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A.

HISTORY OF THE WILDLIFE EXTINCTION

More than 90 percent of all organisms that have ever lived on Earth are extinct.
As new species evolve to fit ever changing ecological niches, older species fade away.
But the rate of extinction is far from constant. At least a handful of times in the last 500
million years, 50 to more than 90 percent of all species on Earth have disappeared in
a geological blink of the eye. Though these mass extinctions are deadly events, they
open up the planet for new life-forms to emerge. Dinosaurs appeared after one of the
biggest mass extinction events on Earth, the Permian-Triassic extinction about 250
million years ago. The most studied mass extinction, between the Cretaceous and
Paleogene periods about 65 million years ago, killed off the dinosaurs and made room
for mammals to rapidly diversify and evolve. Scientists have narrowed down several
of the most likely causes of mass extinction. Flood basalt events (volcano eruptions),
asteroid collisions, and sea level falls are the most likely causes of mass extinctions,
though several other known events may also contribute. These include global
warming, global cooling, methane eruptions and anoxic events–when the earth's
oceans lose their oxygen. Both volcano eruptions and asteroid collisions would eject
tons of debris into the atmosphere, darkening the skies for at least months on end.
Starved of sunlight, plants and plant-eating creatures would quickly die. Space rocks
and volcanoes could also unleash toxic and heat-trapping gases that—once the dust
settled—enable runaway global warming. Largest Five Die-Offs An extraterrestrial
impact is most closely linked to the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, one of the
five largest in the history of the world, and the most recent. A huge crater off Mexico's
Yucatán Peninsula is dated to about 65 million years ago, coinciding with the
extinction. Global warming fueled by volcanic eruptions at the Deccan Flats in India
may also have aggravated the event. Dinosaurs, as well as about half of all species
on the planet, went extinct.

Massive floods of lava erupting from the central Atlantic magmatic province
about 200 million years ago may explain the Triassic-Jurassic extinction. About 20
percent of all marine families went extinct, as well as most mammal-like creatures,
many large amphibians, and all non-dinosaur archosaurs. An asteroid impact is
another possible cause of the extinction, though a telltale crater has yet to be found.

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The Permian-Triassic extinction event was the deadliest: More than 90 percent of all
species perished. Many scientists believe an asteroid or comet triggered the massive
die-off, but, again, no crater has been found. Another strong contender is flood
volcanism from the Siberian Traps, a large igneous province in Russia. Impact-
triggered volcanism is yet another possibility. Starting about 360 million years ago, a
drawn-out event eliminated about 70 percent of all marine species from Earth over a
span of perhaps 20 million years. Pulses, each lasting 100,000 to 300,000 years, are
noted within the larger late Devonian extinction. Insects, plants, and the first proto-
amphibians were on land by then, though the extinctions dealt landlubbers a severe
setback.

Massive floods of lava erupting from the central Atlantic magmatic province
about 200 million years ago may explain the Triassic-Jurassic extinction. About 20
percent of all marine families went extinct, as well as most mammal-like creatures,
many large amphibians, and all non-dinosaur archosaurs. An asteroid impact is
another possible cause of the extinction, though a telltale crater has yet to be found.
The Permian-Triassic extinction event was the deadliest: More than 90 percent of all
species perished. Many scientists believe an asteroid or comet triggered the massive
die-off, but, again, no crater has been found. Another strong contender is flood
volcanism from the Siberian Traps, a large igneous province in Russia. Impact-
triggered volcanism is yet another possibility. Starting about 360 million years ago, a
drawn-out event eliminated about 70 percent of all marine species from Earth over a
span of perhaps 20 million years. Pulses, each lasting 100,000 to 300,000 years, are
noted within the larger late Devonian extinction. Insects, plants, and the first proto-
amphibians were on land by then, though the extinctions dealt landlubbers a severe
setback.

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B. PHILIPPINE ANIMAL WELFARE SOCIETY (PAWS)

 History

The Philippine Animal Welfare Society was founded in 1954 by Muriel Jay, a British
educator who was then residing in the Philippines. She handpicked the first wave of
members.

Nita Hontiveros, one of the younger members then, recalls that the group would make
stuffed toys and other items which the members would then sell to raise funds. Other
activities included a clinic to provide services to injured animals and two bicycle
patrols, which pick up strays from the street.

When Muriel Jay went back to England, PAWS became less active and eventually
slipped into dormancy. In 1986, Nita Hontiveros-Lichauco, the current PAWS
President, reorganized PAWS with a handful of volunteers composing of veterinarians,
educators and people from other professions. They became the original board of
Directors.

The uncontrolled increase in human population, coupled with a steadily declining


economy and, compounded further by ignorance, indifference, and cruel traditional
beliefs, continue to take its toll on the welfare of both farm and companion animals.
Dog-eating and other atrocities involving animals were becoming more and more
rampant.

Humane education in public schools, being the main thrust of the organization, was
conducted with assistance from the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW),
through the Brian Davies Scholarship Fund. This ten-year program granted academic
scholarships to numerous children from families that were found to be kind to animals.

All during its rebirth, PAWS was already lobbying actively for a Philippine Animal

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Welfare Act. However, the country - from its government officials down to the general
public were apparently not ready for it.

The present batch of members started joining in 1996. Many of these were from the
youth sector (mostly in their 20s and 30s) and naturally, full of idealism. The young
members, inspired by their President, came out with more aggressive ideas. A cattery
was put up at the back of the Lichauco's residence in New Manila to serve as
temporary shelter for abandoned and rescued cats. The dogs were sent to the
Shangri-La Luna, a Lichauco farm in Pangasinan province, some 4 hours drive from
Manila.

