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Duyen Tran MBAV5652 1

Columbia Southern University – MBAV5652

Prof. Dr. Monica Sainz

Tran Thi Hong Duyen – ID 186209- Class HOM#16B

Section Exam I

Question I: A researcher posted three research questions. Research Question 1: Did topics of

the visual coverage of the Iraq War differ between The New York Times and The Guardian

newspapers? Research Question 2: Did the visual coverage of the human toll and destruction

during the Iraq War differ between The New York Times and The Guardian newspapers?

Research Question 3: Did the visual coverage of the human toll and destruction during the

Iraq War differ in terms of nationality between The New York Times and The Guardian

newspapers? Following the criteria of what makes a good hypothesis; construct a hypothesis

for these questions. Make sure that you explain why your hypothesis meets the criteria.

Based on three research questions were posted by researcher, a hypothesis for these

questions as follow: “There is a difference in the visual coverage of the Iraq War in term of

support for the war between The New York Times and the Guardian newspapers.” I

personally think that this hypothesis can meet all of criteria to create a good hypothesis that

defined by Salkin (2009, p. 29).

The hypothesis is not stated as a question. Conversely, it is stated in declarative form

with clear, understandable, and strong statement about the problem. In addition, it clearly

describes the expected relationship between two variables that are the visual coverage of the

Iraq War in term of support for the war between The New York Times and the Guardian

newspapers. Moreover, the researcher will analyze Iraq war-related photographs appearing in

the US press, represented by The New York Times, and the British press, represented by The

Guardian to find out the difference in visual coverage. Besides, this hypothesis also reflects

the theory or literature upon which they are based (Salkin, 2009, p. 29). It requires to be

researcher can discover whether the two newspapers visually portrayed the Iraq war differently." From my point of view." is not really a good hypothesis because of some the following reasons. 2009. and understandable. The existence of “because” causes the statement become complicated. If not. However. this hypothesis does not describe the relationship between two variables. Additionally. simple. analyze the following hypothesis: "The hypothesis of this study is that lives will be saved when fitness centers are required to have AEDs on the premises because when they are not legally required to have them they often do not purchases them. Question II: Using the criteria for a good hypothesis. the hypothesis can be changed as follow “There is a relationship between lives saved and AEDs required at fitness centers. 30).Duyen Tran MBAV5652 2 based on observation and knowledge by researcher.” This hypothesis is short. the hypothesis "The hypothesis of this study is that lives will be saved when fitness centers are required to have AEDs on the premises because when they are not legally required to have them they often do not purchases them. Testable is the most important factor in a hypothesis. and destruction during the Iraq War.” To testable. it can be tested by examining the lives saved rate at fitness centers equipped AEDs and fitness centers unequipped AEDs. It is not necessary to explain too much in a hypothesis because it is easy to make people confusing. Through the visual coverage of the Iraq war represents selections from possible photographs that have been published at different stages of the news making process. The researchers need to rewrite the statement to get a clearer and simpler hypothesis. two variables are “lives saved” and “AEDs required at fitness centers. The most important is it can testable based on the topics. it is straightforward to the point. In this case. All of above. the research . The hypothesis is too long with two clauses in the statement. p. The hypothesis will be tested and the study will be reported the findings of whether the British people were less likely than the American people to demonstrate a positive attitude toward the war. It should be brief and to the point ((Salkin. the human toll.

