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Academic And Technical Writing

Kinza Sikander
Faiza Akhter
Ayesha Khalid

Mahnoor Nazier



Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one

person to another.” In simple words it is a process of transmitting and sharing ideas,
opinions, facts, values etc. from one person to another or one organization to another.


The process of communication refers to the transmission or passage of information or

message from the sender through a selected channel to the receiver overcoming
barriers that affect its pace. ... Communication process consists of certain steps where
each the essential of an effective communication step.


There are two types of the communication

 Verbal Communication.

 Non-verbal / Interpersonal communication.

 Formal Communication

 Informal Communication

Verbal communication

Verbal communication is any communication that uses words to share information with
others. These words may be both spoken and written. Communication is a two-way process.


When people ponder the word communication, they often think about the act of talking. We
rely on verbal communication to exchange messages with one another and develop as
individuals. The term verbal communication often evokes the idea of spoken communication,
but written communication is also part of verbal communication. Reading this book you are
decoding the authors’ written verbal communication in order to learn more about
communication. Let’s explore the various components of our definition of verbal
communication and examine how it functions in our lives.

Verbal communication is about language, both written and spoken. In general, verbal
communication refers to our use of words while nonverbal communication refers to
communication that occurs through means other than words, such as body language, gestures,
and silence. Both verbal and nonverbal communication can be spoken and written. Many
people mistakenly assume that verbal communication refers only to spoken communication.
However, you will learn that this is not the case. Let’s say you tell a friend a joke and he or
she laughs in response. Is the laughter verbal or nonverbal communication? Why? As
laughter is not a word we would consider this vocal act as a form of nonverbal

Non verbal communication:

Communication without the use of spoken language. Nonverbal communication includes

gestures, facial expressions, and body positions (known collectively as “body language”), as
well as unspoken understandings and presuppositions, and cultural and environmental
conditions that may affect any encounter between people.


Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the nonlinguistic transmission of information through

visual, auditory, tactile, and kinaesthetic (physical) channels.
It includes the use of visual cues such as body language, distance and physical
environments/appearance, of voice and of touch. It can also include the use of time and eye
contact and the actions of looking while talking and listening, pupil dilation, and blink rate.
However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on interaction between
individuals, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions
where communication takes place, physical characteristics of the communicators, and
behaviours of communicators during interaction.
Nonverbal communication involves the conscious and unconscious processes of encoding
and decoding. Encoding is the act of generating information such as facial expressions,
gestures, and postures. Encoding information utilizes signals which we may think to be
universal. Decoding is the interpretation of information from received sensations given by the
encoder. Decoding information utilizes knowledge one may have of certain received
sensations. For example, refer to the picture provided above. The encode holds up two fingers
and the decoder may know from previous experience that this means two.

Culture plays an important role in nonverbal communication, and it is one aspect that helps to
influence how learning activities are organized. In many American Communities, for
example, there is often an emphasis on nonverbal communication, which acts as a valued
means by which children learn. In this sense, learning is not dependent on verbal
communication; rather, it is nonverbal communication which serves as a primary means of
not only organizing interpersonal interactions, but also conveying cultural values, and
children learn how to participate in this system from a young age.

Formal Communication:

Formal communication is communication through pre-defined channels set by

organizations. They are typically conveyed from top leadership to various departments
that funnel down to lower level employees. It is backed by organizational procedure, and
it is necessary to fulfil the goals of the organization.

Informal Communication:

Informal communication is more relational than formal. It is not backed by any pre-
determined channels and can happen anywhere within the organization. The primary goal
of this messaging is to preserve and establish relationships with colleagues and superiors
and subordinates. Since it is not defined by any channels, messaging moves a lot faster,
but it is without any paper trail or official documentation.


The process of communication has multiple barriers. The intended communication will often be
disturbed and distorted leading to a condition of misunderstanding and failure of communication.
The Barriers to effective communication could be of many types like linguistic, psychological,
emotional, physical, and cultural etc. We will see all of these types in detail below.

1. Physical Barriers
They are the most obvious barriers to effective communication. These barriers are mostly
easily removable in principle at least. They include the barriers like noise, closed doors,
faulty equipment used for communication, closed cabins, etc. Sometimes, in a large
office, the physical separation between various employees combined with faulty
equipment may result in severe barriers to effective communication.

