Power transformers for experimentation

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Power transformers for experimentation

© All Rights Reserved

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TRANSFORMER

1. CORE DIAGRAM

Net area of the core = Ai = Error: Reference source not found /Bm

Let using Bm = 1.0 wb/m2 for Iron core

F = Frequency

Te = turns per volt

We are designing a transformer of 0.33 kVA, we have seen the value

of turns per volt against 0.33 kVA from table below:

Te = 2.5

where Te

is turns

per volt

1/ (4.44 Φm f) = Te

Φm =1.8018 x 10-3 Wb.

Ai m 1.8018 x10

3

1.815x103 m 2

Bm 1

Ai 1.8018 x 103mm 2

Where Agi Agi Ai 1.8018x103 2002mm 2

.9 .9

is the Gross area

of the core and it is found by dividing the net area of the core by stacking

factor =0.9.

Limb of the core has a square area so its width is found by the square root of

gross area of core.

Agi

Width of limb =

= 44.74 mm.

2. PRIMARY WINDING

We have taken the primary voltage of transformer as 220V.

Vp = 220 V

Tp = Vp x Te

= 220 x 2.5

= 550 turns

1KVA.

Ip S

nVp

330

= 1.596 Amp. .94 x 220

S=Total Apparent Power (0.33kVA)

3. SECONDARY WINDING

Is S

nVs

= 3.1915 Amp. 330

.94 x110

Cross-sectional area of winding conductor (A):

the wire calculations for the secondary side and use the same results on the

primary side.

A= Ip mm 2

Sp

Sp is the current density in windings, usually for cooper wire the value of Sp

is taken as 2.3 – 3.5 A/mm2

So we select

Sp =3A /mm2

A= (πd²)/4

We know A = 1.063

so we get,

d=1.16mm = 0.0456inch

The above calculated diameter is not available in the market so we checked

through American Wire Gauge table (table) and selected the most

convenient and neighboring value which is stated as follows.

New selected diameter from the table is the number 17 wire which has a

diameter of

d2 = 0.0453inch = 1.16mm

d2 is the diameter of a bare cooper wire available in market but we will use

single enamel insulated cooper wire in our transformer windings so the

windings do not short circuit with each other.

The diameter of single enamel insulated cooper wire is selected from the

following table at 17 B&S Gage value:

d3=0.047inch = 1.193mm.

Space factor is the ratio of the conductor to the total space taken by the

insulated conductor in the windings.

=0.8(1.16/1.193)

Sf = 0.777

T p Ap

Wp

S

= f

550 1.063

752.44 mm2

Wp

0.777

Note: Here the area (A) used is for the insulated (enameled)

conductor.

In the calculation of Ts, we also multiply with 1.05 so the losses are

compensated and hence voltage is regulated.

Ts =1.05 x Vs x Te

= 1.05 x 110 x 2.5

= 289 turns

Ts As

Ws

Sf

Ws 2891.063

0.777

4. Stamping Size: Ws 395.37mm2

The 1.2 multiplication factor is used to increase space by 20% for the

insulation and other factors.

=1.2 (primary window space + secondary window space)

=1.2 (503.04+528.6)

=1238 mm2

5. Copper Losses:

For Secondary windings:

Now we calculate the height of the winding limb by using standard stamping

sizes:

E= 1 inch”

C-E=4.937” – 1 =

3.937” X 25.4

= 99.9mm

= 103

We need 289 turns but 103 turns are available on each layer so we will use 3

layers. First 2 of 103 turns and the third of 83 turns.

We convert the above area into circular circumference of limb, for the

winding so

d2

2002

4

2002 4

Total diameter of limb with d

paper (dS1) = 50.48 +4 = 54.48 d 50.48mm

mm

d is the calculated total diameter

= Error: Reference source not found x 54.48

= 171.15mm

No of turns in first layer = 103

Length of first layer (LS1) = 103 x 171.15

= 17628.45mm

= 55.673mm

Circumference after first layer = 55.673 x Error: Reference source not found

Length of second layer (LS2) = 55.673 x Error: Reference source not found

x 103

= 18014.89mm

= 56.866mm

Circumference after second layer = 56.866 x Error: Reference source not

found

Length of third layer (LS3) = 56.866 x Error: Reference source not found x

83

= 16614.43mm

Total length of secondary winding (LST) =

=LS1+LS2+LS3

=52257.77mm

Secondary resistance:

Resistivity of material (Error: Reference source not found) = 2.1 x 10-7

Error: Reference source not found - mm.

