You are on page 1of 39

594 JTRENGTH

OFMATERIALS I 'l i l l l '( 'l l ( )N O F B E A MS 595
dM
But sheartorce (Seepage319)
E=r rL
F =E I{z "( 123)
r- 7- i----t
dxt
Differentiating equation (12.4) w.r.t. .r, we ger

t=u t!
dx d_f
dF Fig. 12. 3
But th e ra te o f l oadi ng
,!* = n l l ut B .M. at any sect ion is also given by equat ion ( 12. 3) as
dl, *.v.
w=EI ...( 12.s) M=EI
d-f dxz
Hence the relation between curvature, slope, defl ecti on etc. l:quating the two values of B.M., we get
at a section is given by :
Deflection :y s14!=Y * . . . ( i)
dxz 2
Slope =q On integration,we get
dx
"' dt-T
nr dl =w yla6, . . . ( ii)
B endi n g mo me n t :EI2 z
dxz wlrcrc C1 is the constantof integration.And its value is obtained
Shearing
force =EI + f rorn boundaryconditions.The boundaryconditionis that at x:!,
dx3 2'
/ rlv \
The rateof loading=
EI +. rlopc | ? | =0 (As the maximum deflection is at the centre, hence
CTf - \dxl
Units. In the above equations, rlope at the centre will be zero). Substitutingthis boundary condition
E is taken in N/mmz rn equation (ii), we get
/ is taken in mma
y is taken in mm
M is taken in Nm
o=;'l
w t l- \ z
; j.''
and r is takenin m. y!
()r c l =-
16
I2.4. DEFLECTION OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM Substitutingthe value of C1 in equation(ii), we get
CARRYING A POINT LOAD AT THE CENTRE dv Wxz WLz
L^-
I t- - . . . (iii)
4 simply supportedbeam ,48 of length L and carrying a point dx416
load W at the centreis shownin Fig. 12.3. The above equation is known the slope equation. We can find
As the load is symmetricallyapplied the reactionsRa and trre slope at any point on the beam by substituting the values of x.
Slope is maximum at ,4. At A, x=0 and hence slope at ,4 will be
RB will be equal.Also the maximumdeflectionwill be at the cenrre.
obtained by substituting r:0 in equation (iii).
Now Ra:Rs:Y
Considera sectionk at a distancex from A. The bending
.. EI( + \ =4Y*o -1Y!
6
\tu)^,o
moment at this sectionis given by,
Mr=Rnxx | (+j ,, the stopeat / andis represented
by i,al
L \ dt /.,^
_W,.,.
= ;- X,f
(Plus sign is as B.M. for left wLz
z portion at X is clockwise) or EIxi o : -
16

STRET.ICTHOF MATERIAIS
t rllt.t F.(:noN oF BEAMS

WL,
,n=-T6EI tttettioof the beam (i.e. I) is given as equal to 78x106mma. If E for
The slope at point B will be equal to r,a, since the load is rhr nmterial of the beam=2.Ixld Nlmm2, calculate: (i) deftection
symmetrically applied. tt lltt centre of the beam and (ii) slope at the supports.
. ;-.'- - wL2 Sol. Given :
...( r 2.6) Length
' B-' A- 1 6 EI L=6 m=6x1000=6000mm
Equation (12.6) gives the slope in radians. Point load. IY=50 kN=50.000N
Deflection at any point M.O.L, 1=78x1ff mma
Deflection at any point is obtained by integrating the slope Value of E=2.1x1ff N/mm2
equation (iii). Hence integrating equation (rii), we get Let /c=Deflection at the centre and
ie=Slope at the support.
E r x y =!-Yff,* c , ...(i v) (r) Using equation(12.7) for the deflectionat the centre, we
wher e C2 is a n o th e r c o n s ta n t o f i n te g rati on. A t.4,.r:0 and the P.cl
deflection (y) is zero. .,_wL3
Hence substituting these values in equation (iv), we get
,,- 48EI
EIx0:0-0*Cz 50000x600G
=a8r2l
or Cz=O r 1F;t8" 1ou
Substitutingthe value of C2 in equation (iu), we get =13.736mm. Ans.
(ii) Using equation (12.6) for the slope at the supports, we get
EIxY=Yt -wLz ' x "'(v) wLz
72 16 tB=tA=-
The above equation is known as the deflectionequation, We r6EI
can find the deflection at any point on the beam by substitutingthe
values of -r. The deflection is maximum at centre point C, where = wL2 (Numerically)
r6EI
LL 50000x60002
x:=. Let yc fepresentsthe deflectionat C. Then substituting.r=i radians
l6x2.l x 1Fx78x 10e
and y=y. in equation(v), we get
=0.06868radians

Erxy"=Y(+\'-ry'r!)
n\r)- 16^\T)
1RO
=0.06868xj: deeree
fre

(180\1 radian:? degree
= wL3 wL3 WL3_3WL3 f J
96- !z: 96 =3.935o. Ans.
2WL3 WL3 Problem 12.2. A beam 4 metre long, simply supported at its
96 48 ends, carries a point load W at its centre. If the slope at the ends of
wL3 the beam is not to exceed1", find the deflection at the centre of the
v,- - 4gEI heam.

(Negativesign showsthat deflection is downwards) Sol. Given :
Length, L-4 m-4000 mm
- wL3
Downward deflection,
l,= qgm ...(12.7) Point load at centre=W
Slope at the ends'
hobfem 12.1. A beam 6 m long, simply supported at its '^==tf;]' A Alq,E r:
ends, ts carrying a point load of 50 kN at its centre. The moment of 'ffi=o'otz45radians

598 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS f f l ,l ,l |,('IION OF B EA t\,l S I

Let y,=llsflection at the centre I, 1. I)IIII,ECTTON OF A SIMPLY SUPP'ORTED BEAM WITH AN
Using equation(12.6),for the slopeat the supports,we get I.]CCENTRICPOTNTLOAD
. wLz A simply supportedbeam AB of tength L and carrying a point
te=T6EI (Numerically'i l,,,r,l W at a distanced from support A and at a distance b from
aul,l)r)rt B is shownin Fig. 12.4.
()r O.O1I11,S=Y-!:
16EI
Now using equation (12.7), we get
wL3
V- = -
48EI
WLz L w.b
(.. wL3 wL2 L\
= _ x_ | -: T-
16Er"3 \ 48Er 16Er' 3 i Fig. 12. 4
4ooo
=o.ol745x r '. ' WLz 'fhe reactions at A and B can be calculated by taking moments
J
|L .-=0.01745 fron'
l oc/ nl xrtrl A.

equation(i) i We find that reaction at A is given by
=23.26 mm.Ans.
ne=Vf and
Problem 12,2. (a) A beam 3 m long, simply supported at its ^rY
ends, is carrying a point load W at the centre. If the slope at the ends (a) Now consider a section X at a distance r from .4 in length
of the beam should not exceedt', find the deflectionat the centreol 'l( 'l'he bending moment at this section is given by,
the beam. [AnnamalaiUniversity,1991] M r : R4xx
Sol. Given : Wxb
:--L-*, (Plus sign due to sagging)
Lengt h, L=3 m=3x1000=3000 mm
Point load at centre -w But B.M. at any sectionis also given by equation(12.3) as
Slopeat the ends, i ^ = i t= 1 o ,t2,,
M=EI " t=
1 vr dxz
= .#=0.01745 radians
t6u Equating the two values of B.M., we get
Let yc=Deflection at the centre
Using equation (12.6), we get -.I &v W x b
E
*: , - xx
. wL2
,N:T6fI Integrating the above equation, we get

, , d y_ W x b .x.zx+z,Lnr . . .(i)
0.0174s=
1%
...(i ) "' dr= L
wlrt'rc Cl is the constant of integtation.
Now usingequation(12.7),we get
Integratingthe equation (i), we get
WL' WLz L
y-=-=-A-

48EI 16EI 3
I
EI.t=Y! . !+c,.r+c, . . . ( ii)
=0.01245x*
J ffi*'ot''ot) wlrere C2 is another constant of integration. The values of C1 and
(', lrc obtained from boundary conditions.
:0.0r?45x39F ('.' L=3000 mm) (i) At A, x=0 and deflection y=0
3
:17.45 mm. Ans. Substituting these values in equation (rd), we get

r.ELL.. is unknown.5. *. *=.x-W(x-a) ". dr-.ic=Y* .t*r.3) as .. .r). The value of Cr is obtained by substitutingthese values in (b) Now consider a section X at a distance x from A in length ctluation(vi)..+-+++c3x+C4 .xL+co o=ry+-I.L+C4 -..ttl(:lloN oF BEAVIS 0=0+0+Cz lrquatingthe two valuesof B.t^_*rr:o).b .x2+Elxig-? 66 Ery=ff*'*( o L \z er. ( vi) (tt) At C. '' . But the value of i6. 2 *r.. .. (i) At B.r' the deflection at any point in section AC.5 .we get EI'Y= ff .M. The B.b.. x=a and slope (Note that value of i6 is wlrcrr'(lt is the constantof integration. ( vii) equation (i)...b_. at Hence. . we get tntegratingthe aboveequation..b-U#).. CB as shown in Fig.b L'T-. Hence.o'-o*c.) c*wlt 66 -*'or'" -cjxL "'(viii) The equation (iv) gives the slope whereas equation (v) gives (tt) At C. x=aand slope (The valueof i6'is unknown)' 'ax*=.12.x -W (x -a ) . we get *c.r*Y!4 B. The value of C1 is obtained by substituting these values in EIy=H. . . (iii) dy ." L-a=b) .Lz ('. we get and wlrcrc C4 is another constant of integration' The values of C3 Ca are obtained from boundary conditions' EI. x=L and y=0' Substituting these values in equation (r.ICTHOF MATERIAI-S I rl rl.(iv) -W.az . we get Cz:O *l =w'b Pr --dxz'L''-wv-al Substitutingthe value of C2 in equation (ii).".rry*w'!r'o' M=E I .-uff)t Mr= R a . we get from equation (vi) this section is given by..ic =ry p... 0l 6m STRET."+c. w e get ct=Erxic-V# Substitutingthe value of C1 in equation (i) and (iii). 12.' E = =w..W.tr.* .(. 12..b3 +C\.*V!4 =Y! -w'a-'u = w. EI . Integrating the equation (vi) again' we get unknown). .b W..."r .r. Here x varies from a to L. dy _W. at this sectionis also given by equation (12.a)z+ c t =w-l.ir=w -b:o'-) @.l .M. =ry @z-L\-E..*yf _Yy-(r.. t-. . cr="'''r-Yf .M.(ix) Substituting the value of C3 in equation (vfii)' we get Fig. .

Hence we get from equation (iv).ic-EI. we get _ I w.. DEFLECTION OF BEAMS 613 =ry [bz .'Lo t. we get =Y 7*r+zog-q-3o21 Err.(r) or Et't:r:Y!!1o-A1 The deflection (d.L.L.L.r=ffito-t.icl or Etil=Y! (?tb-az) .az by substituting =zf-.=# I w. we get the slope any point in AC..a...L. aY!!1a-b).! 6-b)_Er.E I L ."-ryi1) .b..(c) W. Hence.o3 representedby ir..az.a.=V#* ( m'"-*r!i"')'" =# fbz. The above equation gives the value of is (i'e' slope at point at EIr=YQ.l er'Y.L.e.=Y!4! -({o.(R) O.r=0' Let the slope at A is v. 2L at C. *=Y.ic we get w . Hence. EI.r'-[ v-ot. "n..i6 (.i).. where. zL + EI. .Let ya=1hs deflection \a-D).!.EL i 6.(12..Hence A*^t e will be equal to f4.1 "# . or s:w'{'b \o-b)-EI-LJc t..we get =ry [b2-(a+o1za3azJ-Ei.l .L..a3 .L'icf \ " #) arl ". C). L= a-rt.r-!<.Er.k I lw..ic The deflection at the point C can also be obtained by substitutingt=c in equation(u).icf x=0 in equation (C).ic .(-rD .x2 +EIxffii <o The deflection at the point C is obtained W. point in CB is obtainerlby +ELa. Hence.. Hence. W'b.a | 6I.+-1L x=a in the aboveequation. Substituting L"#-.L. y) at any point in CB is obtained try substituting the values of C1 and Ca in equation (vii).r.*( . =+: [3f -2ab-azl .a.I2 a 2 -2 a b )- Equating the two valuesof y6'given by equations(A) and (B)' = f f * z o g .L2+Jaz]- Er.a'b .8) from equation (vri).b.-U#).L. *=y.t.ig-EI..b J EI ( +) =ry9-l3xo-Zab-azl -EI I ' oL .ai w.bz -zab+ 3a2l-Er.a3w 'a'b =*{u [a_b]_ErL.U.6-!1!4 .x.b.b +---(a-b\. Substituting this value of i6 in equation (iv)..b ) .. we ger or .a. hence maximum t slope will be at ihe support A.ut-* .ic . I substitt-tingthe value of C3 in equation(r.a3 @-b) .b.a.a3f --ff*i .i g or .-o)z+er. STRENGTH OF MATERIAI .ot w. +.ic As the length AC is more than length CB..ic-Yli *V.t l w .b ^ W. wh EI.r=*lo#..o7' * ( u4-Y!t ).zL E tl ) 6L 'Ihe stope ( . ^ w .u.+ELa. we get fronr equation(vi).-(a-b) \d /".

b. = --!'b-(az+2s6fn 9{3 EI..b ffi cannot bezero ) Negative sign means the deflection is downward. W.I | Downward.{o'n2ab)3nt ( # #] ELy=Y-b ' 6 L rr +' ( u. we get maxrmum deflection.=##[r-x@2+2abyr .3.x] Let y. Determine : (i) slope at the left support.zabx . sign . The above method for finding the slope and deflection is very laborious.. yr:ffiVt-x(a2+2ab)l fu3-x(a2+2ab1l ... There is a simple method of finding the slope and deflection at any point in a beam. +2ab)3n . . ^".g"1j. .r"*"".b | 1az+zab\tn 1az+2ab)3n =6ErL f Since .11) Note.-Y.r-(a2+zabsl=s 3 w.r.[r y@..=##@2 Deflection under the point load =y ff +2a(a-b)x-3az. =ffi{or*2ab)tn H =#".L Negative sign meansthe deflectionis in downward direction. The deflectionwill be maximumO #=O t.. =ffita-a@2+zab1l But pxz-(az+zab)l *=#h =ffi[ot-ot-Zazb] For maximumdeflecrion . w."t*. @4 STRE}JGTH oF MATERIAIS DEFLECTION OF BEAIT'IS 605 or . .(12. .3a2 xf (D).Ji. .b ^ Substitutingthis value of r in equation(D).a' is more than . J equation(v) as ". Downward. 3 ) Value of Maximum Deflection w.b Wazbz #=O :TEILX\-/a-D1=- 3EIL or ':=:fr'* ( #* rt..Luffio-b)-yltl.b | ( a2+2ab\3n ( a2+2ab\1n rm=utull.l]'.2 L \I'. 1t' (ii) dcflection under the load and (iii) maximum deflection of a simply . ""f =ffi.=rowi@-b)rrom.b.e## .a. .(D) The deflection under the point load will be obtained by substitutingx=a in the above equation.r.'n". __W. This method is known as Macaulay's method which will be discussedlater on..6----E-.(12."] A makesan anglein the anti_clockwir" oi n"g"tive direction]. "..10) =# ".=fo'*uzot Problem 12.. as =+* ff -a2x-2ab4=Y! w. @r+zaqf .=psflection under the point load =Y The deflection at any point in length AC is given by equation [xt+ 2az x .r.o' " '''t-.[Neeative ".. /-1.o..b.b)-w]4:. hencemaximum in fengthAC' The deflection deflectionwill be poi"t-in tengtnAC isgiven by L-l. 1..

