You are on page 1of 37

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Unit-1 Basic Mathematical Concepts

1. FUNCTION

Definition
If A and B two non-empty sets then a relation defined from A to B is said to be a function if every
element of A is associated with some unique element of set B
A f B A f B
a 1 a 1

b 2 b
2
c 3 c

d 4 d 3

(i) (ii)
Domain, Co-domain & Range
If y = f (x) is a function such that f is defined from A  B then
(1) Domain
Set A is called domain of f(x) and it is the set from which the independent variable ‘x’ takes its
values. The independent variables ‘x’ must be able to take each and every element of set A
(2) Co-domain
Set B is called co-domain of f(x) and it is the set from which the dependent variable y takes its
values the dependent variables ‘y’ cannot take its values outside the co-domain.
(3) Range
The set of values that ‘y’ actually takes for different values of ‘x’ is called range of f(x)
 Range is a subset of B
Range  co-domain
Some Important Definition
(i) One-One Mapping
A function f : x  Y is defined to be one-one (or injective). If the images of distinct elements of
X under f are distinct, i.e., for every x1, x2 X
F(x1) = F(x2)
 x1 = x2
(ii) Many-One Mapping
A function f : A  B is said to be many-one iff two or more different elements in A have same
f - image in B.
(iii) Onto Mapping
A function f : X  Y is said to be onto (or subjective), if every element of Y is the image of some
element of X under f i.e. for every y  Y, there exists an element x in X such that f(x) = y.
(iv) Into Mapping
The mapping f is said to be into iff there is at least one element in B which is not the f-image
of any element in A in this case f (A)  B. i.e. range of A is proper subset of B.
(V) Equal Function
Two function f and g are said to be equal, iff
(i) domain of f = domain of g
Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 1
Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

(ii) co-domain of f = Co-domain of g and

(iii) f(x) = g (x) for every x belonging to their common domain If two function f and g are equal
then we write f = g.
(Vi) Real Function
A function f : A  B is called a real valued function, if B is a subset of R. If A and B both are
subset of R, Them f is called a real function.
(vii) Periodic Function
If x  domain of function and x + T  D the if f(x) = f (x + T) then the function is said to be
periodic. Here T is a positive real no. independent of x. All the value of T which satisfies the equation.
Note
(A) Period of sinx, cosx, secx, cosecx = 2
(B) Period of tanx and cotx = 
(C) Period of sin2 x, cos2 x, sec2 x, tan2 x, cot2 x, cosec2 x = 
(D) sin x 2 , cos x 2 , sin x are not period function.
(viii) Inverse of A Function
Inverse of a function is defined if the function is bijective.
If y = f (x) : AB
-1
then f (y) = x : BA
Note : (i) Domain of the inverse is the range of function.
(ii) Range of the inverse is the domain of function.
(iii) If the function is increasing then its inverse will also be increasing and vice-versa.
Some Important Functions
(1) Constant Function
y = f(x) = c where c is some real constant is called a constant function
Y
Domain  x  R
f(x) = C
Range  {x}
(O, C) Co-domain
X
O

(2) Identify function

y = f( x) = x is called Identify function
Y
f(x) = x
Domain  x  R
Co-domain
X Range  R
O

(3) Greatest Integer Function [ ]

y = [x] is called greatest integer function of x and its value is equal to that greatest integer which
 x if x  I

is less than or equal to x and it can also be defined as y= [x] = an int eger just less then
 x if x  I

(4) Fractional part function { }
y = {x} is called fractional part function of x and it is defined as
{x} = x- [x]

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 2

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

2. MAXIMA AND MINIMA

Maximum
Let f(x) be a function with domain D  R .Then f(x) is said to attain the maximum value at point
a D if f(x)  f (a) for all x  D.
And a is called the point of maximum and f(a) is known as the maximum value or the greatest
value.
Consider the function
f(x)  (x  1)2  10 for all x  R
 =  (x  1)2  0 for all x  R
  (x  1)2  10  10 for all x  R
 f(x)  10 for all x  R
Thus, 10 is the maximum value of f(x). Clearly f(x) attains this value at = 1. So x = 1 is the
maximum or the point of absolute the maximum.
Minimum
Let f(x) be a function with domain D  R .Then f(x) is said to attain the minimum value at a point
a  D if f(x)  f(a) for all x  D .
The point a is called the point of minimum and f(a) is known as the minimum value or the least value.
Local Maximum
A function f(x) is said to be a local maximum at x = a if there exists a neighbourhood (a  , a  )
of a
s.t f(x) - f(a) < 0 for all x  (a  , a   ), x  a
f (a) is called the local maximum value of f(x) at x = a
Local Minimum
A function f(x) is said to attain a local minimum at x = a if there exits a neighbourhood (a  , a  )
of a
s.t f(x) - f(a) > 0 for all x  (a  , a   ), x  a
f (a) is called the local minimum value of f(x) at x = a
The points at which a function attain either the local maximum values or local minimum values
are known as the extreme points or turning points and both local maximum and local minimum values
are called file extreme value of f(x).
Working rule for finding maxima and minima
(A) First Derivative test for local maxima and minima
(i) If f’ (x) > 0 at x< a and f’(x) < o at x >a i.e the sign of f’(x) changes from +ve to-ve, then
f(x) has a local maximum at x = a

local maximum
local maximum
y = f(x)

local minimum

local minimum

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 3

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

(ii) If f’ (x) < 0 at x < a and f’ (x)>0 at x>a i.e the sign of f’(x) changes from -ve to + ve, then
f(x) has a local minimum at x = a
(B) Second derivative test
(i) If f” (a) < 0 and f’(a) =0, then ‘a’ is a point of local maximum.
(ii) If f’’ (a) > 0 and f’(a) = 0, then ‘a’ is a point of local minimum
(iii) If f” (a) = 0 and f’(a) =0 then further differentiate and obtain f’’’(a)
(iv) If’(a) = f” (a) = f””(a) =....... f n1  a and f n (a)  0
Inflection
Definition
A point of inflection is point at which a curve is changing concave upward to concave downward,
or nice versa
A curve y = f(x) has one of its points x = c as an inflection point
If f’’ (c) = 0 or is not defined and if’’ (x) changes sign as x increases through x = c
The later changes as x increases through x = c
The later condition may be replaced by f””(c)  0 when f””(c) exists
y
y = f(x)

f(c)

0 C x
Thus, x = c is point of inflection if f’’(c) = 0 and f’’’(c)  0
Properties of Maxima and Minima
(i) If f (x) is continuous function in its domain, then at least one maxima and one minima
must lie between two equal values of x.
(ii) Maxima and Minima occur alternately, that is, between two maxima there is one minimum
and vice-versa.
(iii) If f (x)   as x  a or b and f’(x) = 0 only for one value of x (say c) between a and b,
then f (c) is necessarily the minimum and the latest value.
(iv) If f (x)   as x  a or b, then f(c) is unnecessarily the maximum and the greatest value
Ex. Find all the points of local maxima and local minima of the function f(x)  x 3  6x 2  12x  8
Sol Let y = f(x)  x 3  6x 2  12x  8 .Then,
dy
 3x 2  12x  12  3(x  2)2
dx
For a local maximum or a local minimum, we have
dy
 0  (x  2)2  0  x  2
dx
To see whether x = 2 is a point of local maximum, let us take points in the left and right
neighbourhoods of x=2. We observe that
dy
 0 for all x in the left nbd of x = 2
dx
dy
and  0 for all x in the right nbd of x = 2
dx