2. Perceptual Barriers

The problem with communicating with others is that we all see the world differently.
If we didn't, we would have no need to communicate: something like extrasensory
perception would take its place.

The following anecdote is a reminder of how our thoughts, assumptions and

perceptions shape our own realities.

A traveller was walking down a road when he met a man from the next town."Excuse
me," he said. "I am hoping to stay in the next town tonight. Can you tell me what the
townspeople are like?" "Well," said the townsman, "how did you find the people in
the last town you visited?" "Oh, they were an irascible bunch. Kept to them. Took me
for a fool. Over-charged me for what I got. Gave me very poor service." "Well,
then," said the townsman, "you'll find them pretty much the same here."

3. Emotional Barriers

The emotional IQ of a person determines the ease and comfort with which they can
communicate. A person who is emotionally mature will be able to communicate
effectively. On the other hand, people who let their emotions take over will face certain

A perfect mixture of emotions and facts is necessary for an effective communication.

Emotions like anger, frustration, humor, can blur the decision-making capacities of a
person and thus limit the effectiveness of their communication.

4. Cultural Barriers
As the world is getting more and more globalized, any large office may have people
from several parts of the world. Different cultures have a different meaning for
several basic values of society. Dressing, Religions or lack of them, food, drinks, pets,
and the general behavior will change drastically from one culture to another.

Hence it is a must that we must take these different cultures into account while
communication. This is what we call being culturally appropriate. In many
multinational companies, special courses are offered at the orientation stages that let
people know about other cultures and how to be courteous and tolerant of others.

5. Language Barriers
The language barrier is one of the main barriers that limit effective communication.
Language is the most commonly employed tool of communication. The fact that each
major region has its own language is one of the Barriers to effective communication.
Sometimes even a thick dialect may render the communication ineffective.

As per some estimates, the dialects of every two regions changes within a few
kilometers. Even in the same workplace, different employees will have different
linguistic skills. As a result, the communication channels that span across the
organization would be affected by this.

Thus keeping this barrier in mind, different considerations have to be made for different
employees. Some of them are very proficient in a certain language and others will be ok
with these languages.

6. Physiological Barriers
Certain disorders or diseases or other limitations could also prevent an effective
communication between the various channels of an organization. The shrillness of voice,
dyslexia, etc is some examples of physiological barriers to effective communication.
However, these are not crucial because they can easily be compensated and removed.

7. Attitude Barriers
Certain people like to be left alone. They are the introverts or just people who are not
very social. Others like to be social or sometimes extra clingy! Both these cases could
become a barrier to communication. Some people have attitude issues, like huge ego
and inconsiderate behaviours.

These employees can cause severe strains in the communication channels that they are
present in. Certain personality traits like shyness, anger, social anxiety may be
removable through courses and proper training. However, problems like egocentric
behaviour and selfishness may not be correctable.

What is meant by effective communication?

In order to understand “Effective communication” let me explain the proper meaning

of communication first. In simple words, communication is a term referred to convey
the ideas/messages/content and also to express the feelings. It involves,

Sender (One who encodes the messages)

Receiver (One who decodes the messages)
Now in order to have an “effective communication”, sender must predict and select
such words which are present in receiver’s vocabulary organize them and finally
express it in a simple and clear way. That's all the effective communication all about.
Expressing things in crystal clear way without any breakage and without any such
usage of words which might lead to confusions.

7 C’s of Effective Communication:

There are 7 C’s of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as

Oral communication. These are as follows:

1. Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts

required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration
the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly.
 A complete communication always gives additional information wherever
required. It leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.
 Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the
audience/readers/receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial

2. Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e., communicating what you want

to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C’s of
communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. It is both
time-saving as well as cost-saving.

 It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and
needless words.
 Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words
to the audience.
3. Consideration - Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”.
Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e., the
audience’s viewpoints, background, mind-set, education level, etc.
 Modify your words in message to suit the audience’s needs while making your
message complete.

 Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will
stimulate a positive reaction from the audience.

4. Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time,

rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has
following features:

 It makes understanding easier.

 Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.

5. Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather

than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete
message has following features:

 It is supported with specific facts and figures.

 It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.
 Concrete messages are not misinterpreted

6. Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s
expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message
should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous
message has following features:

 Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings

of the receiver of the message.
 Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience.
 It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message.

7. Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no

grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following

 The message is exact, correct and well-timed.

 Correct message has greater impact on the audience/readers.
 It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the
 It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.

Awareness of these 7 C’s of communication makes you an effective communicator.


A letter is a written message that can be handwritten or printed on paper. It is usually sent to
the recipient via mail or post in an envelope, although this is not a requirement as such. Any
such message that is transferred via post is a letter, a written conversation between two

Now that E-mails and texts and other such forms have become the norm for communication,
the art of letter writing has taken a backseat. However, even today a lot of our
communication, especially the formal kind, is done via letters. Whether it is a cover letter for
a job, or the bank sending you a reminder or a college acceptance letter, letters are still an
important mode of communication. Which is why it is important that we know the intricacies
of letter writing?
Formal Letter Writing

Sender’s Information:

City, State, Zip code.


Receiver’s Information: (The person or company you are writing to)

City, State Zip Code.



Body of Letter:

The first paragraph of your letter should provide an introduction as to why you are writing so
that your purpose is obvious from the very beginning.

Then, in the following paragraphs, provide more information and specific details about your
request or the information you are providing.

The last paragraph of your letter should reiterate the reason you are writing and thank the
reader for reviewing your request. If appropriate, it should also politely ask for a written


Yours truly, yours faithfully,

Handwritten Signature (for a hard copy letter – use blue or black ink to sign the letter)

Typed Signature

Ayesha Khalid,
House no 16, Street # : 06,P/O : Civil Chowk,
Tehsil: Daska, District: Sialkot.

Date: 5- May, 2019

The Salesman,
Afzal Electronics,

Subject: Order a mobile phone iphone x

Venerated sir,
This is to state that, I write this letter to order a mobile phone “I Phone X”. I want to
order a golden colour phone having 64 GB space storage.
You can send me the mobile at given address by courier, but still if you need further
information you can contact by following means,
Contact No: …………………...
Email Address: ………………..
Mention the price on mobile box with your signature and stamp.

Yours Truly,
Ayesha Khalid
More Forms of Letters:

 Formal Letter

 Semi-formal Letter

 Informal Letter

 Order Letter

 Complaint Letter

 Follow-up Letter

Writing an application letter, even if it’s just a simple one, will for sure take a lot of
your time. You will have to think of what you will write, use a method in writing, and
most of all, plans how to write and finish it. You need to have the right writing skills to
do this.

Writing is not just a skill used when you are in school. It is also important even after
you graduate. You need to write an application letter in order for you to land a job. You
need to have business writing skills to draft a memorandum or even a business proposal
or partnership proposal.

The Principal,

Punjab Group of Colleges,


Subject: Relaxation for the short Attendance,

Respected sir,

I beg to state that I was not attending classes for last two weeks. Actually I was suffering
from Typhoid. I was in the hospital. And now my class adviser is not allowing me to attend
my final exams.

Sir, I promise it will not happen again. I will be very thankful to you if you will allow me to
attend my exams. I will be very thankful to you for this act of kindness.

Yours truly,

Ayesha Khalid

Date: 5, May, 2019


A curriculum vita (CV) is a detailed and comprehensive description of your academic

credentials and achievements. You will use a CV if you’re a master’s degree-holder or
PhD applying for a teaching or research position at a college, university, or research
institution. You may also use your CV during graduate school to apply for grants,
fellowships, or teaching positions.

What Should I Include?