A revised Animal Welfare Bill was drawn up and diligently pursued by PAWS members
in the Senate and in Congress. On February 11, 1998, the Animal Welfare Act of 98
(also known as Republic Act 8485) was signed into law by then Philippine President
Fidel V. Ramos.

Contacts with various international animal-protection group increases. PAWS is in


constant touch with organizations like the World Society for the Protection of Animals
(WSPA), People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and Humane Society
International (HSI). On September 1, 1999, PAWS became an associate of the Royal
SPCA of UK. Similarly, on the local scene, PAWS was made a member of the National
Disaster Coordinating Council under the Department of National Defense, and
participated in the rescuing of abandoned and injured animals from a residential village
(Cherry Hills) devastated by landslide.

The following year, PAWS, with assistance from IFAW, conducted feeding programs
for the farm animals that were displaced by the Mayon volcano eruption.
On May 2001, PAWS played host to the first Asia for Animals symposium, held in
Manila. The event, the first of its kind in the Asian region, gathered more than 200
participants from 22 countries.

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The Philippine Animal Welfare Society was founded in 1954 by Muriel Jay, a British
educator who was then residing in the Philippines. She handpicked the first wave of
members.

Nita Hontiveros, one of the younger members then, recalls that the group would make
stuffed toys and other items which the members would then sell to raise funds. Other
activities included a clinic to provide services to injured animals and two bicycle
patrols, which pick up strays from the street.

When Muriel Jay went back to England, PAWS became less active and eventually
slipped into dormancy. In 1986, Nita Hontiveros-Lichauco, the current PAWS
President, reorganized PAWS with a handful of volunteers composing of veterinarians,
educators and people from other professions. They became the original board of
Directors. The uncontrolled increase in human population, coupled with a steadily
declining economy and, compounded further by ignorance, indifference, and cruel
traditional beliefs, continue to take its toll on the welfare of both farm and companion
animals. Dog-eating and other atrocities involving animals were becoming more and
more rampant.

Humane education in public schools, being the main thrust of the organization, was
conducted with assistance from the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW),
through the Brian Davies Scholarship Fund. This ten-year program granted academic
scholarships to numerous children from families that were found to be kind to animals.

All during its rebirth, PAWS was already lobbying actively for a Philippine Animal
Welfare Act. However, the country - from its government officials down to the general
public were apparently not ready for it.

The present batch of members started joining in 1996. Many of these were from the
youth sector (mostly in their 20s and 30s) and naturally, full of idealism. The young
members, inspired by their President, came out with more aggressive ideas. A cattery
was put up at the back of the Lichauco's residence in New Manila to serve as
temporary shelter for abandoned and rescued cats. The dogs were sent to the

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Shangri-La Luna, a Lichauco farm in Pangasinan province, some 4 hours drive from
Manila.

A revised Animal Welfare Bill was drawn up and diligently pursued by PAWS members
in the Senate and in Congress. On February 11, 1998, the Animal Welfare Act of 98
(also known as Republic Act 8485) was signed into law by then Philippine President
Fidel V. Ramos.

Contacts with various international animal-protection group increases. PAWS is in


constant touch with organizations like the World Society for the Protection of Animals
(WSPA), People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and Humane Society
International (HSI). On September 1, 1999, PAWS became an associate of the Royal
SPCA of UK. Similarly, on the local scene, PAWS was made a member of the National
Disaster Coordinating Council under the Department of National Defense, and
participated in the rescuing of abandoned and injured animals from a residential village
(Cherry Hills) devastated by landslide.

The following year, PAWS, with assistance from IFAW, conducted feeding programs
for the farm animals that were displaced by the Mayon volcano eruption.

On May 2001, PAWS played host to the first Asia for Animals symposium, held in
Manila. The event, the first of its kind in the Asian region, gathered more than 200
participants from 22 countries

 Content

The Philippine Animal Welfare Society (PAWS) is a volunteer-based non-government


organization whose goal is to prevent animal cruelty through education, animal
sheltering and advocacy. PAWS believes that the creation of a more peaceful society
starts with the widening of mankind's circle of compassion which includes animals,
thereby envisions a nation that respects animals, practices responsible pet ownership

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and protects wildlife.

The PAWS Animal Rehabilitation Center (PARC) located at Aurora Blvd., Katipunan
Valley, Loyola Heights, Q. C. serves as a temporary shelter for dogs, cats and other
animals rescued from cruelty or neglect with the ultimate goal of rehabilitating them
and placing them in loving homes. Part of PAWS’ life-saving work at PARC is
empowering people by providing volunteer opportunities to help animals so that
everyone can do their own share in making the world a better place for all.

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C. EXTINCTION: MAIN CAUSES

 Real Causes of Extinction: Volcanic Eruption

Volcanic activity is now thought to be an important cause of several mass extinctions,


but it may not be obvious exactly how this could trigger extinction on a global scale.
After all, volcanoes like Vesuvius and Krakatoa were destructive, but didn't cause
mass extinctions. These sort of explosive eruptions are the kind that we are most
familiar with, but in fact, they can't happen on a large enough scale to cause a mass
extinction. The sort of volcanic activity that scientists suspect leads to mass extinctions
is not your iconic mountain erupting in a spew of lava. Imagine instead massive
fissures and vents in the earth that ooze steady pulses of lava over hundreds of
thousands of years. This sort of volcanic activity may not be as sensational as a top
blown off a volcano, but it generates much more lava and affects vast areas, covering
millions of square kilometers with lava, the bulk of which is released in a geologic
instant — less than a few hundred thousand years. For example, the eruptions
associated with the end-Permian extinction (the Siberian Traps) left behind lava that
covers an area the size of Western Europe and is more than a kilometer thick!