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 4

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

dy
Thus does not change sign as increases through x = 2 Hence, x = 2 is neither a point of
dx
local maximum nor a point of local minimum. In fact, it is a point of inflexion
Ex. Find the maximum and minimum values of f (x) = 2x 3  24x  107 in the interval [1, 3].
Sol We have f (x) = 2x 3  24x  107  f ' (x)  6x 2  24
Now, f '(x)  0  6x 2  24  0  x   2
But x  2  [1,3].So x  2
Now, f (I)  2  24  107  85, f (2)  2 (2)3  24 (2)  107  75
and f(3) f(3)  2(3)3  24 x 3  107  89
Hence, the maximum value of f(x) is 89 which it attains at x = 3 and the minimum value is 75
which is attained at x = 2.
Ex. Find the maximum and minimum value of
1  
f (x)  sin x 
cos 2x in 0, 
2  2
1
Sol We have, f (x)  sin x  cos 2x.  f ' (x)  cos x  sin 2x
2
for stationary points, we have
1
f ' (x)  0  cos x  2 sin x cos x  0  cos x  0 or sin x 
2
   
x
2
and x 
6  0  x  2 
 
1 1   1  1 1 3
Now, f(0) = sin 00 
cos 00  ' f    sin  cos   
2 2 6 6 2 3 2 4 4
  1 1 1
and f    sin  cos   1  
2 2 2 2 2
3 1
of these values, the maximum values is and the minimum value is .Thus, the maximum and
4 2
3 1  
minimum values of f (x) are and respectively which it attains at x = and x = 0, x =
4 2 6 2
respectively.
Ex. The difference between the greatest and least values of the function f (x) = sin 2x – x on
  / 2,  / 2 is
Ans. 3.14
Sol We, have f’(x) = 2 cos 2x-1
1
 f '(x)  0  2 cos 2x  1  cos 2x 
2
 2x    / 3,  / 3  x   / 6,  / 6
Now f   / 2    / 2, f   / 2    / 2
3 
f   / 2    / 2 and f(  / 6)  
2 6

Clearly, is the greatest value of f (x) and its least value is  / 2 Hence, the required difference
2
is  / 2 Hence, the required difference is
 / 2  (  / 2)  

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 5

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

dy
Ex. The maximum value of is  0  6x 2  6x  12  0  x  2, 1
dx
(A) e (B) ee
1/ e
 1
(C) e 1/ e (D)  
e
Ans. (C)
x
 1
Sol. Let f(x) =   e x log x then,
x

x
 1
f '(x)     (log x  1)   x  x (log x  1) =0
x

 f '(x)  0   x x (logx  1)  0

Hence f (x) = e1 is maximum for x = e1 .The max.value is e1/e

Ex. The maximum slope of the curve y   x3  3x 2  2x  27 is
(A) 5 (B) –5

 1
(C) 5 (D) None of these
 
Ans. (A)
Sol We have y   x3  3x 2  2x  27

dy
   3x 2  6x  2
dx

dy
Let z   3x 2  6x  2.
dx

dz
Then  6x  6
dx

dz
for max or min z,   0  x 1
dx

d2 z
Now 60
dx 2
Thus z is max for x =1 and the max value of z is given by

z  3x3  6x  2 for x  1
i.e z  3  6  2 = 5

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 6

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

3 2
Ex. The Largest value of 2x  3x  12x  5 for 2  x  4 occurs at x =
(A) –2 (B) –1
(C) 2 (D) 4
Ans. (D)
Sol Let y = 2x 3  3x 2  12x  5

dy
 6x 2  6x  12
dx
For y to be maximum

dy
 0  6x 2  6x  12  0  x  2, 1
dx

d2 y d2 y
Now,  0  12x  6. For x  2,  24  6  0
dx 2 dx 2

d2 y
 12 x 1  6  0 for x  1
dx 2
Thus, y attains max, at x=-1 and min at x=2
Now, y  1 for x  2 , y  3 for x  1
y = -15 for x = 2 and y = 37 for x = 4.
Hence, y attains its largest value at = 4

x
Ex. In the interval [– 1, 1] the greatest value of f(x)  is
4  x  x2
(A) – 1/4 (B) – 1/3
(C) 1/6 (D) 1/5
Ans. (C)

Sol f’(x) 
 4  x  x  1  x 1  2x 
2
2
4  x  x 

4  x2
 0
4  x  x2
2
when x   1,1
 
 greatest value of f(x) = max. f(1), f( 1)

1 1
But f (1) = , f( 1)  
6 4
 greatest value =1/6

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 7

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

3. INTEGRALS

i. Definite Integral of a Function

Definition

d
If
dx
F(x)  f(x) and a,b are two given values of the independent variable x, then F(b) -F(a) is
called definite integral of f(x) in the interval (a,b); and it is expressed as
b
b
 f(x) dx  F(x)
a
a
 F(b)  F(a)

Also (a, b) is called integration interval and a, b are called lower and upper limits of integration
Properties of Definite integral
b b

a a

b a

a b

b c b

a a c

a a

(4)  f(x) dx   f(a  x) dx

0 0

a
0 , if f(  x)   f(x)
 a
(5)  f(x) dx  2 f(x) dx , if f(  x)  f(x)
a  
 0

/2
sin x cos x
Ex.  2
dx equals
0
cos x  3 cos x  2

Sol Put cos x = t, then

1 1
t dt t dt
I  2

0
t x  3 t  2 0  t  1 t  2 

1
 1 2 
    dt
0 t  1 t  2

1
=  2 log (t  2)  log(t  1)0

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 8

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

/2

0

/2

0
...(1)

/2

0

/2

 2I  log (sin x cos x) dx

0

/ 2
 sin 2x 
  log 
0 2 
 dx

/2

  log sin 2x dx  2 log 2
0

1 
 log sin t dt  log 2. where t  2x
2 0 2
/2
1  
2.  log sin t dt  2 log 2  I  2 log 2
2 0

 I  log 2
2
ii. Indefinite Integrals of a Function
The integral or Primitive of a function f(x) with respect to x is that function F(x) whose derivative
with respect to x is the given function f(x). It is expressed symbolically as

 f (x) dx  F(x)
d
Thus  f (x) dx  F(x)  dx F(x)  f(x)
Thus process of finding the integral of a function is called integration and the given function is
called integrand.
Basic theorems on integration
If f(x) , g(x) are two functions of a variable x and k is a constant then

(i)  kf (x) dx  k  f(x) dx

(ii)   f(x)  g(x) dx   f(x) dx   g (x) dx
d
(iii)
dx
  f(x)dx   f(x)
 d 
(iv)   dx f(x)  dx  f(x)

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 9

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Some Standard forms of Integrals