1. Personal Profile:

Father Name
Mobile No.
E-mail Address
Postal Address
2. Career Objective

3. Academic Profile

4. Professional Profile

5. Experience

6. Computer Competence

7. Achievements

8. Personal Attributes

9. Languages

Personal Profile:

Name: Mahnoor

Father Name: Muhammad Nazir

Domicile: Sialkot (Punjab)

Mobile No: 03451234567

Email Address:

Postal Address: Ahmadabad, Post Office; Model Town,

Tehsil; Daska, District; Sialkot

Career Objective:

I look forward to joining an institution providing me challenging a favourable environment in

the field of education. Learning is my objective and to pursue a career as a teacher is my

Academic Profile:

BS Psychology 2021 3.81 CGPA UOG Sialkot sub campus

Intermediate 2017 1st Division Superior college pasrur

Matric 2015 1st Division Govt. Girls high School ban bajwa

Professional Profile:

Diploma holder of computer science

Diploma holder in English language


Organized my own Academy from April 2015 to September 2016 and taught English to FA
and F.Sc students. Successfully conducted five sessions of English language course at my
own Academy.
Computer Competency:

MS office, MS word, power point and computer Graphics.


Won inter-house debate competition.

Performed duties successfully as a stage secretary on the welcome party at college and got
appreciation from the heads and teachers.

Personal Attributes:

 Punctual
 Initiative


 English
 Urdu
 Punjabi


 Watching television
 Net browsing
 Reading


Dr.Raiz Hassan

Dean Quality Enhancement & Research and publication Cells

NUML, Islamabad.

A short report consists of significant information of a particular topic that is meant to inform
a reader. A report may either be oral or written in the report form of a memo or a letter. It
generally consists of a summary of the report, a brief background, a defined purpose, and a






Reported By:

Date: 22 March, 2019

To: The Direct Service, UOG Sialkot Sub Campus

From: Faiza Akhtar, Department of Psychology, UOG

Subject: Problem face by the students in university cafeteria

I am asked by our English teacher to inform about different problems faced by student

in cafeteria of university. But we cannot enjoy there because place is so limited. The
atmosphere is so unpleasant; the food is so unhygienic that may cause diseases. The

setup is not well organized. Every one rushes each other, which is so uncomfortable.

There should be organized setup. And the area of cafeteria should be wide. Food
should be hygienic and checked. There should be cleanliness.

Reported by:

Signature: Faiza

Presentation can be defined as a formal event characterized by teamwork and use of

audio-visual aids. The main purpose of presentation is to give information, to persuade the
audience to act and to create goodwill. A good presentation should have a good subject
matter, should match with the objective, should best fit the audience, and should be well

Characteristics of a Good/Effective Presentation

1. The presentation ideas should be well adapted to your audience. Relate your
presentation message/idea to the interests of the audience. A detailed audience analysis
must be made before the presentation, i.e., an analysis of the needs, age, educational
background, language, and culture of the target audience. Their body language
instantly gives the speaker the required feedback.
2. A good presentation should be concise and should be focused on the topic. It should
not move off-track.
3. A good presentation should have the potential to convey the required information.
4. The fear should be transformed into positive energy during the presentation. Be calm
and relaxed while giving a presentation. Before beginning, wait and develop an eye
contact with the audience. Focus on conveying your message well and use a positive
body language.
5. To communicate the desired information, the speaker should use more of visual aids
such as transparencies, diagrams, pictures, charts, etc. Each transparency/slide should
contain limited and essential information only. No slide should be kept on for a longer
time. Try facing the audience, rather than the screen. The speaker should not block the
view. Turn on the room lights else the audience might fall asleep and loose interest.
Organize all the visuals for making a logical and sound presentation.
6. A good presentation must be planned. The speaker must plan how to begin the
presentation, what to speak in the middle of presentation and how to end the
presentation without losing audience interests at any point of time.
7. Rehearse and practice the presentation. This will help the speaker to be more confident
and self-assured. The more the speaker rehearses the better the presentation turns to be.
8. The speaker should encourage more questions from the audience. He should be honest
enough to answer those questions. If any biased question is put forth by the audience,
rearticulate it before answering.
9. Summarize the presentation at the end. Give final comments. Leave a positive impact
upon the audience.
10. The speaker must have a presentable appearance while giving a presentation. The
speaker should stand with feet far apart maintaining a good balance. He must use
confident gestures. He must use short and simple words.
11. Try to gain and maintain audience interest by using positive quotes, humour, or
remarkable fact.
12. The speaker must be affirmative and optimistic before giving presentation. He should
ensure all tools and equipments to be used in presentation are working well.
13. The speaker must state the objectives of the presentation at beginning of the