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DESIGN OF

TRANSFORMER

1. CORE DIAGRAM

Net area of the core = Ai = Error: Reference source not found /Bm
Let using Bm = 1.0 wb/m2 for Iron core
F = Frequency
Te = turns per volt
We are designing a transformer of 0.33 kVA, we have seen the value
of turns per volt against 0.33 kVA from table below:

Te = 2.5
where Te
is turns
per volt

Using the following formula flux is calculated.

1/ (4.44 Φm f) = Te
Φm =1.8018 x 10-3 Wb.

Ai  m  1.8018 x10
3
 1.815x103 m 2
Bm 1
Ai  1.8018 x 103mm 2
Where Agi Agi  Ai  1.8018x103  2002mm 2
.9 .9
is the Gross area
of the core and it is found by dividing the net area of the core by stacking
factor =0.9.
Limb of the core has a square area so its width is found by the square root of
gross area of core.

Agi
Width of limb =
= 44.74 mm.

2. PRIMARY WINDING

No. of turns in primary winding (Tp):


We have taken the primary voltage of transformer as 220V.
Vp = 220 V
Tp = Vp x Te
= 220 x 2.5
= 550 turns

Primary current (Ip):

Where n=0.94 is usually the efficiency of a transformer less than


1KVA.
Ip  S
nVp
 330
= 1.596 Amp. .94 x 220

Where Error: Reference source not found =efficiency (94%)


S=Total Apparent Power (0.33kVA)

3. SECONDARY WINDING

Secondary current (Is):

Is  S
nVs
= 3.1915 Amp.  330
.94 x110
Cross-sectional area of winding conductor (A):

Note: As the secondary current is greater than the primary current so we do


the wire calculations for the secondary side and use the same results on the
primary side.
A= Ip mm 2
Sp
Sp is the current density in windings, usually for cooper wire the value of Sp
is taken as 2.3 – 3.5 A/mm2

So we select

Sp =3A /mm2

A = 3.1915/3 = 1.063833 mm2

As we know that the conductor has circular cross-sectional then

A= (πd²)/4
We know A = 1.063
so we get,
d=1.16mm = 0.0456inch
The above calculated diameter is not available in the market so we checked
through American Wire Gauge table (table) and selected the most
convenient and neighboring value which is stated as follows.
New selected diameter from the table is the number 17 wire which has a
diameter of
d2 = 0.0453inch = 1.16mm
d2 is the diameter of a bare cooper wire available in market but we will use
single enamel insulated cooper wire in our transformer windings so the
windings do not short circuit with each other.
The diameter of single enamel insulated cooper wire is selected from the
following table at 17 B&S Gage value:

The new enameled conductor diameter of selected conductor is


d3=0.047inch = 1.193mm.

Space factor for primary winding (Sf):

Space factor is the ratio of the conductor to the total space taken by the
insulated conductor in the windings.

Sf =0.8(diameter of bare conductor/ diameter of insulated conductor)


=0.8(1.16/1.193)

Sf = 0.777

Window Space for primary winding (Wp):

Window space is the total required by primary windings

T p Ap
Wp 
S
= f
550 1.063
752.44 mm2
Wp 
0.777

Note: Here the area (A) used is for the insulated (enameled)
conductor.

No. of turns of secondary winding (Ts):

In the calculation of Ts, we also multiply with 1.05 so the losses are
compensated and hence voltage is regulated.
Ts =1.05 x Vs x Te
= 1.05 x 110 x 2.5
= 289 turns

Window Space for secondary winding (Ws):

Window space required by secondary winding is as follows

Ts  As
Ws 
Sf
Ws  2891.063
0.777
4. Stamping Size: Ws  395.37mm2

The 1.2 multiplication factor is used to increase space by 20% for the
insulation and other factors.

Total window space required


=1.2 (primary window space + secondary window space)
=1.2 (503.04+528.6)
=1238 mm2

5. Copper Losses:
For Secondary windings:

Copper losses = Is2 Rs

Total no. of turns of secondary = 289 turns

Width of winding limb = 44.74mm


Now we calculate the height of the winding limb by using standard stamping
sizes:

Using C=4.937 inch” ,


E= 1 inch”
C-E=4.937” – 1 =
3.937” X 25.4
= 99.9mm

No of Turns per layer = 99.9 / 1.193


= 103

We need 289 turns but 103 turns are available on each layer so we will use 3
layers. First 2 of 103 turns and the third of 83 turns.

