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Play Like A Grandmaster ALEXANDER KOTOV ‘Translated by Bernard Cafferty BT Batsford Ltd, London Simo + Check + Goed move AE Super move > Doubil move 2 hander W- White to move B Black to move Fn publi 1978 {E Atsner Kooy, 1978 Sew 7134 Tee ld 0 714 89 hn Fee by Willner Brother Limited, Ricken Printed Great Han by Billing & Sonn Ll, lore Publier BT and | Fiuhaedinge St, London WIH OAH. Kivi Rote Wade Fator JG: Nien Contents Preface PART OXF FOSITIONAL JUDGEMENT The Three Fithes of Ches Mastery A General Theory ofthe Middeqame “The Base Pstlats of Pstional Ply Posiional Aneament ‘The Element in Practice The Cente “The Clash of Elements Learn From The World Champions “The Mind of Grandmaster How to Tain Eevee “Types of Pan OneStage Pans MaliStage Pans Lea From The World Champions Practical Advice “The Mind of «Grandmaster How to Train Exerc Training Combinatial Vion Chosbscd Drama The Theory of Combinations g3ag 109, 7 ne 9 we a be 6 Comenss The Base Themes ‘The Mind of a Grandmaster Learn From The World Champions Exercises “The Calculation of Vaiations| Exerc Time Trouble ‘The Thece Fishes in Action ‘The Opening The Endgame Final Words of Advice Solutions tothe Eseries Index st us 0 5 Preface Friends and reviewers ofthe author's book Thin ira Granda tok him to task or esticting hi account to jut onesie of ches mastery the faleulation of variations They fet that he had not touched upon much ‘hat war important and exer fora player who was aepting to reach he tap in chem "The thee originated the ea ofthis book Ply lie a Grandmas which the author hasbeen working on for seme years. ta continuation vote 1o Thnk ie Grandmaster, and deals withthe most imperant aspect of hese wisdom, thowe laws and tues which have been developed by ‘heoreticias of this ancient game of sil which includes elements of Seience, art and competitive spot. The book abo contains the autor’ Perna observations and thereat oFkis study ofthe achievements of his Fellow grandmaster Tres ro make the book a tel textbook fr players whe have alecady rmasered the elements and have some experience of play der com Prsitve conditions, i onan several wnusial but very important an ‘eurring section "The sections headed “Learn from the World Champions show how ‘arions probes are solved by the Kings of ees. "Then we penetrate the depths of a grandmaster’ thought process in the sections “The Mind o's Grandmaster, in onder wo understand how he ‘Winks and les problems at dhe board, how his mid works Finally, "How to Trai? and Fxercis contain a deeripion of methods ‘otpivae study an waining adopted by leading players in thei time 36 Sell ay collections of eelesant examples on varius topics which wil Provide the rae with est material to work by hse Wil te reaer ofthis bok pay Tike a grandmaster afer be has worked tough it asf? esha ays naturally thi wil depend party on his natural gifts and bis pesstence in trying to achive i objet, at 8 Preface wells upon his pera qualita competitor: Inany event heresder Slleetinly tea bgt forward inhalation fees theory. and Will eone to understand many Bre point involved ia tiaking abot his roves and inches prublemlsing. These are the Letts whi ia the Final analysis bring succes i corpetitive ply. Aetnalegnent The author gratfily acknowledges the work Jonathan C: Shave aa Lesie] Smart prot resding this book, an of Joh G. Nichobon Frit rearrangement and editing othe manserip Rew 1 Positional Judgement ‘The Three Fishes of Chess Mastery Tn order to become a grandmavcr claw player whe understating of chix superior othe thauands of erdinary play yu have to develop ‘within youre Large umber of qualities the qualin of am aritie ‘eater alelating practioner, aco alm competi, We bal yt {ellyov about what player needs in der toimpeene and perfect hinmel, fad give advice on owt carey out regular tring that ath Sour playing strength and syle gt eter (Oral the quate of chew tnstry three stand out, jus a nthe ‘yh the world stands thre hs. The thre fis che mary ‘re postonal judgement, an eye for combinations and the ability analyse baiation.- Only when he has peveet grasp of thse tver things cana player understand the position on the oard in font him, ‘examine hidden combinadve posites and workout all she necessary ‘Weconsidrit sential ont withthe question of posit play. Thi isthe has of evrything cle. Is pouible that becathe af your character oud olen play pty combinative Mans. Thee are payers eve {he highs standard in hone games the spare of eominatve play ic ‘quiterae- On the ther han inevery game yop mes poston sot Sty, you have no choice but to analyse and ts the caret station and form the appropriate plans. Tn order to provide the reer with a framework within whieh dhe fundamentals of postion play mas be tied, ve wl fist consider an iimportast question which hither his not recived the attention i dlsrves atvyy wht afc the basic typos of srugale which risen practical play? 10 Pasian Judgment [A General Theory of the Middlegame Ia chs tatiician wert ty and ny his ctisty ver which sage she game prove deci ithe majity aca, be would certainly come tothe concision thatthe midleg that prides the owe decive sage. Tiss quite understandable, since the opening is the stage when ‘sour frees ate mobilized ad the endgame the time when advantages chieved earlier ate realized, while the midalegame the Hime when We Ihave the basi ar the force, when the base queton, who ist wi, sete “That i why it would acem that ches tore should ewote the maximum attention to the general laws othe mialegame Als, this ar Frombing the ease, Thr are very many book devoted tothe age mass onsbleopcning variations and a rnb of ioks on te endgame, bt Farle atention pdt thenjtematic std the base part of the ge ‘Why thse One reno that experienced grandmaiers donot have the time todeotetothediicul ako describing spiel mdegame meds snl considerations and hin wor end allo people who ae ot paved intop elas events ane who terfie lack the rete dep tay this question, ‘Apart eam callin of combinatve examples there are few books ‘extant on the middgarne which canbe wholeheartedly reonimended Whacwenow undertake san attempt ohilicgap inches erature, ‘dere the rules and cnsierations which a grandmaster bears in mind ‘ving a woutrament game Fit fal we hae to dsingunh hecioren srs of ragges which can aie Let comnider two conning examples from granimaser py uwe-Alethine, 1h game, natch 1937. 1 meal Te othe Mideyome 10 1k 26204663 23 BDNF OF Det e2 a5 603.57 As DH ehod ele x05 100-0 Eye6 11 ef et [25 Het Hel AH BH Bi 15 Bee Bed 16 Sth WB (1) ‘We cansee ha fom thea the playershave been making heats i pecenane made raid int the ene campy coming rah, Is 2 sl ight geting tener wih each me Ws bo 18 95 en 19 Bhs onl be bdo crept the asi pce. Ale 19 fg hg 20 IM 2 Dx ght 22 xD MeiDe 25 WHE Balt 24 Pehl WP 25 BM Writesbould win, bur Hlackhashestonger mone20..- et witha very pleat aac, 9 et 20 he be Black ould have played 20, hg ramping tothe previous variation, Inu Aline onsen the tex stronger, 2 Bes oat 2 on No the suongest 22 Wed was eter with the Flloing wvitions 122," Beh 25 Dyes de 24 Beet 22g 28 Ded de 24 120 ye 29 Bt Sxbt 26 Eyed Qed? for 24. Hes 25 ‘Wx abn 26 Zeb gs 2TH) 75 AicT+ Bp Hybo B01 27 Drak M3 Het Axes 29 Bet TV 22. Seb 25h Bat 24 Deed de 25 Oct Boxes 26 wes Dx 27 hl hy 28 Dest 2 ha No 22... xDS 28 BxbS he 24 gS AI 29 Bed Bed 26 vii 23 Bat ao The aly move, since iI23... Bxhs 2 xbs OxbSY5 Hees Bhd 26 Brel de27 ye and White keeps the pawn on 2 xt Ie lear thatthe poston isnot to nice he Whi, but taking dhe bishop not the Het line Ewe comers that White would e able to Aetnd the positon ater 24 Shwe Wed 25 BB 016.26 ed Mxd527 Rech} Deed 28 Hed Beh 20 el 2 ae 25 tect Bete 12 Pasion Judgement A serio mike. 25... eb 26 Dg6 +! was ako wrong. The only Aefence we 25. WHO 26 BrxeSe Bred 27 Hed DS and Black fa hl the erga 20 Bel 6 26... Pree would lone t0 27 QxeS Ary 26 Ett! with am atack con the black hing 27 Bxes te 28 Dawe Acdece mitake, White would win ater 28.6 Qyxe6 29 Qe6+ ee 80 BeTtor2B.. Zyxbs 2967+ BabI0 Hxbs. Hecould ao contne the atack by 26 Be. Now Black yes a draw by we fie moves, 28 ‘ase 29 Bet Or 29 eS Exh 30 Axa hs 91 GT hI 82 ge? gt 20 dx 50 geese xs 31 Fixes Beh Withehetheeatofeepettionofmoves, Nets ON DF hel e+ 32 Bet Deve 33 on ot Hel 8 A dubious anemp to play ora win, He should force the draw by sept, 35 ast After 5 fy Black gu the advantage by 35... 2h 36840 (36.2? + winsing the exchange) 46.-- Qeg3+ 97 xl % i 30 gee Bh ST Bixet A final ip. Aor 37 Rebs eT 38 BleT+ Geo 39 Met Ha 40 hsa7 the chances would favour White. Now it fa draw. m Boao 38 ELwt4 xa? 89 Bg 40 Eb 7 41 gs 424 es TBS. 44 se Bate 48006 16 Bb B00 1767 yo Bo07 1 Bot ‘What happened in thc game? We di nt ee any deep trate plans or long range matceusring. From the very sar the apjesing forts Mung ‘hemeles into a else ond cect ain rained threaten the para = ‘ston. The whole game connie of sharp variation in which sirice A Gina Thy of the Midiegane 13 followed sacrifice anal euch tial eke met with conte law fom the ater side ‘Quite diferent typeof game now flows V8 £96 Bet gO Bes Day 440-05 ZSH66 e265 70-0 OYad7A {Bel e601 Bet 1d55 11g £6 (213 Zed 15 bab 14 BAP HS 153 2 (2) Talimanov- Geller, Canidats Tournament, Zrich 1953 Here the apposing pices are certs distance rm each athe, and thre no question of getting the sort of hand to han aca ate uch ‘ee naw in the previous gare, a Teast Fr the moment. White quel prepare to open files onthe Qi 16 be be 1 be he 8 Bo ‘Dea? 19 at a 20 28 ist “Thisshow ofactvty sot ofplace, Blckshould continue to manceasre vith his pices within hs own camp while waiting tne what White wl dria 21 gal be Di She 2 Bes [Now White as nr same aerating play om dhe b oF Fes as he hoor 28 gu 4 Bos a7 35 Aas eat a a Ba 14 Pasion Jadgemet 27 Wes fiat Black has been succesful at defending himif on the Quide so Trimanov now ander his attention wo the Ke 28 Bb o7 2 he a7 30 ns eo St Bas Des 52 ngs Boss 33 hy as 3 6 With he simple sre of 2, chen Bxa and mate by #4 EL and Whi or BM o wes 33 Ro Now the outcome willbedeced by thisenry tothe Teh rank Notehow Ailey White has increased his advange 3 Bow 86 Hebi GhyB 37 Ba? Dd? 30 2gs Hg 19 Bl? AD BS and Black resigned, 1-0, Wha srk yo hen working through shim? The answer must be theabsene ofa tactiaclash. Fors very lng tne there wer jn stag manoeuvres ad reforming ranks. Moreewer there wee patil ‘aration o easier as you ea sce fom the nots tothe game. When playngsch game anexpeicnt grandmaster woul never start working fut variations He would weigh up one oto hor fits and tha Ha such postions general considerations prevail where should certai piece bbe transferred, how to stop some particular action by dhe opps Filly which pice exchange, which one to keep on the board ence we an draw simple ad clear concsom, Thee are two main ‘ypesof pasion, and realting om that, twodillerent kinds of rugge. In the one case we get constant clash ot ptces ising iin ricky pater with tactical lows, raps sometimes unexpected andshattering one I fhe other eas iis quite diferent. The espestive arms stand at distance from each other, the battles ace rected to reconnusance and minor sorties inc the enemy postion The dhran of the attacking se pepe owls with the aid of pice segrouping and insignificant’ pawn adh anees We may all prion ofthe ft type combinativetatial, lth econ type manoeat gratia. Wehavedivinguished topes of postion according tthe prsens or absence of sharp contac, eriteal mbanents and teats explosions A Geerat Thy of he Midegome 15 corresponding to this wll diciion we get marked diferente inthe Usorkingof the gracmacers mind incach at. In the fistcase the player iCalways ened pase constantly examines complicated variation, aes sccount of tactical Blows and tis to oresee al forestall deply hidden, Sinexpeced moves and taps. Litle attention ie given to general ‘considerations since the player can arly spre ane for these in view of the dine Fn, and is hardly necemary co bear therm in mind in such postions. Sometimes he might just make some Such general comment to [Kime St would beaice to geta hater against 2 by 5 and 6" oF “watch out all the ime for that open Ive’, of “ry and get rid f that ‘poser bishop ofhis at, However hese ate just short eral der ta fonesl 2 formulation of the general ideas resting fom anals ‘Obviously there ate no such things as deep general pans, reeouping, rmanoeuvtes. Conerete anal, working out tactical stakes, spot traps anticipating cunning or surprising “explosions'—chat is what Is calle for imposition of the fs «Pe: ‘Soin the fst cate the mind is Kept om tentcrhook, and. works ia accordance withthe slogan ‘ep ace watch’ whens inthe second ase {he work ofthe mind is marked by calm, comparative ees: and the abeence of nereumes, What ic thee to get exited about, when thee a ‘eno vient explosions, no unforseen tical trokes or tricky tape? The ind ieee with formating plans for rgreping and meng abet ‘sith the piers with the amon total absence of vations. Only at erin ‘pectic moments datactecome tothe surface, eating the grandmaster 0 ‘workout ew variations belore everting again to general consideration ‘Weshall reer later tothe question ofthe rind of grandmaster, but | sk the reader to read earflly though these Lines and grasp fem the Alierence in ought pattern. This point i ery important in elaiing the rules for thinking about maxes and handling your cock propery It ‘you make plans in sharp tactical positions, you eam easily fal into a tap {thar guts inthe clelations you failed to make. Vee versa if you are sing to ealulate variations in postions where you should be sinking ‘Shout general planning, you will wane precious ime and will ot get the ‘ght orientation, Soletuxconmmit firm to memory she fact tha the ied ‘ta geandrnater principally occupied in combinaivetacial pestions, ‘sth the ealelation of variations: in manoeavtingstrategial postions, ‘sith the formulation of general plans and considerations “The wo games weaves Ikra a are extreme eampleva the peso struggle which can arise To bra out the diference between them even 16 Postion Judgement rare graphically, ss shall to indicate thee course by schematic Giagram, On the dlageam Below we ave the depiction of the awe Alekhine game, wavy Bn fall zgerags (No.1, Then in No.2 ive get am tea Hf the course of the Taimtn Geller game, a simple straight Tine. However in tournament play ther arc other perf game which ave ‘mixed content. One sch may startin the sharp combinative manner Dut {hen settle down nto acm coune Sch ‘calmer the str seen in ‘he next game and we depict it im No. 5 etc62 db ds 3 QeSdet xed a7 5 O13 Bet 6 Dati Oxi 7 BS AG 8 ed eo, ' wetknown variation ofthe Caro-Kann which normally leads to wie pay, hut young players can find means of conjuring up eee complications. oe aes lobe Bale U1 sea e inks aes rn at Pecesom bchaiderar en priv, Cael aeaseofacombinativeactical steugele, abounding in unexpected strokes and cunning taps res Oa 6 Ox “The poston becomes even more complicated, particularly afer Black's strong ep 1 Gel Thay of the Madegame 17 5 ante 16 dee a 17 gest ot Ih Brot (3) Karpos-A. Zatee Kaiser 1990 Have sau everseen sch prion forthe king thal the pieces sill on the Board and on igh ones made? The poston fm compen, and natraly wo general onsets can healer ind hk Sch great complcations. Vou simpy a wat tt aration, aed Dosh Sides have ta mae the great ello tec he ent ne far each nde by cans of shal of the many. posites, 8 er 19) Bas 26 20 hee This apparently threatening move Hoses the ames wore there wa satiation hich would coat he attack ad ead wo vetory 20.03! DU Boog’ 2yot 22 Get 0-0 25 Bho Bad 2 AA? et 25 Sine ‘elie 26 G8 Wet 27 Bet Hdl. Thininnot cay wo nd av iesbown by the fat tha such an excellent tactician the ae Alar Za mined i 2 ext ar 23 wel roo 2 ge axct 23 Boxe! ad 26 Bh? The white king sw els af alice his ky expedition to the cere rethat the charac fhe ply one under the yevethe ee pce 18 Posto goer hangs andthe et of he game a pial manne ringstrategial one 26 "at 27 Ba Hatt 24 in (4) Let wr ance the resulting pion, Whit pao frmation eter He tas no weak pana while he pate ate ated Thee ae ao weak ‘shite quarsin Black position and with White hang ih on that ‘oka, White’srooks are betermailed and he hight oxeupica passive Pomc atd7. Al hikindjatesspxtonal advantage for White and Rape aes to exploit this n a metrical way witht harsing The plat ‘hanes charactor ram amples clase to quiet Teva manors 2 eet 29 ls! ao CObwinny ot 29, at 0G al the high il be ee 30 Bet ‘3b 3 whe Bek 52 Beat a 33 gs Bo 3 Be! ile upon theweak pawn eS Whites adage coms late, Note Fwevir that al the ake place without any lah the pies tial, sqite practi a hs 83 Baez 27 36 a1" x6 A sacrifice feesporatin, The 8 pe cannot eed and Black esto complicate matters by ivng up he exchange, but without sees oe “was A Goma They of the Middegame 19 38 gal ex6 39 watt 2 40 Best us aes, nd White won seithout any) seal trouble exploiting i materat Savanaze ‘Now etamine a game in whichthe to pats camein the everson the quit pare fist the complications ater Vat “ aot 6 3 bet o 455 20 bad Such an exchange in the contre normally lata stilton o the poston there, and wo a consequent calming ofthe play, White will eae short aad then advance with hs pawns on the Qe. Black normally estes himself lw manoeueres on the Kd 5 od 8 te ‘Db 7 as re ac oo 9 aes Bet 10 0-0 ae Atypical preparation in sich positions for dancing band af, ae ‘which White il aim ip weaken thee pawn and open inevom the Coie " 12 bi 13 Dat ‘Be Be Another wel-hnown device, transferring the knight 6 5 fc where Will pre on Black's postion on the Quid is Det 14 get Exe? 1b Bes Bx 16 es be ie Bus 18 Bre Pa 19 Bs Intending to tele the major pees on the eile. Note how qui iy sith nn tactic. in sigh. 2 Portia Judgment 6 on an is Bh 21 a8 en 2 Ba ae 2 ht An important sratgical device in sich psions, White advances this pawn tohand exchanges ong. That roles oat subsequent by Black, See Buck woul oc lr prepares go weaken hs g6 square farther. Then the white Knight wil eabhsh hilt om 23 6 2th Bat 2B he he 26 es 3 ‘Kowov-Ragozin USSR Championship 1949 sharp change in the couse ets, Aviat aden gnal the game moves into tata complications I Black replies 27-5 chen 28 de ‘heed (28 be 20 FExc5) 2 eb ACH Mal! xed 81 Bx and 27 Bac? This simply leaves Back pan down, but the position remains ee 28 be oe ao wort Dx 30 a6 bs 31 text The queen i given up for to rank, but White had to eaulae securely the combinative posites which aise 3 Bx The Basie Pals of Posie Pay 21 32 Bx? as 3 Bixee ae Teoks as Black has ticked hi poe by this unespcted move, bu Whitehad kent intoaccount aed a aeifice of de extant lows 3 Blaco! Bs 3 Aart ans wa “This forces win of thease or mate, % wxca4 37 ie Bes fe ro. weexamine ou euriersehematie agra, we willce tha he outline course ofthis game is shown in No-t ‘Wy have we mad sucha diincion? We wiht ilusratethe nate ofa grandiastr® thinking procs during aga, nd Now the ethno ‘hi thinking changes in accordance with the mature ofthe pein hich Irs infront of him. So we have «tabs one ofthe major featur that guides grandmarter. It he laces combinais-acticalpeiton, he dea tsth by coring out variations, using general considerations on at ertin rare moments. In manoravringutrategical potions he ries ‘inset genealeasieratinny eng here fo he has ene ies Loshort anatss of variations, Fiaally he hs the Delis to change rom fone appmach in another a appropri "Now what general consideration: omit of We naw devote a great Aral of attention to this tal quien whic les atthe Horton of al poxonal pla. ‘The Basic Posculates of Positional Play The level of delopment of psional sense depends ow man’ cor Mest of allit isos inthe ability pager ys natal ali to Aetermine swf, atone swoop, the main characteris af 4 peson, {Chea history knew many cxamplesoehe abit ono the crc 2 potion without the payer hiving to rouble hil wih erie Snalstical tlm. Sock ence reveal 4 ra matural "Yet the min thing that deseo pntinal jee, chat peel i and makes it manysded, dete nals tial wrk. sensible wuraaaent racice a eerie wo your games a feng cut all the ‘lefts fn yor pl, This the ons ey oar ev anale che pons find ws then propery Matry only comer vos have a een 22 Postinel Judgenens pence ofuding a mas of he postions, wheal he lws and devices "Employed by the granmarters have cere yout Evoured weapons 0 Poston seme sik the head hat lead you though the yr in ‘your tense srvgge tthe Board from ee ist opening more to he Gna tre intheendgere, When people cometosay about youthat you havea {god positional sense, you wil i able o consider yurselfawell-ounded fed promising player ‘Weshall nw iy tostate ina systematic way all he postulates and ules “ot mlegame play that have been worked cut by theoreticians aver the Tong history och. They might appear elementary to the dseriminating rear: Whe other o repeat what has lng been known? Believe me, for filmy long practieal experience of play and writing, T have found far from can o reduce to common denominatr al tat hax ben expres so fr in hes history. Morewver what cementary? When f pose this {question Veal to mind Mithal Ta, The exer champion has fen Commented that be regula watches the ches lesans on FV meant for Tower sat players Hv idea that hecpetitin of he ements ean never ddoany har, but rather pols up the geandmasters though Tar grrater clarity we sal ey ta expmt the eanceps of midalegame hry in shore exactly lormalated points mc al he tere {Ofeounse dere are eases where its dhe defender sto fas the pi marke up Fr him i the tournament able, Bu thi sony when bis ‘ppment eseveds the tm init makes ad minke overlooks mate, ‘rlessa fro materia, Monee ione follows ict lagi, even ae this Has aati meson be played ot tomate and in incase the Fal victory gors to the former defender who i he Later stages alter his ‘ponents mistake, is anor sat the attacker Thequstion heats whol the two plas ¥shasthe ight toatlack, eft the time o theft wok champion Wilhelm Stent, who the creator of modern ches cor. twas eld that the moe talented player “ack Stentz put quite difeers The tle and pling strength ‘ta chew player was a scomday consideration. 2. Thigh tat is xe b haere has he ete prion Irene psi sinferie even hou you are a genie do eter rot to ink of atacing, ince sc a ttenape cam on one YOU 3 Th side ih the ating bs wt te igh Bla td Yo atc twee tothe rik of sing hs arta: This b awe pte of Stent, a pravtce knows Sere many The ase Poses of Pont Pay 25 cxamples confirming i How offen has temporsing, ising the appropriae moment to pres, loving & few temp led 10 the less of advantage, often of great advantage? Attack ithe efective means in ‘has it the way 0 ito. ‘Where dors this eave the defender Here too Staite has ws adie 16 ve 4. The dee at be rte 0 dfn, and te me comes ‘That means thatthe defender mast try torephe the attaches Blows anticipate his intentions. Later theoreticians have added the rider to Sieinite that the defender must not leave out of is caleulaton the psibiltyofa counter suite the chance ogo oer to counterattack the "pproprate time, Defence thas means subjecting youre atime to the wilt your opponent From that come ee wele known act that le fader to dled han to tach, “Then the question arises, what means of tack are at the disposal ofa player and what shouldbe chosen a the abject of attack? 5 The mean of aac ince ve ofl, ombinaie ed sratgica [Ac we have seen, attacks may develop with of without immediate contact between the foros, ‘Which meted is appropriate? ‘The aver best indicated by the nature othe psition you ae dealing with, Often it depends onthe naar ‘ofthe opening you have caxen, on thet of the players, tthe deine ‘ay les withthe pesition. No temperament no mater how pasionate can ‘roduc an ‘explain’ sable pin, and attempts todo thisean Sly rebound upon the inscigato. Final the question re whee hol hack ma ah (The atack must edited a theo evoke spo Thisalmost goes without saying. Who woul be otis enough o tack ‘postion atitestongest point? Why attack ion whe ther alma the el” The grandmaster seeks to ret hi attack gaia the weaken, ost ei, spot inthe ee Katifcations, So we sce fone many dlfeuk prublems pose themselves to the eralimaster in the midaexame, Should he atark ur defend? Fo ase thishehas twesablnh whether hoor topper haste ada, bat that ispotall Esenwhen sis have seed he fin qutin aos ‘sho hs de tight an rrp the dts to atick ou have sero the appa nent srl pT rocereteeterine Those questi terme psn ane. an we shall wn ce ‘his importa wpe sm ph 2 Patina Judemes Positional Assessment Te player who wihes to improve, who wants to win competitive play, snust develops ability oases ptm, to hat Basis vo work ot plans for what comes nex Thiswork oanalyiecan be compare to tha chemist who eying to determine the nature a subxtance. Once upon time the proces as aril out in rough and ready fashion by visual ngpetion. Then Mendelyeydisanered the pric table of elements and aftr that the chemist merely had to break down the wbatance Sato is constituent Slemens inorder t dermis the exact nature af the submance beloe Vi, That isthe way ches players work naw. About cenary and half ago the best players the ume sd thei problems by val ieprtion ot the bash ehsrexperence. There was no scent metbod abet this bat then came Seite’ theory. Tare the player gained a brio rational als suitable lor slsing whatever problems were posed no matter ho Inet he postion Stent gh players ont ofall ox he position into it clement. Naturally they elo not al pay the same role a ven ‘estan, they lo not have the same importance. Once he has worked ont the relationship af the element ach cr, the payer moves ont he proces of syhess which s Known in chess a the general eure ‘When he has case out the synthesis har ase the postin, he rarest procs othe et tp, when erase up plan fret Ilo We all dea with his ater, and reitourelveto the tatement that very plan intimately Hoked with aesment. The anal ad tssenicn esas the player to ind the ea pit i the enemy cam. ier which isthought wll aural be drcetedwwars explitng this ‘eeakncs withthe ad ofa deeply thought oat plan of campaign which taker account ofthe sight nuances ofthe given postion. Ti defining the clement there is no perfec agreement among ches toons. Eel weer as hs Tt, I sees ha the following "Mendleyer table of cot elements wil salient to cane all hae smaller pars out of which the anal postion sade up Table of Elements Prom Adages 1 Mate avantage 2 Poor enc ki estion 3 Ped pan Patol Anesmeat 25 Weak pawns ff opponent Weak squares of opponent Weak colour complexes (a opponent Fewer pawn las Strong pawn conve 8 The advantage two bishops 10 Contol of ie 11 Gontol of disgonal 12 Control of ra, Toporory Advantages 1 Poor pasion of apne pice 2 lack of harmony i opponent’ pier placing 3 Advantage in development 4 ece peonure inthe ce, 5 Advantage in space We have alu spoken of Stein's sew that win should wat be played for if there no confidence that the peson cantaine sone 2adeantage o other The question then aru, what does disadvantage omit oP Sti iss the dete ane omeree replys An ava an omit one lage advantage or mumbcr mall advantages’ He ‘hema the important guide ofunthe atin: "The oka the poston plaerissystematcally to aecimalate sight advantaged ty tosemvert ‘emporary advantages int permanent cms otherwise the plier with he Beater perton rum the ek af Tsing” “Thuis valuable pice of adic stern ha ements ary tot in heir impetaner hut the length fe ir. Some ang em Permanent other are lemporary and her change evoming geet smaller or dapper aliogett we area sound pawn up or i she ope’: Kee i erealy weakened, then we enor sen erm acantage hese, we have lead in development or therein bal placed ice in the vem «amp, then this a short term adantage and ean eal be dated i the suequent play OF emits no pose to as xe fine eee There elements eich we pave defined ax permancot a the ve we five as temporary For example an op ior agree le ticansaf an exchanyeo pawns and mattyal inequality cae rotoed ‘squalty, but he divon we have mad slip gral ie jugernen and decison taking perce Tiss the appropriate plac 0s up Sinise kein dhe 26 Paina Foden fou of shor laconic summaries ch 9s we enone in mathemati, Piysits and thse exit sciences It» mater of same surprbetha Insane has dn this bln We sugges dhe following Kem of word or them Saints Fo Rae 1’ The right tack bangs only to tat side which has a poi sage and thi ot jos aight, at ale ads atherse Chere ithe Fis6 a ling the advantage. The attack i to be directed agains the ‘eke spt inthe enemy Prion 2 The dling ide taste prepased to deed ane to make Tevet pion the twaridesmanoruve, tying tbe balance of th puto cach vow favour With correct play by bo side ve pins erp om Irading 10 farthe evel postions 1. The adeantage may cnt of large aan fone form or clement unl oF of number of small advantages The tsk othe Pestonal players aecumlatesmall vantages and or torn thee rll antag int permanent ones The fae rls of Stenie came of get help and serve aa guiding ved for ever ple tis positional hates, Howener webu pit fot straight au the harm tht ars if thee ral ae medio set. Alga: The Rusian ac, wie recognizing. the importance of Sects teachings and the unfliow a hk eu, abwaye fer ‘ancete approach tact a peo withduergand fordynamic ‘One other practical point. We ave cnumated vemten ements of hopin, at dung atu play player won ot indi fomider each ofthe seven a every pnt, The grandmaster bee ‘tiie iy theft hat ually al ve elements ap ven potion. There might wll only five to seven othe teva We recommend the flowing apprac; aa rae considera reseed sumer of roped cement The flowing a grouping elements that fas hon prod ent wf in practi 1. Weak squares sl pas 2. Open ins 8. The cence anid space 4 Pec pation, he ast manu ci uc ft Ming pt harmon pita th al placing one pie evelapmen The Elmets in Prato 27 Soin practice we need consider thes our only, wih the proviso that if \wedincen sme other clement the owas then wea cist “The Elemente in Practice {Let ov take practical examples rm actual playin which arly urement ree amr tt Normally theer ca mitre factors inva, {in dvaniage in one element eaty be compensated for bythe opponent “rjsing at advantage in another element. Al his has vo be weigh up, ‘comparing the sguiicance ofeach clement. However itmay abo be tect that on of he clement vnddenlysmume dechive sgnieance and confers ‘dear advantage We shall tart with such poxitons Wout Spares Weak squares canbe defined in esence at those ares which cannot be ‘protect by pawns. OF coune fm 3 practical pin of vcw we have ‘wider concept depending great dato the acta postion: hana quate fan sometimes be corer weak even when tea be proce by fe, but ony eth a serius weakening of postion, Thassesing any postion a grandmaster hound io ake account ofweak squares, oth his wn and tone in the enctny camp, Moreert fen theca that he stars hinascomets from her: a number ofweak uae scevenasinge weak squatejcan he theoutsanding eater the postion pce that gets stable on thi weak pont spread confiion inthe detec and decides the ie otvinnik- Flo, Msn, 1956, vem fit glace at iggrann 6 il show sha all other weak quater 28. Postinal Judgement and other postionlfacton secede into the backend by compar With the gaping ole’ at, Obviously Aight etal tere wl play {sisi role aol Botan pays gots hight wo de uaz he bak prepared fri sh ont am 33 Das as 30 et 20 37 as Bhs 38 EDI Relying on the bes knight at 6 White makes a Qe thrust * ‘ea 59 ba ab 10 Bot Beas ‘The knight mst be removed, but now White gets an advanced peoectd pasedpasen, another great nina temp. Ved as 42 Bubs Hes 43 wed a 4 Bs wo 45 wet White mises tactical stoke sad ha maki hit win more dic, By playing hiking i og he cn allow hi plan without allowing any tactiealtricks, “ bs ‘The points tha takings pawn theron boron 6 en passant would Jose mara wo a deere heh, 46 er Bd Poh in his tur goes wien. 46... la? would put up a ile ight, though after 47 ab Bla? $8 2 eb 49S the united pase par ‘wold guarantee a white sitery ied oe shh ch 49 eT Geb IAT HM II wdONG52 Axo GH 8 We 35H Waal Bead 55 ab Hd 56 Exb3 Bixd7 57 B61 Wak Poon There are many types of weak pawns backward pawns folate pawns slob pawn, pawns far achanced and atest cut al fom contact ith ‘hase AlLare spoten o's sak pater, eve though forthe moment ‘here adequate protection rm the pices. Atel he pce might say easing the po ot te The lens in Pace 29 ‘A pawn ca be prose to be wa, however, oy when it can be attacked. "The reader should ake particular note of he allowing Comments by Bromtein when talking about the poston of diagram 7, ‘which arr n a well-known variagon ofthe Kings Indian Defence, -Mseemit ite torevel here dhe actet ofthe pawn at inthe King’s Indian Defence. Athough tis aor onan open file adic apparent subject eoatack, petite tough nut crack. Itishard oyet at What would ecm esr than moving the knight a away bt the point is that {he knight badly needed atl, es task there isto ober theres BD. ‘<8, and rl an etl he bishop at. The bight ca ots toe away fn the ecntre ater White ha prepared to meet Black's Sats threats at-a3, 98-6, F705) but during the ime akem by thee preparation Black wil Beale wo reform hie rank Hence the weak ofthe db psn tr otto Be imaginary Modern meth of plying th pening nf any sh agi sweakmeue, set it waste supposed permanent cake 6 that Tang Condemned the Kings Indian Defer as "bios Hence we ung yo oatack weak pata, bat at thesame time sme to havea crral and creative aie to even the mot oso pe wethncnest Diagram 8 igorié-Seabo, Candidates Tournament, Zach 148, Bremen comments thie Black is the scamage ince the ab ann weak and he pet 3 an Ki scope af the Dep. hee nos eae 