we get lnat=_=7_(az+2a6yn . Taie E=2xrd Nlmiz anti I : l x 10" m m" .we get = -5mo1?T'.4 is But B.**'.6mm.The reaciionsat A and B will be equal' Also So!.*v w.Thus two constants integration (i..1zooo' =0..L r-i r *=jx. which is carrying a point load of S L.l l l ( ll( )N OF BEAtvtS ffl A supported beam of length S m.*=+ where C1 is a constantof integration. ..M. at any sectionis also given by equation (12'3)' as .t ll. r r '. = __!900:!000x:?OOO x (3000 +2 x 2000) 6x2 x lF x 1Oo x sooo Mr--Raxx-wxxx: (radians) = w. Ans..z sign means that the angle made by tangentat. Ans.lrown tsig. y6=Deflectionunder the load.N wxL Distance between point load and left end. as *-. Ans.72. L = 5 m= 5 0 0 0 m m rlrc nlaximurn-deflection will be at the centre' Each vertical Point load.e.b Integrating the above equationagain.(rr) +-i .L w.a. O. (l) Usingequation(12.6 . . |)F]}'I.9). (ii) The deflectionunder the load is given by equation(t\.tt). A sirnply supported beam AB of length L and carrying a rrrrrlormly aisirlUuteaload of w per unit lengthover the entire-length r. t c l 1 O f l =J a=3 m=30C|0mm Ro=P^-II! b=L-a=5-3=2 m=2000mnr L Vatue of E=2x1F N/mm2 L EN GTH M .(i) w. Given : in Lengt h .00035 radians. and x /*=Maximum deflection. z' x. 3EIL Integrating the above equation. 3x2x1SxlSx50O0-" (iii) The maximum deflectionis given by equation(12. 12. Cl and C2) are obtained from boundary conditions' The boundary conditions are : (9000000+ 12000000)32 (d) at x=0... -Negative anti-clockwise.we ger 2 Fig. /=0 and (ii) at x=L..10).M.ECTIONOF A SIMPLY SUPPORTEDBEAM WITII at u distance IINIFORMLY DISTRIBUTEDLOAD ?f 3 m lrom the teft end.a. we get .b Consider a section X at a distancer from A' .f = -0. ". 1=1x108mma Let ie=Slope at the left support. z -=.(r. W. Y=0 Substitutingfirst boundarycond[ion i'e' x=0. 606 STRENCTH OF MATERIAT^\ I fr./:0 in equation =0. (ii).L Erry=wu 5000x2000 of =ffi(30002 +2x 3000 x 2000)32 where c2 is another constantof integration.e=-dEIZ\a+zD) rnomentat this sectionis given by.bz -.r+c. we get w'xz Waz. !+c. .r. W=5 kN=500C. 9.6173mm..l3EI. M =E I # AS Equating the two valuesof B.

.. ( dv\ . / rh.r r r r rrrrt r r iur ..ringiOf f*a.r yg= Maximum deflection.o[ W=w.L=W=Total load) ' ll. or"..L 4 . Lo wLa wLa . \' :rl rrr. A. 96 3U .i"yt"rtion. ia= lonsL is t aken in m m . b=200 m m \d' )^^ l rr' pl l r. wL3 =. r.wL3 ' fr l fr r (rtr.'l I fr= 4 6r 24 : n. . It by the deflection (i. Given : Let ie=Slope at support '4' This is equal to W rrl th.x=o a n d# =rn . . ('.L a w . Ur y6=def lect ion at w . we ger ^ c1=--5-+ rL or 24 a the valueof C1in equations(i) and (ii)' we get Substituting Er .*i.l I p=9 kN/m=9000N/m Substitutingthesevaluesin equation (iii)' we get ' .rtributed road of g'*r.t l .].rrt<tbe taken. f r'1t.\t .. _y ll.11l1. I dy w .(12.l t=lloP: ar the support =--- 24 24 4r. L=5 m =5@0 m m EL.' w. w. io=.y..a=!xa-i"o-ff | ' f . 1 3 ) in equat ion (i i )..L . r=-3u i or Ery=+i-# f-#' "'(iv) (...n t C which is also m axim um = -t-(-l .l r..e.:!! .L !+ c.384 48 --:s4'EL3 / c_5wLaSW.t/rn'*.y (t \ tz.12) I ur r r . S u bst it ut ingl=16 and.clockwisedir ect ion) angle wit h 0=0-0+0*Cz Cz:0 the secondboundaryconditioni'e' at x:L' y=O l l y symm et r y..: Slope at the supports and (ii) mori^Vi-.(12..k:iygly supported at its ends. ( 1 2 . wL2 . The equation (iii) is known as slopeequation'We can find the I)ownwarddeflection.beam of uniform rectangular section 200mm The equation(rv) is known as deflectionequation'We can find .4. to. the value of # any point on the beam by substitut.. L*=9000x5=45@0 N E=1X10a Nim m 2 wL.. (Cz is alreadY zero) at l l"'|f rt ( .*= i" t he equat ion ( iv) . . d=300 m m and ia=Slope at suPPortB f\l () l.2 n * r-r.te rtttrl In mm deep.14) ing the different values of x in this equation' f'r olrlcm 12. w e g e t L.ri. =1.i'. .(i i i ) \r)_u l\ .p.e.\ol.WL' Substituting . I dv \ stope i. " ^. ( L t' ..1j'('noNOF BEAtvts STRET. the value of y) at any point on the beam "'ttt"tttllv ri. '-T=--Ir-=4'5x108 mma I | . (tt ttrt slope at the supports Ut*.(zJ_n I L \' _ *L t E -.. w her e .t r trrtttrnDeflection o v -:w ... WL2 | ._b& 200x30G A t A .liarivesign indicatesthat deflection is downwards. U wL3 .t-' - 4 3 6' 4 llrc maximum deflection is at the centre of the beam i. s61....L=W=Total toad) Nr. carria a in equation' tlr" substitutingthe different valuesof x this tt th' rrltt*f E for the beam material is Ixt01 "ntir"'rpo"'. t lin ot her calculat !._5 wL3 { | " 384 ' Er Y7-- . *.e.n *:ll:.L n.r'.ICTHOF MATERIAIS 6J) 6m (N cga t ive sign m eans t hat t angent at A m akes an l l l rrr thc ant i... . 24EI ."f"uf.. 24EI .

_L_ L Fig. 128x5ooo2 = i . MACAULAY'S METHOD deflection for a sirrrl'I1 4rr l. meth..l' wh :_::. r r t l o atl W a t a d i sta n ce 'c'fr o m l e ft su p p o r t a n d a t a f: f 4rfiF /.M. l. A simply supported beam . 384^ to._16x81 =Trd Now using equation (12't4)' we 5 wL3 Yc= 3g4x.-w (x-a) .+rfrl y. lr'lr right support is shown in Fig..r?.3) as of the beam subjectedto point 'loatt'' determiningthe deftections M'H' Macaulayand is ktt"'r" M=Er # . M . l l l .L 761 l- 8d or n=-Lrd _1281 .rti on w ri tt en as cr d-...IS 613 The maximum bendingmoment for load is given by' carryinlga uniformly distributed It t I l)r'flcction of a Simply supported Beam with an w.gl rrrl r. ( iii) "rt . .. But for I2. .7 Ro " -W--r I l r r ' .E *f r.L ('. /i . .- Iy L fxl 8x/ (. is a verY tau-iou'' There lhc ts. . M .r= andRr =.L) -. add the expression beyondthe dotted line The procedure of finding slope and rt point load as mentioned in A al =. for all sectionsof the beam can be expressedin a s 178xLz= 5 . at any sect ion bet ween C and B at a n=**H"+r ' l a. . .r .5. r r 1 g i v en b y. we get at any section ls €XpIt"""t *unn". . M.#u=ry.' support.:ff t ':.Wx'( x. 38p--"dxE llrt' tt. STRENCTHOF MA]T1l{l '\l a simply SUpportedlrt '"" i 'F*i tst al l t t I rl l tl A N .ilt krurl. M u=Y (t ' =Rnxx =w .4..7.t.' rrr z{ is given by.a) ( ) c= 10m mandt= .ol I I r. r l r. ( ii) This fnethodwasdevisedby Mr.7. The reactions Now using the bending equation' =! | a r .rt" manner in which ihe integrations are carried out' u.' W=w. holds good for the values of ..-. ir. . x.. holds good f or all values of x 5 728xLz - --Y 16l r+rr 1 r :O and X = b.' rni' t"lnoa mainly::T1:::-t". .r)mtin sectionCB.J 6eam wittr ui "tt"nitit methotl l"r is a convenient 12. in which the bending moment l" . I' r' rrrl rrrgm om ent at any sect ion bet ween A and C at a or 16t4 \ i i . . ( i) Stop at the dotted line for any point in sectionAC. at any sectionis also given by equation(12. Mf W.x_W(x _a\ L l l rt' above eq uat ion of B.. ..rl rovs sq ur t ion of B. t2.B of length L and M=-{=-g .111fl ' a' . .L2 W. M. -' l f l ' . a -:. -w1x-a7 ..ti rrrl r l rom A i s given by. i i r r s q l '."t1*::ll" as Macaulay's "' llcnce equating (i) and (ii). 12.ld t*'-to* =347.The B.M. M=7= i. b W..EI get .rr o. .2 mm:M'72 cm' Ans' M.= Ra.b* * get Equatingthe two valuesof B'M'' we w...

rS ddl t\t l ' i qr * - a' : ql ..1.=. ' . g 6 F s. te lS +!i c .: ii= : :i::\ .-=EqrEcrl= * - d oo g ' X Ea=€ I8 " i:=r'.E . : .E P E l".#5.i F= d : ! :-l s l i o > l -> l . g!1" $* tEE 3 : .o Sl' I Ni iislS .g e € .i..xl-E to*jge *ii. ie E s : . 3. s: s t x i I :. ecg 5 =: . : 'i9=tii r.: . e j i d s-i . e ! E i F .l a ?. Z..J"a 3 si-. t E i ..c_ .E G' C )'o o t{ Ft H n :' g .SidSlu s€ SIH --:frr.u-rs. = :.i :x E g i E .a . L: i c:F= # nEH ..o S lri tri i .=i i f - : ' li^ . Ii i3l^:_. = I .i::i. L '-Egi.T . i a. f :o e.ildT : g 'oY i | Z s"i fE: .$ -f "gi" x . i : E*o E i iq r . q . 'c. "l r-i H p T .ol {a E .E Fr:g o i \) ^' 'a- .*l'€+#I + r-nri. € F i 3 .i.I lHr .i9":€ :.:9r: y i i * tE -N I 6 I 9 ? 9J E. E siE .l >.' Y 5i t : *r'E{€ "J s" =n Si I€ 9g . $ls!"s 5 e € . b E\.- g:i. :::i + : gl .e F pE! i oF tS+r : -i Rg. ij" . . a "::-*.:1:)s€'lt ei sF F r . el *l !l{ 90" s* iFg i . E . Fxi-*l^g qgiiigT<! €t. a E : p: . E ts $St E € tS: i Sl . Nq!<- = l* t l l! a. =.* $ { i + -l | su $l* *" S. 6 gl i il-: jf $ : -E s .r: iE J F x** !' . : .. B " i + S.2 s #. B sl-tll-+sli:.l[..= s o. F Er cg=.l i i l -g = .T €:Eg*. f . 9 fi i slN .i.! sl* i T . =l* =l* i. !: . E"i" r _ * ig F f : *:: ig :5 E rE:l is l* .F .t-+ i sil g N a:!! + S ll )P H.i ' .= ..r8 *r1 .e.I I | il | r r 99 r E* 5 F$ €t - o e Er Z -b-:tEp lESeCc S -L >. 0 d " -- s 3 ' .- € d ... * l I ^Ei F *s : ?t!^ .:" .E i":!.r *ig[.3i.zi E r oo-)\ \ -i ..1 r . . li i A $Eg.* 5 . r I t"E' ig g li.E .'l \ l ! Sl.3t = : .E | =t= _ i i =.o ! .il^.

c\ j E:: C .: +. ' .aa :: ! :..!t' g* .q .l ^i .*o a tr xl --ri \ * 1" i E =. { S i. | : 5 tbo E E 0) -' O .1n *t{ -c + + r + 1 g 0? l... -T.t f€ .c . { . !: f! : . li Q 3.> c)fl:i dYV c.ii€ ai{ r$s 9A EE + ? q. {i C rs * * .E.: F Ntrl .2 . hdP'r cE ir .\- . rr l*3 5.- ::{!l !l: l' :E r:s rs . ^! .!H3 .6'9"{il l "iF.3 Bq .$ sF * qc' F i\"qi K G' *^E h vrr-< o o i z. v >': d v^ t aT.<Fw r t A T' rl -Jl ixl ICJ + EEs (.bs i "f T. Eiln S g S i .x* .) 6!::Fsi=Fi ? ES E3 5 s E = j l ts " i t./ \ 'l l i :IY 'r : P ' x : : '! . ^ . "-= = :=: 1-: -: -: a ? E = tr -:} -:l .i F } e 7i 6'. . is @ ^i ox ' l ' T s Ss i ....\tsI ia ai I+ l0) rq rl t .a u .? E gB -(J cinrd <{ * 9.nv n= ' -=r E -f vc) b o 6E -r aru ' 5g io - 6'l o >i ..: <_l {ev F '--x5n3 * 99 .. 3=.c |: !Y..' a .:.a .3 7 Lr..N u* tf r E= A n . ' .ri ri | ' ' v -v lL' a :e ' ' $. _N O o C ': li bO\lcrJlJ!-Cot\-"ii a' -. y. z 9€r - 'c1:}<qj .=r .-.:X3" 1l l -^ G - \5* ql x | : a-r.ii.' 3' .i --a :o *e a.)< ^v lr .E t\ .).L Lv! F-OY^ lj . .) F v U € } . -'..:E!. x i bocC 5X: + ES* i _r:jf lt 't. ri _ =O R t"Q .I lst'. F=f. ts l-1 09 (J I .!z -f .Y l \o\c \J r r O ililo .-6 ? s t ir i5. \J ! .o 6 E q S l i o-'r' a * iiai co A €> E.' -Y .\l. .:. ' (! | I nl a.t- "i tr.i ( !. =: :t) vl v v.6-b \ o l l 'o 7 o o . lY S . ? H f .) F :\ '1) 5 i: .Ft .b !rd! i: b+"-s t . q{E ". 'E 6 e* g -!:i t^ s ' i. =l s +E{ ..Or u ElE . oo q) I -T.5 '3 !2-qy q)t -LF qJ ll t) -\J: tl --' ll i oo ll ll 9 o Y q Y '.3 ii.E ! . . ' ts t' a. = =e E b .* =? .1 = -x o + -l.' Yx. i i St r q 9g: : eU gc> " . c{ il al C N il il 11 = * -i !-9.l t.Ez-Ee rE k{ - E l?. -1C * .E .^i = ia = ' . d e h ..._E. TE o o rur Er : ^'it*t> . Y XR \l I l.5 I laJ i.\0) + gE 06. -s ' : \E ^..va r\ ' :\r- c.. c .3 C\ :> -.Y E* 'r-) Lr > . ... -.R(a A .. -7.T C * r i :xcr >._4e .t-. E E " :: O Er a X /\\! vo ': s* =q -O 6 .' aq :$q * *i.. +... .e: ! E Tt ES-E . =*3:F { LW H "t. f+.:^ .X oar= Ftw l ca ^l . . n . dEou 6 ia ' --/ Z o! e :' 93 E .r |(!a& @ =* (t a loora) T : ? r .je-F * : 'li+- .1.t \ E ik J !:lltr 'c f.-. . 3o. < tcnc -ti Ki r n ( JtFt qj o) . J d 3 1 q .e -j4=E s.s F.o !tr y € ilrj ' . > . Y EF.-i_a €5t -c.3 s .a(!'.l x.e t.:_.'. sir F ii' :'i so 6 = 'Y oJ -c \ Z Flb r6 t[i-u-u 'f:F il:. 'i s.

