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Patrick Sharbaugh

patrick@luma-institute.com
@psharbaugh
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 1
Patrick Sharbaugh

Twitter: @psharbaugh

Email: patrick@luma-institute.com

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© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 3
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 4
Also organise a Melbourne Meetup Group for monthly
HCD and design thinking meetups:
Design Thinking for Business Innovation
http://bit.ly/29LZy6N

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© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 6
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 7
We are entering a new age in which
everyone’s ability to innovate is going to
matter as much as their ability to read,
write and do basic arithmetic.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 8


How can we apply What are our How can we
our technology in customers’ most reach entirely
new and different critical unmet new audiences?
ways? needs?

How can we have How might we How do we build


more productive increase sales? better leaders?
kickoff meetings?

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 9


But how?

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 10


Design Thinking

Human-Centered Design

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Human-Centered Design
The discipline of
developing solutions in
the service of people

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Human-Centered Design
The discipline of
developing solutions in
the service of people.

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“Design is not a one-shot vaccine; it’s an
‘innovation fitness program’ that puts an
organization on top of its game. It is not
an ‘event’, it is a way of thinking,
communicating and doing every day.”

HEATHER FRASER
Professor, Rotman School of Business
University of Toronto

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Human-Centered Design
The discipline of
developing solutions in
the service of people.

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“Everyone designs who devises
courses of action aimed at
changing existing situations into
preferred ones.”

HERB SIMON
Nobel Laureate in Economics

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© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 17
Human-Centered Design
The discipline of
developing solutions in
the service of people.

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Why does this matter?

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 20


“Good design is
good business. ”

THOMAS J. WATSON, JR.


American Entrepreneur and Founder of IBM

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 21


BENEFITS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN
A portfolio of design-centric companies outperformed the
S&P Index by 219% from 2003-2014…

Source: January 2015 Design Management Institute Study.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 22


BENEFITS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

• Reduces overall development costs and mitigates the


risk of big failure
• Helps teams get the right solution to market, faster
• Equips you to tame highly complex problems
• Builds team alignment, promotes collaboration and
problem solving
• Provides teams a framework for repeatable
innovation

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 23


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 24
Another Definition

“Design thinking can be described as a


discipline that uses the designer’s
sensibility and methods to match people’s
needs with what is technologically feasible
and what a viable business strategy can
convert into customer value and market
opportunity.”
-Tim
Brown (IDEO)

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 25


Okay, but how do we do it?

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 26


The double diamond of human centred design

Doing the right thing Doing things right

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© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 28
Human Centred Design Process according to IDEO

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Problem/Challenge
Statement

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TO BE SKILLED AT HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN IS TO BE SKILLED AT…

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 31


INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

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© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 33
Declining attendance at cinemas

Design Thinking for Business Innovation 34


SCENARIO: CINEMA ATTENDANCE

You work for a major Australian cinema chain (let’s


say Hoyts). You are increasingly concerned that
fewer and fewer Australians appear to be attending
movies at big-chain cinemas, including yours.

Your team is responsible for reversing this trend by


innovating your way out of this worrisome situation

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 35


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 36
UNDERSTANDING PEOPLE & SYSTEMS

Stakeholder Mapping

A way of diagramming the


network of people who have
a stake in a given system

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 37


INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 38


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 39
TOPIC: DIABETES CARE

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 40


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 41
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 42
TOPIC: ACCESS TO HEALTHY FOOD CHOICES

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 43


Declining attendance at cinemas

Design Thinking for Business Innovation 44


SCENARIO: CINEMA ATTENDANCE

You work for a major Australian cinema chain (let’s


say Hoyts). You are increasingly concerned that
fewer and fewer Australians appear to be attending
movies at big-chain cinemas, including yours.

Your team is responsible for reversing this trend.


You’ve begun with a stakeholder map to visualise the
full user ecosystem you’re dealing with.

You now wish to build some empathy for a key


stakeholder -- customers -- and understand their
experiences from their perspective. Start with
interviews.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 45


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 46
Interviewing: Tips
• Encourage stories.
• What was enjoyable about a recent experience?
• What was difficult or unpleasant about it?
• If they could wave a magic wand, what might they
change about it?
• Resist the urge to analyse or solve -- just
nonjudgmentally record the data for now
• Don’t suggest answers to your questions.
• Ask open-ended questions, not yes-or-no
• Make sure you capture (write down) the information
• Look for contradictions

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 47


Interviewing: ROUND II
• In the first round, you probably got a lot of explicit
information from your interview partner
• This time we want to try to reveal the implicit
reasons behind their cinema attitudes and
experiences

• Do this by asking “Why?”