25 Ea au Bias Deut 27 Beds Daal 28 od ro 90 Paitonel Faden 33 Bb sbi MgO Hal Blat’s advantage ieteases move by move 39 Deal axat 36 er ac 37 es Boas sa hs White mines the chance of stady-lke draw by 38 O42 M639 BA! aller which cis hard for Black to penetrate with is king the cente 38 Bel wat 6 0 Be oe 4 al ies Weak Calor Campers “Ths arise whem onside weakens a whole x of squares of one clout on ‘which the opponest's pico come to dominate, From the postion of iagram 9, White madea heroic ight again weak complex om the white squares White’ king isin check His bow chance i 12 1 aving urbe weakening the white squares, tut Mahegone played 12 Balter hich Borsnnik immediatly sted down to exploit the new weaoweson the Kose 2 ans Bee Bx 1h Btomensn Paces $1 Makogonow Botvnnik, Sverdlovsk, 1943 1 be 26 |Advice which we advise the reader to remember. Try to exchange 2 bishop ich defends the opponent's weak eolcur compe 15 xt x0 16 at Whi es a al costs to get some grip on We white square om his K side 6 es 17 SiuBt ets 18 UTS 19 WSO I0 oh ge 2g Bixhl 22-#xbt 0-0-028 Bal fe2t ed 25 Bel b8 26 Ht eb 2715 828 Bez 96 29 206 30 2 a7! and Black won by meansofadiectattackon the king, Pan Mads ‘There should be no nee tostresthat comrade unie panen masse Dstaor of pan configuration. Then every fot oldie ames the presence ot is mate by his shoulder and receives the appropriate support and {einfrcement when need, Is adiflerent state ofalai when te pawns ‘te ripped int fragment. Then thee fs ao hope of help since the other ‘pnw eannot jump dhe ditch separating them, That ish the presence of 3 number of pen sas serious drawback that can lead to delet Ta acosing diagram 10” (Gligorié-Keres 1933” Candidates TFornament) Bronstein wrote in the tournament book “White well dg, bat Blick's advantage sofa permanent nature and isexprewe notsoauch nthe ativenatureofthivor hat pie, but his beter pon coniuration, Concrtly this coms of “a IE Black's pawns ae nko! in 3 single branch, hile Whit are weaken 82 Posto Jodgomat Db. The pawns at 3 and f ersute Black's Sight post ate, IF White exchanges the bnight on that square then a protected pase pawn ens, ‘1 Bek ean win the pen at athens pd paw wil pay through toque unhindered White already has ped pra, bat Uhiccannot aevance nce White's pce are abn potion topes Thee principal features of the postion are sufient explanation othe fact hat Black stack the ire while White ms merely repel threats Ii such cotions White's defence mus break down at some sage” 40 at ‘was 41 Be we wet “The courage of esp. Black igiven time to go BS and et then White would be ripe for esignation. "2 & 43h bt 44 Bot WATS} BS $6 Wy? Bd 47 od Det de Het sO Bele 0 Ope ies shard necsary to elaborate onthe signiicanceofopenfesand their Fnflunce on the curse of pla. The rooks and queen we them wo atark ‘weak pawns and togetinta he heart the nem prion. Te control of tv open te ie Big positional pls Bromacin commnentson the perio of ageam 1, “Anopen ie eworth something wen there are objects attack on i of when the fine eves a navenu of communication fr taenering pices, normal the ook, ‘the main poi ofa, In ehiscase he ile its oth cite The msn point that cco tthe king eich ia cau falar for Stabe I the diggam postion Black has the choise of sain rks The Ee iv Practie 38 Kery-Stalberg, Zutch, 1958 ln ther thee ord-ke, while Whiteoperatson the ie We eta sharp ‘eugene i gradually becomes lear thatthe Fe caries mre weight than the «wo ls upen fr Black's we 16 3 17 et ‘Bet 18 Ba 00 19 it od 20 od Bas 21 wea ae 2 But ho 23 Bus Bot 2b as epriving the pitt ofthe defence othe ish. The rook’ prewure he heconies mote dating 24 fxs 23 Badd © 26 Bes ao 27 Bes ae 28 et 6 2 45 Teas venstronger a 029 6 completes blocking the Kesde with the heary piece, 29 < 30 Bee HB 1 6 WE 32 Brees be 3 ADT SHB Ea 85 [Bath hx 36 BegG and Whitenoon won theengame, Te final moves were 45. e487 Eqs EBT M6 eb xh2 80 Be Ped 40-2 el ATS 6 42 Be 0 34 Patina Jodgemer pen Digunls What foslcen sitabout open ies applies by and argetoopen diagonals They are weg actors nasi the chances comple postions, theve are canes where a singe diagonal proves dcive Medina -Botsnni, Pala, 1967. Bowsinnik asd the chances in ingram 12 ths, “ti ear that Aespiteticenchanges and material equality Whites pestonall xt ase hao counter to Backs prewar long the al 8 diagonal, Blacks min ite was based on a tactical nee, nancy that after 21 Bla? Boa 22 ‘Bhal (or22 xi? Bal) 25 Sheet WS) 22,» Hxd7 25 Da P+ BH Bl? Qxt+ Buck gew a material advantage. My opponent otc shi but surpnglyenoogh after 40 mites thought he decile that be could not proiteby avid ths. The point seca tobe that the Uweat 7-95 coud note met eas” Bar ada 22 Bhd Bed? 23 Ex? elt 24 doz ene Mer 24, xb 25 and 26 Hal Black would mer be a pawn up, wheres ove he decides matters mote quickly 25 ss ‘ail 26 ae 0+ 26 a2 xh 26 ete ats ae and Black S000 Wo ‘The Blt in rave 35 pe Ranks The mportanceof ranks wusly smaller than that fev and dagens Yetorcasimallyitisarank which wraoutta eth highway alone which Jecisve manoeuires ate cari oe. Karpow Hort, Moscow, 1971 oc only a supesicial analysis but even a very attentive stay of the psn of dagea 3 might ind thor to spor the decisive postion tlement which guarantethe advantage for White, The poi that hee ‘White eam mabe goad use of the ranks 22 Bt! 0 25 ht an 26 BM 2 2585 ae? Those ook manoeuvesalong the fourth rank make astro impression so show whit a depth of semen the young world champion of ou dios capable of: The spe, lear moves adhe rock poste a ack harmony i the oppor gome and reac a number of wnpeasant 2% wes 2 no ‘Thin an the neat few mes show that dhe main ctr othe third sak, ” beds m Bas Bots 2B... e729 AF with great advantage sn improvement 2 Eads “tet 30 Has Bh14 $1 ee Hoxal 32 Beh 65 59 ys 1-0 38 Poin Judgement Posed Pas ‘Spas pas sone of the mot impertant actor the endgame, hi inte inthe midlegame ca alo be very significant. The preven of ‘cla paw ean be he factor leading us to ase the pion 8 wore torts poser, smnetins even aso decisive advantage, Simple Keres, Zc, 1988 Indiagram 1, Whitesadeantage cuneate, principally because of his ead in development. Aosta hk pices rein play eile the enemy ing ir tack in the ctr. To exploit his thee ame was Te pawn catmot be taken andl dete that of 13 de, This leaves Black wth only one way of tying to ang on, o 15 be wo 16 eye Me 0 Bet s 18 Bx xs 19 xcs ae 20 xs White hacgota threatening pase pawn in thecenter moreover it san cers one. Slow advances the pat as far as pose, not so much pinto queen i asco induce panic in the enemy amp, 20 . 2 Bat a0 22 a Allo suppor the pel pwn Black decides to win a pawn buck by 225, aden 29 Bv6 Ancb 2 de Bae 25 Bcd Bcd 26 Bact and 27 Elxct with deine advantage The Ems Pate 37 2 Bas 25 ab et 2 Bel a6 25 a7 hs 26 Hee ow 27 hs B36 28 as Be? Resignation nee "The advance o the pase pawns ben desis. 29 Bead ‘od 40 Bact se White duly won The Two Biss Supporters ofa concrete approach tothe seamen ches pstons en deny the avantage of two isoprene bishop and knight o wo kihts. However this nt quite correct, It certains posible allege that the bishops are always am avant in every pation, bt inthe erat majority is beticr wo have the ewe bishops thon when the aston ans up, the bishops will get favourable diagonals and thee signe ca Ate mater Diagram 13 may be conser a dasical example a prelate power Bogatubore Janek, New York, 1928 Tm onder to go the two bishops Blac gives up 4 pa, 1 Boy 2 Baw oar 3 Base bee 8 Paton Judgement 4 tees 26 5 ahs a The bishops tar hee trestening work By occupying key dagonals ‘hey paraye the ation a almot al White’ oce 6 Bel ‘Bue 7.3 ge aes Iveashenertngod Wed andif... la then A with epetion of 8 bs 9 fe Bot wo ae Eat M dat Bact 2 Eh 3 1 a2 Be it Bhet Bes 1 eet ‘aur “This manoeusre by dhe bishop & prety. Now the bishops literally oneal the whole board 18 Bxct Bx Hoping to exchange one bishop, but hi advance only weakens the Ke sie a aa 18 Bas Bet 1 gs was 2 Bees xcs! A small combination based on dhe strength cf the bishop. at at Bes Re Bees 2 ho aa White's posion is hopeless. Alkkough Black no onger hax the eo bishop exelent placing this emainng pices caries dhe day Such ‘a ranfornation of vaca i common phenomenon in playing with the twa bishop. In trying f eope ith the ikhop the defender makes many concestons i oer clement 2 ae ® 2 he ab 26 ae Bet on ‘The Blots in Praca 39 space “This factor need ile streing, and 6 & poional element that a srandmastr bound wo take nto account whe sce the poston. tes occupics the geater part ofthe board, his sem crams he enemy forces an dive them othe edge a the ard OF course cn ha to ake [mo account the posible of counter ply, but thisadvantage in space ‘comsoldated i may lead to vitory Smypiov-Goly, Poanica, 19658 Tn he pasion of diagram 16, White’ pieces ate active while the ‘nemy’sare pened back tothe last ere ranks, Siglo tart by a thr inthe centre which eon become. general advance allover the bod the ‘main goin allthis plays by pawns 19 6! Smal comments, White's pawn frepents on the lank cramp the enemy pets Black il have togotea great delof rouble improve bis prstion by teanevting the knight to 5. Inthe meanwhile White can beepare am attack 8 20 Freatt, ma 21 Bs Back hope to go Qe bet the threat of peewnts hind provokes the atoning weeing 2 © 22 bb Farther erampiag all oer the board 2 os Bm ie net 40 Prin! Jadgomet [eclent! The font eakthrough f widened The reply Fc ” fe 25 Bee exe 26 hi ae 27 Rn 20 the guen moves White taken €7 wih the Right 28 gt Bete 29 Get as 20 Bx? a7 The knight huris back the defence ofthe Kei, 1f30.. eb? then SL BNE AT 32 Ws hE 32. HO ST WH) 39 Drege x96 4 Hogs Se 85M DM 36 HNC Bh 37 AN witha very str atach (Smo variations) shal ‘Once again an active pawn mae. This ime the sm sto get te iho to the x2/e8 dingonal, 31 se Mt as 22 at Oxo 32 oe on Me oo 3 Bo ro Por Psion of «Pie “Amactve postion forte pecs tone a the mont important clement of the poston gee, pony the deciive ene. That why in aweing ny poston ie ital nase the ponton of the pce, ana tj the {ver placing of then, but each ne cmsideredwepuraey, The lowing (Capablanca ogobens, Landon, 12 The Blows in Pracice $1 xample diagram 17) shows othe imo one pice can act the coure ofthe game This how Capablanca coe the pit B's que ck and Aight are aggresive plated, al stmpared to Whit pices hae seater feo. AITWHit pice ae dle placed and hve ade von atenubjecttoatac, ic only may o dnd bah pane oll be EE ht then Buck would reply 8 and hen he cold advance he we wth iat ‘Sse everthing haben in Back’ osu ani thre were mer {scot pion Wht’ potion woul be lt. Hower tee et feature which very wach White's an, ney the postion othe bishoparh. Tha babopisotony complete lo play, bute tone hereto way erent ite ply, Hence Whe ying vere, anexa pice. 36 Bat fxs BF Bes Hts ™ Bo an 30 as Et 40 Bee ‘Bee 41 Be oe Exchanging kightsonc6 would lene the itp no hope of ever geting ‘othe mousctrspat gh and. Noriet].-- Qye08 43 ck xed food, Aer 883 Ah? 44 Bh 85c5a pawn playsthroagh toques, Shee suppor fre aehance comes rm twa extra pieces white King find Knight. whose oppoite numbers are huddled inthe corer, we ‘de 48. Deh OAD HIE eT AS hel Db 46 Ha ad AT de a 48 eu B6 49 Syke xcs AK last the bithop dy withing, but onl to leave White ith unstoppable pas paw 0 fe Bb 51 ett ea 52 rab i ack of Harmon Pine Pliny Hiaing jun wen an example of ene badly paced pice affecting the ‘outcome the ane wht of he cans where this applies toa number of Picco Of coure th a steam dadvantage, ole a lung one ‘Weshallcome acsva numb oft cave ltr on et as oer 42 Poin Jugend ‘he pay hom alagraty 18, a partcuals-ineuctive example Deisinnik- Vedic, USSR Ch, 1933 leary Black hae paced pes badly, His his at has not st smoxed, and the knight hinder hi en deslopment. Onl the other [shop wel placed fing along am open gona, but what eam st doo ficou? AL the same tine Wintes pices ca bast af thee excelent placing ands pasate particularly proud, read oadsanceand cramp Black even more Ie takes only afew moves for Bors ink to demons the anlvantage of his fore by camying out nice camcing tack i eer 1 geo Bes 8 Be Satan he rc tse woo he 15 Bel 5 16 Bes eo 0 Ban fe Otherite Black ill ot beable fo disentangle the hunched up pieces Inu ines none opened and the ene king comes nee withering fire Ts Exel woe 19 We Bead 203 Has 21 QA We 22 ZyrqKl ead 29 BAI! The Contre The imprtanec ofthis emir such that it dour section ol ‘great este the penton inthe centre eters the adn of one The Coan 43 side and the future course ofewents. Right fom the star she bogie ast insento him that heshouldaeze the centre sd try told witha is Forces. This applic, he is taht, right Bom the pening, eho the slegame, down to the endgame Lateron we ear thatonly with um grip onthe centre do we have the sighetosartactive play onthe wing otherwise we mn the Fk that the oppo rent might beable a produce an wexpeted counter inthe ene, alter which ou attack wil become poles. We are wld by theowetiian shout the various problems invelving the centre, how the old masters eon ‘Sere very pa contre good, whereas the hypermaderns of cay thie entry devaged that piece presute ot the cea ould be meee eetive thancecupsingt with pawne which might come waka needle ‘Westal con deal with this problem, bt it et us noe te axiom hat the sear must understated slate: te pan frmaion i he entte determines the general nature ofthe whole stuggle Theory recs fie sets of cent 1A Pasen Contre, 2 A Fixed Centre, § An Open Centre, 4A Chr Gente, 5.8 Centre under Tension. Let us examine thse it The Pa Cote Whe wehavetsoor more pawn the contre and theoppenent does not ave any, we ate natural jedin seking to advance these paw ad svepamay the opponent's ortfiations. He in his tar wll put eatales ‘nour way, poly stacking the paws wth is pecs ma that our pawns ‘may become weak rb removed from the board akogether. Hence meget ‘he problem of piece prewar om the entr--theehie hobby home tn he teaching ofthe chew Hypermoderniss, The resolution of this problem depends on concrete assesment: he ‘otal pawas arestrong and well supported then te pas emir gies os & pestona advantage, but ee pater are weak then they ate aioe dibaek From diagram 19, White gor his centre pawns moving. leet ‘ad 1 et a Wood ae 19 fe Be, 20 we Deo ‘White’scemte issu guarded, al hin gis him the advantage. In accordance with teint’ rte White gocsfor an attackon the Reside i inthe cere 4 Postal alge! Farman -Liliesthal, USSR Ch, 1940 2 ot es 2 36 Bes 2 wn Ey 24 A typical stacking devi. A wing pawn makes lighting das toward the enemy camp were i spre nfo i the ranks Bn 0 25 gh 26 de Sle 27 Leo el 9B Brel Hes 29 A Hb 0 ‘aby A731 HG oO 39 Hey 6 99-4 eB 3H BENS 35 Bed Be? 36 Bs 1-0 The Fved Cote there pasen movement inthe cenit the bth sides wil ty 0 ‘ethlsh thei pioceson quar dlended by thir pars Thi set Tenn 45, ase on bling up centri pieces aloe by extending the cope the pices on the Hank as wel was particularly well raster by Rowton Things 20, the pawns are jam upg each her ate ‘wcexaminein tur terol ofeach piece we come tthe cones thao Blacks pecesoaly the que nactve. White hurries toeachange this piece And at th sme tie he mae ae defence for hi quate 20 dest xed aie ‘Bet 2 as ee 28 Bel an 2 gf Be 25 OAs White create a hase for his operations at dB, ceupying it et with Sight and then bishop wih its long-range acon 2 oxo 26 Bib ef 2 aw ‘Babs mm dor With the deca 29 E+ winning te 17 pawn. Black i gradually 8 Daas 2) Bec? Bl 0 Bei? Bxc7 SL Bxc74 hb 32 Qa bs 33 b White har am overtlming peso, and wins by simply ringing up ising vo the een momar 38 Ba Hes ® 3 a fe 3 fe Thevigh wayTheimportan thing sno how ne the pases Dt {8e operation pint at 3 6 Ba S7<8hS Bh 38S ao 39 ME E40 Gt ENA Bad Bho 42 HoT Bld6 43 eT BW 48 Bla? BG BEd White as heen reprating macs wo win nea common deve in competitive play dang tie te % BB 6 I Bes 46 Pinal Jogemet 7 am Preparing a mating net by 6. " 56 48 g6 xs 19 Gxho Lm 50 nT gs 51 Bere ens 92 a0 HoT 39 Ba Gh 94 qv Oe? 85 Ha 1-0 The Opes Cone This isthe cae when there are no pawns. either siden the squats di 5, e4,65,0rposbly thte might he one pawn in thiaea, In shew ofthe ‘pen train the whole emplasrixen pice pay, Bean mind shit nich ‘ces lan attacks with pawns are ruled out With an epen cent the Tiketnood ofan enn central ke nwo geat that flank pawn advance inequivalent o suicide Sov with thestewon pice play, weave many example toch, Resi-Capablanea, New York, 1924 Diagram? shows an opencente, White hanczed contra ofthe de, While the black que vo dhe ele. With sew energetic moves the talented Conch maximizes Bimobization al overwblns Bac spice 1 adi Bar 2 oes sh “To meet the grave threat $ Det 3 byt ee eee es 5 bet He “Thequeen haxtocape withthe weaknenesallon her on: Black's tooks and knights are pave onlookers 6a Re 1 os Bs The Cote 7 8 Blast bo Thequeen strapped and vould onl be release by... Qe