5 ililil ri ir ri # TT IE $ T.1| TI uoo N+ E t ' E -g : ii <l llc. ? 5 c g ' l' = X \cn . z-V- .: EE ' * '(t Fi S co x .i:E =i.9 * d + tl col . T .HE ? A6 a) l.lr o-^f t!: s xv cit .. p :i:a* S s FSI Ea l rj i 65i =E 'li i E S€: i .l x22 ".o 1. q.j 6' c? o o -*-* c llis rr I 5:6 a'5 J() cO . .. .-o b s d .=. i*{*g. ! k::s v? ^l l $ bdri 3 o R " ii XH I lc. A t. "g*g f ' Ee €E I sll 2a3.iFI "F!*.{::i$€t ?Y @ -co < -ii.E F () I x i :.ts \' l ! € E6 E 'a &t .i 8 \6'n s F v_w >r 9 F 3 .. . E Fi . r..i o. J! tl -9 . R-sE.. i .9+.= =7 u ': F.9 rl i!\. .l xt € F€.l I r ri r s:"dJsTTl.et^n rr o a. .l \' 6 o+ rF- H ts t) c.X tsEiaAelr € Fi^I .: ': "E:dIg F ='t -< "E.E co z? s l Y .r. '-i*l :JJilE I Sts rr. l s€ $ Ei €sr .' o .28-Q q\ tl \l e . iSi Y O c' i 3 H J r: S? . tfS l a E r9 c)H . ! '.. v Zqrx \\ k"- t!..:9^. -l. v iqx ': ^E . ) I rrr .I E *' i .=F O oh (. Y iE+ T€ J.c) OE I rl .!T I ?Ele.!astor . co L9.N I rr ll ll lt ' 3U* {c NX 8€ € . .a A -o o^i .= xlh :91 -{i. EEAi z E R o .. rgdi{ o(J \f.ig i e E b il i2 .i E E q*g.. ts + 'i | e €E.l (! sd ifl € * . q f .l.i iS* l ci .l f \. -c S < r' : n-.! . 93 t ll = i .. lr r .or r .*? *T ' r ' lA \ \ 9 " q *.r J :- 1 ao E3 'E q) -o 9.-f R .\ tF a i e * :G I s...:P =EE N i A * sl A .iei*Ei (J I .h.H P x :IE X. $J"t I FSa .+. D -4"€ e: t 4 *: .9F Et : + F-<=l* I rJ . i dv Lt.E F ? oa f\ d 5H.E 60 !S >.= : (). I -i q) g Frr . D:s[rLi F i:* $qi.vv. .dl.i .:s€t$ . 'ic't S.::f i3q E o-\ N Fil vary 8 i5SS'. E .? h i \ X rn z e.U x a i=i ==A8+fiti9 i c? ) tr C. .' 2 eG'. 6qt C.r c.i \o Yr+ s od yr . HX i\n - E Z. w .E'E .7 -d it s\ '-* .5v r t 1n olH . ' i oott 4"t 'E *so €.Et. rr = Eif iF E..j.i a'S E = t 3. >| X ::sia e o-\ 2eS s !-J 'i 6s< .{ an: o\O.vo z6 u) g \o > . E -: .a z R X Bo- . .rs'86' ri C) (!61 =l oi xtl lii. * K l.C ) N rl. . S ':. + zr.d. s2. 5.. S .9 ': 6i 5 l 9 'i "... . . fi g s col ': 'P F.friF € F *r ! q)\ :v XN ll E g lql e:Jf .rl =x*cB A T.l.t g .liEX:i .l \)S o\ E= q o& I Ed-Ec vl R\ $'x (.= .! k.g 9 k *do. ira i| R =! a i9 $ '.

b ' s 5 : ="Ti$: E i 5 :i iqqqFi i! L = g6 : .si $ i p a r 4."iiEr q 9E5g f r Eiii i l A :2 F r m..it liS z : ilis :. .. t F E .* :iE f : $ F esl^a'*-. nf i.: c.EEa. F ir g € !i € $ g s g: g ' . g.? F ?$ g 3 .r E.3 :55d$ e E=Si .Sii1lg=i!8g. r! .. p i . ..L*€i$i sifT *jtlti$5:-hf .g *- ^ r .![iil .. i !E s aEs -s:.a.e o E : : : E =. " T *'i rg i * g # * " 9:.riTJ-$ ===Ee= 3 s ca i E. -F q S : S H E € a 1. q E s y. ? j z= 5 '* -'i 9 gl FFE* €rIII* ITT+Fs eE 5.il* ? . l. E E !s gu F.0.i_.c.i ! E E r i =g.Ifi fi fi l B *A : Ei i s ri i sf: . ol *E s b uo S" i' .l'iiq'.3 . i. +g.? i g' I fr h sl-l + . eF l -i g l f€f r ajgE i? g i g i " : .8. = sE !€ 83 a= 6f . li 'ilE:ifr :Er r s fii!"' ""[T _T i1lo ':i'=". il I $ E $ E F{E: {q . .sp * . = s[€ F :qe5gi F$' .*E. .3 Y fi E I . E= iz EF G'i Rl.:_ h: -: ai f.: E. E 3E p E ilr.E$Seti..! * r++l€* : l.ggE id H _ _ l 'S S T i u ..si 3t -i E S r.E :^illi:. : *idris r -s --i .F : s' -:EJ : s a:n r.ssv .i+_ :€ HssT : o C u :T s .. ?i*' i ir b Ar e] b i f s . E Oq ')" " . f F = pg€c ' E lq+T:E ??^i I : €: . s+ ' i F ^ f 6fE-I .e * d3 T E RI i5. .oB .. srlEEE. E E l .P . F lrf r. : .leq€ ? .8EE F c f.j'j-.€ rr+ l E *B +fi # . ... o . E o $ e ".. lT s €€a+ "'r !.F € ::rdr s nnies : ara$ z-rei?: E iii::.. ' i f : E :i f+ Ji . it B .B e iel ..5s i.

A 6 f ilo r .\ C . S E: si . -' ru 1 € ! o ' ' s € | l B il: S S s F.. E '=€ !^q o E vJ=tl -Y x cc .r F. 3 E *{ d! P < t"-5 d= s .( g Y i 6l ll = : o (J Slj " . -l- -. t Uj <t S=13 Trli I sF e-sf> '' 4 az=F= E .i 'E'E : 39.50 .6 4 * rl .. 1...: '=: \J 9| 9 :i= !l tt 9 \oi r.= Av l hl .o G Fv\_ l*' dd fi . -i {= -i-| I* - nX .-.:0)o :l !9 ho : vvh q <: ( gng' ^J . \. c oo€ c- 9l- tl- r | r +l rr a. 6 ro i I q. ? r.E i U E EEoo : $n g € ^f J o= i.d-*1 S = 3...) -G' i F : 6 a .9^ i. c) z E qd8 €irts 5 14 F d. 6o +g t. : * l ?. €' . r . :S 3 3 qr !!-.tlo -_qo c '.t ? \l )< \' l N i :' \ \ 5 . ? |r.= =t! : : :€ ulh^.g E r FQ:r O i: b b *F { €aa z o*'X € i ri j -Q\ :r e rj J''l J a .=r tt! ll 'b ::.{ : . : :€ YE ? il :^:^J..r ^.f . 3l--l^ €I =2 q YJ.\ I {) \ .. : 9 ==l i !Y'-- q =* E = -ost nT " i- . *'i E t s 3iE:t z I E()$ o. I?l'l o -o q . d r i '.1 YetSi FA * . .J $5-1 FE E A . .J() -: : :- ^! >2 -= . c- HV 6X i .: : . . 1 -q x-o x vv- >.r 9V . E3 : E rt : -h q!FH .:^.: 6 !{fh.5 rn to .. ''''' H rT \' .. + [..d.F l t=- li a tl v -t= ..5: -l + + ' l{ Y FE + +'rn o b5cr.= X X b." Fq c dE- s .4 E ?a a * ::-.=o_ .Ool r.>? E : '-.t Sr t e e u P€ r)e ... .) \S u h *f .90.: + 'i' *' 5\ ' rkJ i -9 \* l t. \ o .. &$'i tr .9 .) i. ll: OrT \ oE E ).18..') ll >' v7 ir a 'Z = 3 oE 5 b 6b o5l 1 I lc. . E $:l . - ra) n o*c\ .Y'le ' l 0 R'o :d vA I tl + 2 .l:xrl-* -o.1 n l^.Eo + o i l '.ls _S s. e R *e aQ ? rr. o & E - n S -^ t it S ? 5rx F € .^ g ^ H 3-! { .9P( ) qr h s sE i't $ .-.jo+ ^ \ i sS$ d .t... Ea t j.E g€ z E a z cd . Q) E.E€o€. fT -€ r : 6 E + .{] \J E !q.?'!.. \ :9 oE X | }{ ': ts N tr \ 'i ilN .o =k-.{.d rr- F l' - i ll . " l F i \ i:x U XH E 6 .. V '|hi A '4- v o'-i =zz -.l l 3 h J 6d 1{F. - 'J i=! .: r' rr qlcSh OO 9aa. ='t d E b^ec F + ' -{ z q . x+yY()f\. l^. " E'= €.^. s Te i < <r'' a.]- E e b ? xL liE f x o .: . i. rv E+35 E':F = u.eo 3I G3 31l r - -.:t$.. . q:- o i . €e bl I '. '.) E - -T^ | ll ll 3r -'i^I t H ll ll H Clt .|.'E Q q 'P :: P€'l{P 3 v rr .E E Ji..B€€ E$ ni. c .r h df.l r + E a -|. i ^. E ?3 tl SEEac .: 55: F 6 5 rd g E3 * E u RS i* "zg e i. u - = J | il | p ll ilz il $ t! | il -T -I tl H.c: >'.€ . ' s . - t - cJ {"..l . ...ll I lxl wlf alc..JDT . : > Y::X qE Ji .r o .

IE r.y . o'.{ .1 J rr . = f * tr o( 96 . \ €"E: I.l I X : I + cl =.j us F e l.. . {..e.1 EbE=' t* 7 "o€6 EEifSF I ooE s ::F .S c9 - 9 = F- to{ s.n : X X \a E .^: 3 ts -j^r i rl T ^' ^ E = i E "E: || i. I {€: .l&E E:E-F + 4?^.< €'g.c ) c :.Y O9 -\. = l@li \: !i g -f .* !* E E x :E N o\ R!o d-5 C..s 7 . i p *< ':j8 S ': I ir B? i E6 s* ? I ! ..l @ N co q + f : 3. "^o lix= d fc s b l ? * + :i -3E- e l= .rq ! S ! c or Z .8 j tl E . i .x '5 o.\+._u s i ! €.? .= !: l l a e^_cl/. b tl ru c! 3 t.9 Q)e s Eg d .q E s *J. .tc .r I <^ ! o e! c.ei^GF'i..: i .O.i x .tigt {. -- oc -a3: y I Xo vts 6 :'o >.) >\ sE E tS {gg **€ :@a<co F i v' q'rF : .' .S -}: un s:. r t t: Ef .: S b Hg U r i #6 3._rQ) a.v z X a '7 lL. i>= ===.< a E e b T l l 6 " s I: f s$E ( n: E= | ri $ Si Ii 'nq a': + R ^ wrj-l a t_ . i.rt o r X X 5 Pa^L.rr-i \l tl @ Ti r't s{ . --'-:.e r{ E e': 9?c 'c-o i Rz g *ir: S mr = . ... aix Sid. q.j F r€ i E A 3F f . " .{5!r::E ?: >i t 7 ! 3 $oo :ti. 5 !S€.I U :* s x ? -E € < . E Z: a €: * sE s :: p.= o\ i'l\ co sv .' ' .:..i f *EHt il 5 1g E. a 6 .8r ycc {X $ Y = Y xtre E .s H E EF qE . = b i * .. i^fiJ e! so-? 's] ll {4 A rc ll S'!2 p'58 i ll tt il tl F. 9t= | | tl N ={ PS S} " e ET t I il i'!ur tt tttl (. =l ^ j 'Y\ I H :l .Q + r. rE rq -to F ll . * --t e d R-' i s r-.:! JI 8 lses l !i r i "E Ei : ' T = z.::tiie1o':6 B -o j.E x = eA. Z= = G :.. . -1'TP: n r c siiS.Y f\Ol € 1'H.q l l * . ASg.' X r r*F sIIrti ts ^ I& . l-.< o'5 . g o a -^+\ l o.1-F-tzfi i F {o.E€ v . F 0) c o:. EE 9 .\ .i : :.. 0 F 5pi a 9tl o .\. b8 . . A fi I EF i . R V EP 6Oe > arOF o.'i =t* : {ErgrTqai -r:3 7 T Y . tt\:! o - r '1 !3 oe N E Er e ! d.y .. - L- lJ) ^n ':: F .n\Q ! YS : t kr 6 e G 8ik'): F t {.!6 z : :=i -:-: i.ca .--r1 A X *O.f' Ex $s s r h-^- .l I of. .: .9: g i l:g 5H J E . x\o g y"b s ug S FB b b $ t . i. i-'. lg+ .r.^ . i. 3*! t*l. Z\O X ^. t il-: . 3 *i "E€ I + ri =ZE i . :: i = 3 E ===: :i '-S* .i -v€ R| V r-o a. TE F FE X rn X J-€ " " R 'r i d -!_ d X N $ --. a.l JZ t s i E 3. 1l$ 6i 1' E u .<: S$sts-s ziE"E d c)E o .: "ii r 1r . o'S .-: c .'3 .

l \ a Qr:*dxl l rl x xYalx E cl >. col j.t"".r' l lol b I Nl.vY P.'l l l r') vl Nl(f| {l-ol. I -- Q0) q)> X tr eLvcbo O\ O) a N 1c'l -ct Z -o\ g) oA r g rr € "t \o Y.:.2 "n + s \o 6q ') \J+ll:? l Es. =E ==. . 3 r-. . ++ --lto l i co\s-sl | 7a I = <r o\.t- i) t ' N + t L a l-l '. .3:- -.L: ?€[rc rf r r u n r! .1" bo k c! I () o E t ! . tr N I =q :3 R E XI .o Pl + 3 : 'q E €Y | .-A i rn c t) H I c" .V " A -ES / ..t oO.r x .^ \ c! e tr | l^ ! ll^tJ.9 E | | | | | | I I l l- x'. aYC 6 a.o E 9:!s F...e+O + E'. o X! O\O XI t l co a €E 9 -:t: s E tNl I '.) + v ?o \. E { Ctl v i:R -6''@ : .\ \ l\ Es c t -\ j >\ \J>.\ !E bo oo "Er E H 6 9 c r J'i ^'! ) OO 5 > . j ( f) ( !' d E Y F 'E E ZE bo9 9t= + 5 f ri9 " U -r x . 16.) 6 e €el i !n r- o\ g+ o c .^ e l I o.. {. e: 5 S € E E! bo :F = \O K q (JH b EE € .f* a . 3 t-c* EE ' -..v pd c.i o. '?-.= Y 56E ll (al l oi ' ** (! co lc.O \o '.\J z i.) + ob .j € E e ts € ' N.Y .€ * ... l + . . .o -t t (n [\ l ..i. = 1t = ^r.E? ll ti q | | Fl a cl I .- o.3 O-l o cn l cl lg: A vT Nr + .ivF o .F ry. .l > E Q ...-t (''t : X .t -r I \o E - c +l a C -\ -.J ali . * oO p ' -= 47 F :'6 Oa) F -oo a' < A.^I \Ol g -^ 2 ! L o *i - ..-..51 -+-gH -tro b" c.d l G.1. a) XI 'gl sl-. JJ ...:Xi. oo'= g . .= co I'c. : E *b9*tro . c :i H*.* ^ t I ll ..( UE cj\ lN (. or -.. + A'. v ' 24+ H Fv.a )c 9 O"pe g': F T F tr .^l vl A -d >t x \Ol _1 l 6' F.r c t g a b = lx E X C'l ot . xl '+ -i *l l EE rr dcO ile! 6i delf 6 I i.l -l kiN ] iEE 4 3.E U . i+ lir qX I l -i ri a 5 s E o. "o.=o - -p .dz 7 Y k+ 5l l--l tl ..= . i7= :-: = :: u ii:: i.. y3 o\ lN H l \orn (\ v \o:i\06 9 d lv j{ o 6. lc...= c.Jl o\rc. ll io dCE ry \- x. il" e lr o _ *.._u p x \) .at xl A l = l 9- 6 o\ ia) o! . a al^ ilE I g . *Q) 's? \\n \ lnrrr l9r.f. o hl r-r-' .r c c F. ^-'i d *t $ 6 ".'6= al.1 C) hl st Rl^ - JE 61-1.l + .. .Jl *. il l \5 ir X - f. J- {.. .t llv F.8 6::. . I l# .al X \ ^.i 'i Y X l c.E 9 h Fu F.r + u ?6 6 €y? I A ..o v l v bo tl il iUa.p xl 9 .". : :tr .r I i ''-< AEE€ { 1t .) y S + f* -rn rn. J.d!..l v cr .5 tr: fi : -_:& G s :I 3 g # G -: = --F fr 3 E E. = c + f ts ol eP . I =p r 00 llF A 3.. . G -l l ^ 9:-ctlr-l.^ gt. ) X Jtl or T = + v N -r -Erug a'! o.9 A9 + .i.. c J Yc ) .rr t)ln a + e.r S= 9= .I 116 9- {. I l 'q XI Y lo : .c csi E Tf . g l'._() .o ..o : E rt E ll o) o -{ I l\O cr I F \ol tle ll U a + --r" + Eg .\o ! ? j''lr. . s & . _: f ..= | | . 9 .dlx >\t ry b..c.= tl rt i >.{.. h * {_g .9 t r r la.