Area of the winding limb as calculated area = Agi = 2002 mm2


We convert the above area into circular circumference of limb, for the
winding so

 d2
2002 
4
2002  4
Total diameter of limb with d 

paper (dS1) = 50.48 +4 = 54.48 d  50.48mm
mm

Circumference of limb = Error: Reference source not foundd where


d is the calculated total diameter
= Error: Reference source not found x 54.48
= 171.15mm
No of turns in first layer = 103
Length of first layer (LS1) = 103 x 171.15
= 17628.45mm

No. of turns in 2nd layer =103

Diameter after first layer (dS2) = 54.48 +1.193


= 55.673mm

Circumference after first layer = 55.673 x Error: Reference source not found

Length of second layer (LS2) = 55.673 x Error: Reference source not found
x 103
= 18014.89mm

No. of turns in 3rd layer =83

Diameter after second layer (dS3) = 55.673 +1.193


= 56.866mm
Circumference after second layer = 56.866 x Error: Reference source not
found
Length of third layer (LS3) = 56.866 x Error: Reference source not found x
83
= 16614.43mm
Total length of secondary winding (LST) =
=LS1+LS2+LS3
=52257.77mm

Secondary resistance:

Rs = Error: Reference source not found LST /As


Resistivity of material (Error: Reference source not found) = 2.1 x 10-7
Error: Reference source not found - mm.
As = 1.063mm2

Rs = ((2.1 x 10-7) (52257.77)) / 1.063

= 0.01Error: Reference source not found

Secondary copper Losses = Is2 Rs


= (3.19)2 x 0.01
= 0.1050 W

For Primary windings:


Copper losses = Ip2 Rp

Total no. of turns of primary = 550 turns

We install the primary winding on top of the secondary windings, but we


only use a 4mm paper in between them for double insulation.

So first diameter after secondary and paper is (dP1) = 56.866+4=60.866mm

Circumference of limb after secondary and paper = Error: Reference source


not foundd
= Error: Reference source
not found x 60.866

No of turns in first layer = 103


Length of first layer (LP1) = 103 x Error: Reference source not found x
60.866
= 19695.26mm
No. of turns in 2nd layer =103

Diameter after first layer (dP2) = 60.866 +1.193


= 62.059mm

Circumference after first layer = 62.059 x Error: Reference source not found

Length of second layer (LP2) = 62.059 x Error: Reference source not found
x 103
= 20081.30mm

No. of turns in 3rd layer =90

Diameter after second layer (dP3) = 62.059 +1.193


= 63.252mm

Circumference after second layer = 63.252 x Error: Reference source not


found

Length of third layer (LP3) = 63.252 x Error: Reference source not found
x 90
= 17884.08mm
No. of turns in 4th layer =80

Diameter after third layer (dP4) = 63.252 +1.193


= 64.445mm

Circumference after third layer = 64.445 x Error: Reference source not


found

Length of fourth layer (LP4) = 64.445 x Error: Reference source not found
x 80
= 16196.79mm
No. of turns in 5th layer =87

Diameter after fourth layer (dP5) = 64.445 +1.193


= 65.638mm
Circumference after fourth layer = 65.638 x Error: Reference source not
found

Length of fifth layer (LP5) = 65.638 x Error: Reference source not found x
87
= 17940.08mm

No. of turns in 6th layer =87

Diameter after fifth layer (dP6) = 65.638 +1.193


= 66.831mm

Circumference after fifth layer = 66.831 x Error: Reference source not found

Length of sixth layer (LP6) = 66.831 x Error: Reference source not found x
87
= 18266.15mm

Total length of Primary winding (LPT) =


=LP1+LP2+LP3+LP4+LP5+LP6
=110063.66mm

Primary resistance:

Rp = Error: Reference source not found LPT /Ap


Resistivity of material (Error: Reference source not found) = 2.1 x 10-7
Error: Reference source not found - mm.
Ap = 1.063mm2
Rp = ((2.1 x 10-7) (110063.66)) / 1.063