but the White wine material by 9 Bxc5 Deb 10 Ble? Qa Bld so Back resigned The Claed Cate “This ype of centres marked by pen mass jammed up agaist cach cater clsing theless cuting of diagonals. Av the centre cane be token open the players pepare to by-pet i, manoeuvring ad preg nthe fink With the entre cloned and no rk ofa quick counter there the bold advance owing pawns ie quite sale, Diagram 22am instructive example: Reti-Cars, Raenaden, 1925 Having caster foreseen the coming of closed cente poston, Whites fic to get in with an advance on the Keside, 20 14 oe 22 gaa ee A serous mabe Back halo resect himself playing on the other side with,» b, The pawn maven the vicinity ofthe King = weakening, fd Hack shoul have rmembrsed the ale coir nwo any gue ‘Don make pann moves where you ave wether" 2 gt hs 24 hat 6 2 am be 26 de out 2 Bes Bh 18 Paso Judgment 2 Bhs gs 2 Ebi Now an entry by the white mar pies on the he x neitable 2 “ea 30 Bas ee Capitulation, bu there was no defence against de threatened cape ough 31 fixie on 12.2 WRI Bxh6 Feb 4 ko a7 35 ast L0 A decisive ruption and once again onde ah, thug eh tie ie the oer sie, Te Cente ade Tension ‘Thisesomerics called Mid cnn: he tension may be ese at ay moment abe ese remove al th ene pas thea Wee a pe ‘en; he pen et ame then we have a clved entre, Sores wwemay geafinedcentr,raely ambi ane The poy a the playersin Mid station stomanceuvee and wait for asitableopportanty ea tare {he enteintn one ofthe ceer fr for the hope tat chisel ar thei own advantage. Boleavsky Keres, Caidats Tournament 1953 Diagram 25 shows a Did contre. [6 wold be fad otal abot weaknoses or ah advantage fr ether side et: iit 2 book psiion sien in any work alg withthe Ruy Lapse. Reve prepares known ‘td ligating the cenee pave which creat very eect in ths game 2 aw 8 ot 6 The Cs of Benes 49 nisin Blacks ion to open the centre ais pieces are well ved 1M de de 15 B32 wae beer ed 15 ot puts 16 ter an 0 eas a 18 sat “The come ha en late, and une we have at open cetee At we have already sai leaves tall wothe ples nthe pawn play no part 8 se 9 aie Bs 20 03 bet 2 Bet rer Black ara has material advange 22 bes Best 2% Bal a 24 Osh? wx 2 Bs 6 26 a3 Be 27 ee = Black fa both material aad pxonal advantages and exploits this accurately 2a fe Bett 29 hbo es 90 I edd 1 ed dt! 32 Seas ds 8 He? BHO ‘The Clash of Elements We have examined several examples in which cach ime the deve role seas ply by one ofthe cement of position, The player who had an Uerwheling advantage in this clement staduall increased i ‘tanta ti oer beni and finally won Tnpracticesismorcalion the case hat we have ve deal wit postion which thers ino eleaely marked plow i any one element: ech player hands ester han his opponent in onerespet, but worsen another So we frtaclah clement with ses insome elements ing compensated for Ty minus in thers and there ha tee struggle to accumulate smal advantages The practical player shoxmeeds not only atentivenessand the ability o| Positional Jugemne analy poston, but mutako sow comiderableajectivis in asesng Ah clement the postion. I's ae going to comer soa pss real ernie hoe and eng toe of the opponent so are beeing for cataarophe, Objectivity im yer appronc to de pron 3 mt importa qual that sou canprapers orientate youre inthe sks snalss.ancament and ing the righ pa A andmaser ps atention levy light detail and re ot wie the ihe nuance, the fest factor which might alles the mesmen. Hove are examples of sch serps at: wwe Kets, Candas Tournament 1953, Bromstcin wrote sist the prion of dgram 24: ‘Every pons achievement inhineave the pawn at ab which engages the atom the ‘lack pice i import moti ie im He ik ith ther cembinaional lator in this pstion thefts fr White ares The ungourde pawn atc 2 The weakened corer of he black King 5 The conan poabiity of ade amen the pan 0 47 4 Cont ere ad 7 cots ah the ate to coma the ores or Bok the fstors ae 1 The chance to sur the 6 pane om hee es 2 The attack on the Quide by a majority of pawns 3 ‘he pili: 340 drive the que fiom er tong pt By comparing and wighingthe chants foreach ie the manera nmorece lee abjetiveconcloions wich recalled the ater the pesiion, nee nn pase 243 which Bromssin cried st corspandig to the demand of the portion, He recommend ined 22 BS to put 8 The Cah of Blame, 2 beake on dhe advance of the Qide pa on 22 Ei fe 2 eS with fev play_agsie Black's many weaknews that would be fall Chmpentation forthe exchanze Nr 2-- Be8i28 Get Qk Feet ea 25 Hed 1826 Bred Da the players ace dae Smysloe-Horinni USSR Absctine Ch, 1941 otsinnik aes diagram 25 'A quick glances suliient ote the weak of Whites psten, His bie are me ver active, Black has fev se fr operations at. Marcon me sul no omit o note a {ganic deer a White's poe formation his Quid ean caromunicate Sith the Kee oly i the el aqua ‘Weay eomment hat in ple thing to spot such eile whieh urns emt nto br ile Lasker Capablanca, St Posen, 1914 {Les wns agra 26, pian ea famous gare, Matera it leet, ft White haw marked advantage chilly tease of square 52 Poti Judge sweakneset in Hlac’s poston. White his weak squats to, a 4 and Ink butthor have itdesnuenceonthe py since the enemy pesca seca hem Black has gaping weaknesesat Gand 6, while aS and hi aca weak The weak awn at may become an objectofatack, ad this would won rove selling Aster sigan facie White's adage on the pen Fle His ooks ave well eased onthe Ile aed cam be traafrred ‘icky tothe ales Another minut in Black's positon i the pave Psion of the bishop at bl, and there sno active diagonal to which it ou he teastered. Th ae pest ofthe white rooks meat at they fam at any moment get on tthe poly defended 7h rank “Alko White has an undoubved advantage in space due wo He advanced pawn a5, andthe kn ght at is inl tuck the rato he enery Pion. White spices arc actively placed, wheres the black me are bouton the ack two rows Although White as womne weak pointy ‘Whites planes in various respective he ight te ake the see ‘hae White is won poston, By the awe of strategy, White hereunder an obligation to atac, ‘otherwise he rk lasing his advantage. IF White were todo noi eee then Back would go )-cH-cS, then Ele and Ql drive aut oF exchange the intrusive knight ane the potion would Become gute ‘female The great states Lasker uss theadvantages ois positon tostrt the eciine ths Ve Thedeain clear. He atv his kght atc and arta ateackon the ‘weak pawn at, Aller the eps ome the igh get access oe re theres become dominating. The pawn sacri temporary, as White can ssualze that Black will a9 have to lee material Capua by the other pan would ato dhe ea low of the x5 psn and the formation of united passed pawns for White a abd 2 Bet ma 2 Bpes! Strong and simple. Te rok cannot move fiom 7 since 26+ woul win the Bhp, 50 the exchange i ow 3 ae Bat? re 5 Bh? Be 6 Ba! Learn fm the Wad Champions 53 “The lat two mover explt the small advantages ray mentioned thechanee to tke the Thank, ad thechaneetoswig ato tothe pen ie 6 bas 7 Bast Bet ed ro lack has no dfn aint dhe mating neat 9 6+ oF 97 Learn from the World Champions We will rem study some examples of aneament by the kings of ches 1 method of awesing postions i lequenlly ound in Capablanca’ nous ath to his wn gates and to others Bogolubow Wablewe, London 122 Capablanca wrote of diagram 27, that to ase tis poston Fore sca, fut Black Ha hie weak pawte the a, and Thea? pine woul estengand a one worry to White there wa he time Toradsance it Ea we the Itsy, ut hi tte eae, merely weakovs. The only pstvefetture of Black's positon isthe ct that histeok occupies an open le he bishop could be waslered rom Bod via chit would deen eo ca pam and exert presure onthe Teng digonal. Thea Black’ poston woul not be took, However this noticable ax Whit wl la, la ashi ist move White hss no weak pats: His wedglke paw formation is very aggrenive, and he ha adequate space fr pice manoeutres Soil cae that White must have the advantaage. Ave have already sid, hiss rmovewillbe dt xchange te enemybhopand prevene moving late 2 coy 28 ta ast 3 be bt Before earring oaths operations onthe Kui Black strengthens the pesiion of al is pines, 25 abs aa 2 Be Dues 28 wer a6 23 de ae 30 dal 1/56) MaliStge Plas 79 White resigned here since great materi wil ill Blac’ central ‘eabhnagh, apelin vic of he act that the King bas m0" 9 managed to hide'n the commer. Malti Seage Plans We have already defined thre sors of multistage plan: won all the festre are apparent tothe planner: when only some detail can be ce sand when nothing is cleo fer the fist tage, Now we wll comider each "ypein detail eating i car oe end “Theteare rare examples when payer can evsigeall tages ois plan to theveryend, Thesagedovealino cach other, the aims areca and the meant sho~-vhich pier are to be exchanged, which grouped which past be advanced ‘Aletine-Chajes, Calta, 1923 Alekhine outined his pln fom diagram 37 as fllows:= ‘Thefint stage isto bring the ing othe cei, so that inthe event of the ‘xchange far pier ca thrcatcr quick peneaton ata, This ‘sil neieably induce Blac to bring his King or, xpi since ii ede wo defn ad Thesecond stage tt force Backs pees one by oe leave the Ke Uotaccal teats to hen and tothe enemy pawne (ce the 3th aed Stat moves), The threat of Ze wil tie the ene ight tobi wll hinder further te moby of Bac’ ples which are already lacking inspace 90 Plming “The thin stage st double rook onthe hele at ame when Blacks Forceware farthest aay Gm the Kid Then aieran exchange een and bishops, the rooke will force an ery into the rear of the enemy "A: Alekhine pointed out, ao less than 28 moves were eed toring the whole plan ofan! % a 34 Bas 4 eat st o Bes 35 2 Gh 6 HH? 797 A eT I hel Ey 99 E+ dae 40 BO Beet 41 gat Indicating the opponent his imention, fps, to penetrate the Qe Side by Ey and #3. A Ba 482 FINI BecT 8 Dh? gb 44 Wed heb 45 Behl 7 A6 a2 eT 47 OAs (58) White has carried out the Rest evo stages. ack’s pices ave ber divert othe Ossie by the ae to defend against varius thea tet, “Ths has let the side without aloquate defence 7 ot 48 gaat Eas 49 Begs hy 0 ih Bact BL Bett an Noth. Bye552fe 059 band he qucen dominates the black squares Mui-sage Pans BI 52 Ba Ba? 3S Ba 54 Bes Be 53 we! ‘The black queen hat ital defensive roe o play, wheras Whites {queens ot avery ative stackerhee, So the exchange queens faour White The reader willhave noticed seedy that the cice of which piece toeachunge and which o leave on the boards an important fat n good play. The judgement abot when to exchange x developed by prtial ay ae aay of ence games 38 axes So fe as ST Hat Deciive, Tae rks have had their power reinforced by_ the eappearanceefqueens and tow take thee rank with mating prospect. In reply Black makes a desperation sacrifice of a pawn inthe hope of slipping theoughhe side wil his King oT a St Ei Beat 29 ab er 0 Bes tas 61 an White has maximum mobility forks pieces and wes i to weave 61 mas 8 Bae Bos 6s Burt aur 6 Balt to From the postion of diagram 38, Smystov cared uta multi-stage plan twenplit hit extra pawn, which rdoubled, bt central Black's avnatage onssof his contol ore the central quar dt 5,5, feand 6. White hac contol ofthe Qe an a pwn marty on the Qoide which peovide ‘im with counter chances, Soyslen's plan consisted of hee stages Exchange one pair eoks at once and leave dhe other on, ready emanier Whites Qe pawns nid to atack the pawns at cade 2. Use the threat fcrtating estan ped pat to eier the enemy rook wo the le, and sre his rook on she die 5. Cader de sport ofthe ef pawn by K7-e- 4: Tie down White's pices by atacking the ef pawn 42 Poming Gligorie-Smysiov, Candidates T. 1955 5. Phy the hing over capture dhe enemy paws Bisa 21 Bad) Bel? 2 Bed ae 26 eo 2 be ast Bas 6 ‘Mimirablecomisteney. The threat oa paved pwn alter induces White move his took of the ie, so that Blak Fam occupy with is ‘en rok 26 ne Bae 27 Bh rf ate Dae 2 Ger oh Thi sage complete. Now to attack 0 des Bat st Bn Det 2 ae en Fourth stage completed, White’ pies acti dawn to te defen fn theme has etme to pay the hing ow fra dese attack the ‘ce pt ss a te St Bas ‘Thissprds up defeat. Ar other moves Black would advance is king as far as ponible evar the paw then pla 1 2 ‘ee 35 Bt a 36 D5 os MuliStgy Plo 83 BT xa ret 38 eb as [Not ling into the trap 38 e522 39 Ey mate 39 G2 ‘ane we be a We es os Samehing ca be Immult-tage plans of hist only the Rint tage selene: What comes Inter cannot aly he dacerned by the player He merely ender the several dit othe ply that il ens, the typical manoevres aed ome {fthe acti posits, Where the plan willed, how it willed, hat Sota mater ipetin pahapaagic on Soy Rar pn ‘Karpov Spank, Candidates Match, 1974 White hastwoimportant strategic objectives Hema die the ative “ght fom bb toa, and dive the oer enor pce fom ht where prevents doubling of rks the Karpin cians way af achieving his knight eet though Use iden otew, The retreat) enable 3 to be played and then {Dla Sil jee the Hop though cae must be abe to pay Qh? 23s ell an notte it see a The fist wage the is lat: Did Karp’ ook int dhe details of the sulscquent plas? Hardy He probably emia the outines of presure fon he il ater he a due rks there 3 ight be pmb inten the presure, [Black ges then there i nice square fr the queen tf However it ishaedy posuble to be moe pres since tere are so many fines which Black may choose. 3 bt wr 25 at er 2 Di 27 Bet i Sec that dhe doubling froks coming, Spay takes mesures 0 tend 28 a2 as 1 2p ie Whites objective have bee achieved. Now he has 10 look for the fallow-up and he can for the new pln get the queen to eb and operate wo Bae a0 31 Wes oda 82 Beast rer) Not 82... BdB 55 Ete with der fr Back on 3 Bal oe Sts bs 3b vat ro A simple but decisive combination which isthe logical cueination of hisnew plan f ply on thed-and le, Aer... e837 Be? Back [Neyshad- Koto, USSR Ch, final 1956, Black forms plan in agra 6 wane mai amt ope the leg ‘black gona! Fr ithop, The main stages ae MalisSiage Plans 65 1 Play b7-05- to drive the Eight from it centro of 5 and. 2. Phy cand exchange ond o open the ee 4. Ply to get id of thee pan Then et wil ea the ish Be “The plas uly crsed out and Whiten plying for ome actsty reinforces it effet by eaelly pening the le 6 5 20 By bi 21 Be ‘st Reb 22 de Grc6 28 Weds BAG. FIdS Dxet 25 BT OE abo favours Back, 2 be Wide Wrc6 26 Apee8 Habs! 25 Oye O46 Bd NO 27 Bel Bh 2 Heed ‘a Black aly ges 0 he tied 29 od ot 30 et Deus, 31 Bal oT 32 Het Byct 33 act Alltages ofthe pan have been cred out the bishop ag? now plays ‘gpa, an he spec wth whic Black wins indicates tat Mk plan ae ‘ued om sl ator inthe tal poston 3 axes at Deed a2 35 bs 247 36 Led7 (exchanging queens lense Bink win 0) 36. dT 37 tees ese ie (De? Bel mate) 38_-—xeS O-T ‘Sure Det [ream happen hat grandmaser orp, but he subsequent play is ‘ite uncea to he. I'we compare planting to cling lang iree then ta cue ofthe top tp being unit, that one hare Fel ones Diagram 62 no cay to ae, Nether se has any mad weakness conta open lines sab about lve, Flohr frmed long plan wee tain ai to get his night toe Then envsaged co-ardinating his ces or an atack on the Kid ‘N verbal summary would b= 96 Pom Fegin-Flohr, Kemer, 1987 1. Go Dht-ch-b8-47-R-et 2 Strengthen the knight on tha aquare by the exchange of btops on 45. Then stack on the Reside But what sort of attack? What regrouping will be imsolved, what manoeuvres? That i quite unclear, 6 best 16 Bes er 17 Bai ua 18 2 G47 19 BS EN 20-8 eh 1 Me? es 22 Beds 23 Set (43) ‘What fie pon fr Black! Bac'ssound postion nthe cent now | les him atack bythe advance ofthe Kride pawns 2 Bact o 24 Bel Bach 25 gh U7 26 git BH BU 20 at ‘0 ht om Matic Stage Plans 47 Another aim hasbeen achieved—the gfe i open fer the we of the major pees st tee fe 52 he a5 ao aa 4 Gat ‘shh ye s94FEtisbad, but Whitedecrnothavemchhopeatr the text either au er 35 a? Qoxht 36 gh WS 37 FS ByB 38 WH2 Hee 59 RN BMH! 0-1 40 Bx WbI+, or 0 xP ARS) Janowsk- Capablanca, New York, 1916 The great Capablanca probably only saw the vague outines of subsequent events when he mad his pl to regroup his pecs a diagram St, pastion oma famous game “The pan wat as flows: Withraw the bishop w A? te supp he vance Ths pawn wil provide excelent backup tothe knight hich il play toch Thi quare wl be soe oe very important or Black. If ‘White ris bi wo get the knight hell aves hole ata8 an backward pan ata, However White wil probably tf het stu! he Bright Ferlong and will play xet, Then Black get edo his doubled pawn and can mabe a gene pave advance onthe Qside ‘Did Capablanca exami the pin lather, sin itecenary todo {hig Harly, Hisexperience and intuition wil ave sgested ti that ‘ctor ita forceinsic statins by forhermeasreesuch as play on Toth sides ofthe Boar wo a to srtch the deenders eure, a he Aletiso these frther mesueechave to be ell ate, all depending om ow he opponent reacts 28 Proming 4 ban 2 Bee Janowsk fil to anticipate the epponen’s plans aiberwise he would hive played 12 9. Then the exchange of bishops would weaken the ‘fit of Black's Quide operations and the King would have had a wel posta 2 6 ow And here 13 2 wan strong sadialy hindering Black's plan. The reader might be sceptical about the vale ofthis game, objecting that by simple moves White could have spied Blac’ whole eneept. However hese man-sided and at any point (except for eases offered ines na Combination) the opponent can dverge, can choose fom several diferent lines. Whattimportent,boweves, it orm aconrect plan asing om the ‘demands the features, ofthe psion four plan ngind then we ean eel Cenident that any divergence will not be to our diadvantage. Had Janowski chwen citer move tht we indicated as better there it 10 iuarante that we would ot hav Had an equally sete outcome bat long other lines 3 aa M4 Bret we 15 ges Bhs rec _Jancwki sl fists Blac’ pln serie he would hae seine {kom this move tha: mates the knight transfer to cf more eet, and weakens the Qside so that Black's subuaquene pawn advance will work beter. 