• Try to get at some of the emotions behind their


attitudes about going to the cinema

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 48


Problem/Challenge
Statement

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UNDERSTANDING PROBLEM FRAMING

Rose, Thorn, Bud

A technique for identifying


things as positive, negative,
or having potential

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 50


INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

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© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 52
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 53
SCENARIO: CINEMA ATTENDANCE

Individually, evaluate your user’s cinema experiences


using Rose, Thorn, Bud.

● One issue, insight, or idea per sticky note


● Write in ALL CAPS, large enough to be seen easily
● Try to create at least 5 notes per color if you can
● Write each observation from the user’s
perspective, not yours

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 54


UNDERSTANDING PATTERNS & PRIORITIES

Affinity Clustering

A graphic technique for


sorting items according to
similarity

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INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

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APPLICATION

Affinity Clustering
• One person describe, then place an item
• Invite others to place similar items in proximity
• Repeat the pattern until all items are included
• Discuss and rearrange items as groupings emerge
• Label the clusters as they take shape

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Problem/Challenge
Statement

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SCENARIO: CINEMA ATTENDANCE

Your team wants to make any design decisions in


the interest of the people you are serving.

You feel you’re beginning to empathise with those


users through your ethnographic research and the
insights it’s revealed.

You’ve now decided to construct a set of persona


profiles to guide you and your team to think
about the recipients of your ideas at every stage of
design development.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 61


UNDERSTANDING PEOPLE & SYSTEMS

Persona Profile

An informed summary of the


mindset, needs, and goals
typically held by key
stakeholders

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UNDERSTANDING

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PERSONA PROFILES

QUICK GUIDE

• Identify a body of research to inform your work.


• Determine a set of archetypes to develop in detail.
• Write a personal description of each type.
• Give them realistic names.
• Include a representative portrait for each persona.
• Describe their distinguishing characteristics.
• Establish their needs and goals.
• Summarize their mindset with a memorable quote.
• Compose a one-page summary sheet for each type.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 64


PERSONA PROFILES

HELPFUL HINTS

• Avoid disrespectful stereotypes at all costs.


• Supplement your text with illustrative diagrams.
• Engage an expert designer for visual refinement.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 65


Method

Experience
Diagramming

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 66


UNDERSTANDING PEOPLE & SYSTEMS

Experience Diagramming

A way of mapping a person’s


journey through a set of
circumstances or tasks

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 67


INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 68


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 69
METHOD SET 2: FROM EMPATHY TO INSIGHT

A good sequence of methods for developing


empathy, documenting research and finding
insights.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 70


UNDERSTANDING PEOPLE & SYSTEMS

Experience Diagramming

A way of mapping a person’s


journey through a set of
circumstances or tasks

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 71


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 72
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 73
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 74
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 75
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 76
EXPERIENCE DIAGRAMMING

QUICK GUIDE

• Identify a body of research to inform your work.


• Select an experience to document in detail.
• Hone in on a few key tasks.
• Decide which individuals or personas to represent.
• List the people, places, and things they encounter.
• Determine a format (e.g., flow chart, map, timeline).
• Illustrate a series of typical experiences.
• Highlight the critical waypoints in their journey.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 77


EXPERIENCE DIAGRAMMING

HELPFUL HINTS

• Focus this effort on documenting existing situations.


• Use the diagram to mark typical break points.
• Study the behavioral patterns for potential insights.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 78


PRACTICE SCENARIO: PLANNING & BOOKING VACATIONS

Your team at Hoyts undertook several weeks of


ethnographic research into several key cinema
stakeholders – including, of course, moviegoers.

This research has revealed that one reason for the


downturn is because people are dissatisfied with
their cinema experiences at Hoyts.

Your team is responsible for understanding the


strengths and weaknesses of the current customer
experience at Hoyts. Choose ONE of your team’s
persona profiles and map that user’s Hoyts
experience.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 79


ASSIGNMENT

Create an experience diagram.