(2) Neuhauser (2002) to state no statistical difference in two learning approaches. Problem and Purpose In this article. etc. Question III: Read the article "To stream or not to stream in a quantitative business course" by Buhagiar & Potter. Buhagiar and Potter reviewed from many studies.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 3 is ineffective and researchers cannot verify or reject it. Meyer. To mention about positive effect of video streaming. authors reviewed from Boster. they based on the research of Fill and Ottewill (2006). Besides. therefore reviewing from studies long ago is acceptable. . You will find this research study at: http://www. As result. etc. Roberto. However. Review of Previous Research 2. after testing it.aabri. and Giroux (2007) to prove the importance of streaming video in a quantitative class as well as Johnson et al (2009) to show the preference of face-to-face method in a statistics class. To state about the problem of school budgets related to treaming video cost. Inge and Strom (2006) and The Joint Information Systems Committee webpage (2009).pdf Answer the following section questions found on pages 58-59 of your textbook: 1. To define video streaming. the literature cited in the study related to previous literature is very closely by Buhagiar and Potter. When knowing that researchers’ hypothesis can be tested then they will consider and figure out ways on how to assess it.com/manuscripts/09417. the paper is also reviewed from studies long ago such as (1) Gagne and Shepherd (2001) and Argon and Shaik (2002) to demonstrate the similar performance of students between distance and face to face course and the student’s success is not affected by learning style. They also reviewed from Dupagne. The review is recent and complete. Buhagiar and Potter reviewed from Brown (2004) and Clark and Stewart (2007). they will know whether it is valid or not valid. Stacks. this topic has been studied rarely at near recent.

com/manuscripts/09417. There are many researchers conducted a study on this topic. Hypothesis 4.pdf Answer the following section questions found on pages 58-59 of your textbook: 3. Furthermore. The point of the study is related closely to the literature review and is clearly stated.” According to Salkin (2009). and to the point. The hypothesis follows based on the theory and . In general. Question IV: Read the article "To stream or not to stream in a quantitative business course" by Buhagiar & Potter.aabri. and purpose as well. understandable. then universities and schools should change their traditional teaching technique to reduce expense. this hypothesis meets all criteria to create a good hypothesis due to it has two variables “the outcome of learning through face-to-face lecture” and “the outcome of learning through video streamed lecture” for testing. This paper needs to explore whether there is a difference in student learning in a statistics course taught through video streaming with the option of going to a face-to-face lecture. You will find this research study at: http://www. However. Buhagiar and Potter can test the hypothesis by examining the difference in Grade Point Average (GPA) between two groups. Method The research hypothesis clearly and explicitly stated in the article is “There is no difference in student learning in a quantitative business course taught between through video streaming and face-to-face lecture. The importance of the study was based on the rationale that if the video- streamed group of students gives the same effects compared to face-to-face group of students. problem. Buhagiar & Potter conducted the research “To stream or not to stream in a quantitative business course” very well in aspect of literature review research. this hypothesis is very clear.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 4 I understand the statement of the problem clearly.

) There were no differences between subjects responding via mailed questionnaires versus the Internet. What type of sampling was this study? What is your analysis of this approach? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this approach? In this study. “overall grade” is defined as the dependent variable and “delivery method” is stated as independent variable. so all participants experienced this particular stress. 141 Italian subjects (85 women and 56 men). As the result. In other word. All participants selected for analysis had at least one child. Therefore. The authors divided the respondents into groups that Section 0004 was delivered through traditional face-to-face lecture and Section 0L01 was delivered through video streaming. The researchers concentrated on students of ECO 3401 course. two groups show different overall grades. They also defined clearly both the independent and dependent variables. then it would be the most effective choice for universities and schools to cut down the expense. Question V: Six hundred and sixty-two divorced individuals from Germany. (Use of the Internet to recruit Swiss participants probably accounts for the higher proportion of men in this subgroup. The article was demonstrated very clearly the method of the research and how the study was conducted. including 282 German subjects (228 women and 54 men). Italy. and 239 Swiss subjects (81 women and 158 men). In this study. stratified sampling and quota sampling are used to reduce sampling error. while participants in Switzerland were recruited nationwide via newspapers and an internet site.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 5 demonstration of relevant literature. Participants in Germany and Italy were recruited via newspaper advertisements (in Milan and Berlin). The study required all participants selected for analysis had at least one child for . delivery method includes traditional face-to-face lecture and video streaming lecture. If the video-streamed group gives the same learning consequences to the face-to-face group. Buhagiar & Potter evaluate the consequences to conclude whether delivery approach had a strongly effect on learning of students. and Switzerland participated in this study.