6 oat 17 Bee lags bs m8 Mining the la chance tohinder Black’scheme by 19 Qa! Ea 20 Bpxe Q xeb21 Rel 2722 F¥or22 D3, Dowsthiscastdoubcon Blas ‘plan? No everythin sal ight sine ven inhi ter defence Blocks i ‘hance ae on the two bio thepobty of geting il the doubled ppm by bt ad the dance ofthe enemy King fom the cee 9 ‘oe 20 Bet & ae oo. Re Multiage Pans 99 Afra inaceuraey, 22 of of 29-18 intending a later Qe wae 2 ger Bw iss (05) The kind of postion Black was ving or when he played 247. Now ‘heme form theneststage- Hewlforce bby mowersich ae Ea and laf, buthiin isis notenough 0 oce very. Thar why Black et Ane idew a opening the elle fr hisrooks so ast have combined psy on beth wing 2 ge Bat 25 3 Hea 6 Hab) M627 0 5 28 el Q829,H1 gf 0 gf Bat St Bet Hoping tbc the prow on the gil by hiskight at bat hep lon the Knight soon hat grave consoquences, 3 Bet Be Hees 35 Ret ban) 20 Ping Thecninaton of hesecond tae. White now xchangesbishopron Io dhe hb wl be deve since BS to prevent the advance swol weken 3 10 much ab fat 35 Bal Thetactthat55 Eel meso... xf means bebisp forces 38 ae 3 Bet 37 G12 W598 a7 Qheg? 9 gD 40 Derht Hegre 41 GO Bake Beet Or42 Boxer AAS AG EehB! and wine 2 Bhs $3 G1 BOS.44 Que yh 45 eT Ixb2e 46 HS MAB a7 Axc6+ aaro4 Kowos-Arnlaugion, Amstewarn Olympiad, 1954 White has slght advantage in diagram 6 the poses of greater space, while Black ha some sek pints eg bb. Aditya White as Sweaknes at, but tics teadiional weakness the Nimvoindan Deienee and White has fen fren sce ith this pas formation, Waites planing own he wil ave to work ard ond point of entry in the Black eration, There ar pies along te gil, ‘rsin the trae point h. But itp ot clear weet kgs gota Finm 3, or how the shop aad queen wil be mpl Without keking tao fa ahead White forme thi ltt plan |. Exchange apa of rons to Blp ease operation: onthe Kid, AMutSiage Pons 9 2. Fee the queen fom the defence of 4 by playing the Knight 0 3, 3, With the ep ofthe qa, ier the exchange a the second pal of reoks.AsWhite'squtensmoreactve than er oppsite umber Back wil probly fine he exchange ad Whit 00k wil ge ctrl ofthe He ae ‘Bhhs Hae es 8 Bs Eat 46. Hag Bat wp ‘White wants to exchange roks athe mot favourable moment, that it ‘when his gun can ake over the gle 7 was 4 5 eB 19 Qa Hus 50 ON Be 51 Det aR 5D Ber wm 38 Eg Bhs Aer the exchange of rok Backs weak paves at and 6 would Income expos to tack and che white queen woud easly ge 0 the important sare i. 31 we ss. 58 Hxt 07 56 Oe? Be 57 A Qa 38 Sed eB 59 gt a7 OO Bet Bet 61 Bg? (65) White has taken defile ad aie otal hee stage oh plan, What nex Whites to finda way of penetrating deeper an forme hit plan 1 ce the knigh frm the defence of 4 by playing the King wo 43 2. Then pay the knight hack to. Then with the rook om there would the grave heat of x6 winning the pawn on 92 Pam Without thinking about what would happen Het, leaving al dat in artnet White pase on, sr em oz aes bas 63 ar a8 4 no aes. 6 Bet ba Jt as bere Black ks opanive waiting since he has no alernative but tobe prepared eo defn & el aa 57 Fig? cb 6 7 Beh 69 el as 70 iad et 71 as a 72 ‘on gaa 15 tet hs Atlas White has proved a weakening of the postion. 1 Black hac waited il he Aight ad got w 3 and ther gone ic) White would tein material by Bg. ea ous Whar nex A nce plan wa forme Base othe at that BS was Feasible at once incest Fxhd then Hg8, However itscemed adviabe to have the pave ot well guarded at wa deeded shat fist the hing should reir toh Then shoud be pling with he win pawn However. the reader should prepare himel fr some arming arty this game, Tt was played ott twee ramber of momning adjournment seni ant na convenion tha seam member wl as moeng play In he Olympia should not nermally have wo begin a fresh gant the tenon. My eam oleagues, who were begining o have extra ren heeaueat hing drawn gan, sated wotok at iwi janie 15 oa ou Tua Bei 97 et Bit 70 br fas beh D7 avend Des Ht ns aur @ aes Hise breathe sigh fee and expected an caely resignation Black calmly tok the bishop, 2 ts 83 ee ‘ano Bh Bet (00) Having made this move I went fra srll When I came bac tothe tear Tid not understand at fit what was happening. a Be 23. Plming 85 Boxed Bo Wes Bt aT Ges Bx! 88 ast ® Now Hoke tthe atin day. How wa sng win? Where onl ore aneny? Thebing warcheot andthe quero oi ‘lon herown sa thre i ata quater fa hor and the ome Santer plan har ar! aot putty the pinata Tenmy lw wan macs Myon concen waa finds wine ru have ben aoating d n. Tie mew pat win wm Thuan thequeen ob olin ihe mobi the enemy pie much spam, 2°by ato open Kno the Qe evn tthe cn ae 2. Combining treat bythe queen on he bie anon he queen ‘White il aly nce eH qui 8 and he he wie rah Tiree theconon fh pc ame which onset he pein of ew plang ts eer So Ghee BF 91 Oh Bea Sat S898 HHT TONS! 95 Mil 0496-1 97 Ba 45 8 ay De? a “The hing bas bon wating ogi or hist o oo 100 gt Bi 101 yo S102? a 103 ras 497 108 BH Be Tos an on just wo lng jumps ate nso! ost sp wih he pan a. 6 Phning tos ‘a 106 8 ro "Th seader must bound to agree that White win dhe dark” about themany developments wih came afer hifi plan, Avfor she sceptical trae wbo doubts whether such detailed planning was lel, Tun Femind him that the geme war adjourned several times ad U had eset freedom examine al tat ere, though He the planning woul not ‘be too uch expect at the board to. Aswestesed at the outta plan fr a whale game ery rae eam happen none of wo ese cter when the opponent fk to put upc rentance a all the playa ome end’ al when certain fcr give fixed form tothe pein hat canoe changed in the normal cous of ay bet 6 2s oo sabe ® 4 2 (70) ‘Karpor-Browne, San Antoni, 1972 The pawn formation i owe determine! fr 3 longtime to come and White can plant exploit his "permanent square at, with he long tre im of using his superiority in pans on the Cid. Naturally such plan Calls for great technical aiity which Karpov dennrates ver Mone than By mes 5 os asi g3 2407 Bez e300 Led a6 10 Bel 5 113.7 120-046 15 “He? tas MW na MutiStagy Plane 95 lack was fired into a5 to gue his ban, but White ean rove make a gant Hep forward by moving towards an ending by exchanging ues i Babs 1 eas rad 16 xa be Forced in view of the tneatened 17 cb ab 1B d4 with advantageous complicaions inthe cette va 908 comers this positon ratgialy won fr White, poiting 0 hisgrip on d9, Black's Kee pasate mobile, White has flee rita pawn on the Quide a i 18 Beat Karpov regarded this move at dubious, prefring 18 de de 19 Beat ct 19 ed oe 208 Ad this ina minahe according Karp, who ges 20 ed as beter 20 eat BL Bes Qxgd 20 rg? de 2 de Hrd 2 Hwa? Heb 2 DAs Bx 26 ob a5 27 Ms eb A serious mistake letting White’ pieces boom active again. 27 wat beter 25 Des ae » oH ano 0 Bas Bus 31 Bonds Bxes “Tre losing mistake, By keeping the bishop on Black could hop for a Gras ut ow the extta pawn in efit gives White god winning dices 22 Bees we 3 Bet Bo Sen ee 33 bes ea sm of the knighe check at 4. To rpm pyableatonce bean he bight ie ee Beeb 96 Paine 37 a8 a5 38 05 N6 59 hed hd 40 Gas a (7) “Thecalminaton ofthe plan to“ Bgeks Ks pawns, while Whi hs “runne” on the ether sie 4 a2 Bee be 4 ht és Hg De 45 thet Bee lack ries to get a pate paw of is oe, i to Ite, 6 Oe ‘eas 47 5 has 40 a5 Wet 49 D4 HS 9005 Bog? 51 5 e525. a sat The knight unaided cannot stp two united pase pain as Whites Side plan reaches it final stage 8 axto 4 Ss 5 a5 pa 56 6 ed 5727 58 = B50 He 1-0 re iva game wheve an advantage achieved im the opening at explo by plan for the whole game, wih he bep of mites By the “opponent bap a 2a 20 abs Det 4 ae ‘ea? 3 Bb ax ‘och an exchange of hop for knight ic made nly i exceptional MulicSiage Plans 97 ircunweance when there ae jit gives White the aamnage ong arguments in favour hi casei ons 5 733 6 8 pe ‘Bao 80-0 er wat oo With the opening aver and pcces developed dhe wage has come or planning. Each side wil ry to cai the pan potion nthe centre ina tray favourable to hse Iss act 12 Gg? BI 18 Be? eG oH EY 15 BLL 6 16 Ot Oe 17 es Bees 18 tees ae {A bad positional mistake, Black loses the chance of doing anything active, while White has clear prxpecs of opening the Ks an bul fing this up into a power tack: He hal to mainain the eon i the 19 wea our 20 Bn Bas 21 Bas 3 This x oven worse, 8 the Beside is nally blocked and White can ‘confidently canconiate om the Kid 22 Bae pbs 25 Bel D6 (72) Romancvaky-Vinet, USSR Ch 1824 [AX this point White formed plan that covers the resto the game, 98 Plowing [sphiting the lsc nature ofthe eenre and dhe absence of counter phy tthe Que, White plas his Kee pawns fran Thin cramps ttppnent at ies White once away ita the cram camp ia he gaa he fas In fcc Blgcks weak pl has et White do large as he pleases, ne % BB an 2 gt arelnes The simp 26 AS! would present Ring ight ad incrome the et ofthe ne opening on hide 26 oo 27 gh ped 28 US a7 29 gS et 39 gf 31 AG 7 32 ee 3 A fresh unnecesaty weakening 38 BS Ber Si Be Bes 35. xd “The it ponciation, Black can do nothing to opps the ative ply of bis opponent A carter plan Teas wo sctry despite the inceursey at rove 2 35 Be 36 dl bbs 37 2 Gar 38 et OM 9 Fie? eB 4 WE eH A 2) ab 12 Wy? Heal 43 ed BeT HB! Ser 45 I! Sb 46 BoeeT Bees a7 Fwd Hrd 8 Bah 749 eG Ba HO Heo 9 a 52 6 St 35 at Aotherinacouracy 35 She woud ob Blak of is ast counter chance 38 an 94 ag? A! 99 BxI7 56 St Gere 37 GRD HO 58 Har “ts 50 ha dite Go Bet Bh+ Gl Get Bel 62 She WAL OF es el 61 hs BL 8S WM LO ‘Learn From The World Champions Th alder: fhe wor de aves en mad yt abit to plan pana game ad forse the development ofa. Tis ature fees rticulrn marked in Capablanea, Lasker ae Botta, while a to days Karpo shy thin dmirable Wat of seeing, wet before the lopped the enains ofthe coming Bale and taking the necessary eng example, despite the apparently outine mature ofthe Learn Bom The Word Champion 99 Lasher-Piltbary, Pais, 1900 Dpxin (75). Raieve to ot the one-stage pla a almost by force te ‘he win ofthe B7 pave ess this paen iso al tothe sky white hight hich stars its run by a retreat to ithe same” one at in Karpov Spanky. page #3 Thedraeackto Black's postonis he hachwars passat, Black wil tayatal cont to advance i ard Whit plans oexpt this by de bight rmanoeusre Qybl-a2 gi #7-doxb?! 2 gpl Bat 2 Ba 3 Otherwise 24 415 would prevent the advance or ever 28 de ‘Bes BOP Bes (cher rok moves leave Black bly place oo, e425... B57 26 {]e5 e627 Bet with no ans to the ono theeats 28 Big! and 28 Bred Bx 2) O07 mate 6 DS Boas 27 hg M6 28 EIT x7 29-DA6 BET 30 Ex? ad with the end of the plan i was merely a matter of ech, in which Lasker was pst ‘Spay planned to explit hi pase poe in diagram 74, which is aleead well pporied bythe raoks. Uh plant advance tothe Tih rank ignoring the posible loss ofthe pawn, Once on the 7h it wl i down Black's reer Then combination of threats queenine te pan. tating the King-wil decide 19 fe 20 en Avcitng the exchange af queens since White's threat need the 100° Pasig Spacky Permian, World Ch mate, 1960 strongest pice onthe board, Th lof he apn play noreal pet snce lacks piece will son be freed to aceupy very panive postr, ad White cam get the material ack if he wishes, 20 waz Dias reas 2a Bet 23 wo be 25, e624 Hp Heb sno improve since er 25 #e2 therein thera of 26 eT and then 27 Zs e625 dB 2 Bel “ia 2 Bo ts 26 we [A mistake that oes Ue game, but Blak’ postion was very dca White hacarred out the ight plan and now ap the ui 26. WB would put up a ete ight ar Be our 2% Bo ae 2 Bxaat ae 30 Bye ro “The ped pawn has erie the day White has the advantage in agra 25 with well mobile pices and no weaneses Mack'scenal pawsaterather key particulary a6 in secordance with Stcinit’steaching thatthe postion shoul be attacked at its weakest point, Tal concentrates hs fre on U6. He plat force the fpiwn to adcance while hindering the advance of the e6 pawn. Then Black’ paws will be om white gars, the sme alr as his bishop ‘atthe Black quares wl every weak, White’ pices wil eeu the Lean Bro The Wold Clampons 101 Tal-Byre, Alekhine Memuril, Mencow, 1971 weak squares There are thee atcks to come on 6 (eh, Bg, a) find Blk des nt ae time 4 bring ap tnce eens We us = Blackhasnotimefor 8, «519 a0 Bab 20 Het Beb21 Hx Fixa 22 cf and White isa pen 19 es) an 20 Det 6 Black would ein abd way afer 20... eed 21 dant hen 22 ede 21 aes a 22 See Bas 2 he a det ae 2 Bot 3 "This anempt to activate inv lads to coen gree diicuies for Black. Ate other moves White could achieve a complete blockade othe pwn cette and hen decide matter by prewarcon tefl cand Bs} ee) 26 mea a 27 Beer Be 28 Best we 20 3 EB a0 Bes 31 Bes “The oak tapped The coret pla hae driven Blick pce inna crea postion fom eich there scape 3 w 102 Prosing 32 a2 Dae 58 £45 34 ag 59 Seg be 36 B Bc6 97 xed FdT 88 eG Ret 39 Boxart Brd6 4016 1-0 Boxsinnik-Pomar, Amsterdam, 1966, In the position of diagram 70 white haste initv, but what does his advantage coms of More active pieces and he chante to take the only {pen fe Btn frr this laconie plan, “Whites plan simple, Pay the pain 1065, the exchange the bibhop on g6 ad take over the bbe ‘Will Black be able to fd any counter pla?” est be Be Det Black too his a plan-—eanser the knight weet to divert White om the exchange on 56 66 pa 7 Be Bet 8 Det de 19 to Bee met Even energetic matures havent helped Black. Hea ep his bishop, ‘bur Whites has the bse and the pawn atc ll ned defending 20 6 Black makes every lle free the bis, but the tess fads toa ssdvamageous opening of dhe Fle for White 2 ke f 2D fe Had 29 Bel WAS Bg? Hdl 25 Ee WMG 26 Hach weld ae ‘Thesronges. since Black exchanges queens he hasa los ein nto much because the pawn danas duet White's command ofthe bile eam Bram The Wald Champions 103 Pomar prefers dhe mile game 2 wae 28 Bao tao 2 nw White now change the dnetion of te game, ein his pla of wing the len sour quick Ksde stack Wheres the log Theatre lin thefact hat thetoveT 7-1 has opered Blac’ Kean an atack there by advancing the Ksie pars s the quick way twin 29 Ba? 30 MB 07 31 al Wee 32 WE su 95 gb 96 MW oS 35 Reed a7 ‘lak finally has contol thi le, bs a ie when inno e tim 33." Bute bad95 Ea Eo? $7 xd] Bd? 58 06 wl 39 aa ny 40 bes 36 as ea 37 BO QBs 38 dd ed 30 66 Bal 407 we7 41 QE 10 Now thee examples of the champions defending. Fist, 4 beiliant Aetersive plan by Euwe fom the postion of diagram 77 Alethine-Enwe, World Ch, match, 1997 lack ast farm a plan 0 counts the concentration a farce aimed at his poorly defended king. The qucen hast mowe ad thea Whit will 0 {Da atackng 7 tre ines ae heping Wasa top, Theattack ean Desupplemented by E-d3-23 “The plinitocxchang ishoprand get the kaght ver wthe defence of the Kee we we 17 Ses Be 104 Phasing “Theveat wast capture thee tmeson 7 and then play 74, Black abo had ev is internediate move tose the bright i axi a6 wo os eT 20 Bar ast Another fines that dt be foricenthe queen threatens ha as inthe variation 20 Boel? Waa? 22 EDM 2x. aie BS! “Thelaslinkinthe pln, Whitehas exchange ook 2 By 5.28 HS bor 2 WHS do ne appeal to him. 2 Ba ere the Dutchman went wrong by 22. Exd3 giving White powell pase yawn though the anal ends nade. The exible ae ae would have le co complete equally ‘As Botinn has pointed out Petonan has «sikng natural alent developed by much analyieal work, or "placing bi piers in soc away {hat they defend each other with maximum security” Hence there ae ‘many of his games where we nd wud deenive plans, The next example (78) is of is favourite device of sacricing the exchange Reevshy-Pewesian, Candidates T. Zurich, 1953 lack has diffu, pation. Whit’ centre pawn lak ready advance and sweep evrything fom thie path, supported a they are by ‘sel ponte pines Blacks lees are cramped on the ack thee rows. Hit ‘rain ster iin dhe Que pas For the manent the cy este Dawns have a black squat orientation which sugges that t would be well to blockade hem by knight ond. But this pon cannot be reached since tbesquare eT ioccpicl bya rk, Wel hen ive up the rok hat he Knight can reach dd and be supported by a paw at Lara Brom The Wald Champions 105, 25 est! 26 ot ae! Avcing the conning ine ofered by Whit’ lant move 26.627 5) ed 28 \xeb fe 20 Bruck and White will win. pared fe 2 en O15 29 BN das Black’spicces have become ative and theabiene ofthe exchange snot fet White therefore Murs to give hack ane enaline 30 Bsa ea 31 tas be Reb Probably the oaly sound ine. Afler 32 of 635 Bll Seas 34 Dat Hes, or here 33.45 cd 3he5 Dra $9 Qdt Fok 36 BY Heo Blck has nothing to fae since he as blocked the enemy pwn 3 ny 35 38 Bas 36 Bal acs 33 da 7 36 36 6 Whites tying ous hi pase pan, but Blk ca wei pawn oo Thegameiseven despite the exra pen and the knight which was nove imac timely fasion to 63 dominates the sene 37 eo bs 98 tet 6 39 n3 U2 40 Bt HEAT Bet HH “Taimanow-Facher, Candidates Math, 1971 Black's position in diagram 79 looks dubious in ew ofthe tne 27 106 Plsning ‘ic and 27 eT. ven when Black meets this there tthe prospect of {White adancing his centre pawns Fhalcrdrawnapaplan whic bring ll eheve posible to naught egroups his ook toot the qucen gor to 7 and the Bishop Hom gt 7 Th neutralizes Whie’s chance along the de 26 Bett 27 a5 27 Ab? 200 28 Gel? M8 ges nowhere 2 an 28 er ‘Ber This threatens HB and has ely contlled any pinto enty on the Ae Tec curious how the whole plan of regrouping has vol short roves to am adjacent square 20 3 Posing ne problems ofa qucem entry, but the American copes agin with short move! 20 en 50 Bees Bx 31 te? an 32 Wea be Be est ‘Another ne defensive tne, with dhe threat 4. a where 39 ‘xe lous 10M Hel Hab 85 7, ‘WB? xt 35 hs a sist not oo casy or Blach—39.. la? 36 Exe, while 35, HB then 36 Fal with the two threats 37 Ba and $7 Bel 35 ap oe sre a 8 Sas Hat 99 2 Gt 40 5 BAT Hal Wt 42 BxcS (The sealed move) #2... Qoxe548-BrxeS4 e744 HN Wet 5 Ber+ hb 6 Bxterr Wud 47 BUD Balt 0-1 ‘Now wo examples of eramping plans Black hasan advantage in engram QU based on two bishops, hich rat that i wll be able to yeerate presre en both wing Hes ‘weratage plan, the firs part of which sto cramp White's minor pieces at ‘uch as pre by the advance afhis pawns The adsance ofthe pen wileve the knight cl he advance he Ke anal ine dhe Imobilty othe bop, he sme elt aie White ue o make more roo by playing Law Ft The Wald Champion 107 Engle Stine, London, 1888, “Thesecond partis nothing ike cea, but when it come tothe decisive moment somerhing must exis for Black. ‘2 wt 28 Beas Bela 2 Bes it Toadeance «6. 