The following three forms are very useful to write integral directly
n 1
n  f(x)  c (Provided n  1 )
   f  x  f '(x) dx 
n 1
f '(x)
  f(x) dx  log f(x)  c
f '(x)
  dx  2 f(x)  c
f(x)

 cf (x) dx  c  f(x) dx, c is a constant

 f (x)  g (x) dx   f(x) dx,   g (x) dx
b
 f (x) dx  F(x) |ba  F(b)  F(a) where F (x)   f(x) dx
a

b b
a cf (x) dx  c a f(x) dx, c is a constant
b b b
 f (x)  g(x) dx   f(x) dx   g (x) dx
a a a

a
 f (x) dx  0
a

b a
 f(x)  g(x) dx   f(x)  g(x) dx
a b

b c b
 f(x) dx   f(x) dx   f(x) dx
a a c

b
 cdx  c (b  a)
a

b b
If  f (x)  g (x) on a  x  b then 
a
f(x) dx   g (x) dx
a

Common Integrals
Polynomials

 dx  x  c  k dx  kx  c
n 1 n1 1
x dx 
n 1
x  c,n  1  x dx  In | x | c
n 1
x
1
dx  In | x | c x dx  x n 1  c,n  1
n  1

p p pq
q 1 1 q
1 1  x dx  xq  c  x q
c
p pq
 ax  b dx  a In | ax  b | c 1
q

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 10

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Trig Functions

 cos u du  sin u  c
 sin u du   cos u  c
2
 sec u du  tan u  c
 sec u tan u du  sec u  c
 cosec ucot udu  cosec u  c
2
 cosec udu   cot u  c
 tan u du  In | sec u |  c
 cot u du  In | sin u | c
 sec u du  In | sec u  tan u | c
3 1
 sec u du 
2
 sec u tan u  In | sec u  tan u |  c
 cosec u du  In| cosecu  cot u| c
1 3
 cosec 2
udu 
 cosecucot u  In|cosec u  cot u|  c
Exponential /Logarithm Functions
n
e du  e2  c

n an
 a du  In a
c

 In u du  u In (u)  u  c
au eau
 e sin (bu) du  a2  b2
 a sin (bu)  b cos (bu)  c
u
 ue du  (u  1)en  c

au eau
 e cos (bu) du  a2  b2
 a cos (bu)  b sin (bu)   c
1
 uln u du  In | In u | c
Inverse Trig Function
1 u
du  sin1    c 1
u du  u sin1 u  1  u2  c
 a n2
a
2  sin
1 1 u 1
a 22
du  tan1    c  tan
1
u du  u tan1 u  In 1  u2  c
 
u a a 2
1 1 1  u 
 u u2  a2 du  a sec  a   c  cos
1
u du  u cos1 u  1  a2  c

Standard Integration Techniques

u Substitution
b
Given  f  g(x) g'(x) dx then
a
the substitution u = g (x) will convert this into the integral
b g(b)
 f  g(x) g'(x) dx   f(u) du
a g(a)

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 11

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Integration by Parts
The standard formulas for integration by parts are
b b
 udv  uv   vdu  udv  [uv]ba   vdu
a a

Choose u and dv and then compute du by differentiating u and compute v by using the fact that
v =  dv
Trig Substitutions
If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and formula.
a
a2  b2 x 2  x sin  and cos2   1  sin2 
b
a
a2  b2 x 2  x  tan  and sec 2   1  tan2 
b
a
b2 x 2  a 2  x  sec  and tan2   sec 2   1
b
Partial Fractions
P(x)
If integrating  Q(x) dx where the degree (largest exponent ) of P(x) is smaller than the degree
of Q (x) then factor the denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction decomposition
of the rational expression. Integrate the partial fraction decomposition (P.F.D). For each factor in the
denominator we get terms (s) in the decomposition according to the following table.

Factor in Q (x) Terms in P.F.D Factor in Q(x) Term In P.F.D

A A1 A2 Ak
ax  b (ax  b)k  2
 .....  k
ax  b ax  b  ax  b   ax  b 
Ax  B A 1x  B1 A k x  Bk
ax 2  bx  c 2
(ax 2  bx  c)k 2
 ......  k
ax  bx  c ax  bx  c ax 2  bx  c
 
Products and (Some) Quotients of Trig Functions
n
 sin cosm xdx

1. If n is odd. Strip one sin out and convert the remaining sin to cos using sin2 x  1  cos2 x ,
then use the substitution u = cos x
2. if m is odd. Strip one cosine out convert the remaining cosines to sines using
cos2 x  1  sin2 x then use the substitution u = sin x
3. If n and m are both odd. Use either 1. or 2.
. 4. If n and m are both even. Use double angle formula for sine and / or half angle formulas
to reduce the integral into a form that can be integrated.

2 x 1  cos x 1
Ex.  cos 2
dx =  2
dx = (x  sin)  c
2
2
Ex.  x cos x dx
1
Let x 2  t  xdx  dt
2
1 1
I  cos t   sin x2  c
2 2

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 12

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

4. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Differential Equation
Definition
An equation containing the derivatives of one more dependent variables, with respect to one of
more independent variables is said to be differential equation.
or
A differential equation is an equation relating some function f to one or more of its derivatives.
Order of Differential Equation
The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest order derivative appearing in the
equation. For example

dy d2 y dx
(1)  sin x (2) 2
5  6y  x 2
dx dx dy

Degree of Differential Equation

The degree of differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative when differential
coefficient are free from radical and fraction
Linear and Non linear Differential Equation
A differential equation is a linear differential equation if it is expressible in the form

dn y dn1y dn 2 y dy
Po n
 P1 n 1
 P2 n2
 .....  Pn 1  Pn y  Q
dx dx dx dx

Where Po ,P1,P2 ......,Pn 1,Pn and Q are either constants or functions of independent variable x
The above definition that a differential equation will be non-linear differential equation if
(i) Its degree is more than one
(ii) any of the differential coefficient has exponent more than one
(iii) exponent of the dependent variable is more than one
(iv) Products containing dependent variables and its differential coefficient are present.
Formation of Differential Equation
(i) Write down the equation
(ii) Obtain the number of arbitrary constants in step (i). Let there be n arbitrary constants
(iii) Differentiate the relation in step (i) n times with respect to x
(iv) Hence on eliminating arbitrary constants results a differential equation which involves

dx d2 y
x, y , dy , dx 2
Methods of Solving a first order first degree Differential Equation

dy
Differential Equation of the Type = f (x)
dx
To solve this type of differential equations we integrate both sides to obtain the general solution
as discussed below:

dy
 f (x)  dy  f(x) dx
dx

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 13

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Integrating both sides, we obtain

 dy   f (x) dx  c

y  {f (x) dx  c]

dy
Differential Equation of the Type = f (y)
dx
To solve this type of differential equations we integrate both sides to obtain the general solution
as discussed below

dy
= f (y)
dx

1
 = f(y) dy

Integrating both sides, we obtain

1 1
 dx   dy  c or, x   dy  c
f (y) f (y)

Homogeneous Differential Equations

Definition
A function f (x, y) is called a homogenous function of degree n if

f (x, y)  n f (x,y)

Solution
i Put the differential equation in the form

dy (x, y)
= (x, y)
dx

dy dv
ii Put y = v x and =v+x in the equation in step I and cancel out x from the right
dx dx
hand side. The equation reduce to the form

dv
v + x = F (v)
dx
iii Shift v on R.H.S and separate the variables v and x
iv Integrate both sides to obtain the solution in terms of v and x

y
v Replace v by in the solution obtained in step iv to obtain the solution in terms of x and y..
x
Linear Differential Equations
A differential equations is linear if the dependent variable (y) and its derivative appear only in first
degree. The general form of a linear differential equation of the first order is

dy
+ py = Q
dx
where P and Q are function of x or constant

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 14

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Solution

dy
i Write the differential equation in the form + Py = Q and obtain P and Q
dx

ii Find integrating factor (I.F.) given by I.F. = e  Pdx

iii Multiply both sides of equation in Step i by I.F
iv Integrate both sides of the equation obtained in step iii w.r.t. x to obtain
y (I.F.) =  Q (I.F.) dx +C
This gives the required solution
Example

dy
Solve  sec y
dx

dy
We have  sec y
dx

dx
 cos y
dy

dx  cosydy
Integrating both sides , we obtain

 dx   cos y dy

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 15

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

5. VECTORS

Definition
Those quantities which have magnitude and direction in space are called scalar quantities.

