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Quarter II: AFRO-LATIN AMERICAN Salsa music is Cuban, Puerto Rican,

AND POPULAR MUSIC and Colombian dance music. It
comprises various musical genres
Traditional Music of Africa including the Cuban son montuno,
guaracha, chachacha, mambo and
Some Types of African Music bolero.
Afrobeat is a term used to describe the fusion
of West African with black American music.
Samba is the basic underlying
Apala is a musical genre from Nigeria in the rhythm that typifies most Brazilian
Yoruba tribal style to wake up music. It is a lively and rhythmical
the worshippers after fasting dance and music with three steps to
during the Muslim holy feast every bar, making the Samba feel
of Ramadan. Percussion like a timed dance.
instrumentation includes the
rattle (sekere), thumb piano Soca is a modern Trinidadian and Tobago pop music
(agidigbo), bell (agogo), and two or three talking drums. combining “soul” and “calypso” music.

Axe is a popular musical genre Were This is Muslim music performed often as a wake-
from Salvador, Bahia, and up call for early breakfast and prayers during Ramadan
Brazil. It fuses the Afro- celebrations. Relying on pre-arranged music, it fuses the
Caribbean styles of the marcha, African and European music styles with particular usage
reggae, and calypso. of the natural harmonic series.

Jit is a hard and fast percussive Zimbabwean dance Zouk is fast, carnival-like hythmic
music played on drums with guitar accompaniment, music, from the Creole slang word
influenced by mbra –base guitar style. for ‘party,’ originating in the
Carribean Islands of Guadaloupe
Jive is a popular form of South and Martinique and popularized in
the 1980’s.
African music featuring a
lively and uninhibited variation Vocal Forms of African Music
of jitterbug a form of a swing.
Maracatu first surfaced in the African state of
Juju is a popular music style Pernambuco, combining the strong rhythms of African
from Nigeria that relies on the percussion instruments with Portuguese melodies. The
traditional Yoruba rhythms, where maracatu groups were called “nacoes” (nations) who
the instruments in Juju are more paraded with a drumming ensemble numbering up to
Western in origin. A drum kit, 100, accompanied by a singer, chorus, and a coterie of
keyboard, pedal steel guitar, and dancers.
accordion are used along with the
traditional dun-dun (talking drum or squeeze drum). Blues is a musical form of the late 19th century that has
had deep roots in African-American communities. These
Kwassa Kwassa is a dance style communities are located in the so-called “Deep South”
begun in Zaire in the late 1980’s, of the United States. The slaves and their descendants
popularized by Kanda Bongo Man. In used to sing as they worked in the cotton and vegetable
this dance style, the hips move back fields.
and forth while the arms move
following the hips. Soul music was a popular music genre of the 1950’s and
1960’s. it originated in the United States. It combines
Marabi is a South African three-chord elements of African-American gospel music, rhythm and
township music of the 1930s-1960s blues, and often jazz. The catchy rhythms are
which evolved into African Jazz. accompanied by handclaps and extemporaneous body
moves which are among its important features. Other
Latin American Music Influenced by African Music characteristics include “call and response” between the
soloist and the chorus, and an especially tense and
Reggae is a Jamaican sound powerful vocal sound.
dominated by bass guitar and drums.
It refers to a particular music style The term spiritual, normally associated with a deeply
that was strongly influenced by religious person, refers here to a Negro spiritual, a song
traditional mento and calypso music, form by African migrants to America who became
as well as American jazz, and rhythm and blues. enslaved by its white communities. This musical form
became their outlet to vent their loneliness and anger,
and is a result of the interaction of music and religion
from Africa with that of America. The texts are mainly