This type of slower, oozing volcanic activity seems to cause extinctions through
secondary effects, not through the eruption itself. Although oozing
eruptions do directly release gasses that poison animals and plants and contribute to
acid rain and climate change, the real catastrophe is likely caused by the rock layers
that the lava comes into contact with as it erupts.8 If hot lava comes into contact with
rocks that contain organic compounds (e.g., coal deposits) as it erupts, this releases
huge amounts of greenhouse and toxic gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and
sulfur dioxide.

The chain of events set off by such shifts in atmospheric chemistry could have been
disastrous. Large amounts of sulfur dioxide lead to short-term cooling (on the scale of
tens of years), while carbon dioxide and methane then cause long-term global
warming (lasting hundreds of thousands of years).9 These climate changes may
directly lead to the extinction of sensitive species and prompt others to shift their

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ranges, upsetting ecosystem dynamics and triggering additional extinctions.
Furthermore, if many land plants die, this increases erosion and damages delicate
marine environments as sediments are carried into the ocean. Global warming also
has the potential to reduce circulation of water in the ocean. When combined with the
fact that oxygen doesn't dissolve as well in warmer waters, this could lead to oceanic
oxygen levels too low to support some species and could severely interrupt the flow
of nutrients through the marine food web. To make matters worse for marine life, an
increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also acidifies the ocean, which prevents
corals from building reefs and disrupts marine ecosystems from the bottom up. Large-
scale volcanic activity could impact organisms and their habitats at many different
levels, ultimately leading to skyrocketing extinction rates.

 Real Causes of Extinction: Global Warming

The key impact of global warming on wildlife is habitat disruption, in which


ecosystems—places where animals have spent millions of years adapting—rapidly
transform in response to climate change, reducing their ability to fulfill the species'
needs. Habitat disruptions are often due to changes in temperature and water
availability, which affect the native vegetation and the animals that feed on it.

Affected wildlife populations can sometimes move into new spaces and continue to
thrive. But concurrent human population growth means that many land areas that
might be suitable for such “refugee wildlife” are fragmented and already cluttered with
residential and industrial development. Cities and roads can act as obstacles,
preventing plants and animals from moving into alternative habitats.

A report by the Pew Center for Global Climate Change suggests that creating
“transitional habitats” or “corridors” could help migrating species by linking natural
areas that are otherwise separated by human development.

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D. REPUBLIC ACT

 [REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8485]

AN ACT TO PROMOTE ANIMAL WELFARE IN THE PHILIPPINES OTHERWISE


KNOWN AS "THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT OF 1998"

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in


Congress assembled.

SECTION 1. It is the purpose of this Act to protect and promote the welfare of all
animals in the Philippines by supervising end regulating the establishment and
operations of all facilities utilized for breeding, maintaining, keeping, treating or training
of all animals either as objects of trade or as household pets. For purposes of this Act,
pet animals shall include birds.

SECTION 2. No person, association, partnership, corporation, cooperative or any


government agency or instrumentality including slaughter houses shall establish,
maintain and operate any pet shop, kennel, veterinary clinic, veterinary hospital,
stockyard, corral, stud farm or zoo for the breeding, treatment, sale or trading, or
training of animals without first securing from the Bureau of Animal Industry a
certificate of registration

therefore.The certificate shall be issued upon proof that the facilities of such
establishment for animals are adequate, clean end sanitary and will not be used for
nor cause pain and/or suffering to the animals. Thecertificate shall be valid for a period
of one (I) year unless earlier cancelled for just cause before the expiration of its term
by the Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry and may be renewed from6 year to
year upon compliance with the conditions imposed hereunder. The Bureau shall
charge reasonable fees for the issuance or renewal of such certificate.

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The condition that such facilities be adequate, clean and sanitary, and that they will
not be used for nor cause pain and/or suffering to the animals is a continuing
requirement for the operation of these establishments. The Bureau may revoke or
cancel such certificate of registration for failure to observe these conditions and other
just cause.

SECTION 3. The Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry shall supervise and
regulate the establishment, operation and maintenance, of pet shops, kennels,
veterinary clinics, veterinary hospitals, stockyards, corrals, stud farms and zoos and
any other form or structure for the confinement of animals where they are bred, treated,
maintained, or kept either for sale or trade or for training purposes as well as the
transport of such animals in

any form of public or private transportation facility, in order to provide maximum


comfort while in transit and minimized, if not totally eradicate, incidence of sickness
and death and prevent any cruelty from being inflicted upon the animals.

The Director may call upon any Government agency for assistance consistent with its
powers, duties and responsibilities for the purpose of ensuring the effective and
efficient implementation of this Act and the rules and regulations promulgated
thereunder.

It shall be the duty of such government agency to assist said Director when called
upon for assistance using any available fund in it budget for the purpose.

SECTION 4. It shall be the duty of any owner or operator of any land, air or water
public utility transporting pet, wildlife and all other animals to provide in all cases
adequate, dean and sanitary facilities for sale conveyance and delivery thereof to their
consignee at the place of consignment. They shall provide sufficient food and water
for such animals while in transit for more than twelve (12) hours or whenever
necessary

No public utility shall transport any such animals without a written permit form the
Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry or his/her authorized representative. No cruel
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confinement or restraint shall be made on such animals while being transported.

