Basic concepts of mathematics for various entrance exams

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Basic concepts of mathematics for various entrance exams

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1. FUNCTION

Definition

If A and B two non-empty sets then a relation defined from A to B is said to be a function if every

element of A is associated with some unique element of set B

A f B A f B

a 1 a 1

b 2 b

2

c 3 c

d 4 d 3

(i) (ii)

Domain, Co-domain & Range

If y = f (x) is a function such that f is defined from A B then

(1) Domain

Set A is called domain of f(x) and it is the set from which the independent variable ‘x’ takes its

values. The independent variables ‘x’ must be able to take each and every element of set A

(2) Co-domain

Set B is called co-domain of f(x) and it is the set from which the dependent variable y takes its

values the dependent variables ‘y’ cannot take its values outside the co-domain.

(3) Range

The set of values that ‘y’ actually takes for different values of ‘x’ is called range of f(x)

Range is a subset of B

Range co-domain

Some Important Definition

(i) One-One Mapping

A function f : x Y is defined to be one-one (or injective). If the images of distinct elements of

X under f are distinct, i.e., for every x1, x2 X

F(x1) = F(x2)

x1 = x2

(ii) Many-One Mapping

A function f : A B is said to be many-one iff two or more different elements in A have same

f - image in B.

(iii) Onto Mapping

A function f : X Y is said to be onto (or subjective), if every element of Y is the image of some

element of X under f i.e. for every y Y, there exists an element x in X such that f(x) = y.

(iv) Into Mapping

The mapping f is said to be into iff there is at least one element in B which is not the f-image

of any element in A in this case f (A) B. i.e. range of A is proper subset of B.

(V) Equal Function

Two function f and g are said to be equal, iff

(i) domain of f = domain of g

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Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

(iii) f(x) = g (x) for every x belonging to their common domain If two function f and g are equal

then we write f = g.

(Vi) Real Function

A function f : A B is called a real valued function, if B is a subset of R. If A and B both are

subset of R, Them f is called a real function.

(vii) Periodic Function

If x domain of function and x + T D the if f(x) = f (x + T) then the function is said to be

periodic. Here T is a positive real no. independent of x. All the value of T which satisfies the equation.

Note

(A) Period of sinx, cosx, secx, cosecx = 2

(B) Period of tanx and cotx =

(C) Period of sin2 x, cos2 x, sec2 x, tan2 x, cot2 x, cosec2 x =

(D) sin x 2 , cos x 2 , sin x are not period function.

(viii) Inverse of A Function

Inverse of a function is defined if the function is bijective.

If y = f (x) : AB

-1

then f (y) = x : BA

Note : (i) Domain of the inverse is the range of function.

(ii) Range of the inverse is the domain of function.

(iii) If the function is increasing then its inverse will also be increasing and vice-versa.

Some Important Functions

(1) Constant Function

y = f(x) = c where c is some real constant is called a constant function

Y

Domain x R

f(x) = C

Range {x}

(O, C) Co-domain

X

O

y = f( x) = x is called Identify function

Y

f(x) = x

Domain x R

Co-domain

X Range R

O

y = [x] is called greatest integer function of x and its value is equal to that greatest integer which

x if x I

is less than or equal to x and it can also be defined as y= [x] = an int eger just less then

x if x I

(4) Fractional part function { }

y = {x} is called fractional part function of x and it is defined as

{x} = x- [x]

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Maximum

Let f(x) be a function with domain D R .Then f(x) is said to attain the maximum value at point

a D if f(x) f (a) for all x D.

And a is called the point of maximum and f(a) is known as the maximum value or the greatest

value.

Consider the function

f(x) (x 1)2 10 for all x R

= (x 1)2 0 for all x R

(x 1)2 10 10 for all x R

f(x) 10 for all x R

Thus, 10 is the maximum value of f(x). Clearly f(x) attains this value at = 1. So x = 1 is the

maximum or the point of absolute the maximum.

Minimum

Let f(x) be a function with domain D R .Then f(x) is said to attain the minimum value at a point

a D if f(x) f(a) for all x D .

The point a is called the point of minimum and f(a) is known as the minimum value or the least value.

Local Maximum

A function f(x) is said to be a local maximum at x = a if there exists a neighbourhood (a , a )

of a

s.t f(x) - f(a) < 0 for all x (a , a ), x a

f (a) is called the local maximum value of f(x) at x = a

Local Minimum

A function f(x) is said to attain a local minimum at x = a if there exits a neighbourhood (a , a )

of a

s.t f(x) - f(a) > 0 for all x (a , a ), x a

f (a) is called the local minimum value of f(x) at x = a

The points at which a function attain either the local maximum values or local minimum values

are known as the extreme points or turning points and both local maximum and local minimum values

are called file extreme value of f(x).

Working rule for finding maxima and minima

(A) First Derivative test for local maxima and minima

(i) If f’ (x) > 0 at x< a and f’(x) < o at x >a i.e the sign of f’(x) changes from +ve to-ve, then

f(x) has a local maximum at x = a

local maximum

local maximum

y = f(x)

local minimum

local minimum

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

(ii) If f’ (x) < 0 at x < a and f’ (x)>0 at x>a i.e the sign of f’(x) changes from -ve to + ve, then

f(x) has a local minimum at x = a

(B) Second derivative test

(i) If f” (a) < 0 and f’(a) =0, then ‘a’ is a point of local maximum.

(ii) If f’’ (a) > 0 and f’(a) = 0, then ‘a’ is a point of local minimum

(iii) If f” (a) = 0 and f’(a) =0 then further differentiate and obtain f’’’(a)

(iv) If’(a) = f” (a) = f””(a) =....... f n1 a and f n (a) 0

Inflection

Definition

A point of inflection is point at which a curve is changing concave upward to concave downward,

or nice versa

A curve y = f(x) has one of its points x = c as an inflection point

If f’’ (c) = 0 or is not defined and if’’ (x) changes sign as x increases through x = c

The later changes as x increases through x = c

The later condition may be replaced by f””(c) 0 when f””(c) exists

y

y = f(x)

f(c)

0 C x

Thus, x = c is point of inflection if f’’(c) = 0 and f’’’(c) 0

Properties of Maxima and Minima

(i) If f (x) is continuous function in its domain, then at least one maxima and one minima

must lie between two equal values of x.

(ii) Maxima and Minima occur alternately, that is, between two maxima there is one minimum

and vice-versa.