= 0.022Error: Reference source not found

Primary copper Losses = Ip2 Rp


= (1.596)2 x 0.022
= 0.0292 W
Total copper losses= Primary copper Losses+ Secondary copper Losses
= 0.0292+0.1050
=0.1342 Watts

6. Iron Losses:
Losses in watts/kg are taken the graph B/w flux and losses in
watts/kg.
But we take losses in watts/kg =1, so

Iron losses of the iron core = Weight of iron core

Weight of iron core = Volume of winding limb x density of iron core

Height of secondary winding:

= no. of turns in one layer x actual diameter of insulated conductor


= 103 x 1.193
= 122.879mm

Due to clearance we add 15mm to the above calculated value

Height of limb = Height of secondary winding + Clearance at the ends


=122.879 +15
= 137.879 mm.
Thus, Volume of limb = area of limb x height of limb

= 137.879 x 1801.8
=248430.3822 mm3
Volume of both limbs = 248430.3822 x 2
= 496860.764 mm3 = 496.86 cm3
Weight of core = Density x Volume
= 7.87 x 496.86
= 3910.29 Grams
= 3.91Kg
Hence the iron loses are also 3.910 Watts in both winding limbs.
7. YOKE

Length of yoke =2 x (Width of winding limb) + Space + 2 x Windings


= 2 (44.74) + 5 + 2 (11.69)
= 117.88mm

Volume of yoke = length x width x side of one limb


= 117.88 x 44.74 x 22.37
= 117978.28mm3

Total volume = 2 x 117978.28


=235956.57mm3 =235.956cm3

Weight of yoke = volume x density


= 235.956 x 7.87
=1856.97grams = 1.857 kg

Iron losses in yoke = 1.857 watts.

Total iron loses = core loss in winding limb + iron losses in yoke
= 3.91 + 1.857
=5.767Watts
Efficiency:

Total losses in transformer = Iron losses + copper losses


= 5.767+0.1342
= 5.9012 watts

Percentage efficiency = (output / input) x 100


= (330 /330 + 5.9012) x 100
= 98.243 %

DESIGN OF LOADS

1. INDUCTANCE
If we neglect copper resistance then we have
Voltage rating = 110V and we need to design each choke of 55VA so at 110V
the current rating of each choke is equal to 0.5 Amperes. To be on the safe
side we will use the wire number of 25 which has a diameter of 0.0179inch
diameter (seen from American wire gauge table) and this can allow a current
of 0.6 A which is calculated by a copper current density which is taken as 3.2
A/mm².
We take 220ohms of reactance for each inductor so the current of each
inductor is 0.5A. We also match the reactance of capacitors so our power
factor improvement is near to perfect.
We know that XL = WL or
Z = 2Error: Reference source not foundfl
L = Z / 2Error: Reference source not foundf
= 220 / 2Error: Reference source not found x 50
= 0.700282 H
We also told the manufacturer to design our choke(inductor) at 6 turns per
volt which we extracted from the following table.

2.

CAPACITOR DESIGN
Voltage rating = 220 V
Impedance = Xc = 220ohms as discussed in the inductor design part.
XC = 1 / 2Error: Reference source not foundf
220 = 1 / 2Error: Reference source not foundf
C = 1 / 220 x 2Error: Reference source not found x f
C = 1 / 220 x 2Error: Reference source not found x 50
C = 14.45Error: Reference source not foundF
As 14.5microfarads was not available in the market so we used a
parallel combination of 10 and 4.5microfarads.

3. DESIGN OF RESISTOR
We simply bought resistor available in the market which was 100W and
220ohms each. But we will use each resistor at 55W which is also the case
for inductor and capacitor for matching loads.

Voltage 110 volts,


P = V2/R
55 = (110)2 / R
R = 220Error: Reference source not found
Now,
V = IR
110 = I x 220
I = 0.5 Ampere
So each resistor will draw a current of 0.5A when connected to 110V, the
secondary side of our transformer.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER


TRAINER
NOTE:
i. When a’, b’ & c’ are connected together the load is in star
(Y).
ii. When a & a’, b & b’, c & c’ are connected together the
load is in delta (Error: Reference source not found).