• Work in the same teams as before.


• Discuss your persona’s experience of attending a movie at a
Hoyts cinema, then create an inventory all of the user
touchpoints.
• Distinguish between people, places, and things
• Draw an experience diagram of the demonstrated task.
• For now, don’t worry about discussing the merits of each
touchpoints– just create as complete a map as you can

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 80


UNDERSTANDING PEOPLE & SYSTEMS

Experience Diagramming

BENEFITS

• Summarizes the current state of a situation


• Deepens your empathy for others
• Documents critical touch points
• Informs subsequent design activities

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 81


Reflection:
Experience Mapping

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 82


BREAK

Start again at

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 83


Method 3:
Rose, Thorn, Bud

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 84


INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 85


METHOD SET 2: FROM EMPATHY TO INSIGHT

A good sequence of methods for developing


empathy, documenting research and finding
insights.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 86


UNDERSTANDING PROBLEM FRAMING

Rose, Thorn, Bud

A technique for identifying


things as positive, negative,
or having potential

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 87


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 88
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 89
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 90
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 91
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 92
UNDERSTANDING PROBLEM FRAMING

Rose, Thorn, Bud

BENEFITS

• Helps you codify research data


• Invites input from all team members
• Facilitates productive discussion
• Helps you identify issues and insights

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 93


ROSE, THORN, BUD

QUICK GUIDE

• Identify a topic for consideration.


• Assemble a diverse group of stakeholders.
• Give each participant a pen and 3 differently colored
sticky note pads.
• Explain the topic and the color key:
• Rose = Pink (indicates things that are positive).
•Thorn = Blue (indicates things that are negative).
• Bud = Green (indicates things that have potential).
• Instruct each person to generate many data points.
• Include one issue, insight, or idea per sticky note.
© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 94
ROSE, THORN, BUD

QUICK GUIDE

• Tell participants to write multiple items per color


• (but only one per note).
• Resist the temptation to describe solutions here.
• Write each note from the user’s perspective (not yours)
• Limit the time frame and the amount of discussion.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 95


Evaluate your persona’s cinema
experience using Rose, Thorn, Bud.

Annotate each touchpoint in the experience map


you created using rose, thorn, & bud sticky notes.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 96


PRACTICE SCENARIO: EXPERIENCE DIAGRAMMING A CINEMA EXPERIENCE

Individually, using your black Sharpies, generate as


many roses, thorns, and buds as you can for the
touchpoints your team has identified on your
experience map.

Place each on the map beneath the touchpoint to which


it refers.
● One issue, insight, or idea per sticky note
● Write in ALL CAPS, large enough to be seen easily
● Try to use all the RTB sticky notes you have
● You can focus on a few touch points if you wish, or
distribute them widely across them all
● Write each observation from the user’s perspective

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 97


Method 4:
Creative Matrix

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 98


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INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

100
An approach to phrasing problem statements
that invites broad, collaborative exploration

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Statement Starters: Tips

1. Don’t embed a solution

Fair

How might we use facial recognition to detect


people?

Better

How might we know who’s in the building?

102
Statement Starters: Tips

2. Provoke and Challenge

Fair

How might we reduce product development cycles


by 30%?

Better

How might we develop and release new


products every week?

103
Statement Starters: Tips

2. Provoke and Challenge

Fair

How might we reduce maintenance costs?

Better

How might we create self-maintaining


products?
Better still...

How might we create products that heal


themselves?

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PRACTICE SCENARIO: PLANNING & BOOKING VACATIONS

Your team at Hoyts undertook several weeks of


ethnographic research into cinema moviegoers.

This research has revealed that some of the main


reasons people are no longer going to your cinema
in the numbers they one did include the following:

• Parking
• High cost
• Competition with other screens (mobile, home, etc.)
• Other patrons’ distracting behavior

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 105


How might we make going to the cinema
popular again?

• Parking
• Myriad pain points in the in-cinema experience
• Competition with other screens (mobile, home, etc.)
• Other patrons’ distracting behavior

Design Thinking for Business Innovation 106


How might we make going to the cinema
popular again?

• How might we transform cinema parking from a


chore into a pleasure?
• How might be provide a radically new & improved
in-cinema experience?
• How might we reimagine our value proposition for
the age of streaming video?
• How might we transform patrons’ use of mobile
devices in our movies into a benefit?