(iii) If f (x) as x a or b and f’(x) = 0 only for one value of x (say c) between a and b,

then f (c) is necessarily the minimum and the latest value.

(iv) If f (x) as x a or b, then f(c) is unnecessarily the maximum and the greatest value

Ex. Find all the points of local maxima and local minima of the function f(x) x 3 6x 2 12x 8

Sol Let y = f(x) x 3 6x 2 12x 8 .Then,

dy

3x 2 12x 12 3(x 2)2

dx

For a local maximum or a local minimum, we have

dy

0 (x 2)2 0 x 2

dx

To see whether x = 2 is a point of local maximum, let us take points in the left and right

neighbourhoods of x=2. We observe that

dy

0 for all x in the left nbd of x = 2

dx

dy

and 0 for all x in the right nbd of x = 2

dx

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

dy

Thus does not change sign as increases through x = 2 Hence, x = 2 is neither a point of

dx

local maximum nor a point of local minimum. In fact, it is a point of inflexion

Ex. Find the maximum and minimum values of f (x) = 2x 3 24x 107 in the interval [1, 3].

Sol We have f (x) = 2x 3 24x 107 f ' (x) 6x 2 24

Now, f '(x) 0 6x 2 24 0 x 2

But x 2 [1,3].So x 2

Now, f (I) 2 24 107 85, f (2) 2 (2)3 24 (2) 107 75

and f(3) f(3) 2(3)3 24 x 3 107 89

Hence, the maximum value of f(x) is 89 which it attains at x = 3 and the minimum value is 75

which is attained at x = 2.

Ex. Find the maximum and minimum value of

1

f (x) sin x

cos 2x in 0,

2 2

1

Sol We have, f (x) sin x cos 2x. f ' (x) cos x sin 2x

2

for stationary points, we have

1

f ' (x) 0 cos x 2 sin x cos x 0 cos x 0 or sin x

2

x

2

and x

6 0 x 2

1 1 1 1 1 3

Now, f(0) = sin 00

cos 00 ' f sin cos

2 2 6 6 2 3 2 4 4

1 1 1

and f sin cos 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 1

of these values, the maximum values is and the minimum value is .Thus, the maximum and

4 2

3 1

minimum values of f (x) are and respectively which it attains at x = and x = 0, x =

4 2 6 2

respectively.

Ex. The difference between the greatest and least values of the function f (x) = sin 2x – x on

/ 2, / 2 is

Ans. 3.14

Sol We, have f’(x) = 2 cos 2x-1

1

f '(x) 0 2 cos 2x 1 cos 2x

2

2x / 3, / 3 x / 6, / 6

Now f / 2 / 2, f / 2 / 2

3

f / 2 / 2 and f( / 6)

2 6

Clearly, is the greatest value of f (x) and its least value is / 2 Hence, the required difference

2

is / 2 Hence, the required difference is

/ 2 ( / 2)

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

dy

Ex. The maximum value of is 0 6x 2 6x 12 0 x 2, 1

dx

(A) e (B) ee

1/ e

1

(C) e 1/ e (D)

e

Ans. (C)

x

1

Sol. Let f(x) = e x log x then,

x

x

1

f '(x) (log x 1) x x (log x 1) =0

x

f '(x) 0 x x (logx 1) 0

Ex. The maximum slope of the curve y x3 3x 2 2x 27 is

(A) 5 (B) –5

1

(C) 5 (D) None of these

Ans. (A)

Sol We have y x3 3x 2 2x 27

dy

3x 2 6x 2

dx

dy

Let z 3x 2 6x 2.

dx

dz

Then 6x 6

dx

dz

for max or min z, 0 x 1

dx

d2 z

Now 60

dx 2

Thus z is max for x =1 and the max value of z is given by

z 3x3 6x 2 for x 1

i.e z 3 6 2 = 5

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

3 2

Ex. The Largest value of 2x 3x 12x 5 for 2 x 4 occurs at x =

(A) –2 (B) –1

(C) 2 (D) 4

Ans. (D)

Sol Let y = 2x 3 3x 2 12x 5

dy

6x 2 6x 12

dx

For y to be maximum

dy

0 6x 2 6x 12 0 x 2, 1

dx

d2 y d2 y

Now, 0 12x 6. For x 2, 24 6 0

dx 2 dx 2

d2 y

12 x 1 6 0 for x 1

dx 2

Thus, y attains max, at x=-1 and min at x=2

Now, y 1 for x 2 , y 3 for x 1

y = -15 for x = 2 and y = 37 for x = 4.

Hence, y attains its largest value at = 4

x

Ex. In the interval [– 1, 1] the greatest value of f(x) is

4 x x2

(A) – 1/4 (B) – 1/3

(C) 1/6 (D) 1/5

Ans. (C)

Sol f’(x)

4 x x 1 x 1 2x

2

2

4 x x

4 x2

0

4 x x2

2

when x 1,1

greatest value of f(x) = max. f(1), f( 1)

1 1

But f (1) = , f( 1)

6 4

greatest value =1/6

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

3. INTEGRALS

Definition

d

If

dx

F(x) f(x) and a,b are two given values of the independent variable x, then F(b) -F(a) is

called definite integral of f(x) in the interval (a,b); and it is expressed as

b

b

f(x) dx F(x)

a

a

F(b) F(a)

Also (a, b) is called integration interval and a, b are called lower and upper limits of integration

Properties of Definite integral

b b

a a

b a

a b

b c b

a a c

a a

0 0

a

0 , if f( x) f(x)

a

(5) f(x) dx 2 f(x) dx , if f( x) f(x)

a

0

/2

sin x cos x

Ex. 2

dx equals

0

cos x 3 cos x 2

1 1

t dt t dt

I 2

0

t x 3 t 2 0 t 1 t 2

1

1 2

dt

0 t 1 t 2

1

= 2 log (t 2) log(t 1)0

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

/2

0

/2

0

...(1)

/2

0

/2

0

/ 2

sin 2x

log

0 2

dx

/2

log sin 2x dx 2 log 2

0

1

log sin t dt log 2. where t 2x

2 0 2

/2

1

2. log sin t dt 2 log 2 I 2 log 2

2 0

I log 2

2

ii. Indefinite Integrals of a Function

The integral or Primitive of a function f(x) with respect to x is that function F(x) whose derivative

with respect to x is the given function f(x). It is expressed symbolically as

f (x) dx F(x)

d

Thus f (x) dx F(x) dx F(x) f(x)

Thus process of finding the integral of a function is called integration and the given function is

called integrand.

