;1)?
(a[NAJ? 1;3? 8;1? 10;12)ESifh(1ayw½k? 3;22)/

aumif;uifbo Hk Ydk wuf<uawmfral omaeYonf ]yifawukawåyaJG eY} ]10}&uf tvdük


jzpfonf/ ol\ud, k pf m; oef&Y iS ;f aom0dnmOfawmfukd ay;tyfcohJ nf(wref? 2;33)/
þodkYay;tyfcJhrnfudkvnf; *wdxm;cJhonf(a,m? 14;16-17)/ xdkYtwl
0dnmOfawmftm;jzifh ol\toif;awmfuw kd nfaqmufco hJ nf(wref? 1;9-11? wref?
2;)? ol\aumif;uifbkHodkYwuf<ujcif;onf aumif;uifwrefESifh aumif;uif
AdkvfajcwdkYtm; tkyfpdk;jcif;\ oufaojzpfonf (a[NAJ? 1;3-13)/

a,½Iaumif;uifbkHodkYwuf<u&mwGif aoNyD;oltcsdKUwdkY\0dnmOfrsm;udk olESifh


,laqmifoGm;onf/ (vkug? 16;22 ESifh {zuf? 4;7-10)/ vlrsm;twGuf aumif;
Bu;D udck say;cJo
h nf({zuf? 4;8)/ þodaYk umif;Bu;D rsm;udak y;&mwGif oef&Y iS ;f aom
0dnmOfawmftm;jzifh toif;awmfrsm;rS wpfqifah y;cJjh cif;jzpfonf(1aum? 12;11)/

(5) a,½Ic&pf\Mum;umv
a,½Ic&pfonf 'kw, d tBurd af jray:odYk jyef<uvmawmfrrlrD tzcrnf;awmf\
vusfmbufyv’ifawmfay:ü pdk;pHaecsdefudk Mum;umv (SESSION) [k
owfrw S yf gonf/ bke;f pnf;pdr0f ifpm;csed [
f vk nf; qdEk ikd yf grnf/ þodYk pnf;pdr0f ifpm;
bk&Yd ef bk&m;ociftvdak wmf&o dS nf/ xdt k csed v
f eG í
f ol'w k ,d tBurd f jyef<uvm
vsufatmifyGJcHonfh tcgwGif ]]ol\&efolwdkYudk olYajcawmfwif&mckHü igcsxm;
rnf}} [kbk&m;ocif Asm'dwf&Sdxm;onf (qmvH? 100;1)/
439

þ]Mum;umv}onf c&pfawmf\ bkef;awmfxif&Sm;aeonfh aumif;uifbkH


umvjzpfonf/ bkef;awmfonf bk&m;jzpfaom ol\bkef;awmf[k qdkEdkifonf/
]]tvGecf s;D ajrm§ ufí bGUJ emrwumwdx
Yk ufBu;D jrwfaom bGUJ emrudk &&Sx
d m;onf/
cyfodrf;aomowå0gwdkYonf a,½I\bGJUemrawmfudk 'l;axmufí0efcHMu&rnf}}
[kqdkonf (zdvdyÜd? 2;9)/ ,if;bkef;awmf0ifpm;rIudk ya&mzuf 'Ha,vu ol\
('Ha,v? 7;13-14)wGif tem*wåd Asm'dwf jyKxm;onf/

xdt
k csed u
f mvwGif c&pfawmfonf atmufygtrIawmfrsm;udk vlUavmutwGuf
vkyaf qmifay;vsuaf eonf/
1/ Mum;aeaphpyfol
oef&Y iS ;f olrsm;twGuf u,fwifjcif;udk tzxHwiG cf sO;f uyfawmif;qdo
k nf? (a[NA?J
7;25)/ þtrIawmfudk 0dnmOfawmfESifhtwl vkyfaqmifjcif;jzpfayonf/(a&mr?
8;26?27?34)/
]]cyford ;f aomt&mwdo
Yk nf ac:awmfral omolrsm;twGuf aumif;usKd ;csr;f omjzpf
ap&ef}} c&pfawmf aqmif&Gufaeonf/
2/ tusdK;awmfaqmifBuD;
bk&m;ocifcspfaomvlom;rsm;\ ysufpD;&m? ysufpD;aMumif;twGuf ]pmwef}\
ta&;qdkrIrsm;? tjypfwifrIrsm;udk a&SUaewpfOD;uJhodkY uREfkyfwdkYbufrS umuG,f
ay;aeonf/
3/ tmrcHol
aumif;uifc&D;twGuf aygif;ul;wHwm;[kqo kd ifo
h nf/ tv,fv[
l í
l vnf; cH,l
Edkifonf/ oabmxm;rwdkufqdkif aomfvnf; jyefvnfí oabmwlvdkolrsm;
pyfMum;rSm&S&d efvt
kd yfoyl ifjzpfonf/
440