Vectors are represented by directed line segments say AB , A is called initial point and B is called
terminal point.
   
Vector are generally denoted by a, b, c etc. Magnitude of AB is length of line Segment AB
   
a  a1 i  a2 j  a3 k
Types of Vectors
Zero or Null Vector
A Vector whose initial and terminal points are coincident is called the zero or The null vector. The

null vector is denoted by 0 .
Vectors other than the null vector are called proper vectors.
Unit Vector
A vector whose modulus is unity, is called a unit vector. The unit vector in the direction of a

a vector is denoted by â read ‘a cap’,Thus, | aˆ | 1 .
Like and Unlike Vectors
Vectors are said to be like when they have the same sense of direction and unlike when they have
opposite directions.
Collinear or Parallel Vectors
Vectors having the same or parallel supports are called collinear vectors.
Co-initial Vectors
Vectors having the same initial point are called co-initial vectors
Co-Planar Vectors
A system of vectors is said to be coplanar, if their supports are parallel to the same plane
Note that two vectors are always coplanar
Coterminous Vectors
Vectors having the same terminal point are called conterminous vectors
Negative of a Vector

The vector which has the same magnitude as the vector a but opposite direction, is called the
 
negative of a and is denoted by : a
   
Thus, if PQ  a then QP  a
Reciprocal of a vector

A vector having the same direction as that of a given vector a but magnitude equal to the
 
reciprocal of the given vector is known as the reciprocal of a and is denoted by a1 .
  1
| a |  a, | a 1 | 
Thus if
a
Localized and Free Vectors
A vector which is drawn parallel to a given vector through a specified point in space is called a
localized vector

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 16

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Parallelogram Law of Addition of Vectors

 
If two vector a and b are represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of

a parallelogram, then their sum c is represented by the diagonal of the parallelogram which is co-initial
with the given vectors

Q R

b
b a+ b

O a P
     
we have OP  OQ  OR or a  b  c
     
From fig. We have, PR  OQ  b Therefore, in triangle OPR, OP  PR  OR .This is called the
triangle law of addition of vectors.
 
Note : It should be noted that the magnitude of a + b is not equal to the sum of the magnitudes
 
of a and b .
Properties of Addition of Vectors
     
(i) Vector addition is communicative i.e. a + b = b + a for any two vectors a and b.
      
(ii) Vector addition is associative i.e, ( a + b ) + c = a + ( b + c ) for any three vectors a,
 
b, c.
      
(iii) for every vector a , we have a + 0 = a = 0 + a where 0 is the null vector
Subtraction of Vectors

B
b
a+ b

O A
a
a+ -b
(-b
)=
a- B'
b
   
If a and b are two vectors, then the subtraction of b from a is defined as the vector sum of
       
a and – b is denoted by a – b i.e a – b = a + (– b ).
Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
 
Let m be a scalar and a be a vector ,then m a is defined as a vector having the same support
 
as that of a such that its magnitude is |m| times the magnitude of a and its direction is same as or

opposite to the direction of a according as m is positive or negative
Properties of multiplication of vectors by a Scalar
 
The following are properties of multiplication of vectors by scalars for vectors a , b and scalars
m, n we have

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 17

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

  
(i) m(– a ) = (– m) a = – (m a )
 
(ii) (– m)(– a ) = m a
  
(iii) m(n a ) = (mn) a = n(m a )
  
(iv) (m + n) a = m a + n a
   
(v) m( a + b ) = m a + m b
Position Vector

If a point O is fixed as the origin in space and P is any point, then OP is called the position vector
of P with respect to O.
Internal Division
 
Let A and B be two points with position vectors a and b respectively and let C be a point dividing
AB internally in the ration m : n Then the position vector of C is given by

 mb  na
OC
mn
External Division
 
Let A and B be two points with position vectors a and b respectively and let C be a point dividing
AB externally in the ration m : n Then the position vector of C is given by

 mb  na
OC
mn
Position Vector of a Point in Space
Let o be the fixed point then position vector of point P is OP
y
p(x1,y1,z1)

x

z

OP  x1 ˆi  y1, ˆj  z1, kˆ

x2  z2

y P(x1,y1,z1)

Q(x2,y2,z2)

x

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 18

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Let P (x1, y1, z1 ) Q (x 2, y 2, z 2 ) be two point then


PQ = Position vector Q -position vector of P

 (x 2 ˆi  y 2 ˆj  z 2 k)
ˆ  (x ˆi  y ˆj  z k)
1 1 1
ˆ

PQ  (x 2  x1 ) ˆi  (y 2  y1 )ˆj  (z 2  z1 )kˆ

 PQ | PQ | (x 2  x1 )2  (y 2  y1 )2 (z 2  z1 )2
Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar and Equality in terms of Components
 
for any vectors a  a1 i  a2 j  a3 k and b  b1 i  b2 j  b3 k
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ

 
(i) a  b  (a1  b1 ) ˆi  (a 2  b2 )ˆj  (a3  b3 )kˆ
 
(ii) a  b  (a1  b1 ) ˆi  (a 2  b 2 )ˆj  (a3  b3 )kˆ

(iii) ma  (ma1 )iˆ  (ma2 )ˆj  (ma3 )k,
ˆ where m is a scalar

 
(iv) a  b  a1  b1,a 2  b2 and a3  b3
Linearly Independent Vectors
  
A Set of non-zero vectors a1, a 2 .......an is said to be linearly independent if
  
x1a1  x 2a 2  ......  x n xan  0  x1  x 2  .....x n  0
Linearly Dependent Vectors
  
A set of vectors a1, a 2 .......an is said to be linearly dependent if there exit scalars x1, x 2 ,....x n not
all zero such that
 
x1 a2  x 2a2  .......  x nan  0
Scalar or Dot Product
 
Let a and b be two non-zero vectors inclined at an angle  the scalar product or dot product
      
of a and b is denoted by a . b and is defined as a.b | a | | b | cos 
Properties of Scalar Product
   
(i) The scalar Product of two vector is commutative i.e a . b = b . a
(ii) The scalar product of vector is distributive over vector addition i.e.
    
a.(b  c)  a.b  a.c
    
(iii) Let a and b be two non -zero vector. Then a.b  0  a  b

(iv) For any vector a
 
a.a  a2
(v) Multiplication of scalar quantity with dot product of two vectors
    
(a.b)  ( a).b  a( b)
 