Basic theorems on integration

If f(x) , g(x) are two functions of a variable x and k is a constant then

(ii) f(x) g(x) dx f(x) dx g (x) dx

d

(iii)

dx

f(x)dx f(x)

d

(iv) dx f(x) dx f(x)

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

The following three forms are very useful to write integral directly

n 1

n f(x) c (Provided n 1 )

f x f '(x) dx

n 1

f '(x)

f(x) dx log f(x) c

f '(x)

dx 2 f(x) c

f(x)

f (x) g (x) dx f(x) dx, g (x) dx

b

f (x) dx F(x) |ba F(b) F(a) where F (x) f(x) dx

a

b b

a cf (x) dx c a f(x) dx, c is a constant

b b b

f (x) g(x) dx f(x) dx g (x) dx

a a a

a

f (x) dx 0

a

b a

f(x) g(x) dx f(x) g(x) dx

a b

b c b

f(x) dx f(x) dx f(x) dx

a a c

b

cdx c (b a)

a

b b

If f (x) g (x) on a x b then

a

f(x) dx g (x) dx

a

Common Integrals

Polynomials

dx x c k dx kx c

n 1 n1 1

x dx

n 1

x c,n 1 x dx In | x | c

n 1

x

1

dx In | x | c x dx x n 1 c,n 1

n 1

p p pq

q 1 1 q

1 1 x dx xq c x q

c

p pq

ax b dx a In | ax b | c 1

q

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Trig Functions

cos u du sin u c

sin u du cos u c

2

sec u du tan u c

sec u tan u du sec u c

cosec ucot udu cosec u c

2

cosec udu cot u c

tan u du In | sec u | c

cot u du In | sin u | c

sec u du In | sec u tan u | c

3 1

sec u du

2

sec u tan u In | sec u tan u | c

cosec u du In| cosecu cot u| c

1 3

cosec 2

udu

cosecucot u In|cosec u cot u| c

Exponential /Logarithm Functions

n

e du e2 c

n an

a du In a

c

In u du u In (u) u c

au eau

e sin (bu) du a2 b2

a sin (bu) b cos (bu) c

u

ue du (u 1)en c

au eau

e cos (bu) du a2 b2

a cos (bu) b sin (bu) c

1

uln u du In | In u | c

Inverse Trig Function

1 u

du sin1 c 1

u du u sin1 u 1 u2 c

a n2

a

2 sin

1 1 u 1

a 22

du tan1 c tan

1

u du u tan1 u In 1 u2 c

u a a 2

1 1 1 u

u u2 a2 du a sec a c cos

1

u du u cos1 u 1 a2 c

u Substitution

b

Given f g(x) g'(x) dx then

a

the substitution u = g (x) will convert this into the integral

b g(b)

f g(x) g'(x) dx f(u) du

a g(a)

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Integration by Parts

The standard formulas for integration by parts are

b b

udv uv vdu udv [uv]ba vdu

a a

Choose u and dv and then compute du by differentiating u and compute v by using the fact that

v = dv

Trig Substitutions

If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and formula.

a

a2 b2 x 2 x sin and cos2 1 sin2

b

a

a2 b2 x 2 x tan and sec 2 1 tan2

b

a

b2 x 2 a 2 x sec and tan2 sec 2 1

b

Partial Fractions

P(x)

If integrating Q(x) dx where the degree (largest exponent ) of P(x) is smaller than the degree

of Q (x) then factor the denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction decomposition

of the rational expression. Integrate the partial fraction decomposition (P.F.D). For each factor in the

denominator we get terms (s) in the decomposition according to the following table.

A A1 A2 Ak

ax b (ax b)k 2

..... k

ax b ax b ax b ax b

Ax B A 1x B1 A k x Bk

ax 2 bx c 2

(ax 2 bx c)k 2

...... k

ax bx c ax bx c ax 2 bx c

Products and (Some) Quotients of Trig Functions

n

sin cosm xdx

1. If n is odd. Strip one sin out and convert the remaining sin to cos using sin2 x 1 cos2 x ,

then use the substitution u = cos x

2. if m is odd. Strip one cosine out convert the remaining cosines to sines using

cos2 x 1 sin2 x then use the substitution u = sin x

3. If n and m are both odd. Use either 1. or 2.

. 4. If n and m are both even. Use double angle formula for sine and / or half angle formulas

to reduce the integral into a form that can be integrated.

2 x 1 cos x 1

Ex. cos 2

dx = 2

dx = (x sin) c

2

2

Ex. x cos x dx

1

Let x 2 t xdx dt

2

1 1

I cos t sin x2 c

2 2

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Differential Equation

Definition

An equation containing the derivatives of one more dependent variables, with respect to one of

more independent variables is said to be differential equation.

or

A differential equation is an equation relating some function f to one or more of its derivatives.

Order of Differential Equation

The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest order derivative appearing in the

equation. For example

dy d2 y dx

(1) sin x (2) 2

5 6y x 2

dx dx dy

The degree of differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative when differential

coefficient are free from radical and fraction

Linear and Non linear Differential Equation

A differential equation is a linear differential equation if it is expressible in the form

dn y dn1y dn 2 y dy

Po n

P1 n 1

P2 n2

..... Pn 1 Pn y Q

dx dx dx dx

Where Po ,P1,P2 ......,Pn 1,Pn and Q are either constants or functions of independent variable x

The above definition that a differential equation will be non-linear differential equation if

(i) Its degree is more than one

(ii) any of the differential coefficient has exponent more than one

(iii) exponent of the dependent variable is more than one

(iv) Products containing dependent variables and its differential coefficient are present.