Any form, of cruelty shall be penalized even if the transporter has obtained a permit
from the Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry. Cruelty in transporting includes
overcrowding, placing of animals in the trunks or under the hood trunks of vehicles.

SECTION 5. There is hereby created a Committee on Animal Welfare attached to the


Department of Agriculture which shall, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the
Department of Agriculture, issue the necessary rules and regulation for the strict
implementation of the provisions of this Act, including the setting of safety and sanitary
standards, within thirty (30) calendar days following its approval. Such guidelines shall
be reviewed by the Committee every three years from its implementation or whenever
necessary.

The Committee shall be chaired by a representative coming from the private sector
and shall have two (2) vice-chairpersons composed of the representative of BAI and
another from the private sector.

The Committee shall meet quarterly or as often as the need arises. The Committee
members shall not receive any compensation but may receive reasonable honoraria
from time to time.

SECTION 6. It shall be unlawful for any person to torture any animal, to neglect to
provide adequate care, sustenance or shelter, or maltreat any animals or to subject
any dog or horse to dogfights or horse fights, kill or cause or procure to be tortured or
deprived of adequate care sustenance or shelter, or maltreat or use the same in
research or experiments not expressly authorized by the Committee on Animal
welfare.

The killing of any animal other than cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits, carabao,

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horse, deer and crocodiles is likewise hereby declared unlawful except in the following
instances:

1. When it is done as part of the religious rituals of an established religion or sect or


ritual required by ethnic custom of indigenous cultural communities: however, leaders
shall keep records in cooperation with the Committee on Animal Welfare;

2. When the pet animal is afflicted with an incurable communicable disease as


determined and certified by a duly licensed veterinarians;

3. When the killing is deemed necessary to put an end to the misery suffered by the
animal as determined and certified by a duly licensed veterinarian;

4. When it is done to prevent an imminent danger to the life or limb of a human being;
and

5. When done for the purpose of animal population control;

6. When animal is killed after it has been used in authorized research or experiments;
and

7. Any other ground analogous to the foregoing as determined and certified by a


licensed veterinarian.

In all the above mentioned cases, including those of cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry,
rabbits, carabao, hones, deer and crocodiles, the killing of the animals shall be done
through humane procedures at all times.

For this purpose, humane procedures shall means the use of the most scientific
methods available as may be determined and approved by the Committee.

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Only those procedures approved by the Committee shall be used in killing of animals.

SECTION 7. It shall be the duty of every person to protect the natural habitat of the
wildlife. The destruction of said habitat shall be considered as a form of cruelty to
animals and its preservation is a way of protecting the animals.

SECTION 8. Any person who violate, any of the provisions of this Act shall, upon
conviction by final judgment, be punished by imprisonment of not less than six (6)
months nor more than two (2) years or a fine of not less than One thousand pesos
(P1,000) nor more than Five thousand pesos (P5,000) or both at the discretion of the
court. If the violation is committed by a juridical person, the officer responsible
therefore shall serve the imprisonment when imposed. If violation is committed by an
alien, he or she shall be immediately deported after serviced sentence without any
further proceedings.

SECTION 9. All laws, acts, decrees, executive orders, rules, and regulations
inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified
accordingly.

SECTION 10. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in at least
two (2) newspapers of general circulation.

Approved:

JOSE DE VENECIA, JR.

Speaker of the House of Representatives

NEPTALI A. GONZALES

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President of the, Senate

This Act, which is a consolidation of Senate Bill no. 2120 and House Sill No. 9274 was
finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 3, 1998
and February 2,1998, respectively.

ROBERTO P. NAZARENO

Secretary General, House of Representatives

HEZEL P. GACUTAN

Secretary of the Senate

Approved:
February 11, 1998

FIDEL V. RAMOS

President of the Philippines

THE PRECEDING ARTICLE WAS COPIED FROM THE ORIGINAL REPUBLIC ACT
8485

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 [REPUBLIC ACT 10631]

REVISED IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS OF REPUBLIC ACT 8485


OTHERWISE KNOWN AS “THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT OF 1998” AS AMENDED
BY REPUBLIC ACT 10631

AN ACT AMENDING CERTAIN SECTIONS OF REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8485,


OTHERWISE KNOWN AS "THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT OF 1998″

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in


Congress assembled:

Section 1. Section 1 of Republic Act No. 8485 is hereby amended to read as follows;

"SECTION 1. It is the purpose of this Act to protect and promote the welfare of all
terrestrial, aquatic and marine animals in the Philippines by supervising and regulating
the establishment and operations of all facilities utilized for breeding, maintaining,
keeping, treating or training of all animals either as objects of trade or as household
pets. For purposes of this Act, pet animal shall include birds.

"For purposes of this Act, animal welfare pertains to the physical and psychological
well-being of animals. It includes, but not limited to, the avoidance of abuse,
maltreatment, cruelty and exploitation of animals by humans by maintaining
appropriate standards of accommodation, feeding and general care, the prevention
and treatment of disease and the assurance of freedom from fear, distress,
harassment, and unnecessary discomfort and pain, and allowing animals to express
normal behavior."

Section 2. Section 6 of Republic Act No. 8485 is hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 6. It shall be unlawful for any person to torture any animal, to neglect to provide
adequate care, sustenance of shelter, or maltreat any animal or to subject any dog or
horse to dogfights or horsefights, kill or cause or procure to be tortured or deprived of
adequate care, sustenance or shelter, or maltreat or use the same in research or
experiments not expressly authorized by the Committee on Animal Welfare.