llit ::r .iE'iF rTg ial-!f1-r E -.! = . EE H g s Eg s 3 E O i' : $ E S €60 -. < [-' € .t sEsE. .ll t! Eb F E 3 *CFs €€iq'i ? gi -. fAE g (E \.g gl ^ R l . :l l l l \l ..i ''5+rt .t ii:{ll *i:" r.i" EZEBE : {do :€-^ ..i'. .s s r :t ^o.. o n e r.l l l l l l l l oF T .l'^:sEs}$ c 6 X E E o co a 5 o -t. E'c ti- oe . ..P EisssrF 5=za'E cn g: :trtr) I tr)c) It E.! :-! i: : : F S =: = -i i.1'aa trl r)rn (!l l dI:iEE q o ? o. v r l-1v . ? c\t(! l .:.€r- .p =:\:{ ls l \: t s ::i. x 'E f.i .f s " sF $ r g i TFlis5#$. q. i$i . *9 Es gei E E.€ q€ s R€El .ii {fiE!-'i . -+ "i o qx l r x i EaF-. n-: . igEFl-€5s.. st$ 2 !t: F ? d Sii P} o F E'F E!*'st C) 6 : l* :F= eE ^o -6H X0 . . E A .lr E" r rr .\ -: z C.sic Ft EE..i 3=:e . -: j # $ E . '. (l) c) = ar -= d F.'-i ilci + rv i + rEg : ! .5 + o +9 . I Jtl S iilN rl x . -€-rE i .F. P*F YI N /\ tl rt lor 9 I :..N tilj I ?R =q E B F .-I !t. ."4 E X iE ir i_ rF ++ r\ 9 !FR"T s =T.Fu dl # F t E$ E g E.:EE: .I. = g $ !. h X €r i g o +=ie xs s+: 4E .s \ vd oH ? c/ '')il${i:i.Yl & TI 5 t c.* ts:Ee J J a 3 fr f s E 2.FF s f = : = .:. s F e6 = 5 F.}r.Eb F' . :3e E..s g FFgi l ? E s + t t X V (D\Jrr bo Orul + ... i. iuIr..:i : i* I $g€ : -a r =:'- :: ::.. s. + 3 E.E.ts ! g E : e i g$g .l.2. sg. A E tD tp ).I.{Egg8'l'-. f |" . 6cn a fiul€ issii.9 '5o H ? : s-€Ei..:.

8. we have Ans' upwards' ME^EI . UetweenA and B Let R=Radius of curvatureof deflectedpart P:Q: IR=- EI dl-Angle subtendedby the arc P1Q1at the centreO . (b). .r'tl()N OF BEAtr.M.^^=ffiu=9.11111'11.. llut M.56+565.dr Fig.oI y#=+l EI = rL u. diagram betweenA and B] The correspondingPoints \ on the deflectedbeamare o llrrr O=slopeat B=ia PtQr as shown in Fig.gi tArea of B. diagram ting on the beam. hence .d0 . Let 8. MOMENT AREA METHOD A R E A.17 as shownin Fig.\ representsthe area of B. Oiag. dx=R... F N ltusrom betweenB and A dividcd by the flexural rigidity El. Fig.=Y '.l'lctween the lines Cp1 and DO.15) M=Bending moment betweenP and Q ll tlrc slope at A is not zero then.dx representsthe area of B.will be equal to'ag. Let A of length dr.r=Area Eltween B at points C and D.4 and B ir.a. e:. \rrrcc the slopeat point . ThetangentsatPlandQlarecuttingtheverticallinethrough ilr of B.U. and ( q) \M ) hence subjectedto bend.17 (a). diagram between A and zero deflection.17 shows a d-r nH:- M dx .M.17 Slopeat B. Due to the load ac. n. M. we have t 't t u l or . we have P1C=Tangentat Point P1 " linil changeof slope betweenB and A is equal to the area of QrD=Tangent at Point P1. Hence L ffr6.a. =2x''/2 m Pt Q t =R'd0 Now substitutingr:2x ''/i i" equation (iii) upto dotted line' l l rrr Pt Q Edx we get the maximum deflection...D IA GR A M ll drrrl I the beam bent into f L * r . STRENCTH OF MATERIALS fftll l. 12. hd0 dx at a distance e=! . The angle betweenthe normals at P1 and Q1 EI "'(12'1'6) -#:*. t- (.-.' Ct=200' *tll lrt crpral to the angle between the tangents p1 at and e1.M.17(b).ea of n. we get I2.lS 6ll -E ta2g6=0 ('. . 72.'. EIxyn*. 1D EIJ.68 de=4 R Nmm3 =377 -72kNm3=377.(rr) beam AB carrYing some ( EI\ EI t-l type of loading.12x1012 llrrt for a loadedbeam.(12..d* | AQf$ 12. 12. total slope ing moment as shown rt lf t*brained by integratingthe aboveequationbetween the limits in Fig.-!" P"{ 2f +zoo(zx\/t) .(r) = -188.4 is assumedzero.M.M.at K . or -25x2+200-4 f 'or rhe deflected part ptet of the beam. M..428mm 7:R or n=E \rrlr51i1u1ing the valuesof R in equation(i). " tt Consider an ele' rtll lf ment PQ of small length x from B. 12. fL be a point of zero sloPe f ferrrr' | .

15)for slopeand (12'17)fo' =t2 bd deflection are known as Mohr's theorems. diagram between the two points about the last point (i. The changeof slope betweenany two points is equal to the net area of the B.They are state as : Az=AreaACD=Area ABCD-Area ABC I. nL A.IO. Beams fixed at both ends (zero slope at each end)' I. due to bending of the portion P1Q1 r: 'l'heB. of the B.u.dx representsthe moment of area of the B'M diagram of length dr about point B.rll('noNoF BEAI. 12. Fig.G..e. y=_:rA Xr=: . for uniformrydistributedroads.9. This is equal to the total area tr'rlitngle.G. .M.12. PORTED BEAM CARRYING A POINT LOAD AT TTTE Z. Simplysupportedbeamscarryingsymmetricalloading(zer. Problemson cantilevers(zero slope at fixed end).G.\anea Al . .e.(rttl EI In Fig.78.. diagrambetweenB and A multipliedby the distanceof tht l. diagramis a parabota .\\ f xM'd x-t f . given by I lrr l. B) divided by EL _1 iL=i b.rn<lcarryinga point road w at the centreof the beam i. dy=x .et At=Area of ABC C.M. SLOPE AND DEFLECTION OF A SIMPLY SUP. xr=Distanceof C.' rt=i b the moment of the area of B.4 is assumed to be zero. at poinr .. EI EI Jo \\ \\\ d '=Jo Rut xxM.18 diagram between B and A about B. diagrambetweenthesepoints divided by EI =bxd-^?ua=lua JJ \ il. of the areaA from B' Gz=C.19 (a) showsa simply supported beam AB of length 3. we get M.G.garE-=.4BCD is a surrounding Since deflection at . II. of A1 from AD 1 -Ax Az=Area of ACD . of areaA2 'fhen Ar=Area of parabolaABC I2. of A2 from AD where A=Area of B..G.M. The total deflection between any two Points is equal t.M. CENTRE BY MOHR'S TTIEOREM slope at the centre). diagramarea from B. diagrambetweenA and B Gr=C.\ tiFl.M.ll'wing propertiesof area and centroidsor paraboraare given {n dY=x'do l .ct BC=d Substituting the value of d0 from equation (ii). .M Jo Fig.ABC is a parabolaand . of areaA1 f :Distance of C.612 STRENCTHOF MATERIAI .G. hence the total D NI deflection at B is obtained by integrating the above equation betweerr the limits zero and L.d-x AB: b .(12.- .dx representsthe moment of area of B. of B. LD I Hence I xM.IS 633 Now the deflection.. MOHR'S THEOREMS The resultsgivenby equation(12. 12.a. The Mohr's theoremsis convenientlyusedfor following cases 1.M. L t .11\ 'EIEI Iz:Distance of C.

M. I ty. at point C.JP.'LI =Area of parabola ICD Now using Mohr's theorem for deflection. The B..OPE AND DEFLECTION OF A SIMPLY SI. M . symmetricalloading.19(b).20 =Area of triangle ACD (r) Now usingMohr's theoremfor slope.TCTHOF MATERIAIJ ltlrl. This is a caseof II I I. 12. T B.OIAGR AM EI But area of B. SI.M.17)as A7 2 l: EI =3^t^L wLz w.M. diagram between A and C S lope a t A-" '^rea E.tton ( 12.L3 _v_ 16 ^ 3 wLt 24 ' v =- ' EI 48EI' mrf r=Distance of C. T-"qqr'F- 6Y STREI.M.M.we get 1.henceslopeis zero at the centrei. DIAGRAM F i g .48 of length I e.L . (o ) This l: rr . 20 ( D) .we get = 7 . diagramis shownin Fig. diagram between A and C Slope at A (or ia) :W. diagrambetweenA and C WLz L w. I{)R'[ED BEAM CARRYING A UNIFORMLY DI$ I'RIIIUTED LOAD BY MOHR'S TTIEOREM But the deflectionis maximumat the centre. M. diagram betweenA and C Slopeat a=!.1 9 Now using Mohr's theorem for slope.20 (a) shows a simply supported beam . diagram between A and C Fig. 12. of area A from A I -=-. 1 2 .M .Lj- 24EI =--wL2 (r) Now using Mohr's theoremfor deflection. 12. 12. diagr am is shown in Fig.G. rr\r' r[ symmetrical loading.* .M.WL _W L' S fopc a t A- 22 4 t6 lful area of B.6 from :{u.( ll( )N ( )F BEAMS 635 C" The B. we get of B.l r. hence srope is zero at the centre w i t 'rl rr)i l l l C.G of area A from A u-Ai 2LL 'EI 323 *lrpre /=Area of B.*- .rrrying a uniformly distributed road of w/unit rength over A l hr rrrtrrl ' sp an.L3 = g 24 where A=Area of B. we get from ) =jxACxCD equation(12.t t.e.17)as x-=Distanceof C.

:. deflection etc.".r*ry Str.M. te w. I/L.O.l:"jion the carrying a uniformly distributedload of rylunitlength over the entire rnfrrr ..G..'.?".F.rf... 3 8 4 EI (ri) Constantsof integrationsare written after the first term' ^Eh--- . trl' i'f.11d_ :.'i.i. and B .fr'Lj.nuy 3.ff. di"go* ."f' IA = IB= _ ..' srope d.=EI 4I dx" Theoreticareuestions . Slopeat the supportsof a simplysupportedbeam carrying a point load at the centre is given by : t4=Et d'l wLz *hrt e . .*f. (i) Brackets are to be integratedas a whole. Macaulay'smethod is used in finding slopesand deflec. **g l r l l l ."".EI v -- *hrrr .".r9.1.tftff HIGHLIGHTS ir=At"" of B.l .4 Area of B. wLz ta=tg=EEI *: :n al:f I . 'I'he deflection 1..[!. t '*Ee lfEtrr('tl()N OF BEAMS 6iffi STRENCTH OF MATERIATS 637 (rii) 'fhe section. ar .:jl.ifii:f. 5.ii..<l . r s'.1"#.1ffi1t::'19t . I r)crive ..".slope. the slope i.if.La 24"16 =3U fr ""ro..lapointlo'a. are given bY. ^" tne slopeand deflection n=gt of a beam d-f ".. The slope and deflection of a simply supported beam. y .4 is zero .ll i:" I..nrf.M.13..tJltJ#.rn..t of ill.t-r. .. supports ofasimpry I= M... The deflection at the centre of a simply supported beam supported carrying a point load at the centre is given by wL3 '.t. 5 w.. r. for which B. f'rove that the relation that 2.M. 3g1*. span..ection .:WL' - 4 8 EI ihrrr ll l ''rr r r l o a d Yc= -EEI I l .i. of a simply ||}Bt||||l||v|||.l J. l. diagram between A slope=9 ' dr rrtl r l)isrance of -of C.I.|j'j'i'J. r r r r l 1 r . a ". at by moment area method is given by a section is given bY : Ai Deflection=y . T.tn.uROo...io*..'.r.rrrtrre lfrts :ii'^? lt'ngth :'..r.e=_S . =rxA L =g rt= the Iurt p"..of*.' 1.ffitl[.F."'i.. from B..u.1.ltcction at cent...or a simpry iJr.1". s .i: .J.tr=_ff.. I.rrtrt lrc taken in is to be written. t. The relation betweencurvature.y c toacl are grven by su pported w per unit bea m length and ."1.1 ..l"il^.w xL .i . 4.X.i. "nO tions at any point of a beam' In this method : | )t.L3 5L 0.fx.no..tJl. equation 5 .ill f 'r. .ilfl''modurus 1 6 EI where W= Point load at the centre L= Length of beam E= Young's modulus . cr r g th o f b e a m .or maximumdeflection. l=---n EI at pointB if slopeat .^ 5 L 5L rlr..ve that rhe d_efl.tt tlcnding ..f rr rrrr . = e !r EXERCBE 12 s.nrre.* by moment-area -T.".