Formation of Differential Equation

(i) Write down the equation

(ii) Obtain the number of arbitrary constants in step (i). Let there be n arbitrary constants

(iii) Differentiate the relation in step (i) n times with respect to x

(iv) Hence on eliminating arbitrary constants results a differential equation which involves

dx d2 y

x, y , dy , dx 2

Methods of Solving a first order first degree Differential Equation

dy

Differential Equation of the Type = f (x)

dx

To solve this type of differential equations we integrate both sides to obtain the general solution

as discussed below:

dy

f (x) dy f(x) dx

dx

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

dy f (x) dx c

y {f (x) dx c]

dy

Differential Equation of the Type = f (y)

dx

To solve this type of differential equations we integrate both sides to obtain the general solution

as discussed below

dy

= f (y)

dx

1

= f(y) dy

1 1

dx dy c or, x dy c

f (y) f (y)

Definition

A function f (x, y) is called a homogenous function of degree n if

Solution

i Put the differential equation in the form

dy (x, y)

= (x, y)

dx

dy dv

ii Put y = v x and =v+x in the equation in step I and cancel out x from the right

dx dx

hand side. The equation reduce to the form

dv

v + x = F (v)

dx

iii Shift v on R.H.S and separate the variables v and x

iv Integrate both sides to obtain the solution in terms of v and x

y

v Replace v by in the solution obtained in step iv to obtain the solution in terms of x and y..

x

Linear Differential Equations

A differential equations is linear if the dependent variable (y) and its derivative appear only in first

degree. The general form of a linear differential equation of the first order is

dy

+ py = Q

dx

where P and Q are function of x or constant

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Solution

dy

i Write the differential equation in the form + Py = Q and obtain P and Q

dx

iii Multiply both sides of equation in Step i by I.F

iv Integrate both sides of the equation obtained in step iii w.r.t. x to obtain

y (I.F.) = Q (I.F.) dx +C

This gives the required solution

Example

dy

Solve sec y

dx

dy

We have sec y

dx

dx

cos y

dy

dx cosydy

Integrating both sides , we obtain

dx cos y dy

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

5. VECTORS

Definition

Those quantities which have magnitude and direction in space are called scalar quantities.

Vectors are represented by directed line segments say AB , A is called initial point and B is called

terminal point.

Vector are generally denoted by a, b, c etc. Magnitude of AB is length of line Segment AB

a a1 i a2 j a3 k

Types of Vectors

Zero or Null Vector

A Vector whose initial and terminal points are coincident is called the zero or The null vector. The

null vector is denoted by 0 .

Vectors other than the null vector are called proper vectors.

Unit Vector

A vector whose modulus is unity, is called a unit vector. The unit vector in the direction of a

a vector is denoted by â read ‘a cap’,Thus, | aˆ | 1 .

Like and Unlike Vectors

Vectors are said to be like when they have the same sense of direction and unlike when they have

opposite directions.

Collinear or Parallel Vectors

Vectors having the same or parallel supports are called collinear vectors.

Co-initial Vectors

Vectors having the same initial point are called co-initial vectors

Co-Planar Vectors

A system of vectors is said to be coplanar, if their supports are parallel to the same plane

Note that two vectors are always coplanar

Coterminous Vectors

Vectors having the same terminal point are called conterminous vectors

Negative of a Vector

The vector which has the same magnitude as the vector a but opposite direction, is called the

negative of a and is denoted by : a

Thus, if PQ a then QP a

Reciprocal of a vector

A vector having the same direction as that of a given vector a but magnitude equal to the

reciprocal of the given vector is known as the reciprocal of a and is denoted by a1 .

1

| a | a, | a 1 |

Thus if

a

Localized and Free Vectors

A vector which is drawn parallel to a given vector through a specified point in space is called a

localized vector

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

If two vector a and b are represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of

a parallelogram, then their sum c is represented by the diagonal of the parallelogram which is co-initial

with the given vectors

Q R

b

b a+ b

O a P

we have OP OQ OR or a b c

From fig. We have, PR OQ b Therefore, in triangle OPR, OP PR OR .This is called the

triangle law of addition of vectors.

Note : It should be noted that the magnitude of a + b is not equal to the sum of the magnitudes

of a and b .

Properties of Addition of Vectors

(i) Vector addition is communicative i.e. a + b = b + a for any two vectors a and b.

(ii) Vector addition is associative i.e, ( a + b ) + c = a + ( b + c ) for any three vectors a,

b, c.

(iii) for every vector a , we have a + 0 = a = 0 + a where 0 is the null vector

Subtraction of Vectors

B

b

a+ b

O A

a

a+ -b

(-b

)=

a- B'

b

If a and b are two vectors, then the subtraction of b from a is defined as the vector sum of

a and – b is denoted by a – b i.e a – b = a + (– b ).

Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar

Let m be a scalar and a be a vector ,then m a is defined as a vector having the same support

as that of a such that its magnitude is |m| times the magnitude of a and its direction is same as or

opposite to the direction of a according as m is positive or negative

Properties of multiplication of vectors by a Scalar

The following are properties of multiplication of vectors by scalars for vectors a , b and scalars

m, n we have

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(i) m(– a ) = (– m) a = – (m a )

(ii) (– m)(– a ) = m a

(iii) m(n a ) = (mn) a = n(m a )

(iv) (m + n) a = m a + n a

(v) m( a + b ) = m a + m b

Position Vector

If a point O is fixed as the origin in space and P is any point, then OP is called the position vector

of P with respect to O.

Internal Division

Let A and B be two points with position vectors a and b respectively and let C be a point dividing

AB internally in the ration m : n Then the position vector of C is given by

mb na

OC

mn

External Division

Let A and B be two points with position vectors a and b respectively and let C be a point dividing

AB externally in the ration m : n Then the position vector of C is given by

mb na

OC

mn

Position Vector of a Point in Space

Let o be the fixed point then position vector of point P is OP

y

p(x1,y1,z1)

x

z

OP x1 ˆi y1, ˆj z1, kˆ

x2 z2

y P(x1,y1,z1)

Q(x2,y2,z2)

x

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

PQ = Position vector Q -position vector of P

(x 2 ˆi y 2 ˆj z 2 k)

ˆ (x ˆi y ˆj z k)

1 1 1

ˆ

PQ (x 2 x1 ) ˆi (y 2 y1 )ˆj (z 2 z1 )kˆ

PQ | PQ | (x 2 x1 )2 (y 2 y1 )2 (z 2 z1 )2

Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar and Equality in terms of Components

for any vectors a a1 i a2 j a3 k and b b1 i b2 j b3 k

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ

(i) a b (a1 b1 ) ˆi (a 2 b2 )ˆj (a3 b3 )kˆ

(ii) a b (a1 b1 ) ˆi (a 2 b 2 )ˆj (a3 b3 )kˆ

(iii) ma (ma1 )iˆ (ma2 )ˆj (ma3 )k,

ˆ where m is a scalar

(iv) a b a1 b1,a 2 b2 and a3 b3

Linearly Independent Vectors

A Set of non-zero vectors a1, a 2 .......an is said to be linearly independent if

x1a1 x 2a 2 ...... x n xan 0 x1 x 2 .....x n 0

Linearly Dependent Vectors

A set of vectors a1, a 2 .......an is said to be linearly dependent if there exit scalars x1, x 2 ,....x n not

all zero such that

x1 a2 x 2a2 ....... x nan 0

Scalar or Dot Product

Let a and b be two non-zero vectors inclined at an angle the scalar product or dot product

of a and b is denoted by a . b and is defined as a.b | a | | b | cos

Properties of Scalar Product

(i) The scalar Product of two vector is commutative i.e a . b = b . a

(ii) The scalar product of vector is distributive over vector addition i.e.

