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Geert Hofstede

Gerard Hendrik Hofstede (born 3 October 1928, Haarlem) is an influential Dutch
organizational sociologist, who studied the interactions between national cultures and
organizational cultures. He is also an author of several books including Culture's
Consequences[1] and Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind, co-authored with
his son Gert Jan Hofstede.[2] Hofstede's study demonstrated that there are national and
regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviour of societies and organizations, and
that these are persistent across time.

Hofstede's Framework for Assessing Culture
Hofstede has found five dimensions of culture in his study of national work related
values. Replication studies have yielded similar results, pointing to stability of the
dimensions across time. The dimensions are:

• Small vs. large power distance

How much the less powerful members of institutions and organizations expect
and accept that power is distributed unequally. In cultures with small power
distance (e.g. Australia, Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand), people
expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic.
People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions.
Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right to contribute to and
critique the decisions of those in power. In cultures with large power distance
(e.g. Malaysia), the less powerful accept power relations that are autocratic or
paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others based on their
formal, hierarchical positions. Thus, Small vs. Large Power Distance does not
measure or attempt to measure a culture's objective, "real" power distribution, but
rather the way people perceive power differences.

• Individualism vs. collectivism

How much members of the culture define themselves apart from their group
memberships. In individualist cultures, people are expected to develop and
display their individual personalities and to choose their own affiliations. In
collectivist cultures, people are defined and act mostly as a member of a long-
term group, such as the family, a religious group, an age cohort, a town, or a
profession, among others. This dimension was found to move towards the
individualist end of the spectrum with increasing national wealth.

• Masculinity vs. femininity

people value actions and attitudes that are affected by the past or the present: normative statements. and reciprocation of greetings. and shame. the differences between gender roles are more dramatic and less fluid than in 'F' cultures.g. Michael Harris Bond and his collaborators subsequently found a fifth dimension which was initially called Confucian dynamism. This dimension is often renamed by users of Hofstede's work. people prefer implicit or flexible rules or guidelines and informal activities. people (whether male or female) value competitiveness. In short term oriented societies.g. thrift. short term orientation A society's "time horizon. a country's scores should not be interpreted as deterministic . respect for tradition. attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. but this strongly depends on other dimensions as well. • Weak vs. In long term oriented societies. strong uncertainty avoidance How much members of a society are anxious about the unknown. Hofstede later incorporated this into his framework as: • Long vs. In cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance. e. Quality of Life. Employees tend to change employers more frequently. favors. to Quantity of Life vs. people prefer explicit rules (e. ambition." or the importance attached to the future versus the past and present. A Japanese person for example can have a very low 'uncertainty avoidance' compared to a Filipino person even though their 'national' cultures point strongly in a different direction. and employees tend to remain longer with their present employer. Another reading of the same dimension holds that in 'M' cultures. In so-called 'masculine' cultures. The value placed on traditionally male or female values (as understood in most Western cultures). immediate stability. assertiveness. Consequently. about religion and food) and formally structured activities. These cultural differences describe averages or tendencies and not characteristics of individuals. and as a consequence. protecting one's own face. and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions. In so-called 'feminine' cultures. people value actions and attitudes that affect the future: persistence/perseverance. In cultures with strong uncertainty avoidance. people (again whether male or female) value relationships and quality of life. and gifts.

self-centeredness. and individual achievements. Germany has a masculine culture with a 66 on the scale of Hofstede (Netherlands 14). The IBM studies revealed that (a) women’s values differ less among societies than men’s values. Masculine traits include assertiveness. in terms of masculinity. femininity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. materialism/material success. similar values. strength. to modest and caring and similar to women’s values on the other. (b) men’s values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women’s values on the one side. The United States scored a 62 on Hofstede’s scale. For example. So these two cultures share. caring pole ‘feminine’. power. Masculinity Masculinity versus its opposite. Power Distance Index | Individualism | Masculinity | Uncertainty Avoidance Index | Long-Term Orientation Country PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO Japan 54 46 95 92 80 Hungary 46 55 88 82 Austria 11 55 79 70 Venezuela 81 12 73 76 Italy 50 76 70 75 Switzerland 34 68 70 58 Mexico 81 30 69 82 . The assertive pole has been called ‘masculine’ and the modest.

Ireland 28 70 68 35 Jamaica 45 39 68 13 China 80 20 66 40 118 Germany 35 67 66 65 31 United Kingdom 35 89 66 35 25 Colombia 67 13 64 80 Philippines 94 32 64 44 19 Poland 68 60 64 93 Ecuador 78 8 63 67 South Africa 49 65 63 49 United States 40 91 62 46 29 Australia 36 90 61 51 31 New Zealand 22 79 58 49 30 Czech Republic 57 58 57 74 Greece 60 35 57 112 Hong Kong 68 25 57 29 96 Argentina 49 46 56 86 India 77 48 56 40 61 Belgium 65 75 54 94 Egypt 80 38 52 68 Iraq 80 38 52 68 Kuwait 80 38 52 68 Lebanon 80 38 52 68 Libya 80 38 52 68 Saudi Arabia 80 38 52 68 United Arab Emirates 80 38 52 68 Malaysia 104 26 50 36 Pakistan 55 14 50 70 Brazil 69 38 49 76 65 Singapore 74 20 48 8 48 Israel 13 54 47 81 Ghana 77 20 46 54 16 Indonesia 78 14 46 48 Nigeria 77 20 46 54 16 Sierra Leone 77 20 46 54 16 Taiwan 58 17 45 69 87 Turkey 66 37 45 85 Panama 95 11 44 86 France 68 71 43 86 Iran 58 41 43 59 Peru 64 16 42 87 Spain 57 51 42 86 .