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"The killing of any animal other than cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits,
carabaos and horses is likewise hereby declared unlawful except in the following
instances:

Section 3. A new Section 7 is hereby inserted after Section 6 of the same Act to read
as follows:

"SEC. 7. It shall be unlawful for any person who has custody of an animal to abandon
the animal.

"If any person being the owner or having charge or control of any animal shall without
reasonable cause or excuse abandon it, whether permanently or not, without providing
for the care of that animal, such act shall constitute maltreatment under Section 9.

"If the animal is left in circumstances likely to cause the animal any unnecessary
suffering, or if this abandonment results in the death of the animal, the person liable
shall suffer the maximum penalty.

"Abandonment means the relinquishment of all right, title, claim, or possession of the
animal with the intention of not reclaiming it or resuming its ownership or possession."

Section 4. Section 8 of Republic Act No. 8485 which shall now become Section 9 is
hereby amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 9. Any person who subjects any animal to cruelty, maltreatment or neglect shall,
upon conviction by final judgment, be punished by imprisonment and/ or fine, as
indicated in the following graduated scale:

"(1) Imprisonment of one (1) year and six (6) months and one (1) day to two (2) years
and/or a fine not exceeding One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) if the animal
subjected to cruelty, maltreatment or neglect dies;

"(2) Imprisonment of one (1) year and one (1) day to one (1) year and six (6) months
and/or a fine not exceeding Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) if the animal subjected
to cruelty, maltreatment or neglect survives but is severely injured with loss of its
natural faculty to survive on its own and needing human intervention to sustain its life;
and

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"(3) Imprisonment of six (6) months to one (1) year and/or a fine not exceeding Thirty
thousand pesos (P30,000.00) for subjecting any animal to cruelty, maltreatment or
neglect but without causing its death or incapacitating it to survive on its own.

"If the violation is committed by a juridical person, the officer responsible thereof shall
serve the imprisonment. If the violation is committed by an alien, he or she shall be
immediately deported after the service of sentence without any further proceeding.

"The foregoing penalties shall also apply for any other violation of this Act, depending
upon the effect or result of the act or omission as defined in the immediately preceding
sections.

"However, regardless of the resulting condition to the animal/s, the penalty of two (2)
years and one (1) day to three (3) years and/or a fine not exceeding Two hundred fifty
thousand pesos (P250,000.00) shall be imposed if the offense is committed by any of
the following: (1) a syndicate; (2) an offender who makes business out of cruelty to an
animal; (3) a public officer or employee; or (4) where at least three (3) animals are
involved.

"In any of the foregoing situations, the offender shall suffer subsidiary imprisonment in
case of insolvency and the inability to pay the fine."

Section 5. A new Section 10 is hereby inserted after the Section above to read as
follows:

"SEC. 10. The Secretary of the Department of Agriculture shall deputize animal
welfare enforcement officers from nongovernment organizations, citizens groups,
community organizations and other volunteers who have undergone the necessary
training for this purpose. The Philippine National Police, the National Bureau of
Investigation and other law enforcement agencies shall designate animal welfare
enforcement officers. As such, animal welfare enforcement officers shall have the
authority to seize and rescue illegally traded and maltreated animals and to arrest
violators of this Act subject to the guidelines of existing laws and rules and regulations
on arrest and detention.

"The Secretary of the Department of Agriculture shall, upon the recommendation of


the Committee on Animal Welfare:

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"(1) Promulgate the guidelines on the criteria and training requirements for the
deputization of animal welfare enforcement officers; and

"(2) Establish a mechanism for the supervision, monitoring and reporting of these
enforcement officers."

Section 6. If, for any reason, any provision of this Act is declared to be unconstitutional
or invalid, the other sections or provisions hereof which are not affected shall continue
to be in full force and effect.

Section 7. All laws, decrees, orders, rules and regulations and other issuances or parts
thereof which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby deemed
repealed, amended or modified accordingly.

Section 8. This Act shall take effect after fifteen (15) days from its publication in
the Official Gazette or in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation, whichever
comes earlier.

Approved,

(Sgd.) JINGGOY EJERCITO (Sgd.) FELICIANO BELMONTE JR.


ESTRADA Speaker of the House of
Acting Senate President Representatives

This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 3329 and House Bill No. 6893 was
finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on June 6, 2013.

(Sgd.) EMMA LIRIO-REYES (Sgd.) MARILYN B. BARUA-YAP


Secretary of the Senate Secretary General
House of Representatives

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E. CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION

 Philippine Wildlife

The Philippines is made up of more than 7,100 islands and is considered as both a
hotspot and a megadiversity country. It is home to 5% of the world’s flora, and ranks
4th in bird endemism. 54 percent of mammals are considered endemic.

The Wildlife of the Philippines has a significant number of plant and animal species
that are endemic in the Philippines. The country’s surrounding waters reportedly[who?]
have the highest level of biodiversity in the world. The Philippines is considered as
one of the seventeen Megadiverse countries as well as global biodiversity hotspot. In
the 2000 Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN), 418 of the country’s 52,177 species were listed as threatened. The
Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new
species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of
endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise

Vertebrates. There are 185 species of Philippine terrestrial mammals, and 62 percent
(115 species) of which is endemic (PAWB-NBU, 1996). About 558 species of birds
have been recorded and 17 1 of these are known to be found only in the Philippines.
A total of 95 amphibian species are recognized to be found in the country, of which 54
percent (5 species) is considered endemic.