10 mm.96 mm and 0.xrrtcrl at its entls.tX)364.05x10' N/mm2. 5.78 mm] li. It carries 8.5 1 5 m m . 10 m.25kN at its centre. t r o r rl t th e r i g h t e n d . 7. D e te r m i n e Find the slopeand deflectionof a simplysupportedbeamcarryinga (i) pcin. Take E for beam material=1. 12.l the deflectionat the centre.n. usingmoment-areamethod. (0 10. 2 x1 0 5 N /m m 2 a n d l =5 xl 0 E m m o . (ir) maximum deflection. 4 r r r r . / . lhc rlcflection of the beam at point C.carriesa point Ioad W at its centre. A wooden beam 4 m long. expressionfor deflectionat any sectionof a simply supportedbeam with ar' [Ans. [Ans. T ak e E = 2 x 1 0 t N /mm' a n d /= 1 x l 0 8 m m ' .22 load of 9.e n d . Th e b e a m the load and (rii) maximumdeflectionof a simply supportedbeam of lengt!-. Calculatethe slope of the from left end respectively. r l r r r r r l l o a d o f 1 2 kN a t th e r i g h t e n d a s sh o w n i n Fi g . 29. 0.l f E fo r the beam = 6' l 0r N /mmt. 12. 1 2 . simply supported at its ends.llt.t. r su p p o r t a t a d i sta n ce o f 8 m fr o m th e l e ft. simplysupportedat its ends.=-0.rrtilrilr.fi n.2 . [A"s. l ' t t .f a p p r r ca ti . Solve problem 3. r . 0. 'r r r r l Yr l r sl r i b u te dl o a d o f l 0 kN /m a s sh o w n i n Fi g .rrrce . l .2 1 . Fig. IJ F. (rj) 11 mm] eccentricpoint load.. ic:-0.f th e b e a m a t i ts m i d . ia:6.5 g 2 m m ] 1".r f th c m o m e n i . 1 2 . fr.lron.35 mm (lr) -6. Determine: (i) slopeat the left support. 7.23. l An s. What is moment-areamethod ? Where is it convenientlyused ' 4 r f f r f. r L r .lt. I rFtrI lrr(.00028rad. r k c I : . l m a t=. which is carrfng a point load of l0 kN at a distance6 m from the left end. .1 6 m m ] Take I=18x10t mmoand E=2x105N/mm2. ilta. It carries a uniformly distributed load of 9.95 crn.68 mml the beam if permissiblebendingstressis 7 N/mm' and maximum deflection is not to exceed0. using Macaulay'smethod. A beam of length l0 m is simply supported at its ends and carries two point loads of 100 kN and 60 kN at a distanceof 2 m and 5 m respectivelyfrom the left support./. A beam ABC of length 12 metre has one support at the left 3. 12. l r r t l r t .f _J m.5 x. l r . yc=_ 4 . (B) Numericel Problems I. 0 . [Aos.985mm] 4. Find the deflectionat the slopes over each support and at the right end.21 | .8 m and of uniform rectangularsection is t . [An s... A l--:rm of span 8 m and of uniform flexural rigidity E/=40 MN_m2. **= .2 2 .The cross-section of the bea'r: is 140m m wid e a n d 2 4 0 m m d e e p . A beam of length 20 m is simply supported at its ends and lN4tr rurr ovct lltt'cntirc span.1x'l 0' N/mmz.L n s. find the deflectionat the centreof the beam. 6.00128. r L r . [A"s. x=2 . IAos.9 m . b=240 mm and d=336. t h r .00224.p o i n t a n d a l so th e p o si ti o n a n d th e load at the c€ntreand (u) uniformlydistributedload over the entire lenst. A bema of uniform rectangularsection 100 mm wide and 240 mm deep is simply supportedat its ends.08mml ftt. . r l r . A beam of length 4. --"-€ l rl .125kN/m run over the entire spanof 4 m.375 kN/m run over the entire length.rlurl'lv rrrP. e A rrt'amof length 6 m is simply supported at its ends. Calculat-ethe width and depth of f Ans.rl r / I .23 Find also the maximum deflection.(ii) defiectionunder t r .l 0 8N /m m :. Find also the centre if E=1 .6 downwards. using Macaulay'smethod. 2 xl 0 s N /m m 2 a n d /=5 x1 0 8 m m a . It carriesa uniformly distributed Fig.l .f II( i l ()N ()1.lrrrrl t f * r L l h . If the slopeat the endsof the beamis not to excee{ [.76 mm QD y^'=-A.106 N /mm2 and /= 1* ' 109 mm4. (t -4. lt is also subjectedto a clockwisemoment of carries two point loads of 4 kN and 10 kN at a distanceof 8 m and 12 m lFlt lN'r :rr :r rhst.3 mm and 10. / . What is a Macaulay'smethod ? Where is it used ? Fino r.Calculatethe deflectionsunder eachload. A beam5 m long. lt carries a uniformly distributed load of 15 t.A MS 639 638 OF MATERIAI5 STRENGTH l . Fig. 12. [Ars.2 . r- carryinga point load of 7. IL An overhanging beam ABC is toaded as shown in Fig.4 . yc:-7.m the left srpport. simply supportedat its ends.01 mm] . r r .8mml 6. r. 2.( x) 6 1 r a d . Calculate : (i) Deflection under each load E *r r u r r 'r ' l x r r rr r. t .

we get t t . r =L in t t "se equat ions.- -----. ' rrrtrsl 111.1 \BT G=o) Consider a section X. The important methodsare (i) double integration tr) lly sul-rstituting y=0 in equition (ii). .rrrrr by rurrrt. DEFLECTION OF A CANTILEVER WITH A POINT LOAD 'r r l r r . r '. . 1 3 .M.sl<lpeat the free end a'anJ But B. tt' wLz .r:0. r' tl tr at ion( ir l) is known as slope equat ion..M.(i ) *=-wrx+w{z wt.2. at this section is given by.* .' I r r .. t ion angr e in t he wit h AB u. s..) " . int on t he ..t/ . These can subst it ut ing.=0 13.we can f ind 6frri r' i rr t he ' rrrv Jr .-w(. -wt!*V! ( ci=o' F i g .lrrr..(13. Cr=il methodshave also been usedfor finding deflectionsand slope of the (r) lly suhstitutinq simply supportedbeams.1i of integrations. r. These 0:0+0+0+.) The B. 4=0 i. o -quatron(i)...t ) "'(tit) 2 ) rl r.+ c.n l i t. "nt it "u"t l.f lur r st it ut i'g t he var ue --1 f I' e' r'rL. _ . 1ing t he values of C1 and C2 in y8 iquat ion ( ii) . . . I (iu) f f rr..rntl C.1.11i11n i3 kn'own as deflection equation.3) as t'n l)eflection at the free end B .1) 2rr Integratingtire above equation.1.on*u.ri.."wl lu .1. we get t' rrl ' i rrr' r' silr r shows t hat t angent at B m akes an rri ti r f. r. In this chapter we shall discussthe methods of finding slope ttr and deflectionfor the cantileverswhen they are subjectedto various lAr rlrc fixed end.- - . luF I flrl I t r 't t( )N ( )F C:AN.{=0.tl q' rrrr' <ief lect ionar e m axim um . M. +c. 1 f<>r y a n d x=L i n e q u a ti o n ( r v) .=-W(L-x) (Minus sign due to hogging) | . INTRODUCTION boundary c ondi ti ons . -+ )= _*_T rfL. . w e get {*l Deflection of Cantilevers tr y:_ w L :+ Y l ' _ + c. w hi c h are: (i ) at x = 0. *.'l rt..T.. at a distance x from the fixed end . w e g e t f.l r. we get ft ^na Equatingthe two valuesof 8.1A) 640 .rrrrr. of x.M.'=-gryrlYt (t{ 2 the point B and carrying a point load at the free end B is shown in Fig. I rrr. *r'!.tl at t he f r ee end. we get . EI x)= -wL+w.1111.....r . we ger dx 0=0*0*Cr C. w e g e t AT TTTEFREE END BY DOUBLE INTEGRATION METHOD A cantileverAB of length L fixed at the point ..( 13. l i r :r l i o r r a g a i n . t . { ./< (rrf\rrt^tiruring ia for M=EI x=L inequation (iii).rl l rrrn r ?f Their valuesare 13. i 1 '. . ....nLEVER5 13 l r r l r . .i= -w(L. wJ get method (ii) Macaulay'smethodand (iii) Moment-area-method.\ t tr. . 1 j 11 1 1 i nth g e va l u e .4. = () free. deflectionand slopesare zero] types of loading. at any sectionis also given by equation(12.lr r t .o f C 1 i n e q u a ti o n ( i ) .x . . 13..= (i Cantilever is a beam whoseone end is fixed and other end is l rtl | (.. t r tu l .4 and free at t t'1. =..t2.5- t-a I ....

Tind-(i) slope if the cantilever (Negative sign showsthar deflection is downwards) +t thr ltrr r. r r tt he f r ee end is given by equat ion ( 13.e . yo= ..rrrlJ.l .. l o a d at the free end). i nl ( ir vcn : .('ANIII^EVERS w ( L.. /-108 mma Wa3 \' rrl r r cul E=2x1f f N/ m m 2 y r= Ifi [In e q u ati on (13.r. I{L3_ 25000x300S T u..rr'n. . r r1 '1.ction at the free end is givenby equation(13. ill re rn a i n s tra i g h t s i n c e B . r. ._ I 3EI 3x2.2 .71 mm. ( irvcn : )a = D e fl e c ti o n a t p o i nt B ftrl I r . 1 3 . If I=108 mma [ . .ill benci only tretween r{ and C. .(13. rtthe f r ee end is given by equat ion ( 13. 4) as Wa3 .1 (i .1 1 [. Ans.-=in=Y E ...f th e c a n ti l ever may be taken as si mi l ar r.rrr1J.(13..4. . A cantileverof length 3 m is carrying a point rrtr 3 f I L | ':t. .67 mm. W=25 kN=25000 N I3.ICTHOF MATERI A I . wL. 1 3 .tlttr of Ii=2.r. wL3 I nryt lr . Waz S i o p e a t (-= s i o p e a t i i '. Wa2 . A cDntilever of length3 m k carryinga point F i g .2. 25000x30002 :-- 2x2.1.( l J .0:11. Ans.r tti .=0'005 S i n c e th e p o rti o n C B a f th e canti l ever i s strai ght. IVar a=2 m=2000mm i r-+ tz h [In e q u ati on (i 3. L: 3 m : 3000 m m Downwarddeflection.u=_zE . r r l..2oi ) o) r " ..a) or . N r)1 .s(XX)Ox2ffi03 50000x20002 ).7x1Sx 108 =0.005357rad.+-+ EL1..(L-a) \ \2 Wut .1x1dx108 :10. 3) as The beanr lr.YB-. I _t f'l nlrfr. there!.AN 4/ a distanceof 2 m from thefixed end. 1 A) .is shownin Fig.rf t.a 1 i a.2 A ) change L to . 1x1d N/ m m 2 A cantileverAB of lengthL fixed at point A and free at poirrr l rf ' .' n F i g .t trl ='t AN rrr the free end. DEFLECTIONOF A CANTILEVER WITH A POINT LOA[) f\f rr l l=108m m a AT A DISTANCE'a' tr'ROMTHE FD(ED END \' . 13. r p1.flt.2.. ffi JLT Nlmmz. r .rhr . ltrctrrr( t.1or x 1os * z " z N r-rv fro .M .u=-v. .2 6 jl=-wf+-g6) ) f. W:5 0 kN =5 0 0 0 0 N a c ant i l e v e r i n Art.:ailttl 1r.e t ic=Slope at point C sttl | = )' nt\ h[tmm'.tttl ond (ii) deflection at the free end.4) tt. B and carryinga point load l7 at a distance'a' from the fixed enrl .tr r t l'.t*-zet \L-a) :-W-E 1 lfrrrfrlr. If the moment of inertia of the beam= 108 .rr.2A). trslv/ssn the load and the fixed end. l E=2. iB= rad' Ans' zEI= zx2xrorxro.eflection )' c = D e fi e c ti o n a t p o i nt C l t t h c l t t t t'ttr t. I 'r r t r r t h xr r l .EI ( 3oc '. Wa2 50000x20002 ^ it *.2 ). . flf l. .3. . betw een C and B i s zero. T""w*- &2 STREI.' ftpi{ 5r f filN { tl.2A lif l ' . r 1'.lxtd .t+i * &. Ans.=3 m =3 0 0 0 m m Th e p o rti o n AC < .l.1 A ) change L to .t. 13.) l rrt llr 'llt 't 't ion at t he f r ee end is given bv equat ion ( 13.1. l rt' . w e h a ve 6 67+-5.1ind (i) slopeat thefiee end and (ii) d.. but from C tr .

t distributed load of 16.5=41kN=41000N =200x10eN/mz ('. f iner t ia. rMhatis the uniformly distributed load which yr.4x2.0 3 6 m rn .. -tsromequatton(r)' wLz = 40" .rrrr. t'. Ans.4 kN per metre length over the entire lengh ' . a' FRO M THE Siope at the free end is given by equation (13. A cantilever of length 2.47777rad. (:ANTILEVEI{S &7 Problem 13.rc of the cantilever is shown by AC'B' in which portion | rt 3cxx. L t h at tt r rrrl'. rrrrtrlcvcrAB of length L fixed at the point A and free at tlre 1''irrr ll rrrrrlcarrying a uniformly distributed load of wlm length fi i l e rl trt' rrr. 5 is 40 mm. A cantilever of length 3 nt carries a tinijor' wx. l l xt' :t) l: NI ) iB=-H=-ry"I A . 2.384kNln:. w = 1 6 . d . Def l e c ti o n a t fre e e n d .EVER WITH A UNIFORMLY ^t Et 3000 | tthtR tBt r TED LO AD FO R A DI STANCE .=Slope at C. r lr r at ion( 13.4.c'a'f r om t he f ixed end. A ns.] . I lr. yn=5 6p T o ta l l o a d " W= w XL \'.**r-. Given : I r.6 ). r r<. ( Annam alai Univer sit y. between C and B is zero. 11=200m m Len g th .rlrrl ot' Ii:200 GN/m2 =16. determine the deflection at the free end. we get [-ength. Given : l f r ptl l .5 m m = 2 5 00 mm I r np. 1991) the moment of inertia of the beam=7.. 5 x 1000=25011 mm U. The l.l ' l . w e g e t t t x2x1Sx8x107 wL3 5x8x2x1$sx8x107 )r' =163M N/nr gEl '"t- 16. 40x8 1 _-x- 3000 6 . or iu=w!?L=wt1:ie)o 8EI 8E/ ui 1.l . 1 p2=(1000mm)21 Value of E=2x10s N/mm2 (1000)2mm2 Let "/a:Deflectionat the free end.=Deflection at point B.:Deflection at point C. lrr.tsrl rlrl.i i .and valur ' hrl ( . )'. 5wx25AF Lls i n g e q u a ti o n (1 3 . T.rrrrwill bend only between A and C. y r= 4 9 r n* " t lEl Let is=siopc . W rrl tl r. L = 2 .5 m long.we get WL3 41000x250S i r. Ans. 5 m =2. If the deflection at tiic fr<'t wy. Problem 13. find the slope at the free end. t . L=3 m=3000 nt wl. l. and deep is 2.'€F- ffi STRENCTHOFMATERIAI tsEflFr |lilN ( )l.95x107 I rI n...](''I'ION OF A CANTII.l rl . but from C to B it rtll t rrrrrrrrsrr?ight since B. b=120 m m Sol. '00 G Nlm '. tV 'l'otal load Pnoblern 13.is in m et r e) dktributed load over thc entire length.4 k N /m l tr fl r. is shown in Fig.2 4-0x 8 II I I'Ii}'I. lr t 0. =! #=t r o. 13. . =2..frif'.I.tv c n : E:2xld Nlmmz.3 t r.ri the free eir'.6). I rt i. 2.95x107mma 200x10eN ==__=---. 5r w N Sol.' G=Giga=10e) Value of I=7. 4. rrrriformly distributed load per m length in N = 5 .95x10' mm. 6) ..M. L ( Her e I .4 (A) A cantilever|20 mm wide and 200 r. .tl r . i'. : *: 8x107 mma 8EI 8x2x1Sx7. Es*rrri ttutt'in order tg produce a deflection of 5 mm at the ftee '.5 m caries a unifonn. =2xlff N/mrn2 Using equertion(13. .5).rl r on at f r ee end.3. I ..t\r I .