(iv) for any two vector a and b we have
    
| a  b |2 | a |2  | b |2 2ab

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 19

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Angel Between Two Vectors

 
Let a b be two vectors inclined at an angle  then
 
a.b 1
 a.b 
cos        cos    
|a| |b| |a| |b| 
Work Done by the Force

If a constant force F acting on a particle displaces it from Point A to B then work done by the force
  
W = F.D (where d = a b )
 
W = | F | | AB | cos 
Vector or Cross Product
   
Let a and b be two vectors and  be the angle between then cross product of a and b is
 
denoted by a × b and define as
   
a  b | a | | b | sin  nˆ
Properties of cross product
  
If a , b and c are any non-zero vector and m, n are scalar then
       
(i) a  b  b  a and a  b  (b  a)
    
(ii) ma  b  m (a  b)  a  mb
   
(iii) ma  nb  mn (a  b)
      
(iv) a  (b  c)  a  b  a  c
   
(v) a  b  0  a || b

(vi) Vector product of orthonormal triad of unit vector ˆi, ˆj, kˆ

by definition we obtain
ˆi  ˆi  ˆj  ˆj  kˆ  kˆ  0

ˆi  ˆj  k,
ˆ ˆj  kˆ  ˆi, kˆ  ˆi  ˆj

ˆj  ˆi   k,
ˆ kˆ  ˆj   ˆi, ˆi  kˆ   ˆj

Vector product in terms of components

 
Let a  a1ˆi  a 2 ˆj  a 3kˆ and b  b1ˆi  b 2 ˆj  b3kˆ be two vector then

ˆi ˆj kˆ
 
a  b  a1 a2 a3
b1 b2 b3
Lang-range’s Identity
 
If a , b are any two vectors then
    
(a  b)2 | a |2 | b |2 (a.b)2

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 20

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Scalar Triple product

  
Scalar triple product of three vectors a, b, c is defined as
       
[a, b, c] = a  b.c = | a || b || c | sin  cos 
 
where  is the angle between a and b
  
 is the angle between ( a × b ) and c
Properties of scalar triple product
                 
(i) (a  b).c  (b  c).a  (c  a).b or [a b c]  [b c a]  [c a b]
     
(ii) (a  b).c  a.(b  c)
           
(iii) [a b c]  [b a c]  [c a b]  [a c b]
     
(iv) [ a b c]  [a b c]
     
(v) a  (b  c)  a  b  a  c
Vector Triple Product
       
Let a, b, c be the three vector then the vectors a  (b  c) and (a  b)  c are called vector triple
  
product of a, b, c .
An important result on vector triple product
    
(i) a  (b  c)  (a.c).b  (a.b).c
        
(ii) [a  b b  c c  a]  [a b c]2
  
ˆ b  2iˆ  2ˆj  3kˆ and c  3iˆ  ˆj  2kˆ
Ex. Find [a b c] , when a  3iˆ  2ˆj  4k,

3 2 4
  
Sol. [a b c] 2 2 4  3 (4  4)  ( 2) (12  4)  4 ( 2  6) =0
3 1 2

    ˆ
Ex. for any vector a, ˆi  (a  ˆi)  ˆj  (a  ˆj)  kˆ  (a  k) =

Sol Let a  a1ˆi  a 2 ˆj  a 3kˆ
   ˆ
Then, ˆi  (a  ˆi)  ˆj  (a  ˆj)  kˆ  (a  k)
  ˆ   ˆ a  (kˆ .a)k}
 ˆ
 {(iˆ . ˆi)a  (iˆ .a)i}  {( ˆj. ˆj)a  ( ˆj.a)ˆj}  {(kˆ .k)

   ˆ     ˆ  ˆi . ˆi  ˆj. ˆj  kˆ .kˆ  1
 {a  ( i .a)i}  {a  ( ˆj.a)ˆj}  {a  (kˆ .a)k}  
    ˆ
 3a  {(iˆ .a) ˆi  ( ˆj.a) ˆj  (kˆ .a)k}

   
 3a  (a1 ˆi  a 2 ˆj  a3 k)
ˆ  ˆi .a  a1, ˆj.a  a2 and kˆ .a  a3 
 
  
 3a  a  2a

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 21

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

6. MATRICES

Matrices
A set of mn numbers (real and imaginary) arranged in the form of a rectangular array of m rows
and n columns is called an m x n matrix
An mxn matrix is usually written as
 a11 a12 a13 ... a1j ... a1n 
a ... a2n 
 21 a22 a23 ... a2j
      
A 
 ai1 ai2 ai3 ... aij ... ain 
      
 
am1 am2 am3 ... amj ... amn 

In compact form the above matrix is represented by A  [aij ] m x n or A  [aij ]

Types of Matrices
Row Matrix
A matrix having only one row is called a row-matrix or a row-vector.
For example,
A = [1 3 – 5 – 2 ] is row matrix of order 1 – 4.
Column matrix
A matrix having only one column is called a column matrix or a column vector

3 
1 3 
 
For example, A =   and B =   are column-matrices of order 3 × 1 and 4 × 1 respectively..
3
9 
 1  
4

Square Matrix
A matrix in which the number of rows is equal to the number of columns say n, is called a square
matrix of order n.

3 1 1
For example, the matrix 3 5 8  is square matrix of order 3 in which the diagonal elements
 1 7 3 

are 3, – 5 and – 3.
Diagonal Matrix

A square matrix A  [aij ] nxn is called a diagonal matrix if all the elements, except those in the
leading diagonal, are zero i.e.
aij = 0 for all i  j

A diagonal matrix of order n x n having d1 , d2 ....., dn as diagonal elements is denoted by diagram

[d1, d2, ....., dn]

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 22

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Scalar Matrix

(ii) aii = C for all i, where C  0.

Identity or Unit Matrix

(ii) a ii = 1 for all i

1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0  are identity matrices of order 2 and 3 respectively..
Ex. The matrices I2 =   , I3 =
0 1   
0 0 1

Null Matrix
A matrix whose all elements are zero is called a null matrix or a zero matrix

0 0 0 
0 0   
Ex. 0 0  , 0 0 0  are null matrices of order 2 × 2 and 2 × 3 respectively
  0 0 0 
 

Upper Triangular Matrix

A square matrix A = [aij ] is called an upper triangular matrix if aij = 0 for all i > j. Thus in an upper
triangular matrix, all elements below the main diagonal are zero.