vlEiS b hf &k m;Mum;rSm þtrItwGuf c&pfawmfwm0ef,o l nf(1wd? 2;5)/ odjYk zpfí


ynwfawmfOya'jzifhrpD&if? aus;Zl;u½kPmESifhom pD&ifbdkY&ef y#dnmOfopfudk
olu, kd af wmfwikd cf sxm;ay;onf(a[NA?J *;6-13)/ þy#dnmOftopftwGuv f nf;
olu, kd w f idk t
f oufay;cJjh cif;jzpf&m arma&SacwfynwfawmftaESmiftzGUJ rS vlom;
wdkYudk vGwfajrmufaponf? xkdy#dnmOfopfonf urÇmukefus,foa&GU tmPm
wnfonf (a[NAJ? 9;13-15? a[NAJ? 12;22-24)/

4/ xm0&,Zfyka&m[dwfrif;BuD;
bk&m;ocifwdkuf½kdufcefYtyfaom ,Zfyka&m[dwfrif;BuD;onf av0dtrsdK; ,Zf
yka&m[dwfrsm;uJhodkY vlYZmwdrSa&G;cs,fjcif; r[kwfyg (a[NAJ? 5;4-10? 7;5-28)/
c&pfawmf,Zfyak &m[dwrf if;Bu;D jzpfaMumif; tESpof m&udk a[NAMJ o0g'ü xif&mS ;
pGmaz:jyonf/

c&pfawmfonf av0dtrsdK;[laom trnfray:rD ESpf400uwnf;u tmjA[H


acwfü ay:xGef;aomarvcd aZ'ufESifhwlonf (a[NAJ? 7;1-3)/ tjypfESifh
'GefwGJaeonfh avmuurÇmay:rSm þuJhodkYtqifh&Sdol ,Zfyka&m[dwfrif;&Sdí
omvQif u½kPmw&m;? opömw&m;ESit hf nD tzbk&m;ocifxrH S tjypfvw
T jf cif;
tcGifhudk&Edkifonf(a[NAJ? 2;17? 4;14-15)/ xdkrif;BuD;\trIawmfonfvnf;
umvtpOfwnf&Sdonf(a[NAJ? 6;20? 7;3-24)/

,Zfyka&m[dwf\wm0efrSm ,Zfrsm;udkylaZmfjcif;yifjzpf\(a[NAJ? 8;1-3)/ a,½I


onf udk,fudkudk,fylaZmfcJh&m (a[NAJ?9;6-14) wpfcgwnf;aom ylaZmfjcif;jzifh
xm0&a&G;EIwfjcif;udkjzpfaponf(a[NAJ? 10;10-12)/ ol\Mum;0ifaphpyfjcif;?
tmrcHjyKjcif;? trIawmfrsm;onf,Zfyak &m[dwrf if;wm0efxufyif us,jf yefaY o;
ayonf/ (1ayw½k? 2;5-9ESihf Asm'dwf 1;6)wdt Yk & bk&m;ocif\ ]]toif;awmf}}
onf ,Zfyak &m[dwt f &mü cefx Y m;awmfrjl cif;cH&onf[k az:jyaeav&m bk&m;
441

ocif\tvdkawmfESifhtnD c&pfawmf\vrf;udkavQmuf vdkuf&if; toif;awmf


toD;oD;onf ud,
k u
hf u
kd ,
kd yf al ZmfEikd Mf u&rnfjzpfavonf

(1aum? 11;1)? (a&mr? 12;1)/

5/ toif;awmf\OD;acgif;
c&pfawmfonf toif;awmf\OD;acgif; (od)Yk acgif;aqmifBu;D jzpfonf({zuf? 1;22-
23)(aumavmoJ? 1;18)/ c&pfawmfukd ,kMH unfot l aygif;rSm c&pfawmftwGuf
owdkYorD;unm odkYr[kwf c&pfawmf\udk,fcE¨mtjzpf toif;awmftrnf
cH,lum wnfaqmufpk½kH;&jcif;jzpfonf(1aum? 12;13)/