13.'I1 . 6EI l l r.4.l l rtri l .4 .5 (b). f'l uJlUNl'TLENGTH T he p o rti o n A C o f th e c a n ti l e v er mav be taken as si mi l ar tr a c ant ilev e r i n A rt.l l .e) ! 11 I lr.6.rt ( . 8EI S inc e th e p o rti o n C ' B' o f th e c a n ti l everi s strai ght. DEFLECTION OF A CANTILEVER WITH A UNIFORMLY wL3 DISTRIBUTED LOAD FOR A DISTANCE 'a' FROI\I THE = 6EI F'REE END 11.l l r. 13. 1 3 . . (' A N TILE V E R S &9 d /U N IT L EN GTHI^ . . ' CB: aj uniform Ioad from A to C 8EI 6EI . 1 3 ..t:.\ Ii E Fi tl t II( IN ()I.1.(' /l T'hen slope at B= Slope due to downward uniform load over w1l.4 and free at f . ngt h ( L. 13.5) put L= t' and . .' rlownw?rd deflection of point B due to downward (i) the whole cantilever AB loaded with a uniformly distributeri :l i :l rtl l rl r. q E I. 'c. .4 .n..I' rl ogr c: r t B or at C due t o upwar d unif or m ly dist r ibut ed A cantilever AB of length L fixed at the point . r' rr cl slope at B is given by.rqrfrrrr.. thereforc r .5 (c). I| Fig.the whole length-slope due to upward * *o ( '. 13.r tl rc wh<t lelengt h T3.a\ 3 for a distance 'a' from the free end is shown in Fig. l 'i slope at C=slope at B iF .a) the point B and carrying a uniformly distributed load of w/m length _w ( L.l r. ..arl .s 6 EI Now from Fig.'. lt . (d/ J/U N IT uNt T LLENG EN GTHTT or i c = i a -y a 3 .^=n'oo [In equati on (13..6EI [In equati on (13.rrl .a14 w. . . ( L. r t l : r ct ing on t he pO r t ion / C=upwar d def leCt iO n of i r :1.6) put L= rz.( 1 3s. (1 3 ." U I 6 E tr trrt Nrrw slope ai B due to downward uniformly distributed l .'.. w L3 w (L-a\3 iu=ilft-ffi .. *n. we have l ti r l . r t lover t he whole lengt h AB load of w per unit length as shown in Fig. wL4 = (rf) a part of cantilever from A to C of length (L-a) loaded 8EI with an upward uniformly distributed load of w per unit length as llri rrgrw:rrrldcflection of point B due to upward uniformly shown in Fig.(13..#D w /m L E N GTH I F i g .l STRENCTH OF MATERIAI. upward uniform load from A to C.5 (a). 13. . l l .To. The slope and deflection at the point B is determined bv considering : .a\ 3 .r tl rr. tr()n at B=Deflection due to downward uniform load over the whole length-deflection due to " =':.. ... .

A cantileverof length 3 m carriestwa point 6 x 2 x l G' x i (tr ( ii) U s i n g e q u a ti o n (1 3 .67=L67 mm. ry = l C k N /m = 1 0 0 0 0 N /m wLa i w(L-a\a w(L-a\i I 1000t) v^ =. L=3 m=3000mm l. Wi=f ft|.002167rad.ffi f 650 STRENGTH OFMATERIALS irFa. 13. o=2 m=2000mm Value of I = 108mml Value of E =2x1U N/mm2 Fig. d .000083 \ =0. )'z=Deflection at U. i I 1000- Length of u. l.l.oad at free end. I tollooo-zorrolo Value of 1 =108 mrna 8x2x105x108 L Sxrxlotxlot !'alue of E =2x105 Nr'mm2 .cngth. tht ltrr tnd. Ans. 6 .*trrt I ] )o=Deflection at the free end. Given : =---+ x (3000-2otlcr 8 x 2 x l ffx 1 0 8 6x2xldx108 l.l.08mma. a=2 m=2000mm If I=l0E mma and E=2xld -over Nlmm2. i + Xl r = Nifilrn=10 Nimm BEr L 8E/ 6 F. from free end.*t.0625 . Ans. A cantileverof length 3 m carries a uniformi. . I'roblem 13.l.d.8333mm.find: (i) slopeat the free enr' Value of E =2x 1G5N/mm2 and (ii) deflection at the free end. Problem 13.1667] (i) Using equation(13.6. Sol. ta = 6 EI Ans. L=3 m=3000mm the free end due to load 4 kN alone.J 2 kN at the free end.10). 10x30004 . !1'2=4ft|il={ffiQ 1[ distributedload of l0 kNlm a length of 2 m from the free enC.( 13..l1 ..5. frorn fixed end. Ans" ' wa3=r t9"1.8 ). =5.ilrril('N ()F CANTILEVERS 651 Net downwarddeflectionof the free end B is given by I r't ia=Slope at the free end and wLa I w(L-ata w(L-at3 I /a=Deflection at the free end. l)istanceAC.d..*H-t#{ distibuted load of l0 kNlm over o length of 2 m from the fixed ena _ 10x300tr_109q9:?qryI 6x2x1ffx108 6x2x1ffx108 T a k e I:td m m a a n d E= 2 x td N l mmz. Value of / = 108m m a Sol..f=1000N =1+0.1( t' l _ S rl I (r) tl sing equat ion ( 13. a = 2 m= 2 0 0 0 mm. l t=E E I.7.o 3 . w=10 kN/m=10000N/m 2 kN =ffi N/mm=10 N/mm Length of u.6*2r. =0.l . Given : l.-=o. we get Problem 13. 6 E I(L -a l 10x200# 10x200G .. w . w e get Itu.and 4 kN at a distanceof I m from w a a .7).00225-0.1oQ@z@)rrzmo Let ir=Slope of the free end and .. Find the defieclionat the free end.we get U..oad ai a distanceone m from free end.d. f t= g EI* I'akeE=Zxld I'llmm2and tr=l. 9) .ooo66.. II:. L=3 m=3000 m (r) Llsingequation(i3... Given : Length.we have =4. Determine the slope and deflection of the frec end of a cantilever of length 3 m which is carrying a uniformlr .Sol.6Er *o .ct )1 =Deflection at the free end due to load 2 kN alone Length.[0.0625 +0.

3824x108 (ii) The downward deflection at the free end due to uniformly Total deflection at the free end = v r * Vr rlistributed load of 2. Given : (SeeFig.94 rnnt 3x 10ax1. \J - (i'e' free end due to load 4 kN Fig.8) as a untformty waa w. r 1 l .1250) deepand E=l x t0' N.a"srru/m wL3 'f | 3EI 2!00I30qq-=0. Given : I-ength.. =0. N Point load at free end' W=1 kN=1000 m=1250 mm Problem 13. Find the slope and deflection Depth. n=fi+ ro \L-a) /I wL3 3 EI +OOOxZOOS 4000x20002 (3000-2000) =--ot tot tt ic" 1000x200G * io6*t-z' =1.667x107mma Value of o=T=--i.2 as A) us Wa3 .54+0'ztO=0.l.M15=0.a3 Problem l3'E' A canrtleverof length2 m caries ! r = gEI n ( L. a=1'25 Width.3824x108 'n'72"i' University' 1990) (2000. b& 12x24t at the free end if E=2. r 1 1 kN (or 10t|0 N) at the free end is given by equation (13.94=1'84mm' Ans' rs given by equation (13.9934 Sol."J the downward deflection at the free end due to point " l n . A cantileverof length 2 m carries a uniformly DistanceAC. T --"-' | )t:t'tl.lxtd Nlmmz and I=6. b=72 mm distibuted load 2 kNlm over a length of I m from the free end.a) run fo'r a length of I '25 from the m 6EI distributedload of 2'5'ki. mm. L=2 m=2000mm =13824x1S mma w=2 kNlm l kN =7'3824x1ff mma Value of E=1x108 N/mm2 B free end due to Point load Let h = Deflection at the 1 kN alone yr=il"n"Jti* at the free end due to u'd'l^ on Fig. 13.5 N/mm on a length of 1.8 'length AC.( I t( )N OF CANTILEVERS 65"1 STRENCTH OF MATERIALS 652 at the free enci Downward deflection due to load 2 kN alone is *givenbY equation(13'2A) as . 13.9.d. .d.5519+0..3824x1086x104x1.5x't2504 2.'t ' lAnnamalai =0.9+0. 13.929mm. L=2 m=2000 mm Total deflection at the free end due to point load and Nim w=2'5 kN/m:2'5x l0C)0 u. Ans. and d=24 mm a point load of I kN at the free end. -f .25 m (or 1250 mm) =0.929+0. Sol.' looo =lr*lz -2'5x N/mm=2'5 N/mm 1000 :I.l. .. 2.e =l F rtff*l o s-" '-'. 7 Downward deflection at the (13'a) * ftt* fixed end is given by (r)Now 4000 N) aione at dit. Waz .9224mm.5x't25F irl'at thefrei end' Find the dellection fixed ettd and a pointL"a "it 24 cm at the free end if is lectangular!2 cm wide and 8x104x1.9934=2.8) =13824 cma Length.. U.

:c)aO F b: rlx (a xl x r'/ tl (.:-:o r 'i Eg .t. ..F ri* r Eo a) trFc I F< = .i e )< IF llF 'E . *t ii .o. s -E i d EE 3i: *li d :i F 7^tr d" t r az c'l a .n.: ll* E E E E .o g -o .t. l ^ '- r'rt\ c. :H Yl. ll t l rl G J 2 9 Y .s tbooo l l Ne E9 .= 2 e Ezb YYh T I F x ici: i id.l ir t:! O ll ll ll (J11 E L O G U-C O : = # d ilco € c )_ F (. : Ee ? . IIl >l C\ -NX A c -s.9 II a. s .ea a { lp .rlx vl QI X E [E IT F # '2 b o .l :_: r ! ll * = X lx l€ xill\ox ooc lt : F .1 l\o CN ='E .l ? r e€ I H q :..q ' g. XIF y ------ s t6 l c. Fr : Et : * :.alI .= .i 00 J c xoo 42 E- 2 *J lk) X C.r= l. IE : *s n g ii -€ u i' 3 a .. .- x)< t= c)e ! tr-cgsJ q= * lx | .r-BlEg-* HIEq E.E l-.d r.E e jlH )< .F': n tl e ^l :It \ tt.-l = .... ti|r ' . 5t El l { i €: * i E_Er! a il6*t i t?Bi?-Fl:I.P o c oE. l*- '. i2.0'59 '.9'E ll rr 1 { flE !oE*AAA - ' $! 5gf ' { E E.i- =lH! 12 " Q xlEtrrr-Y €=E I:-.*i ..= g e e = A i {i .5 ris s v F ?= t ? = = a & . rl G=X xtq Ol e = lto o XI\O lr O 4 C(q e: . i Nl ..s' 1= ? E e .=l ! l l l l l l l ' -: v4 t< a><l= :* : . 3 -\ cct F-----l ^lF\ -l l. .[A|$ E € . il*^liEE Nl $iEi rEfiFg? $ Y l l l l l l t-t r l - (l> : * '!J+H\ ^ r.+ i** '.E l:. H ..lh.* 3bo\" /o o.D.i E .^ -<.5 qP il Bt s il il il..= 7. ar e) b c: E il il*) ra (.E : sl t-r \o 'r q) + Z =2 rl bb : I d'Eg€ YI\ \o rn @ E x. E = eE\ iJ.2 O ic 10 e F C. E !^ =*:9 9 F'=?E Jn :>> : .d' " gX A | | | | z : J> q. \J 6oF E j d -PgHF:.r> 6()F Fq x la .l 3 p 3 El€ ll XeF. 4 { El =': Lo+:u Fo ''0t X I r\ . /\E. X 5t .:. i X :A ?= < .ll ll s ll ll. .i: E F p . its -i - vl + X A . .) A + f-..7 = = -F4F> ts-_> C l :l : Rl.i.El 6 E e .?qrI *p=ir iE . a lr Its J rOv xo t...A il=:- oj -& .E FE -0 : I E I. =.l I O.\ ..- \ 3 5 E sX..\ I r* a 6 3 €F'E II 8 : i 3 "? s I '_ lry \. il e. E . j .oO "i. E o . E. = '=. : lE 'E e E E l it : 6 ..

(L-0)4+C. L=4 m =4000 m m 24L'- I l rrrl rrl lr xct i end.n l)cflection at the free end B.e. -' I r' l gtl r.1rtl ztro intensity at the free end..M .which are : 30EI deflection) l). Tind the slope and (ii) By substitutingx=0 and 4=0 in equation(i).rr. 6L 4 .11) w = llrl \rrlrstituting x:L andy:yn in equation(iu).wL3 Et:dx=24L . 11) . w e get =- 24 Er+=-: "'dx !-:-.(13.( tt ) /a:Deflection at the free end. wLa dx Yu= 3oEI ..5+C' x0+C2 t20L' rltifrff 1.g24 c l = .rprltion (iii) is known as slopeequation and equation (iv) rr J=fl-'ttttti r. ( ilvcr r : 0==Y= . 1L-xys+C6+ C2 r2o 30 where C1 and C2 are constantof integrations..tt' .'cr luat ion ( 13. Eq u a ti n g th e tw o v a i u e s o f B .1 ia=Slope at the free end and w \< wL3 . A cantilever of length 4 m carries a uniformly 0=--i: . .tyr=-# u-Us-. we get .M. " ' . and 50 kNlm at the wLa Rse:le.12) (t) By substitutingx=0 and /=0 in equation(ii).. The slope and deflection at the free end (i.l or c'=Tzo' ll .( tttt \ 'e l t t c oI 1= 108 mma U | *... . 24 1. a t a n v s e c ri o ni s al sc.u=-#radians.( l__+_ - UL 24 120 5wL4+wL4 wLa :-# w =. !=0.1. y ! .10.(13.24L rv=50kN/m=w=50 N/mm Substitutingthe valuesof C1 and C2 in equations(i) and ( tt ) get V l l t t e ' ol ' E=2x1ff N/mm2 -..EVERS 657 : _ ewI { t _ _ } ) .rl \rrh slit ut ingx=L and 9=ia in equat ion ( lii) . fr)' --| | . . =- . (:ANTIT. we get .'fheir v?lues. we get AL (L .r piriirt ff l r nrr lrc obtained by substitutingx=L in these equations.Y! .t."!3 t*# w (L -x )5 ^ wLa wLa E Iy = 1 -1 1 + C 6+ C 2 . " d-x t tl . Bu t B . tL-0. I lre=r. (Minus sign meansdownward obtainedfrom boundaryconditions. } o' lTt Nlmm2 and l=ld mmo. 6L'" ^ wL3 In te g ra ti n g th e a b o v e e q u a t i on.wrrwarddeflectionof B is given by (i) at x:0. 1l=0 and (ii) at . STRENCTIIOF MAi! iii FERS III IN ()I.-x \o * C r In te g ra ti n g a g a i n ..1 11. r* .il.L ) A../ -* rji nt irh ( L . I rt ro Skrpe at the free end B and M=E I\4 t.gi ven by equati on {i 2.dy w (L-x). w e g e t I. yr=-i'^!-.r=0.20 l rl I l '.n:(-rr+c. w e get f .n ttt llrr frce end. we get *flee llt.luolion... wLa and LI)'=-1r0 (L-x)". we get Fr ofrferrr lJ.