net/kb/measlevl. Second. First. Define the four levels of measurement. The researches get some following advantages and disadvantages when using stratified sampling and quota sampling. Besides. while participants in Switzerland were recruited all over the country via newspapers and internet for the higher percentage of men in this subgroup. The sampling frame is divided into geographical areas and genders in a stratified sample when the researcher required all participants came from Germany. What are the levels of measurement so important? .socialresearchmethods.php . and Switzerland and distinguished them into gender (women and men). to choose a sufficient number of subjects from each layer. The results from each layer may be of essential concern and can be studied individually. it is frequently administratively suitable to stratify a sample. it secures more effective reporting from the population than simple random sampling.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 6 experienced this particular stress. Italy. the researcher recruited respondents in Germany and Italy by newspaper advertisements (in Milan and Berlin). Stratification will always attain bigger accuracy if the layers have been selected so that participants of the same stratum are as related as possible in term of the feature of interest. this method is advantageous to get a sample every stratum separately when sub-populations differ notably. this method has disadvantages such as complexity in identifying suitable layers and more complicated to categorize and analyze consequences. The larger the differences between the layers. Furthermore. Then. the bigger achieve in correctness. or employees in a particular industry. It indicates that a subfield of the population in the study shares one common characteristic to ensure that layers in the population are fairly represented in the sample. Interviewers can be purposely qualified to confront a specific age group or ethnic group. In addition. Question VI: Read the supplemental reading at http://www. The subjects responding via mailed questionnaires versus the Internet were the same. the researcher specifies the appropriate stratums and their actual demonstration in the population.

On the other hand. There is not clearly different between two levels and two other levels in an ordinal scale like the difference in responses "very dissatisfied" and "somewhat dissatisfied" not equivalent to the difference in responses "somewhat dissatisfied" and "somewhat satisfied. For example. This level of measurement applies to compare the degree to which two subjects possess the dependent variable whereas nominal scales do not allow." or "very satisfied. This is the most different between ordinal and nominal scales. Although procedures for measurement vary in various ways. favorite color." The consumers’ feelings are ordered. interval scales do not ." "somewhat satisfied. Variables measured on a nominal scale are jersey numbers in basketball. However. Different types are measured in a different way. four levels of measurement can be classified by a few primary categories. Responses are simply categorized. Nominal scales: This measurement is used to name or categorize responses with no ordering among the responses is implied." "somewhat dissatisfied. It represents the lowest level of measurement. gender. Ordinal scales: It is used in case a researcher requires to measure consumers' satisfaction with either one product by specifying their feelings as "strongly dissatisfied." Interval scales: This is a kind of numerical scale and the interval with the same interpretation throughout does have meaning. there is no sense in which Buddhist is placed "ahead of" Catholic. handedness. people fail to get important information that will be displayed in the other scales he investigates.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 7 There are four levels of measurement to conduct a statistical analysis through measure the dependent variable. For example. in the Fahrenheit scale of temperature. ranging from least to most please. when classifying people according to their religion. and religion. the difference between 30 degrees and 40 degrees represents the same temperature variation as the difference between 50 degrees and 60 degrees because each 10- degree interval has the equivalent physical sense.

this indicates the absence of money. Since money has a true zero point. At every level up the hierarchy. Assumptions tend to be less restrictive and data analyses tend to be less sensitive at lower levels of measurement. Currency is measured on a ratio scale because. it has a true zero point. it means that someone with 100 dollar has twice as much as someone with 50 cents. the same variation at two points on the scale has the equal meaning. The ratio scale of measurement provides a name or category for each object the same as a nominal scale. In reality. For example. Ratio scales: This is the most informative scale because it is an interval scale with the zero position reveals the absence of the quantity being considered. the present level includes all of the character of the one below it and adds something new. If someone has zero money. In addition. Like an interval scale.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 8 have a true zero point when one of the scaled names "zero. Be sure to address how the information might be used. in addition to having the properties of an interval scale. the items are ordered like an ordinal scale. is it useful. ratio scale is 100 dollar." Zero degrees Fahrenheit do not embody the whole absence of heat. It is essential to be aware of that there is a hierarchy implied in the level of measurement idea. it is advantageous to have an upper level of measurement like interval or ratio rather than a lower one like nominal or ordinal. it is applied to its temperature for unintentional reasons related to the history of temperature measurement. Question VII: Provide a critique of the following questionnaire. Overall. or could the information be obtained through another source? Questionnaire INSTRUCTIONS: This questionnaire should be answered by a person involved in the decision process of choosing a nursing home for the person being admitted. It should only . the similar ratio at two points on the scale describes the same implication. In addition.