1 2 4 8
0 5 1 8 
Ex. A=  is an upper triangular matrix
0 0 2 9
 
0 0 0 5

Lower Triangular Matrix

A square matrix A = [a ij ] is called a lower triangular matrix if a ij =0 for all i > j. Thus, in a lower
triangular matrix, all elements above the main diagonal are zero

2 0 0
Ex. A = 8 2 0  is a lower triangular matrix of order 3.
 4 5 8 

Properties of Matrix Addition

(i) Matrix addition is commutative
i.e., if A and B are two m x n matrices, then A + B = B + A.
(ii) Matrix addition is associative
i.e., If A,B,C are three matrices of the same order, then (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 23

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

(iii) Existence of Identity

The null matrix is the identity element for matrix addition, i.e. A + O = A = O + A
(iv) Existence of Inverse

For every matrix A  [aij ] m x n there exists a matrix A  [ aij ] m x n ,denoted by - A, such that.
A + (– A) = 0 = (– A) + A
(v) Cancellation laws hold good in case of addition of matrices
If A, B, C are matrices of the same order, then
A B  A CB C (left cancellation law)
and BA CABC (right cancellation law)
Multiplication of A Matrix By A Scalar (Scalar Multiplication)

Let A = [aij ] be an mxn matrix and k be any number called a scalar then kA = [kaij ] mxn ,

1 3 5  3 9 15 
 2 3 8   
Ex. If A =   , then 3A =  6 9 24 
 1 4 1  3 12 3 

Properties of scalar Multiplication

If A  [aij ] mxn B  [bij ]m x n are two matrices and k , l are scalars, then

(i) k ( A+ B) = k A + k B

(ii) (k+l) A= k A +l A

(iii) (k l) A= k (l A) =l (k A)

(iv) (-k) A= -(k A) = k (-A)

(v) 1 A =A
(vi) (-1) A= -A
Subtraction of Matrices
Definition
For two matrices A and B of the same order, we define A – B = A + (– B)

 3 2 1   3 5 2 
Ex. If A =   and B =   , then
 1 4 7    1 4 2 

  3 2 1    3  5 2   6 3 3 
A  B  A  ( B )     
 1  4 7   1  4 2   2 8 9 
Properties of Matrix Multiplication
(i) Matrix multiplication is not commutative in general A B  B A
(ii) Matrix multiplication is associative i.e (A B) C = A (B C) whenever both sides are defined
(iii) Matrix multiplication is distributive over matrix addition i.e
(a) A (B  C)  A B  A C ,

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 24

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

(iv) If A is an m x n matrix, then lm A  A  A ln

(v) The product of two matrices can be the null matrix while neither of them is the null matrix.
For example if

0 3  9 0  0 0 
A=   and B =   AB =  
0 0  0 0  0 0 
while neither A nor B is the null matrix.
(vi) If A is m × n matrix and O is a null matrix, then

(i) A m x n on x p  om x p (ii) op x m A m x n  o p x n

i.e the product of the matrix with a null matrix is always a null matrix.
(vii) In the case of matrix multiplication if AB = O, then it does not necessarily imply that
BA = O.

0 1  1 0
Let A=   and B  
0 0  0 0 
Then AB = O

 1 0   0 1  0 1 
But BA =     O
0 0  0 0   0 0 
Thus AB = O while BA  O
Positive Integral Powers of a Square Matrix
Let A a be a square matrix Then we define :
(i) A1 A and

(ii) A n1 A n A , where n  N

 1 1 a 1  2 2 2
Ex. If A    B  and (A + B) = A + B find a and b
 2  1  b  1

Sol. We have (A + B)2 = A2 + B2 (A+B) (A+B) = A 2  B2

 (A + B)A + (A + B)B = A2 + B2 (by distributive law)
 A2 + BA + AB + B2 = A2 + B2 (by distributive law)
 BA + AB = 0

a 1   1 1  1 1 a 1  0 0 
 b 1  2 1   2 1 b 1  0 0 
        

a  2 a  1  a b 2  0 0 
b  2 b  1   2a b 3   0 0 
     

 2a  b  2 a  1   0 0 
  2a  2 
 b  4  0 0 

 2a – b + 2 = 0, – a + 1 = 0, 2a – 2 = 0 and – b + 4 = 0
 a = 1, b = 4

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 25

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Transpose of A Matrix

such that

(A T )ij  aij for all i  1,2..........m ; j  1,2,....,n.

Thus, A T is obtained from A by changing its rows into columns and its columns into rows.
For example,

1 2 3
1 2 3 4 2 3 4 
if A = 2 3 4 5  then AT = 
3 4 5
3 4 5 6   
 4 5 6 

Properties of Transpose
(i) (AT)T = A
(ii) (A + B)T = AT + BT, A and B being of the same order
(iii) (k A)T = k AT, k be any scalar (real or complex)
(iv) (AB)T = BT AT, A and B being conformable for the product A B
Note : Let A and B be symmetric matrices of the same order then
(i) A + B is a symmetric matrix
(ii) A B – B A is a skew-symmetric matrix

3 2 3 
 
Ex. Express the matrix A =  4 5 3  as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix.
 2 4 5 

3 2 3 3 4 2 
Sol. We have A =  4 5 3   A   2 5 4 
  T

 2 4 5  3 3 5 

 3 2 3  3 4 2   6 6 5 
So, A  A   4 5 3    2 5 4    6 10 7 
T

 2 4 5  3 3 5  5 7 10 

 3 2 3  3 4 2   0 2 1 
and, A  A   4 5 3    2 5 4    2 0 1
T

 2 4 5  3 3 5   1 1 0 

 3 3 5 / 2
1 
Let
T
P  (A  A )   3 5 7 / 2 
2
5 / 2 7 / 2 5 

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 26

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

 0 1 1/ 2 
1 
and T
Q  (A  A )   1 0 1/ 2 
2
 1/ 2 1/ 2 0 

T
 3 3 5 / 2  3 3 5 / 2
Then T 
P  3 5  
7 / 2   3 5 7 / 2   P
5 / 2 7 / 2 5  5 / 2 7 / 2 5 

T
 0 1 1 / 2   0 1 1/ 2   0 1 1/ 2 
and T 
Q   1  
0 1 / 2   1 0  
1/ 2     1 0 1/ 2   Q
 1 / 2 1 / 2 0  1 / 2 1/ 2 0   1 / 2 1 / 2 0 

Thus P is symmetric and Q is skew-symmetric Also

 3 3 5 / 2  0 1 1 / 2   3 2 3 

PQ  3 5  
7 / 2   1 0 1 / 2    4 5 3   A
5 / 2 7 / 2 5   1/ 2 1 / 2 0   2 4 5 

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 27

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

7. DETERMINANTS

Every square matrix can be associated to an expression or a number which is known as its
determinant.
 a11 a12 ... aij ... aln 
 
a21 a22 ... a2 j ... a2n 
   
det A or | A | or  
 ai1 ai2 ... aij ... ain 
 
   
a ... amn 
 n1 an2 ... anj
Determinant of a square Matrix of order 2

 a11 a12 
If A    is a square matrix of order 2, then the expression a111 a22 – a12 a21 is defined as
a21 a22 
the determinant of A i.e.
a a12 
| A |   11   a11 a22  a12 a21
a21 a22 

 3 2 4 
 
Ex. If A =  1 2 1  is a square matrix of order 3 then
0 1 1

 3 2 4 
 
| A | = 1 2 1 
0 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 2
 ( 1)11.3  ( 1)1 2 ( 2)  ( 1)1 3 .4
1 1 0 1 0 1

= 3 (– 2 – 1) + 2(– 1 – 0) + 4(1 – 0) = – 9 – 2 + 4 = – 7
Singular Matrix
A singular matrix is a singular matrix if its determinant is zero. Otherwise, it is a non-singular
matrix
Properties of Determinants

(i) Let A = [aij ] be a square matrix of order n then A  AT

(ii) Let A = [aij ] be a square matrix of order n (  2) and let B be a matrix obtained from A

by interchanging any two rows (columns) of A, then B   A

(iii) If any two rows (columns) of a square matrix A = [aij ] of order n  2 are same then its
s
determinant is zero. | A |  0

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 28

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

(v) The elements of a line are a linear combination of the others r3 = r1 + r2 then | A | = 0
2 3 2
Example, A  1 2 4 0
3 5 6

r3 = r1 + r2
(vi) Let A be a square matrix and B be a matrix obtained from A by adding to a row (column)
of a scalar multiple of another row (column) of A then | B | = | A |

(vii) If A = [aij ] is a diagonal matrix of order ( 2) then | A | = Product of diagonal element.