wL3 '.l..10.\'I l . M .12). 1111ilgver . 12. l rqrrr |'r . =i=iil'l x. =50 N/ m nr ) is given by equat ion ( 13.. a n d w ='.ta' F i g . l. gat t he f r ee end due t o t r iangular load of int ensit y ) t' 30EI . -- 24EI Problem 13. determine the slope .'" =0. Ans.ffi167rad.1 l) ef lect ion at t he f r ee end due t o u. where this N/mm at fixed end. ?5 x 1(KK) = --::. d.00667rad. I)eflection at the free end due to triangular load. 11) . Accor ding t o t his m et hod t he changeof slope w= 25 N /m m ) i s g i v e n b y e q u a ti on (13.10 :".d..=-iH=-t#ffi* =0.{=. deflection of the canlilever at the free end.t. we get def lect ionat t he f r ee encl due T h e l o a d a c ti n g o n th e c a n ti l everi s show n i n Fi g. wL3 30:z2x1Sx10E l- . load of 25 kNlm at the free end to 75 klllrn at the fixed lr I -E:lxtd Z4xtx1ffx108 If l.we get 6x1x1f f x108 wLa l l r. 1.]N'I'AREA METHOD i z = Sl o p e a t fre e e n d d u e to tri angul arl oad of i nten' rl i l lrt rrronrclttarea method is discussedin Art. 11) as -r -.--:-:.33rnm A ns.l wLa I 30EI 25kN.1 05 N /mm2 r'.r'. '. 13. x. A cantileverof length2 m carriesQ uni.:' Ans.l l rrrr ( r . L = 2 m =2000 mm =0. (i) Slope at the free end lf l ilFr't. Given : =irliz L e n g th .tlmm2 and I=108 mma.1 5 ) (ii) Usingequation(13.x t4000 = 50 tr ' " --=27.l l. 1. I rcrrt ' t 'r pr at ion( i3.f r. of 25 n-/nrnr = = rl " ' l rr. Vaiue of 1 :1 0 8 mnra.8. 13.00167 Load at the free end =25 kNim =0.1r .:rpplied to a simply supported bearn.d. . Ans- ' 6EI 25 x 2tYJtP (Here i t=i a .00497.0033+0."' j-I -s0x20001 :2. STRENGfi OF MAIEI(I . r luat ion( 13.:("t'toN AND SLopE oI. '.f"r''' 5ox2oos (Hete w=5o (Here w=50 N. 12) . r r vir 1!load of zer o at t he f r ee end and 50 N/ m m at t he fl l cC rrr.6'l mm I 30x1x1Sx108 denectfi. of 25 N/ m m Vaiue of E = Ix . A CANTILEVER By L e t i t= 5 1 e p e a t fre e e n d d ue to u. r '.'nrm) Nimm) varyinp. lor:rl slop€at the free end Sol.-:. Il ' r l fi ui l l load is equivalent to a uniformly distributed load of 25 kNim (t't ' wLa 25x200U N/ m m ) o v e r th e e rrti rel e n g th a n d a tri angul ar l oad of zero i ntei r' rl \ =5 mm 8EI 8x1x1Sx10t at f r ee e n d a n d (7 -5 -2 5 = 5 0 k N i m or 50 N /nrm) 50 N /mm at the fr' " 1 end. we get deilect ion at t he f r ee end t o grrfl l rrrrl l r' . Let us apply this The slope at the free end due to u.l .r= ee' !rr\ t w( ) p<lint sis equal t o t he net ar ea of t he B.5) as E . =25 Nhm 1(ruO I t f t f r e l l r 'r t t r ttl 1 1 1 th e fr e e e n d Load at fixed end = 7 5 kN i m= 75 N i mm I r' l r.E l l trt tl ttN ( )l ('ANTILEVERS 659 . of 25 N /mm III ItIII. diagr am .

Fig. 1 3 . diagram wL3 . of the areaA from B. (t t la= ' . Fig thr rrrrl /l lt carries a uniformly distributed load of wlunit length 13. Lj 3L w. Let in:Slope at B and A rcl of B. r r t ir elengt h. and I l. f l l J l rr) s lr owsa cant ileverof lengt h L f ixed at end. . of B . 4 and f r ee at f3. Lz u=3'L'.4.M.L wlz I lrr. lxLxW.. diagram from B. Cantilevercarrying a point load at the free end. ) | . Cantilever carrying a uniformly distributed load. The variation T h e B. 'EI 3EI where A=Area of B. w i l l b e z e ro a t B a n d w i l l beW .fl.M. L3 Then according to moment area method. of area of B. LI where A=Area of B.\ ffiFl tlt I r )N ( )ti CANTILEVERS 61 between these two points divided by EL If one of the points is havirrlr 1 l)istance of C. 13.ffi STRENCTH OF MATERIAI . D IAGR AM Fig.. then we can obtain the slope at the other point. W/U N ITL EN GTH A I rt | | I t. dt the frrctl cnd. =iw.8. the slope and deflection are zero.G.4 . b e tw e e n / a n d B i s l i n e a r a s show n i n Fi g. )a:Deflection at B 1 w.. M . The vari ati oi r d H M l)(. 13.= . ) 1.M. diagr am ( ABC) . 2 lirrl tlre rhstanceof the C. 11 n'! I lrc lt . the slope and deflection are zero.M. ri ll I B. Area of B.12(b). M . then tht' l deflection at the point B according to this method is given by w. .lwcen A and B is parabolic as shown in Fig.11(a) showsa cantileverof length L fixed at end A and free at l rct tl rr.M. will be zero atB and will b" at . diagram between A and B w. the end B.:w 'L ' 6EI 4 gEI ' 2 . M .M . r.L2_2L ) ^z W. diagram from B zero slope.M. 12 F i g . Similarly if the deflection at a point A is zero.L3 u -A i yu=_EI .ni|ccrlrdingto momentarea method.13. Diagrambetween/ and B t B: 3L EI 4 )xABxAC I r'l ia=Slopeat B and =z_ (A rea of tri angl e .L at A . It carriesa point load W at B. diagrambetween1 and B.G. of the B. At the fixed end A.Ai 'o=-=6EI a nd .G.f. I:Distance of C.2. Ax LI rnrl y B---=.M. Area of B.L_ EI 2EI . La .11 (b).48( EI ys:Deflection at B.

f l [.! W/UNIT LE N 6TH lll (. But B.3. e 4 6E I gE r' i" l !r e* 211: l. l7r =20 kN =20000N | ' . d i a g ra m A l el I I o=j'o' w . 'FDx EF=ix ! x40=20 kNm 2 .20x2= . Cantilevercarryinga uniformlydistributedload upt.r'l E: 1N N/ m m z \' rl rrc o l l.. AN u! the free end and another load of 20 kN at its centre.r'.a 3 z = 6 ll l. ..20 kNm The B. DIAGRAM Fig. the cantilever then determine i distributedloadof w/unitlengthovera length'c'from ghsfixedcrr.' IFC ililN ('t.r3 ff t\{ i rr ( ' =. diagr am .1 3 (b )." Let in=Slope at B anC I B.t2. f .:. at A will l.8. tl F ltt' Nt.M.13 (a) showsI cdn'rilcr.will be paraboiic . lVz=20 kN =20000N \' .e 2 =.'=J 'tl :t. y=1 L _ a 1 +l II I t*' . At th e fi x ed end the sl ope and defl ectr - are zeto. .4 and freeat the end ts.r. 13.tl f r ee end.l r L=2 m | .r l rrrrl( hc ar ea of B. 1 3 .( ANTI-E\€RS Frrfrfcrrr l-1. 62yf f ( : \ r 2Ax7 fr =10 kir {m z=10xlt Fx 106Nm m z lu: E! ( '. i of lengthL fixed at end. w. T'he variationof B.t 51 tsi.20r 7.a3 | (L-a)+-3a 1| =1010Nm m z 6Frx | al '. rrf B. 20x1 =. .G..rrl. i3. lm I lm and the distance of the C. ' ti rrri l ..r ttrtn ntethod. betweenC and .€r 0 kNm :-. r w t he B.rr f l: r r r ': r At =CDXAC=20X1=20 kNm 2 = w.trrrr)and I=108 mmo 7o. diagr am .rvcn : I r rry.N{. It carriesa uniforn'1. Fig.l .108 m m a I trst rl r. diagram from B.r3. A re a o f B. will be zero at B and C. M . =. fl tl l ..M. M . Then according to moment area method. f3. ' m 2: 106 r nm 2) = w. D l l N l i l lJ -0 Fig. 13. 13. 14 ( b) E i l n l i i l l rl rrrrg'lcs and O ne r eCt angle. a3 G-a)+ .a z w .20x1Ct 3x1S Nm m w.'rlr.tt A L -60x 1fI3x 103 Nmnr s hown in F i g .M...lJ[' 'll I 62 STRENCTFIOF MATEI{IAI I. iu:!=\'r?t= EI 6EI hi l W r tt( 'i l A1=ix. 14 I )a=Deflection at B.tl ccnt r e.. A cantilever of length 2 m carries a point I a length'a'from the fixed end. r am is shown in Fig..rrl.1 rl r ir l'.r l. divide t he Fig.rl rrr.M.M. the slope and deflection of the cantilever at * = h. 14 ( b) .

i= ArTt+A. r l)istance of C.ziz+A3x3 =1ox (ix 1)+20x(1+|)+20x(1+ix 1) wLa when it carries a uniformly distributed f u= load over the whole length 8EI :f *:o*$=70 kNm3 when it carries a uniformly nao *.i no3 t B= t c 1. Then according to the moment area method. ZEI of 'c' from the fixed end Area of B. Ans. . The slope of a cantilever at the free end is given by. w. . *ftr'r.t. .' m3:109 mrrr' l - lr= gEI* 6EI (L-a) distributed load over a =7x1013Nmm3 length'a'from the fixed end. 50xl(Fx10o :-ffi=o'oo5radians' I Moment of inertia. t.I{I. and Ans' l.O+ rO (L-al fixed end A. L 8E/-. .M.l 2EI arF . W l'oint load. 6EI ) when it carriesa uniformly distributed load over a length'c'from the free end HIGHLIGHTS when it carriesa graduallyvarying load wLa )'B=3oEI from zero at the free end to w/m run at l. when it carries a uniformlY .at the fixed end slope and deflections rn= when the point load is at the free en. L' dist r ibut ed load over a dis- . Hence moment area method can be easily applied for tlnrltrrp. wL3 ar thefreeendto w/mrunar Slope and deflection at the fixed end is zero. ll glvlrr lry.The slope (da) and Wa2 when the point load is at a distarrtt' ta=tc= deflrrtrorr(ya) at the free end is given by.6EI tribut6dload over a length 'a' frtnn *fur. when it carries a uniformly tlr'. wL7 .ii'3=50 kNmz I ^=- 6EI 6EI tance . ifr::r.N ()l: CANTII-EVERS 65 Total area of B.w. 'l'he deflection of a cantilever of length L. Then total momentof the bendingmomentdiagramabout /t when the point load is at a wa3 waz . at the free end Then according to moment area method.l 't t EI tn=-6EI load over the whole length . x" y8:m5x1os=7 mm.r'r. Iror a cantilever.D=T n' (Jniformly distributed load.).\I ltl'l'l lr( ll( . f t r f'. 2. Diagram and the fixed end.skrpc and deflectionsof cantilevers. l .M.' m2= Lff nr.M. . diagrambetweenfree end and fixed end . en g th o f b e a m ." when it carries a gradually varying load . w. l . Let /s=Deflection at the free end B.'l Ar<:a of B.M.Lz when it carries a uniformly distribrrtc. STRENCTH OF MATF. l.d' from the free end = 5 0 x 1 F x 1 ff N mm2 (' .ii. r . of B.at =70x1Gx10eNmm3 (' . 1 . we get wLa I wtL-ala w(L-al3 7 x 1013 l'= 8EI. the fixed end. -l Substitutingthis value in equation(i).Area of B. . diagram. Young's modulus. diagram .G. Ax Y":EI " ' {r' wL3 yu=w when the point load is at the free end Now let us find i or A7. distance of 'a' from the is given by f a=. irffi Let ia:Slope at the free end B. diagram from free endi h .al' ^=i.rr .M. \ L.

If m om ent of iner t ia / = 10t m m t a n d v a l u e o f E =2 x 1 0 5 N / m n r ...rrlof 8 kN/m over a length of 1 m from the fixed end. r r r o tl te rl o a d o f 3 0 kN a t i ts ce n tr e . (li) Moment area method. l f 1 :1 0 8 m m o a n d me tho d. [ Anr . . 3. de t e r m i n e t h e s l o p e a n d d e f l e c t i . l t t . l .0075 rad. 99m m ] EXEITCISET3 i I l)r'tcrmine the slope and deflection at the free end of a {atilrrrr r. ( Bangalore University. *ir r r r n Llr ( 'u m o m e n t m e th o d . Ta ke Et=2 x1 0 '' N /m m t' 1. [Aos.L .rrrl'f cantilever. .'l ll) [N rrt a distance1 m from the end. 5. Find the expressionfor the slope and deflection of a cantilev. r \2 ) A'"o ll l t:: err. 1. .nL' wL" FC l. 0 . 0.M. [A ns. What is a cantilever ? Wtat are the different methods of fintiir:r [An s.1 .l lcngth 4 m which is carrying a uniformly distributed-load of (A) Theoretical Questions i i | 1 r . .00326 rad..t u. t A (':rntileverof length 2 m carries a uniformly varying load of -E=2x10' which carries a giaduaiiy varying load from zero at the free en<l to p/m iu . f i n d : (i) slope at the free end and (u) deflection at the free end. Derive an expressionfor the slope and deflection of a cantilev.1-5 rr. diagram sometimesis found easil-'-1. E/= Fiex ur ai r igir lit y . Find the slope and def]ection i . r ' N t u r r r r r . then find : fl A r :r r r ti l e ve ro f l e n g th 'L 'ca r r i e s a U . r w ^a.fi])75 rad.th '. by moment area methoci..1 [An.rrrrlcarries a point load of 9 kN at the free end and a uniforml-v" the fir. . 1.1 6EI 48EI of 24 kN/m length over the entire length. A cantilever cf length 3 m carries a point load of 6O kN at . t A cantilever of length 2 m carries a loaC of ?0 kN at the free .r splittingthe combinedareasinto trianglesand rectangles STRENGTHOF MATEI{iIl .l 4. .0 x1 0 r N /m m t a n d /=1 . .2 5 x1 0 'm m ' a n d E=2 . the slope and deflection l..1 0 8m n r '' 6Et i l t . . llf A c:rntileverof length 2 m carries a point load. 12. : r i r r h r .D . A cantilever of length 30 m carries a uniformly distributcd lr.A0 2 7 r a d '.gf 30 kN at thc l# *l . . fl th fu.50 rnm] free en d.. r l .. 2 . Solve questior. 0 0 5 r a d .rr the free enrt. w>a vt (L-a)+ at the free cnd.5 4n r m ] [Ar s.loPc at the free end and (u) deflection at ihe free end.2 mml " 24Er " iAEr whe re € /= Flex ur al r igidit y .3 on page 662. 1 .0 0 1 8 3 r a d .. . lf E= 2 x 1 0 5 a n d / =1 0 8 . l .ing a point load l.6 m m ] l Attt. (i) Double integration method and f a h r r . And deflection at free encl. [Ars. . 2. f. A cantilever of length 2 m carries a point load of 30 kN at th. 6 . 0.. 3..rr. I 990) 2.l l. carri. r l cn g th o f 3 m fr o m th e fi xe d e n d .r r4 :i0 'mrnt a nd v alue of E= Zx 16t N/ m m 2. r p hrrrg. t ( L \3 rrx I .0 1 7 7 7 r a d i a n s.. Determine the sloPe and deflection at the (il) deflection at the free end. .r r. i 4 i n r '. . I S t'c Article 13." t*Fi lrr il|lN ( )tr CANTILEVERS I A c:tntileverof length 3 m carries a uniformly distributed load 6'r . find the slope and deflection of the fiee end.' O. ... v . { l i l t t . *E =r . ind 45 kN/m at the fixed end. If at the fixed end are gi'.' I l)t'tcrmine the deflection at the free end of a cantilever which of le ng th L ' whic h c ar r ies a unif or m ly dis t r i b u t e d l o a d o v e r a l e n g t h 'a 'f i o r .. If th e sl o p e a i th e fr e e e n d i s 0 .5 x. '. 0.I/ at the free end by double irrtegralr. .25 mm] 4.'r. Here a= Hence slope clistan ceof 2 m f r om t he f ix ed end..-- ano Yn= g E t 'l 'a ke E=2 . If moment of inertia of the be:r. r 'r r rl wh ere rv:Unif or m ly dis r r ibut c d load and 0 ..the fixed end. o vcr a l e n g th o f 2 m fr o m th e fr e e e n d .. ?.. r r t r r r 'l cn g th . Prove that the slope and deflection of a cantilever carri'in. Eh lnltsfrrrtv.'enby : trb6. 0 .fi n d : lil '. o l w p e r u n i t l o r a . . (t 0. 10.0054rad. 61. Prove that the slope and deflection of a cantilever length 1. l f Ef =1 0 " N /m m 'fo r th e (B) Numerical Problems *lil. Area of B.8.r' of length L.. 6.r uniformly distributed load over the whole length are given bv.2 x1 0 t N /m i :r t.I (i) slope of the cantilever at the free end and p. io=*'Lt and u^=-Yl .ed end by lhulr.7 7 5 m m l of slope and deflection of a cantiiever ? r A cantilever of length 3 m carries a uniformiy distributed load 2. (il) 4 mrrr..tur thr'n (lctermine by moment area method.003 rad. fi n d th: rl el L r l l rr.| [Ans.rt the free end. 0.f rrr --_:i!-=y:!. I u.. [A"s.1/ l{}' mm'. 39. 'r . . 8 .