Design Thinking for Business Innovation 107


INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 108


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 109
MAKING CONCEPT IDEATION

Creative Matrix

An ideation format for


sparking new ideas at the
intersections of distinct
categories

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 110


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 111
COLUMNS (RELATED TO PEOPLE)

MATRIX CONSTRUCTION
• Persona profiles
• Service touchpoints
• Problem statements

ROWS (ENABLERS)

• Emerging tech
• Cultural drivers
• Market trends
• Etc.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 112


CREATIVE MATRIX: EXAMPLE A

How might we increase civic engagement?

Spark public interest Increase attendance Expand participation in Encourage service


in societal issues at meetings & forums elections & referendums work & volunteerism

Games &
Competitions

Shows &
Videos

Celebrities &
Superstars

Hot Spots &


Hangouts

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 113


CREATIVE MATRIX: EXAMPLE B

How might we improve the health and well-being of people in the workplace?

Physical Good Dietary Stress Health Screening


Activity Practices Management & Check-ups

Games &
Competitions

Facilities &
Environments

Technology
Devices & Apps

Programs &
Policies

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 114


CREATIVE MATRIX

QUICK GUIDE

• Identify a design challenge in need of fresh ideas.


• Make a poster showing a large grid (max. 5 x 5 cells).
• Designate columns: Categories related to people.
• Designate rows: Categories for enabling solutions.
• Form teams. Hand out grids. Introduce the topic.
• Give each participant a pen and a sticky note pad.
• Ask them to ideate at the intersections of the grid.
• Instruct them to write one idea per sticky note.
• Start the clock. Limit the time to 15-20 minutes.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 115


CREATIVE MATRIX

HELPFUL HINTS

• Urge the participants to draw pictures of the ideas.


• Encourage the teams to fill every cell of the grid.
• Tally the number of ideas per team. Reward quantity.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 116


PRACTICE SCENARIO: HOME & GARDEN DECOR

After careful consideration of the initial


challenge statement:

“Make a new and improved flower vase,”

your ideation team has reframed the challenge


around the following question:

“How might we help people around the world


communicate through flowers?”

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 117


CREATIVE MATRIX

How might we help people around the world communicate through flowers:

When celebrating When sending a When missing When mourning a loss WILDCARD
an event or special personal message someone/something or saying your sorry
occasion

➢ Birthday Party ➢ I love you ➢ There in spirit ➢ Funeral/memorial


➢ Wedding ➢ I am proud of you ➢ Always on my mind ➢ Get well soon
New Shapes and Sizes

➢ Unusual materials
➢ Sustainable materials

Different Locations &


Environments

➢ Physical
➢ Virtual

Technology & Digital


Media

➢ Internet of Things
➢ Makers Movement

WILDCARD

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 118


ASSIGNMENT

Creative Matrix
• Break into your teams and get set with a Sharpie and Post-its
• Work individually to generate as many ideas as possible
• One idea per Post-it
• Include a quick sketch if you can
• Bonus points if you fill in all of
the quadrants

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 119


COLUMNS (RELATED TO PEOPLE)

MATRIX CONSTRUCTION
• Market segments
• Service touchpoints
• Problem statements

ROWS (ENABLERS)

• Emerging tech
• Cultural drivers
• Market trends

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 120


MAKING CONCEPT IDEATION

Creative Matrix

BENEFITS

• Helps you generate a large number of ideas


• Promotes divergent thinking
• Helps you think of new and unusual ideas
• Invites input from all team members

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 121


Method 5:
Visualize the Vote

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 122


INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 123


UNDERSTANDING PATTERNS & PRIORITIES

Visualize the Vote

A quick poll of collaborators


to reveal preferences and
opinions

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 124


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 125
VISUALIZE THE VOTE

QUICK GUIDE

• Identify the subject of your polling activity.


• Give each reviewer sticky notes as voting tokens.
• Give each reviewer 1 token to cast an overall vote.
• Give each reviewer 2 tokens to cast as detail votes.
• Announce the criteria for voting.
• Have presenters describe each concept.
• Instruct everyone to vote simultaneously.
• Tally the votes.
• Invite discussion of what people voted for and why.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 126


VISUALIZE THE VOTE

HELPFUL HINTS

• Use a different colored sticky note for the detail votes.