2 0 0
Example, A  1 3 0 = 2 . 3 . 5 = 30
3 2 5

(vii) If A and b are square matrices of the same order then

| AB | = | A | | B |
Ex. Evaluate the determinant
41 1 5
79 7 9
29 5 3

41 1 5
Sol. Let  = 79 7 9 . Then applying C1  C1( 8) C3 ,we get
29 5 3

1 1 5
 7 7 9 0
( C1 and C2 are the same)
5 5 3

Ex. If w is a complex root of unity then

1 w w2
w w2 1
2
w 1 w

1 w w2
Sol. Let  = w w2 1 Then applying C1  C1  C2  C3 ,we get
2
w 1 w

1 w  w2 w w2 0 w w2
  w  w2  1 w2 1  0 w2 1
2
(1  w  w 2  0)
w  1 w 1 w 0 1 w

= 0
Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 29
Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Product of Determinants

a1 b1 c1 1 1 1
Let 1  a2 b2 c 2 and  2   2 2  2 be two determinants. Then ,
a3 b3 c3 3 3 3

a1 b1 c1 1 1 1
1  2  a 2 b2 c 2 2 2 2
a3 b3 c3 3 3 3

a11  b1 2  c1 3 a1 1  b1 2  c1 3 a11  b1 2  c1 3

 a2 1  b2  2  c 2  3 a2 1  b2 2  c 2 3 a2 1  b 2  2  c 2  3
a3 1  b3  2  c 3  3 a3 1  b3 2  c 3 3 a3 1  b3  2  c 3  3

Theorem 1
(Carmer’s rule) The solution of the system of simultaneous linear equations
a1 x + b1 y = c1
a2 x + b2 y = c2
is given by

D1 D
x = x y 2
D' D'

a1 b1 c b1
where D  , D1 1
a2 b2 c 2 b2

a1 c1
and D2 
a2 c2

provided that D  0.
Theorem 2
(Carmer’s rule) The solution of the system of linear equations
a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d1 ...(1)
a2 x + b2 y + c2 z = d2 ...(2)
a3 x + b3 y + c3 z = d3 ...(3)

D1 D D
is given by x  , y  2 and z = 3 , where
D D D

a1 b1 c1 d1 b1 c1 a1 d1 c1 a1 b1 d1
D  a2 b2 c 2 ,D1  d2 b2 c 2 ,D2  a2 d2 c 2 and D3  a2 b2 d2
a3 b3 c3 d3 b3 c 3 a3 d3 c 3 a3 b3 d3

provided that D  0

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 30

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

8. ELEMENTARY STATISTICS

Airthmetic Mean
If x1 x 2 ...... x n are n values of variable X, then the airthmetic mean of these values is given by

1 1 n 
x  x1  x 2  .......x n     xi 
n n  i1 

In case of a frequency distribution x i / fi ,i  1,2,.....,n where fi is the frequency of the variable x i is the
frequency of the variable x i ,

f1x1  f2 x 2  ......fn xn 1  n 
x    fi x i 
f1  f2  .......  fn N  i1 

n
Where N  f1  f2  ........  fn   fi
i 1

Geometric Mean
Geometric mean of a set of n observations is the nth roots of their product.Thus, the geometric
mean G of n non-zero observations x1 x 2 ...... x n is.
G = (x1.x2.x3 .... xn)1/n ...(1)

1
 log G  log x1  log x 2  ....  log xn 
n

1 n
 log G   log xi
n i1

1 n 
 G  antilog   log xi 
 n i 1 

In case of a frequency distribution xi / fi ,i  1,2,....,n, geometric mean G is given by

n
f f f f 1/ n
G  x1 1 , x 2 2 , x 3 3 .....xn n
  , Where N = f
i 1
i

1
 log G   f1 log x1  f2 log x 2  ......  fn log xn 
N

1 n
 logG   fi log xi
N i1

1 n 
 G = antilog   fi log xi 
N
 i1 
Harmonic Mean
Harmonic mean of a number of non-zero observations is the reciprocal of the AM of the reciprocals
of the given values.Thus, harmonic mean H of n non- zero observation x1, x2, ..... xn is

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 31

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

1
H n
...(1)
1  1
 
n i1  xi 
In case of a frequency distribution xi/fi, i = 1, 2, ....., n
1
H n
...(2)
1  fi 
 
n i1  xi 
Statistics
Definition
Statistics is a field of mathematics that pertains to data analysis. Statistical method and equations
can be applied to a data set in order to analyze and interpret results, explain variations in the data.
For example, mean, mode, standard deviation of the mean, range, median
Mean
Let we have n observations x1 , x 2 , x 3 ....x n then the mean
x1  x2  x3  ....xn
x for ungrouped data
n
n

 x i fi
ii
x n for discrete grouped data
 fi
ii

Median
The median is the middle value of a set of data containing an odd number of value, or the average
of the two middle value of set of data with an even number of value .
th
 n  1
When n is odd then   term is median
 2 
th
n th  n 
   1
2 2 
When n is even then term is median
2
Mode
The mode of a set of data is the value which occurs frequently
Note
(i) The data is symmetric  mode = median = mean
(ii) The data is not symmetric  2 mean + mode = 3 median
Range
It is the difference of the maximum value and the minimum value and co-efficient of range is

max m  minm
Co-efficient of Range =
maxn  minn
Mean deviation
It is the mean of the absolute value of deviation of all the value from the average value
n

 ( (x
1 1
i x) )
for ungrouped data
n

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 32

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

 fi ( (x i  x ) )
1 1
n for grouped data
 fi
1 1

Variance
It is the average of the square of the deviation of all the value from the average value

n 2
 x
i1
i x 
2
var (x) =  
n

Standard deviation
It is the square root of the variance.