a.(b c) a.b a.c

(iii) Let a and b be two non -zero vector. Then a.b 0 a b

(iv) For any vector a

a.a a2

(v) Multiplication of scalar quantity with dot product of two vectors

(a.b) ( a).b a( b)

(iv) for any two vector a and b we have

| a b |2 | a |2 | b |2 2ab

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Let a b be two vectors inclined at an angle then

a.b 1

a.b

cos cos

|a| |b| |a| |b|

Work Done by the Force

If a constant force F acting on a particle displaces it from Point A to B then work done by the force

W = F.D (where d = a b )

W = | F | | AB | cos

Vector or Cross Product

Let a and b be two vectors and be the angle between then cross product of a and b is

denoted by a × b and define as

a b | a | | b | sin nˆ

Properties of cross product

If a , b and c are any non-zero vector and m, n are scalar then

(i) a b b a and a b (b a)

(ii) ma b m (a b) a mb

(iii) ma nb mn (a b)

(iv) a (b c) a b a c

(v) a b 0 a || b

by definition we obtain

ˆi ˆi ˆj ˆj kˆ kˆ 0

ˆi ˆj k,

ˆ ˆj kˆ ˆi, kˆ ˆi ˆj

ˆj ˆi k,

ˆ kˆ ˆj ˆi, ˆi kˆ ˆj

Let a a1ˆi a 2 ˆj a 3kˆ and b b1ˆi b 2 ˆj b3kˆ be two vector then

ˆi ˆj kˆ

a b a1 a2 a3

b1 b2 b3

Lang-range’s Identity

If a , b are any two vectors then

(a b)2 | a |2 | b |2 (a.b)2

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Scalar triple product of three vectors a, b, c is defined as

[a, b, c] = a b.c = | a || b || c | sin cos

where is the angle between a and b

is the angle between ( a × b ) and c

Properties of scalar triple product

(i) (a b).c (b c).a (c a).b or [a b c] [b c a] [c a b]

(ii) (a b).c a.(b c)

(iii) [a b c] [b a c] [c a b] [a c b]

(iv) [ a b c] [a b c]

(v) a (b c) a b a c

Vector Triple Product

Let a, b, c be the three vector then the vectors a (b c) and (a b) c are called vector triple

product of a, b, c .

An important result on vector triple product

(i) a (b c) (a.c).b (a.b).c

(ii) [a b b c c a] [a b c]2

ˆ b 2iˆ 2ˆj 3kˆ and c 3iˆ ˆj 2kˆ

Ex. Find [a b c] , when a 3iˆ 2ˆj 4k,

3 2 4

Sol. [a b c] 2 2 4 3 (4 4) ( 2) (12 4) 4 ( 2 6) =0

3 1 2

ˆ

Ex. for any vector a, ˆi (a ˆi) ˆj (a ˆj) kˆ (a k) =

Sol Let a a1ˆi a 2 ˆj a 3kˆ

ˆ

Then, ˆi (a ˆi) ˆj (a ˆj) kˆ (a k)

ˆ ˆ a (kˆ .a)k}

ˆ

{(iˆ . ˆi)a (iˆ .a)i} {( ˆj. ˆj)a ( ˆj.a)ˆj} {(kˆ .k)

ˆ ˆ ˆi . ˆi ˆj. ˆj kˆ .kˆ 1

{a ( i .a)i} {a ( ˆj.a)ˆj} {a (kˆ .a)k}

ˆ

3a {(iˆ .a) ˆi ( ˆj.a) ˆj (kˆ .a)k}

3a (a1 ˆi a 2 ˆj a3 k)

ˆ ˆi .a a1, ˆj.a a2 and kˆ .a a3

3a a 2a

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

6. MATRICES

Matrices

A set of mn numbers (real and imaginary) arranged in the form of a rectangular array of m rows

and n columns is called an m x n matrix

An mxn matrix is usually written as

a11 a12 a13 ... a1j ... a1n

a ... a2n

21 a22 a23 ... a2j

A

ai1 ai2 ai3 ... aij ... ain

am1 am2 am3 ... amj ... amn

Types of Matrices

Row Matrix

A matrix having only one row is called a row-matrix or a row-vector.

For example,

A = [1 3 – 5 – 2 ] is row matrix of order 1 – 4.

Column matrix

A matrix having only one column is called a column matrix or a column vector

3

1 3

For example, A = and B = are column-matrices of order 3 × 1 and 4 × 1 respectively..

3

9

1

4

Square Matrix

A matrix in which the number of rows is equal to the number of columns say n, is called a square

matrix of order n.

3 1 1

For example, the matrix 3 5 8 is square matrix of order 3 in which the diagonal elements

1 7 3

are 3, – 5 and – 3.

Diagonal Matrix

A square matrix A [aij ] nxn is called a diagonal matrix if all the elements, except those in the

leading diagonal, are zero i.e.

aij = 0 for all i j

[d1, d2, ....., dn]

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Scalar Matrix

Identity or Unit Matrix

1 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 are identity matrices of order 2 and 3 respectively..

Ex. The matrices I2 = , I3 =

0 1

0 0 1

Null Matrix

A matrix whose all elements are zero is called a null matrix or a zero matrix

0 0 0

0 0

Ex. 0 0 , 0 0 0 are null matrices of order 2 × 2 and 2 × 3 respectively

0 0 0

A square matrix A = [aij ] is called an upper triangular matrix if aij = 0 for all i > j. Thus in an upper

triangular matrix, all elements below the main diagonal are zero.

1 2 4 8

0 5 1 8

Ex. A= is an upper triangular matrix

0 0 2 9

0 0 0 5

A square matrix A = [a ij ] is called a lower triangular matrix if a ij =0 for all i > j. Thus, in a lower

triangular matrix, all elements above the main diagonal are zero

2 0 0

Ex. A = 8 2 0 is a lower triangular matrix of order 3.