a,½Ionftoif;awmf\ taqGcifyGef;jzpfonf({zuf? 5;23)? odkYjzpfí


rajymif;vJaom cspfjcif;arwåmjzifh tpOfwpdkuf apmifha&Smufaus;Zl;jyKonf
({zuf?5;25-27)/ c&pfawmfESifhowdkYorD;unmtoif;awmfonfc&pfawmf
'kw, d tBurd af jray:odrYk qif;rD r*FvmyGu
J si;f y&rnf(Asm'dw?f 19;7-10ESi1hf 9;11-
16)/ ,ckypöKygÜ efumvwGif arwåmESio hf pömwnfaeNy;D jzpfonf/ owdo Yk rD; unm
jzpfaomtoif;awmfonf c&pfawmftm;apmifhqdkif;vsuf toifhjyifqifvsuf
&Sdaeavonf ({zuf? 4;15 ESifh {zuf 5;26-27)/

6/ odk;xdef;BuD;
od;k xde;f [lonf tpGo
J nmrSm ]]oif;tkyq
f &mawmf}}[laom a0g[m&\ tpyif
jzpfygonf/ c&pfawmfonf]]aumif;aomokd;xdef;}}jzpfawmfrlonf/ ol\odk;rsm;
twGuftoufudkyifpGefYawmfrlonf[lí (a,m? 10;11)wGif az:jyyg&Sdonfudk
tudk;tum;jyKí Nidrfoufjcif;\t&Sifbk&m;ocifudk ]]odk;xdef;BuD;}} [k wifpm;
cJhygonf (a[NAJ? 13;20)/
442

tbbk&m;ocif\vusmf awmfbufwiG pf ;kd pHawmfral omocifonf ol\od;k rsm;udk


uguG,fívrf;jyawmfrlaom \]]odk;xdef;BuD;}}[k uREfkyfwdkYukd usrf;pmu az:jy
ygonf(1ayw½k? 5;4)/

(6) a,½Iemraz:jypkHvif
à tusdK;awmfaqmifBuD; ---- uREfkyfwdkYtm;umuG,fonf (1a,m? 2;1)/

à tmvzESifhMoarC --- *&dpmayt& ]tp} ESifh]tqkH;}

(Asm'dwf? 1;8? 21;6 ESifh 22;13)/

à ]]tmrif}}(odkY)tqkH;pGefpum; (2aum? 1;20)(Asm'dwf? 3;14)/

à bdou
d cf &H aomol (odrYk [kw)f ar&S,
d u,fwif&iS f (1&m? 2;35? 4&m? 6;42?
qmvH2;2? 28;8? 84;9? 89;38?51? 132;10?17? 'Ha,v 6;25-26?
wrefawmf 4;26)/

à vkyyf idk cf iG t
hf mPmudt
k yfEiS ;f xm;ojzifh ]wrefawmf}[kac:qdjk cif;

(a[NAJ? 3;1)/

à w&m;udkpD&ifí pkHvifapaomol (a[NAJ? 12;2)/

à u,fwifjcif;Adokum (a[NAJ? 12;2)/

à tpvnf;jzpf\? tqk;H vnf;jzpf\ (wpfenf;) touf\tcsKyt


f jcmjzpfjcif;

(Asm'dw?f 21;6 ESihf 22;13)/

à zefqif;jcif;\tp (odkY) zefqif;jcif;\t&Sif (Asm'dwf? 3;14)/

à aumif;Bu;D ESit
hf csKyt
f jcmtmPmydik (f 1wd? 6;15)/
443

à bk&m;ocif\tñGefY (a[&Sm? 4;2)/

à bk&m;ocif\rkefY (a,m? 6;33?51)/

à toufrkefY (odkY) avmubkHtwGufjzpfjcif; (a,m? 6;35?48)/

à r*FvmaqmifowdkYom; (odkY) ,kHMunfolwdkYudk toufay;ía&G;aomol?


cspfaomol/(a[&Sm,? 62;5)? (róJ? 9;15? 25;1? 5?6?10)(rmuk 2;19-
20)(vkug? 5;34-35)? (a,m? 2;9? 3;29)? (Asm'dwf? 18;23)/