2 Bel 5 a0 Tic advance vs down the pf the bishop, bu other moves were sm betes 26 a0 a gs 3! m bel = oa Attest White can block the advance a which would ruin his ide pwns 20 et 30 eva) 108 ewig Theft pat complete, The knight con the back row and cannot become serve. Now forthe sco stage. Blk has two cices. He ean pt the rok nd and push forward he spawn wth the hope ogeting pps pawnon the Qe. The bishop woud help toque sich pa “The send eice strated inthe game comtination x bel on the idea afeachanging black square bishop, hen twill be hard for White op the enemy tok penetrating othe tw back ranks, 0 e 3 ate 51 ge aM a ass 32 Bes Stein's idea is eealy sen aie 32 eS eB 85 HE Bel St eed Bath W gf eo ane Beas talowed by Get or Bes 2 he Bee eo Mhe White sin Zgrwang ce ihe moves the took Black strengthens is psitionfrther by ae H a 35 gh Beds 30-GA Bxel 37 vet heb 3 Ded Heed The pave, peg asin 8 eet SHOAIB AY A HTS es 01 Karpov-Unicke, Nice Olympin, 1974 In diagram 82 Black conto low spe, and his pce are psy placed, parla the bright a BY. Karpo formed his three pi plan Te Whe loses thease by a, and undercover concentrate bis Prctiel Advice 109 ‘major piers om this ie. Back Bas no cuter 16 this aed man it pasives "2 White exploits Blacks pasivty by Mand then B. -.. ex ic not porible as White woud reply £46 3A Black plays pawively White wil concentrate his eres the fies ‘opposite the enemy hing, penetrating at 6 or hi, Black oes 5 then ths pentaton will ake place on the weakened white squares _Aallstageve the plan Blk hast ake acsount of Whit coming ino the aie after moving the biop away fom a, Ba! Bet 2 fe Oe 26 eal ay 2 abi aa Be a8 2 oi “Thelastwomovesarethe preparation fr stage two which Black cannot hinder » ast 0 a i 18 © lack decides to rman the emo rom the pawns on the Kid, bat tow Karp can ue hae tram pon, 2 ge an 88 23 D7 9 BAI WO 35 Bhs eb 36 Wea Ze 97 Mas ee sw Bis? at 29 Des! oe “Taking wie om S would lane the queen 10-1 DIT 40 Bc bee al dane Ox a2 ens De 43 es eo Alter the exchange of qucen the pawn a 6 supported by )B woul sm force win 44 ons 10 Practical Advice [Ac the reader gee stronger, question: of planning will figure more prminrly in he dining, ape will a 0 come UP agai the Probleme which forever torment the strong player. We sal ry #0 ive 110 Ploming some advice and wah the reader agunst pial mistakes in pling Theis pec face "Dont ene contact with the staal pation [As we shall we, even song grandoasters can go badly won i this ‘espert. Your plas mutt be subordinated t the demand ofthe poion, ‘mst aie fom it ‘Wen you are looking for the est move you take into acount many factors dees it cortespond Your aim, wll it produce any drawback in ‘sour psn, will the opponent be able toexpt the weakside of? Only tron yu fc conden that you have weighed al tho factor will you Seualy make the move. 1m parcalar you have to take account of the fact that every plan proces a change in he pasion of the pieces and pans, you have 0 mide the fresh poten ang aftr the plan has em cave out Does {his new prstionoffer chances tothe opponent that he did mot have before? “The nest example (83) shows a faulty plan Sea Botsinn, Amwterdam Olympiad, 1954 White ha to tke account ofthe meakreuesin Black's position, met of all he square band the weskonet Kee. The hallopra cle om which ‘White ha already begun operations ao hae significance. There i the posibilty of Blacks Kode pawns becoming active. Considering the Penton ofthe piers, one conchdes hat both ies have pioned them tvell expecially the bnigh at 3 which has infuence on both sides ofthe ar White came othe conclusion that the position was about level and then considered hi plan. The plan involving (3 watsonnejected—don' make [pawn moves inthe area where youare weaker Ttisanare lial lay on the Qide Te would be nce wo ged ofthe knight a 3, bu ow? Tt ‘would ot be advantageous to give up the ged Bishop at ©. Pratt Adie 111 So Srabo planned to undermine the support ofthe knight by Wa and 405 with presuze onthe 2/8 agonal Then double oaks on thee alter whieh theresa heat of €-a3xb7, and el?b? then EDecb and ‘hestrng point at d fal, and with ice whole enemy Kee sin danger. ‘Unloranately, cough thieplan seemed sound the kight sei or two pawns would only be made when all preparatins had eon completed thee isa Maw. The white piece leave the king unprotected and Black can storm that side. IFSzato had weighed this up he would probably have chowen aber pln, Thea of undermining 5 righ bb was caried out wrongly. There were much better chances «pan advance by HDI, a# and b3 suing to crentea weak puns om a hen Sperating on both the be and fe, Tar 26 2 gal an 3 bs Bea 4a st ‘ce Witecn complete plan Back bei is ana wich shows shat White would Be beter fw sito ate, Ts iinow 3 hen Sha 6 Qh? gh wih an aac. A tactical ovr ht allows Whit tack into the game 3. gt! Poul cus here hp £2) would giv lack a powel stack og, 6 dh gh7 x8) Beat? ® Ob Fgh, or Ohg ht 7 M2 1 4) 00. Boson ber puns cut thn 8 6 a 7 Snes fh © GN2 Ba leaves Black wish am exten pave aad « owing 5 ae et 7a Thin cal reply makes the conduct f Bla tack ic Tho the appateny rong Eg? npy ety 8 XI. Reig that Pesos move ns wrong, Btn espe ewes to prevent an Caplan on hi bY and 6 aguare 7 aur! 8 Bs oe 9 Bet Bes Now cial guacde and there ino way io undermine the knight a 5, fier 10 Bad 26 11 ADS Ex with epettion of movesa draw was tgred “Although ches a ceetive game in which alot, inventiveness and fantasy ply a ig part no les ate played by knowledge based on the 112. Plasing study ofthe playa the grandmaster: ofthe past When yo examine dee {game you ofice that many plane epeat themselves, ad you wall Iaturally hope to apply thee ecuring plas ia your aw gas. The ‘My of ype plan something that the lacing gradimasers devote a reat del ote to. Toul ay that the met freeing them devoteat Ich time to this ee the sty opens. Bowinnik-Ragoin, Training game, 1947 “Theweaknes ofthe black aquareson the Black kngsidein diagram is immediatly apparent. Blacks pasion of the d and ees 20 compensation in view of the ac that White's active pices donot et him te these le. ‘White plan simple. He wil increate the premure on the weakened blacksquaresaiming fora bishop sacrifice on g6s0thathisqueen a roks| ‘an get amating tack There areal knightson the Boa, bt hey ‘oom be exchanged ice White's ight wl be tow strongly posted ‘When ou follow how precy Boni earres ou the plano expltng {he Back squares, you are ful of pase, but =. Toe air we must note thatitwasnotsa hard or White ond the rgh plan heel head do wat to copy the play of Lasker sgunst Capablanca at Moscow 1935." ‘Borin Naturally the vader would ike ose the ‘precedent (85) The BT year old excchampion stacks the King with youll vigour [Note the slaty of pen structure. 24 Welt acs 2 Bie ase 26 Bhs on 27 hot Be? Practical Adie 119 Lasher: Capablanca, Moscow, 1035 28 hg be 29 Bogs Having taken contol ‘ef the black squires White makes this programmed sacrifice. Now 29... pis bad; 30 BABY Hg 31 SH. 20 8m 30 Bob he? 81 BIS Wats (No other defence) 92 gf Bagh 99 tt Boog 34 Eg fg 35 HRD and White fred win with hs material advange Botsinnit tallow thie analogy He exchanged knights, posted his ieee forthe attack on the Back quar ad then sacifeed on 6. From Aiagram Bt 27 a oe ‘To exchange the Bright belore White gues Boe-A-47 28 Bes eb 29 Exp gh 90 We? e631 Bhes Ba7 2 HIM NES HH wT 30 Be as 8 Bess Fes (80) 1 Panning The concentatonoffoceon 6 hasbeen achieved and the explsion fates 26 Sgt Bags a7 Bee oe (Or 57... EXT 38 Bag lcci the win, 3B Bs? Bog? 59 Best ro However I must advne the reer to have a exteal approach to cxarpls of planing fom the play af the grandmaster Justa inthe ‘pening variations thereisvometimesa move which ean radially alter the ‘Shoment a thee may be improvements in mddlgare pla The {allowing gameis an iesuctive example afa middlegame improvement, and avery fine achievement of planning ads 2902 ch ob $ 219 BS Fa ABT 5 ES 5 6 6S Qk Teed 8 Bed as ou oo woo White's previous move revealed the outline of subasuent play Spas’ plan as Been wed mary’ mes before. White ses that Black sins a the Kesde and intends to exchange the principal piece in thi bualdsupthe bishop at do. To scheve tise will play ba at and 23 ‘Then White’ major pieces get te attractive prospect of aching the Backward pawn a 7. Blick elie hit ands ft al 4 0p the wo 6 nt Sis Be Preventing af and calulating that after 12 B5 ab 13 Q)xb5 cS ML {x46 ded lack hae dangerous initiative whi aly compeneater forthe lack ofa black squared shop. 12 Bol Now event White ges bias rwand he will ot have a3. Black's ‘core preventative plan has aken the ing ros Whit’ standard plas 2B ‘Bet Isat Bah 1 bs Bx 15 xs et 16 sea Bet 1 gia « Practically frcing an exchange <6 thcrie Black wil go 6x and a9 sith an eacllnt Qide formation Pratl Adie 15 18 x 19 ws ear 20 Bal bs 21 38 (87 A serious mistake. Sparky thought he cou! not allo to go ino the clam afer 21 ab x09 22 xb Webs 25 Hrxbs ab. 24 Baal Beat 25 Ral Bait 26 Qa, but se war shown by subuuent| analy the endgame i rami Spay: Persian, 11th game, Match 1959 The tenon onthe Quide has eased and acumen shows that Black has the advantage Black's knight centralized, sok at cB oes the ‘open ile and hs paw setae impressive, patetarly wih the ‘tpt atch which lac om plays o expt One plan woul be bt {olowed by BS when every weak. However Peraan prefers another fone involving his fvourite device of wring the eachange 1. A queen my sided by Knight and Ad wil provoke white quae weakness on White's Koide 2, Het and pressure on the chile wl finaly force White to take on and open the long white diagonal afer d3 8 3 Knight aed qucen wll brought int operation ow he weak white eal a a0 2 Be as 23 Bil a ae ae ae “The ast two moves ad aubarquent pawn moves on the Reside pay 16 Pleming Blck'shands, but what eas White todo? Heshould have just manocavted ‘willy, but tis snot easy for an energetic player. % Bo 26 i 6 27H (88) The whitesquares have been weakened and Black his ocho the most appropriate ime to go Ble. Fist he rearranges his pees hat they stack the whitexquartstothemaximum extent posible; wil drive bark {he enemy knight and peepare 2) d8- dan hatitean go later ck oF 5. ” % OB Dae 29 0 ar 30 22 et White efinesto taketh exchange atone snc the lng eit diagonal sworn him. So Black ha to ere acceptance by presire on the ental white squares 31 tas Be 2 as abt To exchange the defender of the white squites, {2d6. White prefers wo ater a bishop exchange sd to make way for 38 Bas ‘eas 3M Bxas bw 35 Bel 5 36 Baal Oat 37 Bet fe This was the poin ef playing B. Now the queen gets chances on the fh diagonal The Mind of «Groninester 117 so whi a7 (89) ‘The beginning ofthe end. 39 Ba? Be $0 xc Probably dspar—i we ace going to lowe then a lest be material up. “The final phate of Black's plan now comes into operation, ” de a as “To open same prospect for the roks, in Boas 2 Ba cs 48 Be ns 44 Bel oat 8 ge 8s 46 gia xs ‘The king has nll found a comparatively sae pot, but Black's pawns have gon to ton 75 es ae an on Bo hs 90 Het 2 Si wal 3 5207+ 59 EIOU2 SE Hebel = wy 95 BxgT+ ing? 56 Baht 1 ‘The Mind of « Grandmaster "The right moment for making a plan is ater a wide-ranging general analysand ssesnent athe poston Hove far do we plan? Tete point 118 Prsning wheze we reckon we sal ave eeahed our abetive I other word the Plan sor with ow laying down our objective. and cs wih Ta which cane shoul! we aim fora one-tage pl, in which many stage eal depends onthe cette positon wea dealing with, om the tim which wesetounatvex Ifthe aim ean be achieved ina ew oven, it [Ravhieerdwathout a number fee then our plan ofthe onetage or ehedistanceto he aim consists many move, ifwenced several jumps to each i then tea question of many staged plan with termediate, sti as Those lock time doch grandmaster ink out is pln? Aste have ssoned already, everything that f exprened words rather than “aration shoud be thought avt wea the opponent’ clack king, Taras pose low docs the idea of pla arise in the and fa grandmaster? The proce ta creasve one bt itis inextricably linked with the smsament One ofthe aks ofthe assrument so esalsh where the wenk poate in feich camp, andthe plan must be linked with these weakness not forget to devote seme time so considering what plan the opponent ha lore, or wil em The eat of the Szabo. Bovine fttne showed uv the comaquences of ignerng the opponent “Meecover, snow your ow eapaciy and do note to overburden Your ‘mind wip ennot pe with, There are some player theo Dy what hey say ater a game, are bling vr eh also ad ‘law. When you lk ino then you find tat many fue eas are mt Tike wih the postion, are sper une. Yos hae to have reali sms that you eam cope with ae tha yu ean into 9 pluie pla ‘Work hatd at your planning, aad always beat in mind Lasker’ aphorism, “Fo find the right plan i just a hard a looking fo is sound jstfcation’ This streuer what cannot be repeated 00 fen, thal sessment and planning ate iextieably linked How 10 Train ‘Once again we dive this int wo pars. Training at home, and taining ring game. or hoe raining, dhe bes things the study of well annotate games Once agin we have o say that although there are many books on ches, {ere are few with the sort ef thing the student needs. The mader sradmaster prefers tors himself ysis othe wl, bt he student should look fr games wth rb ttements a well variations auch pong, do expr, but tr aed Bd om dhe bai juste moves at what point the asesment ad planing tk place, The ‘llr o work thie out wl pay you Training during a game should Begin withsimple plans. The most sea and necetary things are sch a, which piee 10 eachange and which to [eave on. This fea hey question in many positon, aad can frm span ie. ‘Another as can br dhe regrouping of pees oF jst one pve: Achieving harmony in your postion may be very meray when i no ‘lear what ee you should be udertaking, ‘lays semember the valu of analogies. The payer who has ‘collet ins memory a number af sound plans wl en find the opportunity to apply diem, so easing the burden oa hic that why the reader ha ‘een eller large number of examples in thi ston ‘Oneal point. Besurethat you formulae your plana word (ofcourse to youll ih internal monalegueyeu wil be able to share them with ‘ater Inter when you woke notes or demonstrate the game! A ‘choolteache o mine wes ths ethod oestabsh whether we Kaew the tmeaningafa word we could gives mccinet deBiton then we bnew the Sword we Boundere abut, n't know i Heise