4 5 8

(i) Matrix addition is commutative

i.e., if A and B are two m x n matrices, then A + B = B + A.

(ii) Matrix addition is associative

i.e., If A,B,C are three matrices of the same order, then (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

The null matrix is the identity element for matrix addition, i.e. A + O = A = O + A

(iv) Existence of Inverse

For every matrix A [aij ] m x n there exists a matrix A [ aij ] m x n ,denoted by - A, such that.

A + (– A) = 0 = (– A) + A

(v) Cancellation laws hold good in case of addition of matrices

If A, B, C are matrices of the same order, then

A B A CB C (left cancellation law)

and BA CABC (right cancellation law)

Multiplication of A Matrix By A Scalar (Scalar Multiplication)

Let A = [aij ] be an mxn matrix and k be any number called a scalar then kA = [kaij ] mxn ,

1 3 5 3 9 15

2 3 8

Ex. If A = , then 3A = 6 9 24

1 4 1 3 12 3

If A [aij ] mxn B [bij ]m x n are two matrices and k , l are scalars, then

(i) k ( A+ B) = k A + k B

(ii) (k+l) A= k A +l A

(iii) (k l) A= k (l A) =l (k A)

(v) 1 A =A

(vi) (-1) A= -A

Subtraction of Matrices

Definition

For two matrices A and B of the same order, we define A – B = A + (– B)

3 2 1 3 5 2

Ex. If A = and B = , then

1 4 7 1 4 2

3 2 1 3 5 2 6 3 3

A B A ( B )

1 4 7 1 4 2 2 8 9

Properties of Matrix Multiplication

(i) Matrix multiplication is not commutative in general A B B A

(ii) Matrix multiplication is associative i.e (A B) C = A (B C) whenever both sides are defined

(iii) Matrix multiplication is distributive over matrix addition i.e

(a) A (B C) A B A C ,

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(v) The product of two matrices can be the null matrix while neither of them is the null matrix.

For example if

0 3 9 0 0 0

A= and B = AB =

0 0 0 0 0 0

while neither A nor B is the null matrix.

(vi) If A is m × n matrix and O is a null matrix, then

(i) A m x n on x p om x p (ii) op x m A m x n o p x n

i.e the product of the matrix with a null matrix is always a null matrix.

(vii) In the case of matrix multiplication if AB = O, then it does not necessarily imply that

BA = O.

0 1 1 0

Let A= and B

0 0 0 0

Then AB = O

1 0 0 1 0 1

But BA = O

0 0 0 0 0 0

Thus AB = O while BA O

Positive Integral Powers of a Square Matrix

Let A a be a square matrix Then we define :

(i) A1 A and

1 1 a 1 2 2 2

Ex. If A B and (A + B) = A + B find a and b

2 1 b 1

(A + B)A + (A + B)B = A2 + B2 (by distributive law)

A2 + BA + AB + B2 = A2 + B2 (by distributive law)

BA + AB = 0

a 1 1 1 1 1 a 1 0 0

b 1 2 1 2 1 b 1 0 0

a 2 a 1 a b 2 0 0

b 2 b 1 2a b 3 0 0

2a b 2 a 1 0 0

2a 2

b 4 0 0

2a – b + 2 = 0, – a + 1 = 0, 2a – 2 = 0 and – b + 4 = 0

a = 1, b = 4

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Transpose of A Matrix

such that

Thus, A T is obtained from A by changing its rows into columns and its columns into rows.

For example,

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 2 3 4

if A = 2 3 4 5 then AT =

3 4 5

3 4 5 6

4 5 6

Properties of Transpose

(i) (AT)T = A

(ii) (A + B)T = AT + BT, A and B being of the same order

(iii) (k A)T = k AT, k be any scalar (real or complex)

(iv) (AB)T = BT AT, A and B being conformable for the product A B

Note : Let A and B be symmetric matrices of the same order then

(i) A + B is a symmetric matrix

(ii) A B – B A is a skew-symmetric matrix

3 2 3

Ex. Express the matrix A = 4 5 3 as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix.

2 4 5

3 2 3 3 4 2

Sol. We have A = 4 5 3 A 2 5 4

T

2 4 5 3 3 5

3 2 3 3 4 2 6 6 5

So, A A 4 5 3 2 5 4 6 10 7

T

2 4 5 3 3 5 5 7 10

3 2 3 3 4 2 0 2 1

and, A A 4 5 3 2 5 4 2 0 1

T

2 4 5 3 3 5 1 1 0

3 3 5 / 2

1

Let

T

P (A A ) 3 5 7 / 2

2

5 / 2 7 / 2 5

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

0 1 1/ 2

1

and T

Q (A A ) 1 0 1/ 2

2

1/ 2 1/ 2 0

T

3 3 5 / 2 3 3 5 / 2

Then T

P 3 5

7 / 2 3 5 7 / 2 P

5 / 2 7 / 2 5 5 / 2 7 / 2 5

T

0 1 1 / 2 0 1 1/ 2 0 1 1/ 2

and T

Q 1

0 1 / 2 1 0

1/ 2 1 0 1/ 2 Q

1 / 2 1 / 2 0 1 / 2 1/ 2 0 1 / 2 1 / 2 0

3 3 5 / 2 0 1 1 / 2 3 2 3

PQ 3 5

7 / 2 1 0 1 / 2 4 5 3 A

5 / 2 7 / 2 5 1/ 2 1 / 2 0 2 4 5

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

7. DETERMINANTS

Every square matrix can be associated to an expression or a number which is known as its

determinant.

a11 a12 ... aij ... aln

a21 a22 ... a2 j ... a2n

det A or | A | or

ai1 ai2 ... aij ... ain

a ... amn

n1 an2 ... anj

Determinant of a square Matrix of order 2

a11 a12

If A is a square matrix of order 2, then the expression a111 a22 – a12 a21 is defined as

a21 a22

the determinant of A i.e.

a a12

| A | 11 a11 a22 a12 a21

a21 a22

3 2 4

Ex. If A = 1 2 1 is a square matrix of order 3 then

0 1 1

3 2 4

| A | = 1 2 1

0 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 2

( 1)11.3 ( 1)1 2 ( 2) ( 1)1 3 .4

1 1 0 1 0 1

= 3 (– 2 – 1) + 2(– 1 – 0) + 4(1 – 0) = – 9 – 2 + 4 = – 7

Singular Matrix

A singular matrix is a singular matrix if its determinant is zero. Otherwise, it is a non-singular

matrix

Properties of Determinants

(ii) Let A = [aij ] be a square matrix of order n ( 2) and let B be a matrix obtained from A

