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Principles of Learning
What is meant by Learning?

Learning is the acquisition of knowledge or

skills through experience, study, or by being
- Google

Learning is “a process that leads to change, which

occurs as a result of experience and increases the
potential for improved performance and future
learning” (Ambrose et al, 2010, p.3).

Learning is not something done to students, but

rather something students themselves do. It is the
direct result of how students interpret and
respond to their experiences.
Principles of Learning

 The principles of learning provide additional insight

into what makes people learn most effectively. The
principles have been discovered, tested, and used in
practical situations.
 By knowing some principles on how learning takes
place, we will be guided on how to teach.

- From Horne and Pine (1990)

Learning is an experience which occurs inside the
learner and is activated by the learner.

‘’People LEARN
what they WANT
they SEE what they
WANT to SEE, and
HEAR what they
Learning is the discovery of the personal
meaning and relevance of ideas.

Students more readily internalize

and implement concepts and ideas
which are relevant to their needs
and problems. What is relevant
and meaningful is decided by the
learner, and must be discovered
by the learner.
Learning (behavioral change) is a
consequence of experience

“Only HE who has

travelled the road knows
where the wholes are

- Chinese Proverbs
Learning is a cooperative and collaborative
process. Cooperation fosters learning.

“Two heads are better than

one.” The interactive process
appears to “scratch and
kick” peoples curiosity,
potential, and creativity.
Learning is an evolutionary process

Behavioral change
requires time and
Learning sometimes is a painful process

Behavioral change often calls

for giving up the old and
comfortable ways of believing,
thinking and valuing. It is not
easy to discard familiar ways
of doing things and
incorporate new behavior.
One of the richest source of learning is the
learner himself

Each individual has an

accumulation of experiences,
ideas, feelings and attitudes
which comprise a rich vein of
material for problem solving
and learning.
The process of learning is emotional as well as

Learning is affected by the

total state of individual.
People are feeling beings as
well as thinking beings and
when their feelings and
thoughts are in harmony,
learning is maximized.
The process of problem solving and learning is
highly unique and individual

Each person has his own

unique styles of learning and
problem solving. Some are
highly effective, other styles
are not as effective and still
others may not be effective.
Laws of Learning
(Thorndike 1932)

 Learning is strengthened when accompanied by a

pleasant or satisfying feeling.

 Learning is weakened when associated with an

unpleasant feeling.

 Learning takes place properly when it results in

satisfaction and the learner derives pleasure out of

 Things most often repeated are best remembered.

 Students do not learn complex tasks in a single


 Individuals learn best when they are physically,

mentally and emotionally ready to learn, and they do
not learn well if they see no reason for learning.

 Things learned first create a strong impression.

 ‘’What is TAUGHT must be RIGHT the FIRST TIME’’.


 Things most recently learned are best remembered.


 The more intense the material taught, the more it is

likely learned.

 Thing freely learned are best learned.

 The greater the freedom enjoyed by the students in

the class, the greater the intellectual and moral
advancement enjoyed by them.
Implications of the Principles to
Teaching-Learning Process

 Only the learner can learn for himself. It is wise to make

him/her do the learning activity himself/herself.
 Learning is discovering the meaning and relevance of
ideas. Let’s relate when we teach to the life experiences
and needs of the learners.
 Learning comes as a result of experience of learning. Let
us make learners go through the experience of learning, if
feasible. If not, learning from other people’s experiences
as recorded in history will suffice.
 Cooperative and collaborative learning are enabling.
Let us use more collaborative and cooperative
approaches in the classroom.
 Learning does not take place overnight. Like the
process of evolution, it is gradual. Let us be patient.
Learning takes time.
 Learning poses inconvenience, discomfort, giving up
our old ways of thinking and doing things because
something new is far better.
 Very much forgotten is the fact that the learner is one of
the richest resources of learning. Consult him/her.
 Learning is not only a cerebral process. It is not only
thinking but also feeling. It involves the heart. In fact,
learning takes place best when our hearts are stricken.
 No two individuals learn in the same way. Each person has
a unique way of learning. Let us not impose our way of
learning on others. Let us give considerations to multiple
intelligence and varied learning styles.
Prepared by:
PEC 2019-2020
Principles and Methods of Teaching 1