religious, sometimes taken from psalms of Biblical or thicknesses, the drum will produce two different
passages, while the music utilizes deep bass voices. pitches.
The call and response method is a succession of two 6. Djembe - The West African djembe (pronounced
distinct musical phrases usually rendered by different zhem-bay) is one of the best-
musicians, where the second phrase acts as a direct known African drums is. It is
commentary on or response to the first. shaped like a large goblet and
played with bare hands. The body
Musical Instrument of Africa is carved from a hollowed trunk
and is covered in goat skin.
Classification of Traditional African Instruments
A. Idiophones 7. Shekere - The shekere is a type of gourd and shell
These are percussion instruments that are either struck megaphonefrom West Africa, consisting of a dried gourd
with a mallet or against one another. with beads woven into a net covering
the gourd. The agbe is another gourd
1. Balafon - The balafon is a West drum with cowrie shells usually
African xylophone. It is a pitched strung with white cotton thread. The
percussion instrument with bars axatse is a small-gourd, held by the
made from logs or bamboo. neck and placed between hand and
The xylophone is originally an leg.
Asian instrument that follows the
structure of a piano. It came from 8. Rasp - A rasp, or scraper, is hand percussion
Madagascar instrument whose sound is
produced by scraping the
2. Rattles - Rattles are made of seashells, tin, notches on a piece of wood
basketry, animal hoofs, (sometimes elaborately
horn, wood, metal bells, carved) with a stick, creating a
cocoons, palm kernels, or series of rattling effects.
tortoise shells. These
rattling vessels may range Membranophones
from single to several Membranophones are instruments which have vibrating
objects that are either joined or suspended in such animal membranes used in drums. Their shapes may be
a way as they hit each other. conical, cylindrical, barrel, hour-glass, globular, or
kettle, and are played with sticks, hands, or a
3. Agogo - The agogo is a single bell or multiple bells combination of both. African drums are usually carved
that had its origins in traditional Yoruba music and also from a single wooden log, and may also be made from
in the samba baterias ceramics, gourds, tin cans, and oil drums. Examples of
(percussion) ensembles. The these are found in the different localities – entenga
agogo may be called “the (Ganda), dundun (Yoruba), atumpan (Akan), and ngoma
oldest samba instrument based (Shona), while some are constructed with wooden staves
on West African Yoruba and hoops.
single or double bells.” It has the highest pitch of any of
the bacteria instruments. 1. Body percussion -
Africans frequently use
4. Atingting Kon - These are slit gongs used to their bodies as musical
communicate between villages. instruments. Aside from
They were carved outof wood to their voices, where many of them are superb singers,
resemble ancestors and had a “slit the body also serves as a drum as people clap their
opening” at the bottom. In certain hands, slap their thighs, pound their upper arms or
cases, their sound could carry for chests, or shuffle their feet.
miles through the forest and even
across water to neighboring islands. 2. Talking drum - The talking
A series of gong “languages” were drum is used to send messages to
composed of beats and pauses, making it possible to announce births, deaths,
send highly specific messages. marriages, sporting events,
dances, initiation, or war.
5. Slit drum - The slit drum is a hollow percussion Sometimes it may also contain gossip or jokes. It is
instrument. Although known as a believed that the drums can carry direct messages to the
drum, it is not a true drum but is an spirits after the death of a loved one.
idiophone. It is usually carved or
constructed from bamboo or wood Lamellaphone One of the most popular
into a box with one or more slits in African percussion instruments is the
the top. Most slit drums have one lamellaphone, which is a set of plucked
slit, though two and three slits (cut into the shape of an tongues or keys mounted on a sound
“H”) occur. If the resultant tongues are different in width board. It is known by different names
according to the regions such as mbira,
karimba, kisaanj, and likembe.