sme ith pls (Gansder hat you have a plan oaly when you can formulate itin words in ‘ou mind. Othervite there no pan Find the four stage plan of Formulate plan for realizing redliving White's masa sdvane the ext pawn. State hich tage poston Ector help hi plan 120 Plening Aves the poston. Formulate Asst Fd a plan for cach se the potional ements which ply ndieate-what_movet Black ll ‘he main part State thestepsf the play iced wih passive ply ‘sinning plan, ‘Asess. What docs White's Form a plan for Black for the advamagecomito? Formtheplan next few moves Indicate the to realize thee tors, appropriate moves. AAsess Find the best plan for Black Aes. Finda defensive plan far the weaker side 3. Combinational Vision ‘Training Combinattonal Vision ‘The audience at an intematons! tournament is lke a theatre audiene. Their gazes fixed onthe Stage, but not much at the “actos, ab atthe demonstration boards "The comparative queens. ofthe dione is normally “daturbod oy when surprising Imove played, ay when a piece Peed a pre. Sometimes Somcote will wave to the game demonstrators to inicte that be thins they have put up the wrong ‘move’ But na This ime there eno cron. The opponent replies, Sceeps the sacrifice, and aes of ‘moses follow Only then dows the dence cme to realize what it cing on. A combination hasbeen Played, a sserfice made, and “miraton the order ofthe da. Why was the gandmaer entient hes te fture whereas the audience thought i mistake? The simple aniwer i thatthe srandnr has wll deve inal von, the ance iste well quali Is this a matral git? Not relly there the great players weal Ihave eon sch combinations when they were very young, We know ‘hat child prodigies have played sod chess, but rarely produced Ghustanding combinations. The marvellous preducsont of sich ombinationl experts ae Morphy, Alckhite and Tal came in thet ‘more mature period as a teu of ard work and study OF eoure rniv will ase the subject beter tnd quicker than one les well fled bat we conta that study fd hard work will enable anyone interested in the subject to develo is ye for combinations, The questi might be posed whether a player cannot get by without «thoroogh mastery ofthis ar Afterall herearegrandasers in whew play you wll no find ‘complicated combinations and ‘series. Ther games dome igre inthe amthnogies a bla, ‘hey play with puting anything fen pre, not minor pieces ne ve we pawns ‘They cary out quiet ional plans, and hey atack then they ty 10. do it without However, his point olview not uit caret Even Cour poston smaser doy wot cant eat starting Serie, he hat to be aware of Combinational Heat and Teese shoresimple combinations ify to ‘drcunwvent them onthe part ofthe “ponent. Blementary combinations are de basi fthe whole chasse, a are the inevitable sccompanient ‘tod seavgical plans ae acid at uch as one fn pty well every ge ‘Smal Bovin Werk Ch, match 1958 oxsinnik. commented on she peston of diagram 38, "Here White llered a raw and afer Wheteslastmove 16 Wal was acceptodbut wrong! From my ‘i frend A” Model laened that Sor 16. BADE 17 ah e618 Sek Qs 1) hs 18 Ber Bet Tiving Comintnal Vsin 128 20 babe favours Black) 19 ‘Wee Black would win the 2 ‘ptm for the exchange, Then by forming om the Qride a second paved pawn and combining this bith am avtack on the weakened ‘refuge ofthe king Black would hve fxcllest winning chances. 1 bat ey old ings weaken of combinations! sion tld. 1 mised aller 17 xed the inter Inediate move 17. Bes we eave on one ide the cxcenive medenty ofa player wh id beer wold champion Tr tet ears at tha time, we must poke {hat even player of Botan’: sere a0 take account of fonbinationa vison and ty 10 Hw does one improve in his respect! By anasing at hosme complicated pions, Just as a Pant practhes theron co Bleted pice improve the fechnique of is Binge 40 randraster mune ke ion trim by dally analysis of positions ith sharp pone and this fpplice whether he pres such Positions in is lay oF 0 ‘So we contlide that whatever your incinatom yet must have Combinational onan hep regular trim by practng alse Gf penton sich have sharp oF Foetng iain, Hu don't do Ah owl regen However the ate semper 124 Combine tiosin histsk, Gro plemurecan te had in dicovering combina tions oe in orking through the Combination of eer. Some ate eal works of art which wil give Plow throughout the apex We AI know how worked up a player fam ge shen going trough sich ombinations It said tat Aledhine sometimes goto ected sith the pton tha be jumped Fm the board and can round i Chessboard Drama, Combinations can entrance ux by ‘heisupesng rns and dramatic fontent. Here we Bnd one of the most suprising moses ever payed 198, Koskinen Kasam, hin, 1967 1 abies 2 het man ‘auld you pos imagine such move wih he rook puting elt fn pe to five (pace Al hie Wwe aaeiice ofthe queen. Yet “ikea hawk Je was Alekhine 100 who when asked what were the qualities which made fr sacee a ‘hewstreed the need tok your ‘own song points and defects ‘well ards of dhe opponent and thea added, Thirdly player mist Ihave s higher aim than” pasing sausactons Tce thi aim in ‘iene and ‘creative achive sents which pt cewona par with ‘numberof eter are cach one of the five capone eas {eo mate, The hight cannot take, forthe bishop beats the ok RD is shut offand 3 SP mate follows rok aes. the queen ob Sted? Qeaet 4 Weed ab mate superb inh Note dat ater $ ‘w2d2 the queen ae blocking the Aelemive tine of the rook at 2 “The sting and unexpected ature af ome combinative blows fpoctrer entrancing inpretons ‘ne cannet but be delighted bythe reat inh, although the iden ad tdready sccured i games by ‘Marshall and Alekhine 100). Vg 2 Der gh 3 Wao! Such a move, puting the queen fe pie too pave camnet but tite the ae chow arti. Yet Rewolimo:Relaman Porro Rico, 1967 cannot be taken 3... Beg 4 BAS mate, or 3 o-- DegB 4 Dag Mack dlends he var bleh? square rom afar 3 wer 4st 10 How pleasant a fing i t0 playsuchmoves Yougeteho fing {hot you are creating something Saluale which wil atract the tention of theta of eh The author has Eve lng ches Ie ‘and. played "2 number a eau and tcky combinations, at i art sl rate faster when Ie able to play a qucen seer ior) 1 Brest Bx 2Be Bee 3 ast Now i. BBS then first $ Biset, then xa. So Hack rt ae the rok 3 Bet Ber Bar sae 10 Chasbard Drama 125, Kotos Holm, Moscow Teamn Ch, 1972 ‘White had only ne nove oseve bis bishop and stop the mat on el The stumph of inleroroces, of ‘heli man asin Chari Chapin fms i powerful device favour hydrama ier, Halo produces strong ele othe ches fan. The Aramade fect of many combi Sone and studs awed thi, ‘Who can al adie the tlw ing pie when beset fr the fr fie? Black haw bis whole any intact, White has just one Tile ppm (102), Moreover White promotes to 126 Combinations Vase the pomerfal queen ba ee hay nigh etn the mighty army anguished The following postion was quoted round he wold (703) Onueta-Sanz, Mada, 1988 Black sar: by occupying the 1a always wf 1 Be 2 Bat Bxoat Thestart a's bilan combine. Son based on pawn promotion. prea) Now 4 24 (the only square {rom which cate the pawn) then sonett 5 Bxbbcdandone pawn queens 4 Bxbé tr Not 4 .c+ ab? 5 28, Black intends to queen the & pawn. IF SBxct 2 3 bast (104) ‘An amazing pasion. Two abled solted pawns eat rok and bight. Sat eb or AN qick lance 3 ee felon postion, a study by Chekhover, i Sufcent to etevince one tht White Rope let 105) £2 paw with White's king cut of Then Black will penetrate with his king. via 15. Restance seems hopeles, ye here too David eats Goliath 1 Qa Bh? 2 Gel! fxg? § fe R24 Beh BSS he? Bes 068 (100) A surprising positon in which a suck ups nt enough a win, White ‘wl play gl ned 2 nor Keng the took nat dhe rear Web then er ostp Hel. Narcan the back king pesetrateanyabere. Finally ack eso wi by scrficing Bis rook on ofr playing 5 then thersng pn cing Here i another triumph of miserly force over 8 whole aemy (107) tisastady by A. Kazan Vell Bast 2 Bbt BATH 3 ech Beer | Deght! 696 5 Be! duds 6 B54 Ges 7 Ibi gh fg! bagt 9 BI! QE 10 ef mate (108). “Tuya beau demonstration “ofthe gresnes of prt over enade Inanimate fore Gating antes quali ten showa in the teate and cinema, find Her too there are example of inequivalent in cess (109). Mason Winawer, ‘Vienna, 1832 ‘The fret few mover of the ‘combination are fury sight T Bas hg 2 hI Oa ino 2 GMS Whe hed 4 har BITS Wt and White wins 3 xa? Avis sigh 3... x47 erm forced, leasing the Fook 2B en pris afer the exchange of quem 3 ‘st 12 Combination Visio Now it kcks puthing the so sinple wo wi, bat WBbTH! db Beas 0) 9 Tn the next example, 4 ‘composion by Konsantine po, Black looks hopelealy placed an, Thre 2 thea of tein 40 by APO and igh seiner check, oF Bah at once. In fact Black cm win, heh hi various thveaenig vendo nt apes hve enough time « come to 1 Belt! Why? the reader may wonder Only ter wile reaice that as tobe Hocked sv potential Hight 2 tixel wxezen S baed QA 4 hI ga id mae Fo BeHH! 5 bx (5 Bal Det Fo BOF 6 dal dy? mate ‘Cantinuing oar analogy with the theatre a the nema, we have hes postin hat ike ballet oe ‘pers are based for their appeal on the beauty f the const. 1 am always impresed by the rors action ofthe Be working Pleven ths study by Troy Ve b2 (not 1... et 267 OT 8.92) 2071/W ond. a6 Sun w/a 4 oh) Bar 5 Bolt Gah 6 Bere et 7 and raates since the at oh it Fined) 3 cO/Me Bar 4 Bee Bab 5 Bete Bes 5 hI! (713) ‘Black ms ese his quecn or be mated, ‘The pattem of double stack oe Wagga le ra sometimes known as the Mate Crom. position fom a Moscow Championship game (71) 1 Bath 2 He@and the ots were exchanged with a draw eslng. Yer Back could have swan by 2. Best sword fight with lows fom both des another favourite ‘heatrial device; the analogy with chews dramaticaly cen in ‘Combinational complications, Per inal play isthe confirmation of rnerallyaceeped points whereas ‘Sombinationl play the deni of thats obvious the “one Cheshord Brana 129 underines accepted values, the ‘ther causes the eamenment of ‘als ere is sty tha 1 greatly mite when Tait in Vasher’ Textbook, in my dhildhood (125), Seay by Villencu-Exlapon White wins af a result of blow snd countersblo, cach of which x Stach and defence a in sored fie TEA Geb 27 Bes 5b 224 Bets bs 5 Res Gres 6 Nim Hal 7 AEH wins this position (176) Black siruck White-2 seri positional Dow by 27. B,a move based 90 ery complicated combsnatve lines. Having analysed the postion Petrvan did nor ake past, apd after 28:1 Bh? 29°82 Tt rd ina draw. The mai nerst Tex im the variation 28 ef Exe? 20 Bre? Bed 10 G4 HTS 17-White has given upa rok to get 1 poser atack "There would fille $1. 26 se Qett de 33 De7 a “An 130° Combinational sion Pewerian Bangi, ‘Meson, 1973 unpleasant move to face, Persia ‘St thi far, and could ot fd ‘eining blow Thusit 34 Beko ah 15 = B+ Ga? 96-47 Br anit only a draw, while 34 Bone loves to 34-4 39 ON Bhi 36 Geer as Hever an bear the game wile stlon hs way home the ex ‘orld champion sain hit min ethan there 34 8eq7 4 og? Smee @h7 36-44 SID lo mate Sergevee Kotor Moncow Ch. 1935 In the pasion of igram 117, ‘ny opponent haan extra pa, Thue Black has god drawing chances. During the actual game ach player commented to hi bppenent hat he wae setting kim a say oso! Tn 6! 2 de Debt 3 oes xg 4 BN eT 9 Dade BS 2! 0417 Ges At Now the last pawn falls and Blak draws ‘An only becomes worthwhile sd cael when reflect aca life in some way. Chess isa form of laract thought, but the chee Dice have Tog ee edt oe Pietres rom Here ae some examples. The author hopes thatthe reader will develop tate for hist of hig, Since man repeat that the development ofa trong elng fr beauty in chew ie ign of "ppeeiation the ums, which isan indication hat your embinasional vison improving ‘This cannot but be hep tn ‘compete pla ‘White wine om diagram 1109 anoviginal fsbion. Therearemany trays 10 fore victory, but the thors solation ie the mot ‘eal by Tie gfDeks ed 3 O64 of bt de3 O04 f6 Base cd a8e Bt Hb B Rede ed 9 Hest fe 10 ete (719) “The author called hit come poston "The Iran Cage of Koray led ik. postion (120) “Badyonny’s Cavalry White wins by Tie ho 2 SB DHEHTS Dee Bho 4 Chesed Brame 131 ]xe4 nT (at Hostage can Black allow d8= 5 Det6t xT 6 GT 7 d= De Ge 8 sate (121), 2 Here ta chase a ina Ween sovauy le (122). ghse et 2 BIS eS Os Ges BB+ due Base Bes Base Boo 7 bse Gera Bh7+ Ga 9 Bay mat "Another chase (123), but this time "They gt 3 Tote de? 2 QB+ dl 5 Exst Geb + Delt GOES Dan Ga 6 Bear Gas 7 132 Combine Vision bo hs 8 Dare tO Dees Ges 10 HHS Hes 1 Ope Ge 2 Hess Gr 1s Dass Gus Det Sat 13 Qt HH 16 ei G17 "The Theory of Combinations Teel to maser some concepts of the comaituent par of Combinations After a great deal of Alacscion in Soviet ces iterate shou the correct dein of Combination it was dcided that from dhe pint of vw of a tmethedial approach twas bet fete on his defini —A Combination isa freed aration This definition Stn well ith catley ideas, Ths Lasher wrote ‘hat By posional play « maser tres to prove and expt ur ‘ales, whereas by combinations be reeks to refute false vals +. A feombinaton produces an te expected reatement of valuon” ‘Geary what he hain mind ere ie the sacrifice which Ted £0 the {Dag and on tom the star. Th couch rte ead 10 dra from these fine examples it that chen combinaion ares sor of Aramatic work afar fll tenon land wetheti content. 1s this facet ofthe game mere than any other that “miions of people Throughout the word lave ches ‘Now that me have sen. the romantic of combinations we Cansei downtothciemechanin, and try 10 develop our ce for combinations by tying the teres, Ive forthe necessary in oder to inprove triumph in given ctcammtances of leer forces ver greater, ‘Or take thin _quottion Gos Botsinni, "Whats the esence ofa ‘combination? Fram his fit eps 4 Plyer ie tayght the normal Inateval wales the pce. I cn thata rook nstonger than night, that shop isaexrt equal to three pawns and 2 isbop ad fo pain i about worth «took, and aqucensstonge than a ook and 1 0 However there are positions rhe thee reatoohipa eee © "ppl, where for example a queen turmouttobe weaker than pas, ‘The path wo such, portions Tes rough the saci Trimustpeine ot that the def nition hich we have adopted le toile many fine combinations fn wich ahve wore no varies, tit handy debiiion fr the purpie of istration order clan the constituent art of 4 combination and wht they const of best wo examine imple concrete example (124), White delivers the welkinown smoiherr mate by the fblrng forced sarin involving = sacri. Ayr died 2 hos + hes Wg Begh $27 mate Fit ofall what features ofthe Poston. made the combination Posible? The presence of two Pawns blocking High quae, the nck of pace or he king that gives the mate it name, ‘Such factory are called inches Aheory the most af the” com bination, the reason fori arin, the special features which enabie the merifce tobe made 30 that a ‘pevied sim can be achieve "As Lasker pati The range of dreammtancesim which txpoible to preuppone the preence of a The Thay of Combinations 138 embination i very finite, The presence of sch circumstances i ‘he reason forthe genesis inthe masters brain The next ita element of embinatien & the final poston lebih wearestiving treat, This pesto called the theme of he Fombination. Im ose example, he theme potion war the: poskion shen the King we ated nd the rate smothered mat the name of ths particular theme Ti order 10 reach. the Gal position from the init one, me have to make = serie of moves which carey. cut the” deed teamforreation. Thisterisof move ‘hat tum teint pasion ito he thematic ane are cle the means ofthe combination. Inour example the means are the check oF the Aouble check on N6, the queen ‘sere on gpd all the rating move to ‘One important frther condition hasta be mentioned. Inaddiion themaia eatuesorreaons making ‘combination feasible, there are taps aaiiary fetes I oar txample the combination would fot have existed Hf the queen was ota ct (or 6) since Black ould then meet 7+ by ting the igh, nd would be ewo pawns tp. These subsidiary features have ilvays to be token into acount tohen seeing a combination. They fan be appropriately named the partial fears ofthe prion 184 Combination Vision ‘The Basic Themes All posible combinations can be tlvided. into three base types, which canbe further subvdivided as Fallows Maing Combinations 1 Smotherrd mate 2. The Than th ranks 5: Verdcals and diagonals 4 Auch on weak points 5. Dravwing ont the hing 6. Destroying the guard ofthe king, Pa Combinations 1. The quicksilver" pawn. 2. The pawn wedge 3. The pawn phalans. ‘The bd psition of ies Double attack, Trapping Ping Line Closing Diversion Ataetion Ambush (Overloading. Let at go through these sb- headings with one or two examples ofeach ype Smtr mate ‘We have already seen one ‘vamp of smothered mate, in its pret form hough there are other ways in which the defending king forced bythe attacker to surround mse” by. selEblocking units (25) Tal Porth, Bel Tnterzanl 1976 White has