(iii) If any two rows (columns) of a square matrix A = [aij ] of order n 2 are same then its

s

determinant is zero. | A | 0

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

(v) The elements of a line are a linear combination of the others r3 = r1 + r2 then | A | = 0

2 3 2

Example, A 1 2 4 0

3 5 6

r3 = r1 + r2

(vi) Let A be a square matrix and B be a matrix obtained from A by adding to a row (column)

of a scalar multiple of another row (column) of A then | B | = | A |

2 0 0

Example, A 1 3 0 = 2 . 3 . 5 = 30

3 2 5

| AB | = | A | | B |

Ex. Evaluate the determinant

41 1 5

79 7 9

29 5 3

41 1 5

Sol. Let = 79 7 9 . Then applying C1 C1( 8) C3 ,we get

29 5 3

1 1 5

7 7 9 0

( C1 and C2 are the same)

5 5 3

1 w w2

w w2 1

2

w 1 w

1 w w2

Sol. Let = w w2 1 Then applying C1 C1 C2 C3 ,we get

2

w 1 w

1 w w2 w w2 0 w w2

w w2 1 w2 1 0 w2 1

2

(1 w w 2 0)

w 1 w 1 w 0 1 w

= 0

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Product of Determinants

a1 b1 c1 1 1 1

Let 1 a2 b2 c 2 and 2 2 2 2 be two determinants. Then ,

a3 b3 c3 3 3 3

a1 b1 c1 1 1 1

1 2 a 2 b2 c 2 2 2 2

a3 b3 c3 3 3 3

a2 1 b2 2 c 2 3 a2 1 b2 2 c 2 3 a2 1 b 2 2 c 2 3

a3 1 b3 2 c 3 3 a3 1 b3 2 c 3 3 a3 1 b3 2 c 3 3

Theorem 1

(Carmer’s rule) The solution of the system of simultaneous linear equations

a1 x + b1 y = c1

a2 x + b2 y = c2

is given by

D1 D

x = x y 2

D' D'

a1 b1 c b1

where D , D1 1

a2 b2 c 2 b2

a1 c1

and D2

a2 c2

provided that D 0.

Theorem 2

(Carmer’s rule) The solution of the system of linear equations

a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d1 ...(1)

a2 x + b2 y + c2 z = d2 ...(2)

a3 x + b3 y + c3 z = d3 ...(3)

D1 D D

is given by x , y 2 and z = 3 , where

D D D

a1 b1 c1 d1 b1 c1 a1 d1 c1 a1 b1 d1

D a2 b2 c 2 ,D1 d2 b2 c 2 ,D2 a2 d2 c 2 and D3 a2 b2 d2

a3 b3 c3 d3 b3 c 3 a3 d3 c 3 a3 b3 d3

provided that D 0

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

8. ELEMENTARY STATISTICS

Airthmetic Mean

If x1 x 2 ...... x n are n values of variable X, then the airthmetic mean of these values is given by

1 1 n

x x1 x 2 .......x n xi

n n i1

In case of a frequency distribution x i / fi ,i 1,2,.....,n where fi is the frequency of the variable x i is the

frequency of the variable x i ,

f1x1 f2 x 2 ......fn xn 1 n

x fi x i

f1 f2 ....... fn N i1

n

Where N f1 f2 ........ fn fi

i 1

Geometric Mean

Geometric mean of a set of n observations is the nth roots of their product.Thus, the geometric

mean G of n non-zero observations x1 x 2 ...... x n is.

G = (x1.x2.x3 .... xn)1/n ...(1)

1

log G log x1 log x 2 .... log xn

n

1 n

log G log xi

n i1

1 n

G antilog log xi

n i 1

n

f f f f 1/ n

G x1 1 , x 2 2 , x 3 3 .....xn n

, Where N = f

i 1

i

1

log G f1 log x1 f2 log x 2 ...... fn log xn

N

1 n

logG fi log xi

N i1

1 n

G = antilog fi log xi

N

i1

Harmonic Mean

Harmonic mean of a number of non-zero observations is the reciprocal of the AM of the reciprocals

of the given values.Thus, harmonic mean H of n non- zero observation x1, x2, ..... xn is

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

1

H n

...(1)

1 1

n i1 xi

In case of a frequency distribution xi/fi, i = 1, 2, ....., n

1

H n

...(2)

1 fi

n i1 xi

Statistics

Definition

Statistics is a field of mathematics that pertains to data analysis. Statistical method and equations

can be applied to a data set in order to analyze and interpret results, explain variations in the data.

For example, mean, mode, standard deviation of the mean, range, median

Mean

Let we have n observations x1 , x 2 , x 3 ....x n then the mean

x1 x2 x3 ....xn

x for ungrouped data

n

n

x i fi

ii

x n for discrete grouped data

fi

ii

Median

The median is the middle value of a set of data containing an odd number of value, or the average

of the two middle value of set of data with an even number of value .

th

n 1

When n is odd then term is median

2

th

n th n

1

2 2

When n is even then term is median

2

Mode

The mode of a set of data is the value which occurs frequently

Note

(i) The data is symmetric mode = median = mean

(ii) The data is not symmetric 2 mean + mode = 3 median

Range

It is the difference of the maximum value and the minimum value and co-efficient of range is

max m minm

Co-efficient of Range =

maxn minn

Mean deviation

It is the mean of the absolute value of deviation of all the value from the average value

n

( (x

1 1

i x) )

for ungrouped data

n

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

fi ( (x i x ) )

1 1

n for grouped data

fi

1 1

Variance

It is the average of the square of the deviation of all the value from the average value

n 2

x

i1

i x

2

var (x) =

n

Standard deviation

It is the square root of the variance.

S. D. = var (x)

Ex. Find the variance and standard deviation of the following 5, 6, 8,11, 13, 7,12

5+ 6+ 8+11+13 + 7+12

Sol. x

7

x9

n 2

x

1 1

i x 16+ 9+ 1+4+16 + 4+9

2

n 7

59

2 = 7

59

standard deviation = var(x)

7

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

9. PROBABILITY THEORY

Definition

It is the chance that something will happen. It is the measurement of degree of certainity and

uncertainity

Experiment

It is the operation which has some well defined output.