• Place the token on a specific detail of the concept.
• Consider the cumulative effect of detail votes.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 127


UNDERSTANDING PATTERNS & PRIORITIES

Visualize the Vote

BENEFITS

• Helps you rate and rank preferences


• Reveals thematic patterns
• Diminishes overbearing opinions
• Democratizes decision making

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 128


Method 6:
Inportance/Difficulty
Matrix

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 129


UNDERSTANDING PATTERNS & PRIORITIES

Importance/Difficulty Matrix

A quad chart for plotting


items by relative
importance and difficulty

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 130


INNOVATING FOR PEOPLE: METHODS OF HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN

Looking Understanding Making


Methods for observing Methods for analyzing Methods for envisioning
human experience: challenges and opportunities: future possibilities:

ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PEOPLE & SYSTEMS CONCEPT IDEATION

o Interviewing o Stakeholder Mapping o Thumbnail Sketching


o Fly-on-the-Wall Observation o Persona Profile o Creative Matrix
o Contextual Inquiry o Experience Diagramming o Round Robin
o Walk-a-Mile Immersion o Concept Mapping o Alternative Worlds
... ... ...

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PATTERNS & PRIORITIES MODELING & PROTOTYPING

o What’s on Your Radar? o Affinity Clustering o Storyboarding


o Buy a Feature o Bull’s-eye Diagramming o Schematic Diagramming
o Build Your Own o Importance/Difficulty Matrix o Rough & Ready Prototyping
o Journaling o Visualize-the-Vote o Appearance Modeling
... ... ...

EVALUATIVE RESEARCH PROBLEM FRAMING DESIGN RATIONALE

o Think-Aloud Testing o Problem Tree Analysis o Concept Poster


o Heuristic Review o Statement Starters o Video Scenario
o Critique o Abstraction Laddering o Cover Story Mock-up
o System Usability Scale o Rose, Thorn, Bud o Quick Reference Guide
... ... ...

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 131


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 132
METHOD SET 3 : ENVISIONING POSSIBILITIES

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 133


APPLICATION

Importance/Difficult Matrix
• Individually: quick gallery crawl, select the idea that you feel
best aligns to our initial problem statement
• Back within your teams
• Plot items horizontally by relative importance - align
• Plot items vertically by relative difficulty - align
• Listen carefully to every point of deliberation
• (then we will show you a little magic ☺)

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 134


© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 135
HIGH
Do difficulty 2nd. Remember Relative!
LOW

LOW HIGH

Do importance (impact) 1st. Remember: Relative!

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 136


HIGH
Do difficulty 2nd. Remember: Relative!
LOW

LOW HIGH

Do importance (impact) 1st. Remember Relative!

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 137


HIGH
LOW ROI
STRATEGIC
LUXURY
Difficulty

QUICK WINS
HIGH ROI
LOW HANGING FRUIT
LOW

LOW HIGH
Importance (impact)

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 138


3

HIGH
LOW ROI
STRATEGIC
LUXURY

2
Difficulty

QUICK WINS
HIGH ROI
LOW HANGING FRUIT

1
LOW

LOW HIGH
Importance (impact)

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 139


IMPORTANCE/DIFFICULTY MATRIX

QUICK GUIDE

• Identify a project that requires prioritization.


• Make a poster showing a large quad chart.
• Label horizontal axis Importance (or Impact).
• Label vertical axis Difficulty (or Cost to Execute).
• Form a team, and gather data for discussion.
• Plot items horizontally by relative importance.
• Plot items vertically by relative difficulty.
• Consider the quadrants where items get placed.
• Look for related groupings, and set priorities.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 140


IMPORTANCE/DIFFICULTY MATRIX

HELPFUL HINTS

• Give each item its own place on the relative scale.


• Listen carefully to every point of deliberation.
• Don’t view this as a scientific Cost/Benefit study.

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 141


UNDERSTANDING PATTERNS & PRIORITIES

Importance/Difficulty Matrix

BENEFITS

• Helps you prioritize items quickly


• Facilitates deliberation
• Resolves differing opinions
• Helps your team develop a plan of action

© 2013 LUMA Institute and its licensors 142


Also organise a Melbourne Meetup Group for monthly
HCD and design thinking meetups:
Design Thinking for Business Innovation
http://bit.ly/29LZy6N

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