WWF-Philippines implements conservation and development projects in 11 provinces


and at least 28 towns; from the far north in the Babuyan Islands, to the southernmost
tip, the Turtle Islands in Tawi-Tawi. On a nationwide scale, WWF advocates for
appropriate environmental policies, engage coporations for sustainable business and
conducts environmental education activities in Metro Manila and other key cities and
towns.

The field projects of WWF-Philippines support local efforts in coastal resources


management, community-based ecotourism, management of protected areas, and
environmental law enforcement, among others. WWF’s projects on species protection

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serve as catalytic platforms for a broader coastal management and conservation
program in a number of areas. These include the Irrawaddy dolphin in Malampaya
Sound, Palawan, the whaleshark in Donsol, Sorsogon, whales and dolphins in Tanon
Strait, Negros Oriental, sea turtles in the Turtle Islands, Tawi-Tawi, the dugong in
Roxas, Palawan, and the humpback whale in Babuyan Islands.

This is the first and so far only guide to cover all 572 species of birds known to occur
within the 7,100 islands that comprise the Philippines. The Philippines are the home
of nearly 172 species that are not found anywhere else in the world-many of which are
endangered as the result of high levels of habitat destruction in the Philippine forest.
Thus, knowledge and study of the endemic characteristics of the birds of the
Philippines are of critical importance.
This Guide is beautifully illustrated with 72 specially painted color plates, showing all
species recorded from the Philippines except four rare accidental species. The
accompanying text gives detailed information about the plumage, voice, range,
distribution, status, habitat, life history, and behavior of the birds and includes helpful
distribution maps for all the species highlighted The Philippines has vast natural
resources that are a source of food, water, shelter and livelihood for its rapidly growing
population. It is one of 18 megabiodiversity countries (containing 2/3 of the earth’s
biodiversity and about 70-80% of the world’s plant and animal species) due to its
geographical isolation, diverse habitats and high rates of endemism. The Philippines
is 5th in the number of plant species and maintains 5% of the world’s flora. Species
endemism is very high covering at least 25 genera of plants and 49% of terrestrial
wildlife. It also ranks 4th in bird endemism. In terms of fishes, there are about 3,214
(incomplete list) with about 121 endemic and 76 threatened species.

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 Conserving Wildlife

“Conserving wildlife is an arduous task. This cannot be accomplished by one or two


government agencies alone. The continued existence of our wildlife rests on the
support and cooperation of our people.” -- Dr. Delfin J. Ganapin, Jr., former
environment undersecretary

Filipinos call it agila, tipule, mamboobook, garuda, and manaol. Despite its several
names, Philippine eagle (scientific name: Pithecophaga jeffreyi) is “the king of birds,”
thus the fitting name, Haring Ibon.

With a wing span of nearly seven feet and a top speed of 80 kilometers per hour,
Philippine eagle can gracefully swoop down on an unsuspecting prey and carry it off
without breaking flight.

Although Philippine eagle is the country’s bird icon, it is on the brink of extinction. In
fact, the Convention for International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) has listed
as an endangered species.

“By using the Philippine eagle as the focal point of conservation, we are, in the
process, saving wildlife and their habitat,” pointed out Dennis Salvador, the executive
director of the Philippine Eagle Center based in Malagos, Calinan District.

Aside from birds, wildlife also includes amphibians, reptiles, and mammals living
naturally in the forests and grasslands. It also includes the untamed habitats of the
sea, like the marine turtles and dugongs.

“We regret losing something when it is already gone,” so goes a familiar saying. If the
usual disruptive trend to our wildlife species continues, the above maxim might well
prove true for the diminishing legacy of the Philippines.

“The Philippines has tremendous wildlife resources,” wrote Jesus B. Alvarez Jr. in a
1981 position paper. “We have unique and beautiful birds which are in great demand,
both here and abroad. We also have rare interesting mammals. Most outstanding are
the tamaraw and the Philippine eagle which could be placed alongside the world’s
finest species.”

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The accounts of explorers and colonizers of the country revealed that as early as the
17th century, the country’s more than 7,100 islands teemed with wildlife. With the
passing of time, the scenario has completely changed.

“A few decades ago, the wildlife of the Philippines was notable for its abundance; now,
it is notable for its variety; if the present trend of destruction continues, Philippine
wildlife will be notable for its absence,” commented Dr. Lee Talbot, who was once a
member of the Southeast Asia Project on Wildlife Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources.

Noted Filipino wildlife expert Dioscoro Rabor echoed the same sentiment. “It is about
time that we, Filipinos, stop making ourselves internationally blind to the real status of
our wildlife resources,” he said. “We should face the fact that our country is no longer
rich in forests and consequently, of wildlife which used to be a normal component of
our forests.”

A species is considered extinct when it no longer found in the past 50 years.


Endangered species are those that have been reduced in number to a critical level or
whose habitats have been damaged, altered, or reduced.

Rare species have small world populations. Usually, they are restricted to very few
habitats. At present, rare species are not considered endangered but at risk.
Threatened, on the other hand, is a general term used to describe the animal or plant
species which could be in the status of “endangered” and “insufficiently unknown.”

The CITES has listed almost 50 wildlife species in the country that are rare,
threatened, or endangered. Among those that are included in the list are five marine
turtles, two crocodile species, the Philippine eagle, tamaraw, and dugongs.

“Once these species are gone, they are gone forever, leaving behind an imbalance in
ecology and beauty difficult to determine and restore,” observed a committed Filipino
environmentalist.

The decimation of their natural habitat has been cited as the main culprit of the rapid
disappearance of the country’s wildlife species. “At the rate our ecosystems are
getting destroyed, many species may no longer be there when we need them,”

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deplored Samuel Peñafiel, former director of the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau
(PAWB).