given up apiece for the atack, the defender’: highs ae faraway from the king Mere the 3 Bal He 36 Sit Greater many threats eg 37 HS HO 38 Z)ya Sed 3. H+ mating. Lonk at 2 “Heed Degdt SHH Then Bahar 4 Qxk? Wxelt and soon mates Or 2 gYbd2 when the Simplest is 2. gd $3 83 Alekhine-Tylor, Margate, 1957 tense postion (172) with both ings in some eager The kright sacrifice 2¢ 39 suggests itselt He fainnot take since he lowes the ‘queen, but the counter stoke | Ret looks nasty. Sol Dxe5 DXA 2 HeS+ and the bishop ‘cannot block because of G+ oF 3 A474. The hing bas no good move (2. EBS OMT ag 4 “Bhs mate, or2,xf1 NG and Blacksoon won wih is ‘xtra pawn, (2) Brat te Anexamination of couple of dozen ening ike hi one mst produce a re in the eeader's ending play. Maile ry thee exer For cach side work out which Find White corret plan and Picceitindeiabletocachangeand dicate the right pee formation ‘which to ave on to cary ot ths plas 204 Calton ond Praca! Pay What does White's advantage WhatareBlak’sadvancagesand const of Which exchangesshould what plan should he fllon? Ihe aim for to enable him to realize Indicate the moves fllowing this this advantage? Indicate the plan ‘winning plan for White Whitest wore, Which pce should he Teave on to Bel the What plan would you recom defence and” which should he ‘mend to exploit the extra pawn? exchange? Final Words of Advice striving o play ik a grandmaster one ha to impo ones mastery of the three fies, the three main components of play. To gain the ‘andmaster ttle however, more ie demanded practical results in Iternational tournaments, so that_approval will he given by the international ruling body FIDE. Many people consider the compete sde a drawback which takes something aay rom the game asan at. Yer [el the sporting clement Final Words of Advice 205 she game's reat advantage, which makes ic popular among millions who td not play the game theraclvee. The achievement of good results demande physical harcnes, stong nerves endurance, calmnes and the maintenance ola sre regime. AS ‘Alethine put it, "During a chess tournament a master must envisage timelasa cos between an aceicmonk anda bestol prey’ Fine word! [Nios of prey towards the opponent, a acetic in ates everyday ie [Alin Alekhine himsel was not alway am ascetic. ‘oxvinik and other members ofthe Sevet School have worked out the Fight approach to preparation and sporting regime, About a month belore thetournamenta player should study the gamesofhisopponents—n easy tank Youshould abo ty to get upto date with latest chery and study your ‘wn pay Alekhinestresed the last named pot, and you often hearin all, ‘competitive activities the advice that you want to be steong you have 0 be hard on yours. ‘Opening preparation is abo valuable, concentrating om tote Hines you intend playing inthe event. something that you domet know is published imone of heen, you de welliotrytoutin woor thre training games ‘The practice of using taining games to get into wi hasbeen widely ed by a numberof leading player, notably Bowinnik. On the other hand, ‘other world champions have taken sceptical view of traning game om the rounds dat they lack dhe sinus ofa real contest and so cannot be taken seriously enough. Not everybody cu force Rime to give of his st in ach conditions. | hart ime before the event begin, you should havea break to avoid boredom or talenes, Btvinik sa that he took rea about Bie days before the fist ound: I know of ether grandmasters who make the break longer than that During the tual tournament you have w make an effort wo keep calm tnd hasband your strength. try to playin acai fasion nt leeting my nerves worry me, sid t's not eany to schiewe this, You have to bear ths in mind constantly during che game. Calmnes ie not jst fr show: my mind only works well when I Keep calm, so T specially tain myself to ctvate this quality” (Batvinni) Inthe 1946 Groningen tournament, the veeran grandmaster Berscin reproached mor taking too mochout of myseIFby playing to winin every fame and creating sharp positions all the time. He warped me that my strength would give out before the cod of dhe 19 round tournament re wa right Tonce checked up on my reuls in top clas events and fina that Tad ofc ht any lst round games I was too exhausted 0 206 Calton and Praca Pep cape. Botvnwik too had ifculis inthis roar “Eater ax ale, in “Sins all ong tournaments Tarte of by gameinga lt of pints, but ‘hen athe end could hardly “sick to thesaddle. Tn the 12th-130h rounds Teal always lost a gee Te stands to reason that you must expend all ‘your energy in that wa: Tris etter to ueit up in more cen asbion wo that {hee ino cracking up tthe end, andthe whole tournament wl be ee tense fr you, ‘When [played in top cla turnamenss and Inter when I wsed to be captain of che Soviet team o hie judge ofa tournament, f watched the routine ofa tournament day that grandmaster maintained ‘Only a few grandmasters have the habit of going to bed well afer ‘midnight and leping ll noon—dhough you can't gett sleep straight, away afer @ game. The majority f them had got ino the habit of Felowing Botvinni’s routine. Lethe morning ater breaks they would take astol gran hour, thendo thei preparation for he day game. Then {4008 fot to de round, have upper afer the game ad then to bed. No fvalsing adjourned games in the evening, though #0 be hone only Borin hime coll top himself okie them, mst nit hough that you will save alot of eres energy Hf yu don't ook at ajoarned scamesstraightawas, The man pond of nalysof these shoul tae place fn che adjourned! games day, butt x permeable to have a short lok at them the moming after they are adjourned Folke Rogard, former President of FIDE, was once tesing tht the factors of scent at chess were not just good play and bnowledge ofthe _zame, but god form and pop physical condition. He was interrupted by reporter who objected that they were talking about cess not boxing "The Src had his newer read iyo have te play for upto se Bouts day, spend hours anassing adjourned games and openings andon top of ‘tha often sleep badly because ofthe great nervous tension, then you were ‘undergoing a physical burden as great as ay boxer had! ‘Our book i coming wo an end. Whether you come wo play Uke a grandmaster depends largely on you, your talent, character, perastene. 1 hope that working though this book wlldo you food, anf yur make the sade I hope you will remember the contribution made bythe authors device. Solutions to the Exercises Diagram 52, Alekine-Heling, Drewen, 1996. Black ha seriouly weakened back squares, which give White a decisive prion advantage. He will aim at d6 vith his Anight after fire tachanging the black aquate bishops. 17 Ba8! 6 18 deh eB 19 et [19 mer Bxe7 19 Set a7 20 Ey is pombe, but White didnot fancy the exchange saciice 20. x6) 19.4320 4 e521 Hy Ant (21 = Beat les to the sacrifice on g6 eg. 22 xg 28 tread Wack 2b ahxgbe, or 22 = M28 QT oxi 24 Lydor BH 25 peat xe826 Sgt and 27 Fadl) 22 Wes Hs? (22. HS was beter) 2518 a8 24 26 Ele? 29 fled 1-0. The queen is tapped Diagram 33, Najdorf Averbabs, Zurich, 1958 ‘White has weak pawns at 2 and c8 which are mack weaker dhan the pair at a6 and bb, There is gaping hole at c4 which Black can occupy with Knight or rook, White har the inferior bishop ‘White wil hope to astack Bo but the pawn ean move forward aswell as luedefended by the knight atc Note hw Black trator advantages ‘ving up his god bishop an ring White of he pawn at 3 in oder to penetrate with knight and rook. 21 «= Qek 22 Qet-Qxbs! 25 cd Sas 2 Hs fps 25 3 Bez 26 af Bb 27 a5 bs 78 Bed HacB 29 xed xc 301 ST 31 MFP GAT 32 Bt AG 3 tl 26 4 BLS Hee 35 Fe26. Whise ein Zagzwang. 136.4 82 winning spec: hing moves Tove the pawn, rok moves lowe the pawn at «3 oF bé. White soon resigned Diagram 34. Kotov-Gligoré, Zurich, 1958 Black sacrifices two pas o get a frm grip of the black squares, Dariculary 6. [1rd 12 fe BE 13 QP Bl? 14 Sl Sed 15 OT {25 16 Of e717 Syme ae5 180-0-0 6 1985 Bd7 20 32621 ‘Dbl! Todlsoage the queen by a2 1. Black Gnd a superb reply) 21 207 208 Solutions the Bris {51 72 gf 2nd 28 EAD EO (Black threatens 24, xd and spite he material suprirty af two pawns iti White whos fighting to draw) 24-21 5 25 bt GMb 26 Fel VG 30 3 and White finally managed io daw Diagram 35, Borinsik-Bolsdaviy, USSR Absolute Ch, 1940 "A posional mistake which increases White's advantage, White get two ‘avin islands (Capablanes’s term) while Black has thre, Moreover the pawn ar d3 eam easily become weak. The question now i whether Whit Uni be able wo exploit ish advantage y piece play, After If. het it would be almost level since the strong white ight at d¥ would be compensated for bythe bishop ate (Baten. White went onto win in 2 Tong ending Diagram 96, Koov-Sicinr, USSR-USA, Moson, 1955. White his 2 marked positional advantage--the better awn formation, weak white squares round Blsk's King, powesion ofthe bh? diagonal Whitecan open the gfe with decisive eet or his major pices by gt 25. 25! 6 26 gt B27 hal AB 2B Het Hd 29 Bigs hd? 30 g5! DN 31 Bath of 32 gh gh 35 W—2 Bal? Black defends agains the threat of 4 Ei which he eam now mect with 34. eb 39 Bb Wet 96 hd Hea 37 Be Bg! with advantage, but White bas another entry posiblty) 34 Fgh! Be? $5 gt 1-0 Diagram 37, Teichmann-Rernstein, St. Peterburg, 1908, Woks about evel excep or the sgetcance of he lng black diagonal nd the psn, White plays to exchane ek quae bishops | Qh “Bust 2.BiiL Gig Now the king eal the bishop of 7,0 8 .-QI2" Dem 8... Be57 4) 4 Bx Wad stops Wet 5 we2Ib 6 WH in 7 gl! bo Bh g5 9.4! gh 10 Z)x06 and Black son sesgned, since 10 Ls lone to 1 3 Diagram 38, Lasen-Najdort, Logano Olympiad, 196, Black has weaksquaresat eS and c5 and weak pnt a ef 6 6 bu this isourweghed by Whites weak second ow and the banging psition of his knight at a2 and pawnatet 1. B22 Zyxed Hed 3 wed Evel 143: 5 Gibb Elxc8 6 weld WAS! Whites astempt to activate his pieces Fails agains the enemy concentration of face on bis king)? Bxd5+ GH? rar Bans 9 gh Wehs 10 @h2 QP mate Diagram 39. Kotov-Bogatyryov, Moscow, 1955, White's pawns hold dhe King in grip and the weakness at and g? indica an atack by Set or #5. White's own king badly defended Sutton to the Eves 200 too, but the pass pawn advance isdecinve. $186 2x0 otherwise $2 #5) 32 Oped Qed 33 Bowed Hab (to get quecoe ll otherwive es) HDS Hebe 39 Wacdt ed 36 2NOH NO IT a7 Hal 39 ea and White wins by marching the king to c7 via Diagram 40, Capablanca-Vidimat, New York, 1927 ‘White asthe to bishops, whereas Black's knight snot ao well placed aiier 8, and itis nos elear where i should go, Q-e3-bb ta maty reat ‘lon. Black can only hope tn hang on for a draw by ream of the ‘metrical pawn placing. 2318 BB24 Qe8 N25 Bed! e626 Bae! ‘Reb 27 Gz Bd} 26 Halt Ec 29 gil White eannot yet play t win Inaterial by 29-206 in view of the amwer 29... a7 and if 30 Boxad "De Soe simstodstage the kr from fby ng and chen flow up BS. 29... 247 90.6 Be6 31 Qxc6e 32 Fdby Fxdb 33 xe 247 4 cad eS 35 bs Ahebs $6 xbe Sad 37 a5 1-0 Diagram 41, Horinrik Leven, Moscow, 1985. White ha formidable pawn entre ad more space. Black s behing in leeloprnent with the king nil the centre, so White can pus Forward thereto ope fines dB! Qe? (14 ed 1S od Qe7 16 AFF 0-0 17 de seb TB eft BT 19 hgh with a pen ap, 17. Seed 18 [lel and 19 Bxe7s 15.65 Qs 66 Zxed 17 be dB 18 Yd 8 19 ‘ed Bgt20 Wed ZI? Qe and Wie tinally won despite stubborn Dingram 42. Kotor Tsimanov, Zurich, 1958, Black's postion lke quite reasonable, bat he hs one oustanding defect. Hisknight tabs badly placed and ba il prospect of geting ta good squat White plane exploit thieby laying all his pieces tthe Kes in ter to work with nestapecethere-19 243620 a4 a7 21 2 22 Bet Beet 25 Geel bo 2 Gell ab 25 ab Qal7 26 Wh Meo 27 “Qe bs (The star of an attempt ofnd seme we fr this piece 27 [H? lines to 28 Eee gh 29 A.xh6 Q.xh6 30°86 with winning attack) 28-41 a2 29H Da 30S e231 eS WHI Be p39 39 “tgs cl 4 Gig? D1 35-F4 Ze Losing pice, but there was 0 hope let) 36 We? 1-0. Diagram 43, Siahlberg-Kotos, Zari, 1953, Despite the oppeite oloured bishops Whites los—the bishop at sxande wel, his opposite ramber i hot supported lacks king sore civ, The pawn at [2 san object of tack which the pawn gH akes part Finally White cannot exchange rooks. 48 Eh) He 4935 50 el eS) be g3 32 Bh? B08 95 Ob) des 54 daz Qe 35 B+ Bed 210 Soltis 9 the Bers S014 Qxf¥57 e+ SoS 58 B17 a5 9 at Gel 60 Bas 2 61 NL Bat Diagram 90, Bowinnik Si George Thomas, Notingham, 1956, TDhestages ar: 1. Fore the pawn from to hi 2. Win he pawn at WS with the hing: 3. Trarser ee knight to x0 Feng the king to come Forward; 4 Retreat the hnight 0 0, shen have th enemy hing Gn stalemate position ona 0 that Poe. This paw sett the white king which comes ack fom «7 "05 Sh dh 46 2G No 47 Sigs bs 48 Zhu 49 dot ta 50 wns eT BU eh Bes 52 oes Ga 53 NS Aw 54 AH There ws the alternative method af saricng the knighton 3 0 get a wom pa ceding) 54. ha 33 25 eb 56 Ee? + ap 57 ys et 58 Dao 59 £9 BR 00 ts Hh 61 Bes hed 62 eo HH 63 Bea as Dy! Nov eT? GS gS = Hera) GH.. BUG BN ab OG wal. Diagram 91, Botcinnik-Unvicker, Obeshavsen, 1961 White hav an activ shop, which he mae ta its best pose poston at Fi. This the rook become action th ae, ad then the hing go thecente. 49 AIT x6 50 Be hs 31 Bethe xh 82 a3 Ba 53 (G2 e754 1 695 Be Deh HOGG Det 7 Bah Ghd 58 BAS DES 80 el 0. eis Zogewang i659... ZT chen B65 he Bas Diagram 92. Karpn-Pomar, Nice Olympisl, 1974 White has the advantage with his ative piest-—the bishop har good diagonals tofirealongat the king either 5 8 or/and the rok ea fet tothe Zh and Bis anks. Abo Wihite has more space an can aeivate his king something whieh Black cannot do The plan ito provoke HS which wil Bally mprisan the black King o8| the hack two rows Then the bishop goes othe 2 8 diagonal and the King comes up tothe centre x0 that Black cinot scents atack Whites pts, Finally White's pawns move frat ake prt i 0 attack onthe eicumscrbd King. Bite e735 ase 636 Qa e437 OE hI 38 I+ has (Nou. a6 39 AH) 39 Be GUT Ob Bagh a1 T+ has ere it was eter weet e8) 42 G2 WS 48 at ba Has eS Hite 7 46 Hae Ba 47 Qed» Fads 48 her 1-0. Therese no Afr agaist the teat 49 iS mating Salutes the Beer 200 98, Kotoy Pik, Stociholn Interzonal, 1952 White has these advantage. All Blacks pawns ae on the colour f his bishop whieh hs lacks all mobity; 2. AI! White's pieces are active, tthereas Black's sulk om the back two rows; 3. Black hat two fixed Irenkneses at 36 and 7 ‘The planisto combine attacks on a6 andl, notably by playing at the righ ne, so that White wl gets ishop tol attacking 42 Re? £8 18 Sas ded #4 Des Deb 45 HD! “This envitages Bxc6 and Eel to force a bihop ening that would be opel for Black after White getshis king toc and goes, Taking on 63 veo leave the £7 pawn hopelsy weak, 49... HbI+ 45 G3 a6 47 xed Be7 48 bs Bx6 49 BN Ber Bo hs gh 51 Qxhs Bur 32 Gis BeT+ 93 GUS AbTH Fes [Be7+ 95 hl? Bb? 56 XI? and White wor with his exea paw Diagram 94. Marshall: Capablanca, Match, 1909, “The postion ie about level The logical sequel would be for White 10 sudvance bis pawns by ef, WeS, 1, €5 so that he might posibly get ‘teaching chanees Black would avance is pawn majority toget a passed pm ani divert White's pleces rm te other sie, In the game Black did this, Whiejuntranon ehespot 16 Eel Babi 17 et We? 18 Ble3 519 a5.c420 08 BUG2) Bl Feel 22 Geel Bab 25 0 66.24 wes e528 ed Weck 26 Gxod Bly 29 hy? 35-28 ed bs 20 ab ab 90 9 EDI SE Be? b3 32 Bad Hel 93 Qed cB $4 be b2 35 xb? Flv and Black duly wo, Diagram 95, Nimeovinch-Capablanca, St. Petersburg, 1914 White's pan seo cenolidate hs positon and try to win with the extra pwn. Blacl’'s plan sto occupy the open ileson the Qsie with hic oaks, tro he Knight to cf and exet gence presue onthe enemy Qe pwns |= e6 218 $87 3 Ba? ed 4 Hed ed 5 Bab! Had Gat (6 Iino beter—6...@)xd27 Wed? BaSand the a2 pawn wll all 6 Sede 7 Bea? Het 8 Bl Bebb 9 Wes Bh 10 ys Baty I [Bat otherwise the Wade pawn would best, but with the exchange "p,Black soon 0m, Diagram 96, Cupoblanca-Alethine, Match, 1927. The poi i abou lve. Black plas to get maximum cont of the white ures on the entre and on th Q-side. To tht end he wl play hi nin fam e te, exchange the kght at ane pas is bishop ond. This will give him many sing square in the eee 212 Soltis the series 15... Bed 7! 16 9 (White shoul react by &)-bi-a5 to keep a grip comet) 18. O06 17 D3 SYA 18 OIG Fc 19 yet $e 20 Exch {Another mistake. The accurate move was 20 #®b1 continuing to strugale foethecsleand theet square) 20... xck21 Bel WaB22 Hes Hel eds xd 24 Beds Hea 25 at 1 26 DIS S02! (Preparing the ‘winning manoeuvre of advancing hit pawn) 27 Bel 48 28 ab ab, 201330 HI e431 Qt Qed 82 Ral Gx6S10-1 Back wna pice, Diagram 97. Kotov-Sahlberg, Stockholm Inerzona, 1952. Black has eheat of breaking through with his well placed pcces, White wall play for exchange, or casolidate his potion by transferring the bishop 3.28.2! EN (twas becter to allow