à xGe;f awmufaomrd;k aomufMu,f (od)Yk avmu\tvif; (Asm'dw?f 22;16)/

à odk;xdef;BuD; (odkY) odk;pkwdkY\wm0efcH (1ay? 5;4)/

à wdkufjrpfESifhwdkufaxmifhtjrpfausmufjrwf ({zuf? 2;20)?(1ay? 2;4?6)/

à ig\ocifa,½I (zdvdyÜd? 3;8)/

à igwdkYarQmfvifhjcif;jzpfaoma,½Ic&pf (1wd? 1;1)/

à bk&m;ocif\c&pfawmf (odkY) u,fwif&SiftjzpfapvTwfcH&ol

(vkum? 9;20 ESifh vkum? 23;35)/

à Adkvfajcocif ('Ha,v? 8;11)/

à £oa&vtbdkY oufomapaomol (vkum? 2;25)/

à vltrsm;twGufy#dnmOf (a[&Sm,? 42;6)/

à wHcg;0 (odkY) bk&m;ocifxH0ifapol (a,m? 10;7?9)/

à xm0&tz (a[&Sm,? 9;6)/

à xm0&touf (1a,m? 1;2)/


444

à tNrJwnfaomausmuf (odkY) uREkfyfwdkYtwGufckdifcefYjcif; (a[&Sm? 26;4)/

à bk&m;bkef;awmfESifhZmwdykHo@mef (a[NAJ? 1;3)/

à opömESifhor®m (Asm'dwf? 19;11)/

à opömESifh? or®mw&m;ESifhjynfhpkHaomoufao (Asm'dwf? 3;14)/

à opömoufao (Asm'dwf? 1;5)/

à tpvnf;jzpf\? tqkH;vnf;jzpf\ (odkYr[kwf) zefqif;jcif;tpolYxHrS

(Asm'dwf? 1;17? 2;8? 22;13)/

à aojcif;w&m;rS yxrqk;H arG;zGm;ol (odrYk [kw)f aojcif;udk OD;pGmatmifjrifol

(aumavmoJ? 1;18/ Asm'dw?f 1;5)/

à zefqif;awmfrljcif;rSom;OD; (odkYr[kwf) zefqif;&Sif (aumavmoJ? 1;15)/

à tdyaf ysmo
f w
l w
Ykd iG t
f OD;oD;aomtoD; (odrYk [kw)f pOD;qH;k &Sijf yefxajrmufol

(1aum? 15;20)/

à arT;BudKifaomteHY ({zuf? 5;2)/

à tcGeftcHESifhtjypf&SdolwdkY\rdwfaqG (odkY) ty,fcHwdkYtm;udk;&m

(róJ? 11;19 ESifh vkum? 7;34)/

à £oa&vtrsdK;\*kPftvif;jzpfapol (odkY) csD;rGrf;jcif;cHxdkufol

(vkum? 2;32)/

à ajrwpfjyifvkH;\bk&m; (a[&Sm? 54;5)/


445

à tvkH;pkHwkdY\bk&m; (a&mr? 9;5)/

à OD;aqmifrIay;ol? uguG,fydkifool (odkY) aumif;aomodk;xdef;