PAWB is a line agency of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.


Today, it is called Biodiversity Management Bureau (BMB) and it is tasked to monitor,
protect and conserve wildlife in the country.

Hunting has been blamed as a major culprit in the dwindling population of Philippine
eagle. But the truth is, it is the destruction of their natural habitat -- the tropical
rainforest -- that is the principal cause of their rapid disappearance.

The natural habitat of Philippine eagle consists mainly of old-growth forests from 100
meters to 1,000 meters above sea level. Unfortunately, these are the habitats that are
also fast disappearing due to deforestation.

“Deforestation is terrible,” deplored Salvador. “The Philippine eagle has become a


critically endangered species because forest destruction has made it lose its natural
habitat.”

Here’s an explanation from Peñafiel on why deforestation threatened wildlife species:


“The problem of forest destruction is very much related to wildlife protection, because
most of the wildlife use the forests as their habitat, while water-based animals are in
the wetlands.

“But there is also a link between forests and these areas because if we destroy the
forest, we destroy the water storage capacity of the forests,” he added. “During dry
months, the lakes also dry up, thus destroying the aquatic life.”

Another major cause of the disappearance is the high demand of wildlife species in
both domestic and foreign markets. According to Dr. Theresa Mundita-Lim, BMB
director, illegally collected and traded endemic and indigenous wildlife species “are
(still) being sold at petshops and other stores in Cartimar, Pasay City, and Aranque,
Manila City; San Jose del Monte Sunday Market in Bulacan, Hulo in Malabon, and
Tarua Market in Cavite.”

In 2001, Republic Act 9147 -- which criminalizes the collecting, hunting, possessing,
trading and transporting wildlife -- was enacted. But despite the law, crimes against
wildlife remain rampant
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 Biodiversity Statistics

From a planning and management perspective, stable conditions are desirable


so that prediction of outcomes of decisions can be simplified; but stability is rare,
especially in the Platte River Basin. Explanations of existing hydrological,
geomorphologic, and biological conditions and predictions of future conditions that fail
to discern and accommodate change are not likely to be successful. Science can
inform decision makers about expected outcomes of various choices, but prediction of
the outcomes is likely to be imprecise because of ecosystem variability. Management
choices therefore must include some flexibility to deal with the inevitable variability and
must be adaptive, continually monitoring and adjusting. The conditions our parents
would have seen in these ecosystems a half-century ago were not the conditions we
see now, and present conditions are not likely to be the ones our children or
grandchildren will see.

A second thread identified by the committee is that one’s view of an ecosystem


depends on the temporal and spatial scales on which it is examined. The variability in
scale of processes in smaller drainage basins nested within larger ones is obvious,
but most natural systems have a similar nested hierarchical structure. The groups of
birds and fish that use the Platte River Basin are a fraction of the larger, more widely
distributed population, so conditions along the river affect only a portion of each
population at any time. Loss of the subpopulations that use the Platte River might not
damage the entire population if there were no losses elsewhere—something that
Platte River managers cannot assume. The concentration of listed species along the
central Platte indicates the importance of the river, despite the fact that the birds can
be found elsewhere in Nebraska during migration or nesting periods. The river is
important from a management perspective because it contains all the habitat features
that are included in the regulatory definitions of critical habitat.

Climate also operates on a series of hierarchical scales. Regional climate in the


central and northern Great Plains evinces a variety of changes that depend on the
time scale used for analysis. Over a period of 5 or even 10 years, we do not see the
complete range of temperature and rainfall conditions likely to be experienced over a
century. Decades-long drought or wet periods are likely to be important in species
25 | P a g e
survival and recovery, so short-term observations of less than a few years cannot
illuminate the expected conditions that a recovery effort must face.

The various scales of scientific analysis with respect to threatened and


endangered species in the Platte River Basin imply that decisions based on science
should also recognize scale. Decisions concerning the Platte River Basin that are
based on short-term multiyear data and a local perspective are not likely to benefit the
long-term (multidecadal) viability of a species that operates on a continental or
intercontinental scale. The costs of efforts to recover threatened or endangered
species are often most obvious on a local scale, but the benefits are much more widely
distributed.

The third thread is that water links the needs of human, wildlife, and habitat
more than any other ecological process. Many of the risks to threatened and
endangered species, and all the comprehensive solutions to the problem of recovery,
require a refined understanding of hydrological processes. The hydrological system of
the Platte River is highly interconnected, so solutions to the species issues that
attempt to protect commodity values of water must also be interconnected, particularly
between surface water and groundwater. Climatic changes create a changing
backdrop for the more important human-induced changes in the hydrology of the
basin. The committee is firmly convinced that upstream storage, diversion, and
distribution of the river’s flow are the most important drivers of change that adversely
affect species habitat along the Platte River.