Ethiopia 64 27 41 52 25 Kenya 64 27 41 52 25 Tanzania 64 27 41 52 25 Zambia 64 27 41 52 25 El Salvador 66 19 40 94 South Korea 60 18 39 85 75 Uruguay 61 36 38 100 Guatemala 95 6 37 101 Thailand 64 20 34 64 56 Portugal 63 27 31 104 Chile 63 23 28 86 Finland 33 63 26 59 Costa Rica 35 15 21 86 Denmark 18 74 16 23 Netherlands 38 80 14 53 44 Norway 31 69 8 50 20 Sweden 31 71 5 29 33 .

Geert Hofstede™ Cultural Dimensions * Description for each of Hofstede's Dimensions listed below There ia a high correlation between the Muslim religion and the Hofstede Dimensions of Power Distance (PDI) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) scores. (See article) .

caring values as the men. It indicates to what extent a culture . On the collectivist side. in the masculine countries they are somewhat assertive and competitive. are extremely fundamental facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be aware that 'all societies are unequal. collectivism. often extended families (with uncles. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. it creates a situation where leaders have virtually ultimate power and authority. *** Power Distance Index (PDI) that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.The combination of these two high scores (UAI) and (PDI) create societies that are highly rule- oriented with laws. Individualism (IDV) on the one side versus its opposite. so that these countries show a gap between men's values and women's values. aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. regulations. we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong. When these two Dimensions are combined. rules. not from above. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women's values differ less among societies than men's values. Masculinity (MAS) versus its opposite. of course. (b) men's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women's values on the one side. refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. and the rules. regarding all societies in the world. rather than from diplomatic or democratic change. the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one. to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other. but not as much as the men. Again. Power and inequality. it ultimately refers to man's search for Truth. It is not unusual for new leadership to arise from armed insurrection – the ultimate power. femininity. The assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the modest. and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty. The women in feminine countries have the same modest. cohesive in-groups. reinforce their own leadership and control. that is the degree to which individuals are inte-grated into groups. but defined from below. not to the state. while inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. This represents inequality (more versus less). caring pole 'feminine'. The word 'collectivism' in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group. These cultures are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. It suggests that a society's level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. laws and regulations developed by those in power. but some are more unequal than others'. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.

values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition. the most influential Chinese philosopher who lived around 500 B. Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the teachings of Confucius. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) versus short-term orientation: this fifth dimension was found in a study among students in 23 countries around the world. Values associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance. and protecting one's 'face'. however. uncertainty accepting cultures. safety and security measures. they try to have as few rules as possible. and motivated by inner nervous energy. fulfilling social obligations. and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. using a questionnaire designed by Chinese scholars It can be said to deal with Virtue regardless of Truth. are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules.. the dimension also applies to countries without a Confucian heritage. unknown. The opposite type. different from usual. and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth.programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. 'there can only be one Truth and we have it'. surprising. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional. and not expected by their environment to express emotions.C. Unstructured situations are novel. .

and self satisfaction. The original copy of the ad was of 60 second. The results were positive and thus were on aired. The research showed Sharpe twist in coke preference within its target audience. PAKISTAN COMMERCIAL Coke has always used a drive theory to motivate to engage its consumers. Primary objective of coke is that addition of coke drink (Consumer Soda Drink. TVC. as the same ad was not tested in the stated social economical class. it elevates your standard and style. Keeping in view the core target audience for Coke Company and its products in the consumer soda drink industry. in view Coke adapted its South African Copy for the BRRR…. It gives you the feel of enjoyment. (Source Ac. The COKE-BRRRR ad is adapted from an African theme. The consumer soda drink company. CSD) leads to a change in life style. The on aired advert analysis showed that the ad had high reach and achieved high media ratings. as someone drinks Coca Cola. easy and comfortable life with just an addition of coke. BRRR is a state of a person enjoying with full of fun and amusement.. This ad before on airing was pre tested in category SEC A & B only. This was done by using Consumer Muti Media Index. furthermore the media tracking company of Pakistan. (SEC). Coke had set an ambitious goal to maximize its sales in the upcoming summers. instantly he reacts with BRRR response (chill factor). Coke was a must drink in the following Social Economical Class. SEC B-. In the ad. C in short masses. Keeping in view the core audience. Consumer Soda Drink in life. Local faces of youth. For on airing the same copy in Pakistani market Coke reworked around the same copy and concept and adapted it to a 45 sec main Television Commercial. teens and elderly audience were added in the commercial to give it a localized look and feel. The overall media tracking reports a failure of this advert in the South-Asia. The BRRR… ad started with colorful impact and Shoaib Hashmi unique BRRR style. The theme clearly depicts African culture. On the hand this was contrary to what the actual target audience was i. Media Bank reports a .e. The new summer ad of coca cola was on aired on all leading local and terrestrial channels with high reach and frequency. teens and elderly people. CMI. very clearly highlights the message of living a tension free. Further the punch line “very chill hai coke zindagi”.COKE BRRR AD . fulfillment. The ad creates the impact to the all ages. where as the overall recall for the same ad was not that high and considerable. as the Brrr action in the ad is actually one of the basic dance moves in the African dance. Neilson). Ad campaign. Coke identified its core market for youth. As per COKE international policy to on air identical concepts in all identical target markets.

but. One of the biggest reasons being. regardless of being associated to the lower sector of the society is presented in a way that it gives the feel of elevation. Moreover. In general any advert. specially women doing the Brrr action is highly criticized by the society. that it is not close to Pakistani culture.drastic failure of this advert in Pakistan. the people of that sector feel motivated to change lifestyle and become better as people above their status. This advert is not motivating the people to improve their standards and take life to a next higher level. . the sophisticated class SEC A & B did not to associate themselves with a product so degraded. It is the illiterate class that shows a behavior as non-serious as shown in the advert. it is actually de-motivating.