S. D. = var (x)  
Ex. Find the variance and standard deviation of the following 5, 6, 8,11, 13, 7,12

5+ 6+ 8+11+13 + 7+12
Sol. x
7

x9

n 2
 x
1 1
i x  16+ 9+ 1+4+16 + 4+9
2  
n 7

59
2 = 7

59
standard deviation = var(x) 
7

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 33

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

9. PROBABILITY THEORY

Definition
It is the chance that something will happen. It is the measurement of degree of certainity and
uncertainity
Experiment
It is the operation which has some well defined output.
Random Experiment
An experiment is said to be random experiment if it satisfies the following conditions
(1) All the possible outcomes are known to us
(2) It may be repeated several no. of times
(3) Result of the experiment is not known in the advance
Sample Space
It is the set containing all possible outcomes of a random experiment
Ex. {H,T} (one coin)
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } (dice)
Sample Point
It is the element of the sample space of the random experiment
Event
It is the sub set of the sample space of the random experiment.
If a sample space is having ’n’ element then total number of possible events are 2n
Simple Event
If the sample space of an event contain single sample point then it is called a simple event.
Compound Event or Composite Event
If the event will have more than one sample point then it is called as compound event.
Mutually Exclusive Event
Two events are said to be mutually exclusive the occurrence of one restricts the occurrence of
another.
If E1 and E 2 are two mutually exclusive event then E1  E 2  
Exhaustive Event
If the outcome of a random experiment is associated with at least one of the events E1 , E 2 , E 3 ... E n
such that E1  E 3 ........  E n =S
Then these events are called exhaustive events
Equally Likely Events
Events are said be equally likely events if they are not comparable
Ex. (1) Getting head and tail on a coin are equally likely events
(2) Getting any no. of on a die are equally likely events
Classical Definition of Probability
If a random experiment is having (m+n) outcomes which are equally likely and if ‘m’ outcomes
are in favour of event A and n outcomes are not in favour of A, then probability of event is given by
No. of element in favour of A
P(A) 
Total no. of events
m
P(A) 
mn
Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 34
Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

n (A)
o 1
n (s)
 0  p (A)  1

(ii) n (A)  n (A ')  n (s)

P (A)  P (A ')  1
Addition Rule in Probability
(i) If A and B are two events associated with a random experiment, then
P (A  B)  P (A)  P (B)  P (A  B)
(ii) If A and B are mutually exclusive events then
P (A  B)  0

 P (A  B)  P(A)  P(B)
(iii) If A, B, C are three events associates with a random experiment then
P (A  B  C)  P (A)  P (B)  P (C)  P (A  B)  P(B  C)  P (A  C)  P(A  B  C)
(iv) If A, B, C are mutually exclusive events then
P (A  B)  P(B  C)  P (A  C)  P(A  B  C)  0

P(A  B  C)  P (A)  P (B)  P (C)

(v) Let A and B be two events associated to a random experiment, then

(A) P (A  B)  P (B)  P (A  B)

(B) P (A  B)  P (A )  P (A  B)

(C) P (A  B)  (A  B)  P (A)  P (B)  2 P (A  B)

 
A B S

AB AB

AB
(vi) For any two events A and B
P (A  B)  P(A)  P (A  B)  P(A)  P(B)
(vii) For any two events A and B, prove that the probability that exactly one of A, B occurs is
given by
P(A)  P(B)  2 P(A  B)  P (A  B)  P(A  B)

(viii) P (A  B)  P (A  B)  1  P(A  B)

(ix) P (A  B)  P (A  B)

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 35

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

Multiplication Theorem of probability

Case I : When events are independent
If A 1, A 2 ,............A n are independent events, then P ( A 1, A 2 ,............A n ) = P ( A 1 ) P ( A 2 ) ............P
( A n ) So if A and B are two independent events then happening of B will have no effect on A. so
P (A / B) = P(A) and P (B / A) = P (B) then
P (A  B)  P(A) P (B) P(AB)  P(A). P (B)
Case II : When events are not independent
The probability of simultaneous happening of two events A and B is equal to the probability of A
multiplied by the conditional probability of B with respect to A (or probability of B multiplied by the
conditional probability of A with respect to B) i.e.
P (A  B)  P(A ) P (B / A ) or P(B) P (A / B)
or
P (AB)  P(A) P (B / A) or P(B) P (A / B)
Probability of at least one of the n independent events
If P1,P2 ,P3 .........Pn are the probabilities of n independent events A 1, A 2 , A 3 ............A n then the rob
ability of happening of at least one of these event is 1  [(1  p1 ) (1  p2 ).......(1  pn )]

P (A1  A 2  A 3  ......  A n )  1  P (A1 ) P (A 2 ) P (A 3 ).......P (A n )

Conditional Probability
If A and B are dependent events, then the probability of B when A has happened is called
conditional probability of B with respect to A and it is denoted by P (B / A). It may be seen that

 B  P(AB)
P  
 A  P(A)
Ex. Two dice are thrown. Describe the sample space of this experiment
Sol. S = { (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6),
(2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6),
(3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3), (3, 4), (3, 5), (3, 6),
(4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3), (4, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6),
(5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5), (5, 6),
(6, 1), (6, 2), (6, 3), (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6) }
Ex. Find the probability that a leap year selected at random, will contains 53 Sundays
Sol. Leap year = 366 days = 52 weeks and 2 days. Thus a leap year has always 52 Sundays. The
remaining 2 days can be :
(i) Sunday and Monday, (ii) Monday and Tuesday, (iii) Tuesday and Wednesday, (iv) Wednesday
and Thursday, (v) Thursday and Friday, (vi) Friday and Saturday, (vii) Saturday and Sunday
If S is the sample space associated with this experiment, then S consists of the above seven
points so, n (S) =7
Let A be the event that a leap year has 53 Sundays. In order that a leap year, selected at random,
should contain 53 Sundays, One of the ‘over’ days must be a Sunday. This can be in any one
of the following two ways.
(i) Sunday and Monday (ii) Saturday and Sunday

Contact Us : Website : www.eduncle.com | Email : support@eduncle.com | Call Toll Free : 1800-120-1021 36

Chemistry (Basic Mathematical Concepts)

So, a consist of above two points  n (A)  2

n (A) 2
Hence, required probability  n (s)  7

Ex. Three dice are thrown together. Find the probability of getting a total of at least 6
Sol. Since one dice can be thrown in six ways to obtain any one of the six numbers marked on its
six faces. Therefore, if three dice are thrown, the total number of points in the sample space S
is 6 x 6 × 6 = 216
Let A be the event of getting a total of at least 6. Then A denotes the event of getting a total of
less than 6 i.e 3, 4, 5

 A  {(1,1,1),(1,1, 2),(1, 2,1),(2,1,1),(1,1, 3),(1, 3,1),(3,1,1),(1, 2, 2),(2,1, 2),(2, 2,1)}

 n( A)  10

n (A) 10 10
So, P (A)   P (A)   1  P(A) 
n (s) 216 216

10 103
 P(A)  1  
216 108
Ex. A box contains 10 bulbs, of which just three are defective. If a random sample of five bulbs is
drawn, find the probabilities that the sample contains (i) exactly one defective bulb, (ii) exactly two
defective bulbs, (iii) no defective bulbs
10 10
Sol. Out of 10 bulbs 5 can be chosen in C5 ways . So, exhaustive number of cases = C5
(i) There are 3 defective and 7 non defective bulbs .The number of ways of selecting one
defective bulb out of 3 and 4 non-defective out of 7 is 3 C1 x 7C4
3
 Favourable number of cases = C1 x 7C4

3
C1 x7C4 5
So, required probability  10 =
C5 12
(ii) The number of ways of selecting 2 defective bulbs out of 3 and 3 non-defective bulbs out
3
of 7 is C 2 x 7 C3 .

 Favourable number of cases = 3 C2 x7 C3 .

3
C 2 x 7 C3 5
So, required probability  10 =
C5 12
(iii) No defective bulbs means all non-defective bulbs. The number of ways of selecting all 5
non defec tive bulbs out of 7 is 7 C5

 Favourable number of cases = 7 C5

7
C5 1
So, required probability =  10 =
105 12