+- 2 )' lEI 48EI 2 r2ttt t Conjugate Beam Method.(INJI. I lrc slopesand deflection at any section ofa beam by conjugate F:anr lrr. Then the shear force at any point t*l lhe rrrrluf{:rt€ beam gives the slope at the corresponding point of Gltal lrr'rrrr. The load on the conjugate beam at any point F :quel to thc B. tl . The slopes and *flrr tf.rrrsof such beams can be easily obtainedby conjugate beam Itlhrrrl II T I...'tlr. at that point divided by 81. let us first *hle .ulr' (r.ugatebeam is an imaginary beam of length equal to that il thu on. .rl l he beam.M.X.IGATE BEAM METHOD llelotc describing the conjugate beam method. l la I rN'|'RODUCTION I llrr skrpes and deflections of beams and cantilevers may be i*lctlnl from various methods like double integration method.r. w L4 _w xL1 f l __l _ \= yl 4+ 3 i Propped Cantileversand Beams 96EI I28EI EI \ 96 I28 ) EI tZa " . ll". at any point on the conjugate beam . . orrjrrgatebeam. | wxl. conjugate *anr tr I on\rructed. h M nl that point divided by EI).xl as given by : | ['hc slope at any section of the given beam is equal to the *t lr'.tl 6EI t I l\ " L\ I. ion l i e..lnu lnlxrrious. Hence the loading S lhs r orrlrglrt€ beanr is known.7 --7 EI 384 384 EI A " r. etc. .=.l L. when applied to beams whose flexural rigidity ff r llrc prrxluct of E and / is known as flexural rigidity) is not lfllfrtrrr tlrroughout the length of the beam. I orr.M. the load at any point on the conjugate beam is equal lf. I Iltc deflection at any section for the given beam is equal [3 ffte lrr'rrrlrtgmoment at the correspondingsection of the conjugate lrrt llotrr'c hefore applying the conjugate beam method. . But these methods kr. h" . Frtrterrl iuc:t method.rr a( the correspondingsection of the coniugate beam. ' I rliagram is a diagramwhich showsthe variation of MIEI over i F==l el E t L^l/l . And the B. . t L\4 I t L4 \z t wxL' L w.qinal beam but for which the load diagram is the 4 EI fr. OF MATEruNI '' STREI{GTH ly / L \3 "^\x zl-): .. wL4 w xL4 . Macaulay's method. o*"r p ". _ w x L 4 . l.

. r r r u tr n g th e va l u e s o f C 1 a n d C . x + c r .i tf I tt.1tr. r {r ln te g ra ti n g a g a i n .1i1u1ing x:0 and 1=0 in equation(i).JNTi.ept '64 I r.=. T"w 64. -io&-'ir-+*# . we get ax {) .0 ) 3 + c r w W/ U N I TL E N G T H {r I -F wL3 .l -..M . we get Ffirt t. wl.L) qt. t E Iv . u.rlrtcof x=L is substizutedin these equations. -l F i g .wf Lt i+ c ' A cantileverAR of lengthL fixed at the point A and l:.. '' "' (l --t.#:-.Ft f t rN r ('ANnLEVERS 't.t 8EI zero).ixL+.r . {EI ' I=geeL. wl.= -w (L -x ).) lly srrb5. M.r l!€ trl. a .6) 24 r{I. wLa 3 wLa obtained from boundary conditions. we get t he def lect ion at B as = -# (L -x \a + C 6 +C 2 .. lfEa.3.4. I3..1)* c. itt 6*24=. . f lr. tl .r1 r . tL-xtz lrr l)cflcction at the free end B.a the point B and carryinga uniformly distributedload of w pi. ( iv) B u t B . (. \ wI 2 ttt ( . . a t a n y s e c ti o n i s a l so gi ven by equati on (12.1rrn. which are : (i) at x=0. y:0 in equation(ii). 13. _ .g+(-1)+c.(tt) w wL3 t t tn ( L. wl..a WL ' o=-! (L-q4+Ctxo+c2 lrr . DTS'IRTBEJTED LOAD .i.1 STRENG]H OF MAIi-.'{}N|.( L .. .. we get slope at B as t. ilwL.ty Consider a section X.rrron (iii) is known as slope equation and equation (ir. ' W=Tot al load: w.r.l. l l t. '24 length over the whole length.vr (Mi nus si gn due to hoggi rr r i . L) =Y I L lj)or .rt t'.* C r 1 wLl h . . Integratingthe aboveequation. r l " .M.wLa ..rr('(l :rt any sections.. ii=0 (as the deflectionand slope at fixed end A ar..L) o. . )=0 arr.a WL3 (a l'n' " ('"' W:w.we get I r. itt tii. 1 3.3) r. . | -r ttt Slr pe at t he f iee end B and --*v Er 7i=-.r . r t ion( ir i) . r ir t : .t. ( iii) M . I}E}LT]CTTOI{OF A CANTILEVER WITH A I.B :- I 't 6 . we get x'l .To find the stope and deflection at Equatingthe two valuesof B. at a distance x from the fixed enri I T he B . I t r r w n w l l ( l d e fl e cti o n a t B. w .. . i n e q u a ti o n ( r ) a n d ( i i ) . ( 13.{r-x)3+c.l t i rr-9'-r!1 .r. rlt r. t ( r ( ) n( iv) . a t th i s s e c ti o n i s g i v e n b y. . w e g e t r r '/ ..r. is shownin Fig.| t I .(13. From these equations the slope and deflection M=Er 2 =l. (r) By substitutingx:0.l r r.3-w rr r' L3 1"- 6 =f.8 (ii) at x=0.. Their values ar( wl.) :ts rlpflr' tt.0 where C1 and C7 are ponstant of integtations.3 rc::l .

rJ palcauap sr ueaq e r{3lr{^\.. ) f l .De =Je . -slp 'r'l) ertuer eql le 7 (z\ t.sfsns niYss Y JO SdO'rS ONV NOTJJS.{q}unoue eqt fpnts 11eqs leE a. ?xI (t )"' u8/ 'g=+ Jr luelsuoc eq llyrr ernle^rnJ Jo snlper aqf uotlenba aq1 zl ZW .11etus..(.{q ua.l I3 [ 0l) uott*nbauor.'raldeqc srqt uI 'uorltsod leurSHo sll ruorJ palJagep sr tuseq eql 'f1r1uenb llutus e sr { uorlcegap aql 'upeq 'peo1 lurod e Jo peol pelnqulslp .t11Qxg). aql sa.uo.-g AZ= t 'uouJes uBeq I' ZI' E IJ al{l Jo Elleut Jo luauo}ll=1 7 (suerper ul) t=l uls aJueq .Oal sr r a.^ .rou{ e^! 'elJlJ u .1 ( [ .. g DV Lq uaoqs sl a \ uorlrsod peloauep aql seeJaq^r 'g)V f..o fuleuoaEeqt uorJ oslv k '20" ' I7Z _ !=3g=3y .71) uortenba eq1 t I 'JJP JelnJlls e olul puaq lll. rusaq 3ql ]o uollJagaQ=( 'ruBaq pal)eueP aql JoororBAJ'r *i':"^1: y^r:-r^ ft) adolg to aryo71 ^. 'I'ZI NOIJJNOOUIM n r(| 1t-nlll=- 7.rrr aJueH 'elqrErlEeuaq ll!.'.t' .e o1 palcalqns .VZ = J ) .l \7l lBrfl /r\oul e^il'&ov )v alSueul urorC I.) // .rr3 (1.^^.runselueo tueaq € JI lecrlcurd e .r '(r) uoriunbau! U Jo anl€^ eql 3ur1n1llsqng oJ osrf.ro.{ Surlr:r.l r I .{q .{1u-ro..{lluunb lletus p .TJSS 'Z'Zr ( t t )'' ' ro '3re JBlnclrJ B ul puaq #=' f ll.nJB ut spueq qJrq^\ I I rrA\oqssi ureaq eql Jo uorlsod 1er1uraqa ruBeq 3 Jo uollJeuap lBrlue.tr 'qctq.{r 'luelsuoc st 1. Z Z Ax(d-UZl=-:x-: sru2ag Io uou?aL[aQ l7 F'-J .r) y pua aql le ueaq eql Jo edol5:r lt =d . Htz ( epeu al8uu aqt ''a'.lr l! aJueq (r'zr)"' Ig8 'lueruotu Surpueqluelsuof.o anlel aql 'pepeol uaq.l .lE sl rue?q polJegep ar{l Jo arnlelrnJ Jo snlpBr aql 'lueuotu Qz:Iz t Surpuaqo1 palcafqns aq lllrr ll 'ueaq eql uo Surlcu spuol aql ol an(I 'uorlsod sll r.o arunbs aql oJu.8uno.r 'uollunba aloqe aql ur ..)ll aa.ii. ur eleqJ'lr elsuoc..))x)CI=B)x)V L} 16S Sh IVEB CO NoLl . 06s ro y tu uBaq papegep aql Jo edolsar{l se^rE(Z'Zl) uortenbg lprll .q 'Jle JelnJ.Eue aql aJuts .19 | ---:-= \ /I pue 'leueletu tuPeq eql JoJ snlnpou s.hoqs sB ht .n JoJ rueaq u=1 e leHl suparu slql 'rtl luetuour Eurpueq luelsuoJ e ot pelcefqns sr gN eneq aA\ 'uorlenba Eurpuaq uto{ lng ueaq eql Jl ' tuB l suoJ eq l l y/ ' hll\ zxl) r .{ tuaruou Eurpuaq uuoJlur-le o1 palraf E n " -r a -qns sr ? QlEuelJo &y ureaq V U z'I INII IOW CNIONStr IAIUOJINN laE a.nop I 7xN '(gy ue"q eql qt!$ y le luaSuel aq1 .=A l() z7N sl ureeq eql sV 't'ZI '8lJ ur r.4.)J eJuul azuov _=_=_=l uls t-.r.

)rlt l..o3 eql Jo rttpl^\ aqt Euole ssarls apsual ou roJ ef. rr:q1fe.)ups eql uo antlrsod eq ol ua{ul are . turod lV 'enrlsod are ( pue r 'g lurod ut lurod due le ssatls luutlnr.{ pue x^-.o {lculuaccg=a 'suY 'zuu/N Lej'z: urunloJ eql uo Suplcepeol cFluoJJE=d la'l L8L'. +y_od l rl ootx'w G[e$^w' d "=2 q .s$p eql rorJ ur: ueqJs lng 'uollJas egl ur araqn{ue ssaJls apsual ou sl areql uurll nel . 00000t peol e ot palcalqns sl uorl)rs \rll nn.nilrI slvlultrvhl co HlDtllluts .!'t9LxfiLx9Ltzt 00000I ll ( ! ) "' (*-. *''. - qldep pue .l.)rl l l t8|r-€e8'z.r-Ltt'.} or sNorJJss uv.l-l srxe aql ruor u .iltln 00IXeOIXS et'e8xilI xtLt'2. 'suv 'zuu/N 66s'II= ( r'o )"' 2=.nBuelcer e Japtsuo.n e qJns ul surunloJ aseql uo parldde eq lsnu peol eqr eJuelslp due le parldde sr puol er{l Jr eJuaH .) -T<bv-- E a 3.4'/D>* '\$J I l r )uel l nsereJueH ' turu 00[--( p ue uu f f .r.)r . ! =r 'y t ur od t y ( 1) 'anle8au sr ( seereqn errrlrsods! r 'y lurod 1y I tsr" 01 3urpueg pue ssarls lJarp .d.{ Jo senle^ eql aroffi gss!ruJs 9NICNABCINVl. {lrculuacca eql ler{r sa\ogs lFsal eloq" eq.r \rr sseJls lJelrp secnpord lr'urun. | 9/q l e /q t:t .6) uorlenba tuo{ ueqJ.: ( oot.) x ^ N ' d axg')d 'J le ss"rls 0<'!-d lusllnsererueH 'urtu Q[f =( puv Lz'gL-=x'J lulod lv (lg) 'utun.t= qOtx9S'?0I_ g0Ix598'€9 _ .rBllnseJ peol eql .) I=''-o (oot-) x'N Qz'91-)x^w d sB ssaJls unulutru eql aleq e^[ .an. "r . qlp!$ Jo r.oc B uo Euuce sl ppol JuluaJJa are sasserlseqt'A-A sxe aql Jo apls fue uo .alrssaJduor A. tng 'altsual aq llp\ sserls uaql .r alrleSeu s! r 'J lurod 1y uns cre:qeEleeql st uorllJ\ Jlll anrleSau qloq are r( pue r '8. 'g le ssalls 'uollJes eql Jo ealv_y aJuaH'uru 00I-=/( pue Lz'gL-=x'g lulod ly (ll) rr.aq um ppol eql r{Jult\ urqlytl eEua aql aJueH .1!) ax9 'suv 'zuu/N ss9's= o\ ' -I I 0< axg ") rr 19|r+EE8'Z- Lq6t= t' ' -.t+L0L'.r 'anrlsod sl ( seareq.r o o rx ' N' Q z ' g t . q *. 'f .9.L69Z _ Jo rllplrr\ aql Euole sseJls altsuet ou eq lll^\ eJer{l uaql (alrllsrxl rrrf olaz st ulud !r.(2.re.l +9'eL69Z 9t ' 6 ' 8lJ srxP eql ol JulueJJe st ll.) "' n r " * .4' q_ le ssarls lll luellnsal a3uaH 'utu QQt=f pue €l'€8:r 'g lurod lV (.).)..uaH 'suv 'zuu/N L06't-= ' uurnl (). *y=rd lal '9I'6 '3ld ul rur\or{ssr! . rl Wottcss io'IgNugx''a'tl sr peol ar{l Jo {Iculuecca lsaleerE eql eJuaH ..L0L't: qOIx99't0I _ qOIx S98'€9 _9't.sr utwd 00IxsOlxS L.)uaH 'uorsual ur {8eI$ aJE suunloJ ele. .rl lB aJuaH 'ur3Fo eql sr O ereH 'peol eql su pue X-X Jo aprs oril 'ssarls Eurpuaq )^u llrtr .a.{ .r()rt rrr 'y lB ssalls .or. ill 18|V+III'e* LOL'e= q " I* nnl .rcuoc lueurac aql '. +Y=ld 0< -.IncNvrJau uod s'Inu ourHJ s'rcoflAr '9'6 t"nn" r() ulrll ssal eg lsnru .