(a,m[ef? 10;11)/

à ,Zfyka&m[dwfrif;tBuD; (a[NAJ? 4;14)/

à BuD;pGmaomtvif; (a[&Sm? 9;2 ESifh róJ? 4;16)/

à odk;xdef;BuD; (a[NAJ? 13;20)/

à omvGefaumif;jrwfaomy#dnmOftwGuftmrcHol (a[NAJ? 7;22)/

à 0dnmOfwdkYudk Munfh½Itkyfpdk;aomt&Sif (1ay? 2;25)/

à OD;acgif;jzpfawmfrí
l ÓPfawmfEiS Ohf ;D aqmifonf

(1aum? 11;3? {zuf? 4;15? aumavmoJ? 2;19)/

à wpfyg;trsdK;om;wdkYudk tkyfpdk;jcif;iSmaz:xGef;ol (a&mr? 15;12)/

à oefY&Sif;apwwfaomol (a[NAJ? 2;11)/

à ESvkH;ESifhpdwfudkxdk;xGif;odjrifol (Asm'dwf? 2;23)/

à ud,
k cf E¨m\OD;acgif;awmf (od)Yk toif;awmfuOkd ;D aqmifol (aumavm? 1;18)/

à toif;awmf\ OD;acgif; (od)Yk ,kMH unforl sm;wd\


Yk tcsKyt
f jcm ({zuf? 5;23)/

à txG#ftjrwf? tmPmpufwdkYudk tkyfpdk;ol (aumavmoJ? 2;10)/

à tvkH;pkHwdkY\ tarGcHocif (a[NAJ? 1;2)/


446

à ,Zfyka&m[dwftBuD; (a[NAJ? 2;17? 3;1? 4;14?15? 5;5?10? 6;20? 7;26?


8;1? 9;11? 13;11-12)/

à uREfkyfwkdYudkcspfí tjypfESifhvGwfapol (Asm'dwf? 1;5)/

à bk&m;ocif\wpfyg;wnf;aom om;awmf

(a,m[ef? 3;16? a[NAJ? 11;17? 1a,m? 4;9)/

à oef&Sif;íajzmifhrwfol (wrefawmf? 3;14)/

à bk&m;ocif\oefY&Sif;awmfrlaomol (odkY) avmuüjynfh0pkHvifpGmaecJhol

(rmuk? 1;24? vkug? 4;34? a,m[ef? 6;69)/

à oefY&Sif;aomom;awmf (wref? 4;27?30)/

à £oa&vtwGufarQmfvifhcsuf (a,&rd? 14;8? 17;13 ESifh w? 28;20)/

à u,fwifjcif;w&m;\OD;csdK (odkY) u,fwifEdkifpGrf;ol (vkum? 1;69)/

à rsufpdjzifhrjrif&aom bk&m;ocif\ ykHo@mefawmf (aumavm? 1;15)/

à {rmaEGv (odkY) igwdkYESifhtwl&Sdaombk&m;

(a[&Sm,? 7;14? 8;8 ESifh róJ? 1;23)/

à azmfjybkdY&efcufcJaom vufaqmif (2aum? 9;15)/

à emZ&ufNrKd Uom; (róJ? 26;71/ rmuk? 1;24? 10;47/ vkum? 4;34? 18;37?
24;19/ a,m? 1;45? 18;5?7/ wref? 2;22? 6;14? 10;38? 22;8? 26;9)/

à bk&ifwumwdkY\bk&if (Asm'dwf? 19;16)/


447

à vlrsdK;wumwdkY\bk&if (Asm'dwf? 15;3)/

à bk&m;ocif\odk;oli,f (a,m? 1;29?36)/

à aemufqkH;aomtm'H (1aum? 15;45)/

à toufjzpfjcif; (odkYr[kwf) c&pfawmftm;jzifh ½kyfj'yfruBuD;jrwfaom


touf&SifEdkifjcif; (a,m[ef? 1;4? 11;25? 14;6)/

à toufudkay;Edkifaom0dnmOfawmf (1aum? 15;45)/

à wpfyg;trsdK;om;wdkYtwGuf Asm'dwftvif; (vkum? 2;32)/

à touf\tvif; (odkY) em;vnf&efcufcJaom vlYb0udk vrf;jyol

(a,m? 33;30? qm? 49;19? 56;13 ESihf a,m? 8;12)/

à ]]vlom;wdkY\tvif;}} (a,m? 1;4)/

à avmu\tvif; (odkY) 0dnmOftvif;a&mif uif;rJhaeaom urmÇtm;


vrf;jyol (a,m[ef? 8;12? 9;5)/

à touf&Sifaomol (Asm'dwf? 1;17-18)/

à touf&Sifaomausmuf (1ay? 2;4)/

à tpdk;ydkifaomt&Sif (wref? 4;24/ Asm'dwf? 6;10)/

à ocifESifhu,fwif&Sifjzpfawmfrlaoma,½Ic&pf (2ay? 1;11?20? 3;18)/

à bkef;BuD;awmfrlaomocif (1aum? 2;8)/

à ocifwdkY\ ocif (Asm'dwf 19;16)/


448

à Nird ;f csr;f jcif;\ t&Sio


f cif (odrYk [kw)f bk&m;ocifEiS v
hf w
l MYkd um; Nird ;f csr;f a&;
wnfaqmufol (2ouf? 3;16)/