all the questions are not plainly numbered by researchers. In this questionnaire. important information is capitalized for noticeably. CIRCLE YOUR BEST ANSWER Were you involved in the decision of which nursing home to choose? YES NO Did you use the internet to find information about a nursing home? YES NO If you answered yes to using the internet to find information about a nursing home. However. Your answers will remain totally confidential. how to do it. I number the question 1. 3. They tell the participants exactly what to do. Then. DO NOT put any names or personal information on this questionnaire. there is no cover letter to make an impression to respondents. Some words are redundant. By the way. It includes the information about time it will take to complete survey and confidentiality. Please be as truthful as possible.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 9 take a few minutes to mark. They should be numbered for neat and tidy to increase reliability. 2. I personally think that question 1:“Were you involved in the decision of which nursing home to choose” is not a good question. Furthermore. did the website influence your decision in choosing a nursing home? YES NO I'M NOT SURE One important part of any questionnaire is the presence of cover letter. the researchers begin the questionnaire with good instructions. Inside the questionnaire. did you use the Medicare Nursing Home Compare website? YES NO I DON'T REMEMBER IF I LOOKED AT THIS WEBSITE If you answered yes that you did use the Medicare Nursing Home Compare website. researchers require letting the . 4 from top to bottom for easy to critique. The better question is “Were you involved in the decision of which nursing home?” Researchers need to start with initial questions to warm up the respondents and make them feel more comfortable.

medicare. in question 4. It provides a website for people to evaluate the quality of the nursing Homes they are considering using the Five-Star Quality Ratings. In question 3. the response is “Yes or No or I’m not sure” that can be changed as “Yes or No or Unsure”. All the questions in this survey are useful. In addition. Medicare Nursing Home Compare tool has detailed information about all Medicare and Medicaid-certified nursing home in the nation. It will also influence the improvement of the questionnaires and the outcome. If a feedback form is not well planned. nursing home staff data. The more important issue for researchers when they use this tool is to propose a actually high-quality survey comprising appropriate. Question 1 play the most important role for the researcher to specify the significant of the respondent’s opinion. the responses in question 3 and 4 are not well designed. If the respondent is the person who was involved in the decision of choosing nursing home. quality measures. the response is “Yes or No or I don’t remember if I looked at this website” that can be changed as “Yes or No or Don’t remember”. the purpose of the researcher is to want to know whether people use internet to get information about nursing home.” Similarly. Moreover. question 3 and 4 are too long. health inspection results. “If you answered yes” or “If any” substitute for “If you answered yes that you did use the Medicare Nursing Home Compare website” in question 4. the response of three remain questions are very valuable. If there are many people using internet for searching. meaningful and straightforward to comprehend questions. The researchers can replace “If you answered yes to using the internet to find information about a nursing home” by “If you answered yes” or “If any. Similarly. and fire safety inspection results (www. the information gathered will be of poor value. Based on questions in the questionnaire. the Medicare Nursing Home Compare will invest to improve their website that provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in . How researchers structure their questions makes all the diversity in the quality of the responses.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 10 respondent know by a transition before asking the objective questions.gov).

The stem may possibly be in the structure of a direct question or an incomplete statement but a direct question is frequently better. the item stem “The investment that has the least risk of default is:” really focuses on problem. Many nursing homes have already made significant improvements in the care being provided to residents by taking advantage of these materials and the support of Quality Improvement Organization staff. p. there are three components such as the stem. This kind of complete exactness. 132). To become a great multiple-choice item. 2009. alternatives. In a multiple-choice question. the alternatives are the choices provided after the stem. Municipal bonds issued by the City of New York. The alternatives must contain the thoroughly correct answer in the list of options. and distracters. The quality measures that are shown at the Nursing Home Compare website. it will be easy to lead to vagueness and confusing multiple interpretations. it is important to take particular care to concentrate on a specific problem. alternatives. The stem has the aim of setting the question or posing the problem (Salkind. the item writer has made sure that the choices are comprehensible and grammatically unbiased. The investment that has the least risk of default is: U. Provide an example for each. differentiate between the stem.S. Bonds issued by the Chinese sovereign wealth fund. conversely. A direct question is also used to make the test taker clear understand about the lesson.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 11 nursing homes. which allows consumers. and distracters. Question VIII: In a multiple-choice question. If not. To design the stem. Treasuries. providers. It should allow no dissimilarity of belief among sufficiently informed experts. General Motors corporate bonds. In a multiple-choice question. In this following example. For example: . States and researchers to compare information on nursing homes. is hard to attain except in formal coherent systems.