Random Experiment

An experiment is said to be random experiment if it satisfies the following conditions

(1) All the possible outcomes are known to us

(2) It may be repeated several no. of times

(3) Result of the experiment is not known in the advance

Sample Space

It is the set containing all possible outcomes of a random experiment

Ex. {H,T} (one coin)

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } (dice)

Sample Point

It is the element of the sample space of the random experiment

Event

It is the sub set of the sample space of the random experiment.

If a sample space is having ’n’ element then total number of possible events are 2n

Simple Event

If the sample space of an event contain single sample point then it is called a simple event.

Compound Event or Composite Event

If the event will have more than one sample point then it is called as compound event.

Mutually Exclusive Event

Two events are said to be mutually exclusive the occurrence of one restricts the occurrence of

another.

If E1 and E 2 are two mutually exclusive event then E1 E 2

Exhaustive Event

If the outcome of a random experiment is associated with at least one of the events E1 , E 2 , E 3 ... E n

such that E1 E 3 ........ E n =S

Then these events are called exhaustive events

Equally Likely Events

Events are said be equally likely events if they are not comparable

Ex. (1) Getting head and tail on a coin are equally likely events

(2) Getting any no. of on a die are equally likely events

Classical Definition of Probability

If a random experiment is having (m+n) outcomes which are equally likely and if ‘m’ outcomes

are in favour of event A and n outcomes are not in favour of A, then probability of event is given by

No. of element in favour of A

P(A)

Total no. of events

m

P(A)

mn

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Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

n (A)

o 1

n (s)

0 p (A) 1

P (A) P (A ') 1

Addition Rule in Probability

(i) If A and B are two events associated with a random experiment, then

P (A B) P (A) P (B) P (A B)

(ii) If A and B are mutually exclusive events then

P (A B) 0

P (A B) P(A) P(B)

(iii) If A, B, C are three events associates with a random experiment then

P (A B C) P (A) P (B) P (C) P (A B) P(B C) P (A C) P(A B C)

(iv) If A, B, C are mutually exclusive events then

P (A B) P(B C) P (A C) P(A B C) 0

(v) Let A and B be two events associated to a random experiment, then

(A) P (A B) P (B) P (A B)

(B) P (A B) P (A ) P (A B)

A B S

AB AB

AB

(vi) For any two events A and B

P (A B) P(A) P (A B) P(A) P(B)

(vii) For any two events A and B, prove that the probability that exactly one of A, B occurs is

given by

P(A) P(B) 2 P(A B) P (A B) P(A B)

(viii) P (A B) P (A B) 1 P(A B)

(ix) P (A B) P (A B)

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Case I : When events are independent

If A 1, A 2 ,............A n are independent events, then P ( A 1, A 2 ,............A n ) = P ( A 1 ) P ( A 2 ) ............P

( A n ) So if A and B are two independent events then happening of B will have no effect on A. so

P (A / B) = P(A) and P (B / A) = P (B) then

P (A B) P(A) P (B) P(AB) P(A). P (B)

Case II : When events are not independent

The probability of simultaneous happening of two events A and B is equal to the probability of A

multiplied by the conditional probability of B with respect to A (or probability of B multiplied by the

conditional probability of A with respect to B) i.e.

P (A B) P(A ) P (B / A ) or P(B) P (A / B)

or

P (AB) P(A) P (B / A) or P(B) P (A / B)

Probability of at least one of the n independent events

If P1,P2 ,P3 .........Pn are the probabilities of n independent events A 1, A 2 , A 3 ............A n then the rob

ability of happening of at least one of these event is 1 [(1 p1 ) (1 p2 ).......(1 pn )]

Conditional Probability

If A and B are dependent events, then the probability of B when A has happened is called

conditional probability of B with respect to A and it is denoted by P (B / A). It may be seen that

B P(AB)

P

A P(A)

Ex. Two dice are thrown. Describe the sample space of this experiment

Sol. S = { (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6),

(2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6),

(3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3), (3, 4), (3, 5), (3, 6),

(4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3), (4, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6),

(5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5), (5, 6),

(6, 1), (6, 2), (6, 3), (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6) }

Ex. Find the probability that a leap year selected at random, will contains 53 Sundays

Sol. Leap year = 366 days = 52 weeks and 2 days. Thus a leap year has always 52 Sundays. The

remaining 2 days can be :

(i) Sunday and Monday, (ii) Monday and Tuesday, (iii) Tuesday and Wednesday, (iv) Wednesday

and Thursday, (v) Thursday and Friday, (vi) Friday and Saturday, (vii) Saturday and Sunday

If S is the sample space associated with this experiment, then S consists of the above seven

points so, n (S) =7

Let A be the event that a leap year has 53 Sundays. In order that a leap year, selected at random,

should contain 53 Sundays, One of the ‘over’ days must be a Sunday. This can be in any one

of the following two ways.

(i) Sunday and Monday (ii) Saturday and Sunday

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

n (A) 2

Hence, required probability n (s) 7

Ex. Three dice are thrown together. Find the probability of getting a total of at least 6

Sol. Since one dice can be thrown in six ways to obtain any one of the six numbers marked on its

six faces. Therefore, if three dice are thrown, the total number of points in the sample space S

is 6 x 6 × 6 = 216

Let A be the event of getting a total of at least 6. Then A denotes the event of getting a total of

less than 6 i.e 3, 4, 5

n( A) 10

n (A) 10 10

So, P (A) P (A) 1 P(A)

n (s) 216 216

10 103

P(A) 1

216 108

Ex. A box contains 10 bulbs, of which just three are defective. If a random sample of five bulbs is

drawn, find the probabilities that the sample contains (i) exactly one defective bulb, (ii) exactly two

defective bulbs, (iii) no defective bulbs

10 10

Sol. Out of 10 bulbs 5 can be chosen in C5 ways . So, exhaustive number of cases = C5

(i) There are 3 defective and 7 non defective bulbs .The number of ways of selecting one

defective bulb out of 3 and 4 non-defective out of 7 is 3 C1 x 7C4

3

Favourable number of cases = C1 x 7C4

3

C1 x7C4 5

So, required probability 10 =

C5 12

(ii) The number of ways of selecting 2 defective bulbs out of 3 and 3 non-defective bulbs out

3

of 7 is C 2 x 7 C3 .

3

C 2 x 7 C3 5

So, required probability 10 =

C5 12

(iii) No defective bulbs means all non-defective bulbs. The number of ways of selecting all 5

non defec tive bulbs out of 7 is 7 C5

7

C5 1

So, required probability = 10 =

105 12

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