à pyg;&Sif (róJ? 9;38 ESifh vkum? 10;2)/

à OykofaeYudk tpdk;&ol (róJ? 12;8? vkum? 6;5)/

à w&m;ojzifh ajzmifhrwfpGmpD&ifaomol (a,&rd? 23;6? 33;16)/

à bk&m;ocifay;awmfrlaom oufaoudk &aomol (wref? 2;22)/

à aumif;uifbHkrSjzpfaomocif (1aum? 15;47)/

à emusifjcif;a0'emESifh uRrf;0ifol (a[&Sm,? 53;3)/

à ]ocif} odkYr[kwf tqifhtwef;? wefcdk;tmPm ESifh t&nftcsif;t&


omvGefol (vkum 5;5? 8;24?45? 9;33? 17;13? {zuf 6;9? aumavmoJ
4;1 ESifh 2wdarmao 2;21)/

à y#dnmOfw&m;opfudk aqmifMuOf;vmol (a[NAJ 9;15? 12;24)/

à Muifemjcif;ESifh opömw&m;&Sdol ,Zfyka&m[dwfrif; (a[NAJ? 2;17)/

à w&m;opfESifhqdkifaom wrefawmf (rmvcd? 3;1)/

à ar&Sd, (odkY) vlwdkYtjypfrsm;tm; u,fwif&ef apvTwfjcif;cH&ol

(a,m? 1;41? 4;25)/

à wefcdk;BuD;aombk&m; (a[&Sm,? 9;6)/

à xGef;awmufaom rdk;aomufMu,f (2ay? 1;19 ESifh Asm'dwf? 22;16)/

à emZ&ufvl[k ajymifavSmifac:jcif;cH&ol (róJ? 2;23)/


449

à 'g0d'f\ tjrpf? 'g0d'f\ tEG,f (Asm'dwf? 22;16)/

à crnf;awmfESifh wpfvHk;wpf0wnf;&Sdol (a,m? 10;30)/

à crnf;awmfü wyg;wnf;aom om;awmf (a,m? 1;14-18)/

à u,fwifaomt&Sif? wpfqlwnf;aom bk&m;ocif (&Sif,k'? 1;25)/

à bkef;BuD;awmfrlaom igwdkYocif (&Sif,mukyf? 2;1)/

à u,fwifawmfrlaom? igwdkY bk&m;ocif (2ay? 1;1)/

à igwkdYtouf (aumavm? 3;4)/

à igwdt
Yk &Sif (od)Yk toif;awmf\ t<uif;rJh u,fwif&iS t
f jzpf cH,rl I (a&mr?
1;4? 5;21? 7;25? 1aum? 1;9 ESifh &Sif,k'? 1;25)/

à wpfyg;wnf;tpd;k &awmfral om t&Sio


f cif (od)Yk toif;awmf\ bk&m;tjzpf
vufcH,HkMunfrI (&Sif,k'? 1;4)/

à yócgodk;oi,f (odkY) u,fwifjcif;ay;&ef toufpGefYrI (1aum? 5;7)/

à igwkdY\ Nidrfoufjcif; ({zuf? 2;14)/

à igwkdY\ u,fwif&Sif (wdwk? 3;6)/

à orm;awmfBuD; (vkum? 4;23)/

à tpdk;&aomt&Sif? u,fwifaomocif (wrefawmf? 5;31)/

à toufwm\ t&Sif (wrefawmf? 3;15)/

à Nidrfoufjcif;udk tpdk;&ol (a[&Sm,? 9;6)/

à t&SifwumwdkY\t&Sif ('Ha,v? 8;25)/


450

à ya&mzuf (odkY) Asm'dwfawmfrsm;udk jynfhpHkapol

(w&m;? 18;18 ESifh wref? 3;22)/

à uREykf w
f Ykd tjypfrsm;twGuf trIaqmifvsuf qkawmif;ay;ol (1a,m? 2;2)/

à a&TaiG taMu;rsm;cRwfouJhodkY tjypftnpftaMu;rsm;udk cRwfol

(rmvcd? 3;3)/

à bk&m;ocif\ bkef;awmfa&mifjcnf (a[NAJ? 1;3)/

à vltaygif;wdkYudk a&G;EIwfonfhtmrcH (1wd? 2;6)/

à xajrmufjcif;ESifh touf&Sifjcif; (a,m[ef? 11;25)/

à ajzmifrh wfpmG pD&ifol (a[&Sm? 24;16? wref? 3;14? 7;52? 22;14 ESihf 1a,m?
2;1)/