the three other choices are considered as distracters. . a distracter. To get along with this. If the stem explanation correspond to an proper level of complexity for this glossary test. It is unreasonable to expect the test-taker to know for sure that one of them might not be a better definition than the intended correct answer. which do not correctly response the stem question. In the following example. Conversely. In other words. and distracters. will contribute little or nothing to the effectiveness of a test item. which is absurd or highly implausible. it should be fit to the question or the stem. The intention of a distracter in a multiple-choice assessment item is to divide between those who have involve of a particular body of cognition and those who shortage it. a distracter must be a persuasive option.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 12 __________ is the financial statement that provides a snapshot of the corporation's financial position at a specific time. An income statement A statement of cash flow A balance sheet A statement of financial condition Out of the correct answer. To eliminate technique error. alternatives. the distracter “To cut costs and increase efficiency” is very plausible. One way of obtaining plausible distracters is to use true statements. then the remaining terms used as distracters are obviously too difficult. there is a big difference between the stem. the stem of a multiple-choice question item should be designed as clearly as possible. Which of the following best describes the reason companies seek out foreign markets in order to take advantage of business cycle differences among countries? To minimize swings in sales and profit To maximize product introduction To take advantage of economies of sale To cut costs and increase efficiency In general.

Retrieved on Oct 10. B. Ahmad. Retrieved on Oct 10. 25 (4).. Web-Based Virtual Learning Environments: A Research Framework and a Preliminary Assessment of Effectiveness in Basic IT Skills Training. R. MIS Quarterly. & Ives.com/ehost/detail?vid=8&hid=111&sid=283477f1-990a- 4de7-8e7e-910283c26df7%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ %3d%3d#db=bth&AN=6406416 Retrieved on Oct 15. G. 2010 from World Wide Web: http://www.ebscohost. 2010 from World Wide Web: http://web.iacis. (2005). 2010 from World Wide Web: . & Dennis.org/iis/2005_iis/pdfs/elgayar_dennis.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 13 References El-Gayar. T.pdf Piccoli. (2001). O. Effectiveness of Hybrid Learning Environment..

socialresearchmethods. Assignment Information Name Description Submit ALL eight Essays in one Microsoft word document. 2010 from World Wide Web: http://www. 186209 Duyen Tran 9% 10:21 AM View Grade Grad Points Weig e Possible ht 90.0 Instructor's Feedback Currently Comments Attached File No feedback from No feedback instructor uploaded OK .asp?version=default&browser=Firefox|3.aabri. 2010 from World Wide Web: http://www. New Jersey: PRENTICE HALL Pearson International Edition. you will need to include your full name and student number in the upper left hand corner of the document and the Title " Section Exam I". J. Exploring Research (Seventh Edition). Oct 22.medicare.6| WinXP&language=English&defaultstatus=0&pagelist=Home&CookiesEnabledStatus =True Retrieved on Oct 15.php Salkind. and must be between 200 to 300 words are required for a “complete” answer to an essay question.pdf Retrieved on Oct 15.net/kb/measlevl. 2010. This information will be necessary during the grading process to insure Section you receive credit for your work.com/manuscripts/09417.0 100. Your Essay I Exam answers should be labeled as follows : Question I Question II Question III Question IV Question IV: Question V: Question VI: Question VII: Question VIII: Please submit using the View/Complete link provided below: Submitted Work Student Student Tex Fil Matchi SA Date Submitted ID Name t e ng Report Fri. N.gov/NHCompare/Include/DataSection/Questions/SearchCriteria NEW.Duyen Tran MBAV5652 14 http://www.0 0. Your responses should be complete.

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