As = 1.063mm2

= (3.19)2 x 0.01

= 0.1050 W

Copper losses = Ip2 Rp

only use a 4mm paper in between them for double insulation.

not foundd

= Error: Reference source

not found x 60.866

Length of first layer (LP1) = 103 x Error: Reference source not found x

60.866

= 19695.26mm

No. of turns in 2nd layer =103

= 62.059mm

Circumference after first layer = 62.059 x Error: Reference source not found

Length of second layer (LP2) = 62.059 x Error: Reference source not found

x 103

= 20081.30mm

= 63.252mm

found

Length of third layer (LP3) = 63.252 x Error: Reference source not found

x 90

= 17884.08mm

No. of turns in 4th layer =80

= 64.445mm

found

Length of fourth layer (LP4) = 64.445 x Error: Reference source not found

x 80

= 16196.79mm

No. of turns in 5th layer =87

= 65.638mm

Circumference after fourth layer = 65.638 x Error: Reference source not

found

Length of fifth layer (LP5) = 65.638 x Error: Reference source not found x

87

= 17940.08mm

= 66.831mm

Circumference after fifth layer = 66.831 x Error: Reference source not found

Length of sixth layer (LP6) = 66.831 x Error: Reference source not found x

87

= 18266.15mm

=LP1+LP2+LP3+LP4+LP5+LP6

=110063.66mm

Primary resistance:

Resistivity of material (Error: Reference source not found) = 2.1 x 10-7

Error: Reference source not found - mm.

Ap = 1.063mm2

Rp = ((2.1 x 10-7) (110063.66)) / 1.063

= (1.596)2 x 0.022

= 0.0292 W

Total copper losses= Primary copper Losses+ Secondary copper Losses

= 0.0292+0.1050

=0.1342 Watts

6. Iron Losses:

Losses in watts/kg are taken the graph B/w flux and losses in

watts/kg.

But we take losses in watts/kg =1, so

= 103 x 1.193

= 122.879mm

=122.879 +15

= 137.879 mm.

Thus, Volume of limb = area of limb x height of limb

= 137.879 x 1801.8

=248430.3822 mm3

Volume of both limbs = 248430.3822 x 2

= 496860.764 mm3 = 496.86 cm3

Weight of core = Density x Volume

= 7.87 x 496.86

= 3910.29 Grams

= 3.91Kg

Hence the iron loses are also 3.910 Watts in both winding limbs.

7. YOKE

= 2 (44.74) + 5 + 2 (11.69)

= 117.88mm

= 117.88 x 44.74 x 22.37

= 117978.28mm3

=235956.57mm3 =235.956cm3

= 235.956 x 7.87

=1856.97grams = 1.857 kg

Total iron loses = core loss in winding limb + iron losses in yoke

= 3.91 + 1.857

=5.767Watts

Efficiency:

= 5.767+0.1342

= 5.9012 watts

= (330 /330 + 5.9012) x 100

= 98.243 %

DESIGN OF LOADS

1. INDUCTANCE

If we neglect copper resistance then we have

Voltage rating = 110V and we need to design each choke of 55VA so at 110V

the current rating of each choke is equal to 0.5 Amperes. To be on the safe

side we will use the wire number of 25 which has a diameter of 0.0179inch

diameter (seen from American wire gauge table) and this can allow a current

of 0.6 A which is calculated by a copper current density which is taken as 3.2

A/mm².

We take 220ohms of reactance for each inductor so the current of each

inductor is 0.5A. We also match the reactance of capacitors so our power

factor improvement is near to perfect.

We know that XL = WL or

Z = 2Error: Reference source not foundfl

L = Z / 2Error: Reference source not foundf

= 220 / 2Error: Reference source not found x 50

= 0.700282 H

We also told the manufacturer to design our choke(inductor) at 6 turns per

volt which we extracted from the following table.

2.

CAPACITOR DESIGN

Voltage rating = 220 V

Impedance = Xc = 220ohms as discussed in the inductor design part.

XC = 1 / 2Error: Reference source not foundf

220 = 1 / 2Error: Reference source not foundf

C = 1 / 220 x 2Error: Reference source not found x f

C = 1 / 220 x 2Error: Reference source not found x 50

C = 14.45Error: Reference source not foundF

As 14.5microfarads was not available in the market so we used a

parallel combination of 10 and 4.5microfarads.

3. DESIGN OF RESISTOR

We simply bought resistor available in the market which was 100W and

220ohms each. But we will use each resistor at 55W which is also the case

for inductor and capacitor for matching loads.

P = V2/R

55 = (110)2 / R

R = 220Error: Reference source not found

Now,

V = IR

110 = I x 220

I = 0.5 Ampere

So each resistor will draw a current of 0.5A when connected to 110V, the

secondary side of our transformer.

TRAINER

NOTE:

i. When a’, b’ & c’ are connected together the load is in star

(Y).

ii. When a & a’, b & b’, c & c’ are connected together the

load is in delta (Error: Reference source not found).

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