à 'g0d'\
f tjrpf (od)Yk 'g0d'u
f kd a&G;aumufaombk&m;jzpfjcif; (Asm'dw?f 22;16)/

à avmuDrif;rsm;udktpdk;&ol (Asm'dwf? 1;5)/

à avmu\u,fwif&Sif (a,m? 4;42 ESifh 1a,m? 4;14)/

à odk;xdef;&Sif (urÇmOD;? 49;24? qmvH? 80;1? a'oem? 12;11)/

à 0dnmOfrsm;udk apmifha&Smufol (1ay? 2;25)/

à vlom;wd\
Yk tcsujf y tvHawmf (od)Yk ckv
d u
IH ;kd uG,&f m (a[&Sm,? 11;10)/

à bk&m;ocif\ om;awmf (a,m? 10;36? 11;4)/

à touf&Sifawmfrlaom bk&m;ocif\ om;awmf (róJ? 16;16)/


451

à tjrifhqHk;aom bk&m;\ om;awmf (rmuk? 5;7 ESifh vkum? 8;28)/

à xm0&u,fwifjcif;aus;Zl;udkjyKaomol (a[NAJ? 5;9)/

à oifhtoufwmü NrJNrHjcif; (odkY) b0udk &ifqdkif0Hhol (a[&Sm,? 33;6)/

à rSDcdk&mausmufjrwf (a[&Sm,? 28;16)/

à vlwdkYy,fxm;aom ausmufjrwf (odkY) £oa&vwdkY jiif;y,fcJhaomol


(qmvH? 118;22? róJ? 21;42? rmuk? 12;10? vkum? 20;17? 1ay? 2;7)/

à &AdÁ (odkY) q&m (a,m? 20;16)/

à pHkprf;jcif;udkcH&mausmuf (a[&Sm,? 28;16)/

à tcsdefwefonfhtcgü ay:xGef;aomoufao (1wd? 2;6)/

à rSefaomaumif;uifrkefY (a,m? 1;4-9 ESifh 1a,m? 2;8)/

à rSefaompyspfEG,f (odkY) 0dnmOftoD;rsm;oD;apol (a,m[ef? 15;1)/

à or®mw&m; (a,m? 5;33? 8;31;32? 14;6)/

à vrf;c&D; (odkY) u,fwifjcif;\tp? toufwm\vrf;jy

(róJ? 7;14? a,m? 14;5-6)/

à <u,f0jynfhpHkaom u,fwifjcif; (a[&Sm,? 33;6)/

à ÓPfEiS yhf nm (od)Yk xm0&bk&m;udk aMumuf&UHG jcif;oabm (a[&Sm,? 33;6)/

à ynmrSpí ajzmifhrwfjcif;? oefY&Sif;jcif;? a&G;EIwfjcif;rsm;udk ay;Edkifol

(a[&Sm,? 33;6)/
452

à bk&m;ocif\ ynmudk vlom;ü wnfapol (1aum? 1;30)/

à vlom;wdkYtwGufoufao (a[&Sm,? 55;4)/

à tHhMobG,fwdkifyifzuf (odkY) toufwmü vrf;jyol (a[&Sm,? 9;6)/

à arQmfvifh&mEIwfuywfawmf (qmvH? 119;81? a,m[ef? 1;1-14? 1a,m?


1;1 ESifh Asm'dwf? 19;13)/

à bk&m;ocif\ EIwfuywfawmf (odkY) bk&m;ocif\ tajccHtjzpfwnf&SdrI


(2ay? 3;5? a,m[ef? 1;1-5 ESifh Asm'dwf? 19;13)/

à touf&Sifjcif;ESifhqdkifaom EIwfuywfawmf (zdvdyÜd? 2;16? 1a,m? 1;1)/

à oif\ vif (odkY) avmuom;wdkY\ taqGcifyGef; (a[&Sm,? 54;5)/

à oifhudk zefqif;aomol (54;5)/

à oifhudk a&G;EIwfaomol (54;5)/

à oif\ u,fwifjcif;tvif;w&m; (vkum? 2;29-30)/


453