26 | P a g e
Baseline
Goals/Targets/Indicators Data Source Ag
Data Year

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestri


target 15.1 freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mo
drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

Forest area as a proportion Forest Resources As


15.1.1 6.8 million 2010
of total land area NAMRIA, FMB

Proportion of important
sites for terrestrial and
15.1.2 freshwater biodiversity that
are covered by protected
areas

Proportion of important sites


with poor ecosystem for Terrestrial and freshwate
15.1.2.1 terrestrial and freshwater 1.8 Million 2016
BMB 2/ *
biodiversity that are covered
by protected areas

Proportion of important sites


with fair ecosystem for Terrestrial and freshwate
15.1.2.2 terrestrial and freshwater 2.2 Million 2016
BMB 2/ *
biodiversity that are covered
by protected areas

Proportion of important sites


with satisfactory ecosystem Terrestrial and freshwate
15.1.2.3 for terrestrial and freshwater 42,135.8 2016
BMB 2/ *
biodiversity that are covered
by protected areas

By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types o


target 15.2 deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase affores
reforestation globally

27 | P a g e
Progress towards
15.2.1 sustainable forest
management

target 15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including lan
desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-n

15.3.1p1 Forest Cover Change (from


close to open forest)

target 15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habit
loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threate

15.5.1 Red List Index

target 15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization
resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internation

Number of countries that


have adopted legislative,
15.6.1 administrative and policy
frameworks to ensure fair
and equitable sharing of
benefits

target 15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flo
and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

Proportion of traded wildlife


15.7.1 that was poached or illicitly
trafficked (Indicator is also
found in SDG 15.c.1)

target 15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and loca
development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accoun

Progress towards national


targets established in
15.9.1 accordance with Aichi
Biodiversity Target 2 of the
Strategic Plan for
Biodiversity 2011-2020

target 15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to co
sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

28 | P a g e
Official development
assistance and public
expenditure on
conservation and 2,103.1 USD
15.a.1 2016 ODA Portfolio Revie
sustainable use of Million
biodiversity and
ecosystems (Indicator is
also found in SDG 15.b.1.)

Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sust
target 15.b management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to ad
management, including for conservation and reforestation

Official development
assistance and public
expenditure on
conservation and 2,103.1 USD
15.b.1 2016 ODA Portfolio Revie
sustainable use of Million
biodiversity and
ecosystems (same with
15.a.1)

Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of prote
target 15.c including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainab
opportunities

Proportion of traded wildlife


15.c.1 that was poached or illicitly
trafficked

29 | P a g e
F. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Considering those methods were sufficiently documented and whether and to


what extent they had been replicated, whether either the data or the methods used
had been published and subject to public comment or been formally peer-reviewed,
whether the data were consistent with accepted understanding of how the systems
function, and whether they were explained by a coherent theory or model of the
system. To assess the scientific validity of the methods used to develop instream-flow
recommendations, the committee applied the criteria listed above, but focused more
directly on the methods. For example, the considered whether the methods used were
in wide use or generally accepted in the relevant field and whether sources of potential
error in the methods have been or can be identified and the extent of potential error
estimated. The committee acknowledges that no one of the above criteria is decisive,
but taken together they provide a good sense of the extent to which any conclusion or
decision is supported by science. Because some of the decisions in question were
made many years ago, the committee felt that it was important to ask whether they
were supported by the existing science at the time they were made. For that purpose,
the committee asked, in addition to the questions above, whether the decision makers
had access to and made use of state-of-the-art knowledge at the time of the decision.

The population viability analysis (PVA) developed by the committee was


constrained by the short study period. It did not include systematic sensitivity analyses
and did not base stochastic processes and environmental variation on data from the
Platte River region. A more thorough representation of environmental variation in the
Platte River could be developed from regional records of climate, hydrology,
disturbance events, and other stochastic environmental factors. Where records on the
Platte River basin itself are not adequate, longer records on adjacent basins could be
correlated with records on the Platte to develop a defensible assessment of
environmental variation and stochastic processes. In addition, a sensitivity analysis

30 | P a g e
could demonstrate the effects of wide ranges of environmental variation on the
outcomes of PVAs.

In its analysis, the committee did not consider methods and techniques that are
under development by researchers such as the new SEDVEG model. SEDVEG is
being developed, but is not yet completed or tested, by USBR to evaluate the
interactions among hydrology, river hydraulics, sediment transport, and vegetation for
application on the Platte River. The committee did not consider USGS’s in-progress
evaluation of the models and data used by USFWS to set flow recommendations for
whooping cranes. The committee did not consider any aspects of the Environmental
Impact Statement that was being drafted by U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI)
agencies related to species recovery, because it was released after the committee
finished its deliberations. The Central Platte River recovery implementation program
proposed in the cooperative agreement by the Governance Committee also was not
evaluated, because it was specifically excluded from the committee’s charge.

The committee’s experience with data, models, and explanations led us to the
identification of three common threads throughout the issues related to threatened and
endangered species. First, change across space and through time is pervasive in all
natural and human systems in the central and lower Platte River. Change implies that
unforeseen events may affect the survival or recovery of federally listed species. Land-
use and water-use changes are likely in the central and lower Platte River region in
response to market conditions, changing lifestyles, shifts in the local human
population, and climate change; such changes will bring about pressures on wildlife
populations that are different from those observed today. For example, riparian
vegetation on the central Platte River has changed because of both natural and
anthropogenic impacts. Regardless of its condition and distribution before European
settlement in the middle 1800s, the riparian forest of the central Platte River was
geographically limited from the middle 1800s to the first decades of the 1900s. At the
time of the first aerial photography of the river in 1938, extensive sandbars, beaches,
and braided channels without extensive forest cover were common in many reaches
of the central Platte. Between the late 1930s and the middle to late 1960s, woodland
covered increasing portions of the areas that had previously been without trees. By
the late 1990s, clearing of woodlands had become a major habitat-management
strategy to benefit whooping cranes that desire open roosting areas with long sight
lines. Whooping cranes have used the newly cleared areas, but the overall effects of
clearing on the crane population and on the structure of the river are not completely
known. As with most habitat-management strategies in the central Platte River, there
has been no specific monitoring to assess the success of clearing. Unintended effects
remain to be investigated.

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