Mbira (hand piano or thumb piano) Aerophones are instruments which are produced
- The thumb piano or finger initially by trapped vibrating air columns or which
xylophone is of African origin and enclose a body of vibrating air. Flutes in various sizes
is used throughout the continent. It and shapes, horns, panpipes, whistle types, gourd and
consists of a wooden board with shell megaphones, oboe, clarinet, animal horn and
attached staggered metal tines (a wooden trumpets fall under this category.
series of wooden, metal, or rattan
tongues), plus an additional 1. Flutes - Flutes are widely used
resonator to increase its volume. throughout Africa and either
vertical or side-blown. They are
Chordophone usually fashioned from a single tube
Musical Bow- is the oldest and closed at one end blown like bottle.
one of the most widely-used string
instruments of Africa. It consists 2. Panpipes consist of cane pipes
of a single string attached to each of different lengths tied in a row
end of a curved stick, similar to a or in a bundle held together by
bow and arrow. wax or cord, and generally closed
at the bottom. They are blown
2. Lute (konting, khalam, and the nkoni) - The lute, across the top, each providing a
originating from the Arabic different note.
states, is shaped like the modern
guitar and played in similar 3. Horns - Horns and trumpets, found almost
fashion. It has a resonating everywhere in Africa, are
body, a neck, and one or more commonly made from elephant
strings which stretch across the tusks and animal horns. With
length of its body and neck. The their varied attractive shapes,
player tunes the strings by these instruments are end-
tightening or loosening the pegs at the top of the lute’s blown or side-blown and range
neck. in size from the small signal
whistle of the southern cattle herders to the large ivory
3. Kora - The kora is Africa's most sophisticated harp, horns of the tribal chiefs of the interior.
while also having features similar to
a lute. Its body is made from a 4. Kudu horn - This is one type of horn made from the
gourd or calabash. A support for the horn of the kudu antelope. It releases a mellow and
bridge is set across the opening and warm sound that adds a unique African accent to the
covered with a skin that is held in music.
place with studs. The leather rings
around the neck are used to tighten 5. Reed pipes - There are single-reed pipes made from
the 21 strings that give the hollow guinea corn or sorghum stems, where the reed is
instrument a range of over three octaves. The kora is a flap partially cut from the stem
held upright and played with the fingers. near one end. It is the vibration of
this reed that causes the air within
4. Zither - The zither is a the hollow instrument to vibrate,
stringed instrument with varying thus creating the sound.
sizes and shapes whose strings
are stretched along its body. 6. Whistles - Whistles found
Among the types of African throughout the continent may be
zither are the raft or Inanga made of wood or other materials.
zither from Burundi, the tubular Short pieces of horn serve as
or Valiha zither from Malagasy, whistles, often with a short tube
and the harp or Mvet zither from Cameroon. inserted into the mouthpiece.

5. Zeze - The zeze is an African fiddle played with a

bow, a small wooden stick, or plucked with the fingers. 7. Trumpets - African trumpets are made of wood,
It has one or two strings, metal, animal horns, elephant tusks,
made of steel or bicycle and gourds with skins from snakes,
brake wire. It is from zebras, leopards, crocodiles and
Sub-Saharan Africa. It is animal hide as ornaments to the
also known by the names instrument.
tzetze and dzendze, izeze
and endingidi; and on Madagascar is called lokanga (or
lokango) voatavo.


6. Popular Latin American Music
1. Indigenous Latin-American Music Latin America has produced a number of musical genres
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Portuguese, and other and forms that had been influenced by European folk
European colonizers, the natives were found to be using music, African traditional music, and native sources.
local drum and percussion instruments such as the guiro, Much of its popular music has in turn found its way to
maracas, and turtle shells, and wind instruments such as the many venues and locales of America, Europe, and
zampona (pan pipes) and quena (notched-end flutes) eventually the rest of the world. Some of these Latin
remain popular and are traditionally made out of the American popular music forms are tango, bossa nova,
same aquatic canes, although PVC pipe is sometimes samba, son, and salsa.
used due to its resistance to heat, cold, and humidity.
Generally, quenas only are played during the dry season. a. Samba
Materials came from hollow tree trunks, animal skins, The samba is a dance form of African origins
fruit shells, dry seeds, cane and clay, hardwood trees, around 1838 which evolved into an
jaguar claws, animal and human bones, and specially- African-Brazilian invention in the
treated inflated eyes of tigers. working class and slum districts of
Rio de Janeiro. Its lively rhythm,
consisting of a meter but containing
three steps each that create a
Quena Turtle shells Guiro Maracas feeling of a meter instead, was
meant to be executed for singing,
The indigenous music of Latin America was largely dancing, and parading in the
functional in nature, being used for religious worship carnival. Samba has a number of
and ceremonies. The use of instruments as well as variations, so that there is no clear-cut definition of a
singing and dancing served to implore the gods for good single samba form. Its most adventurous kind is known
harvest, victory in battles, guard against sickness and as the batucada, referring at once to a large percussion
natural disasters, and of course provide recreation. ensemble of up to a hundred players, a jam session, or an
intensely polyrhythmic style of drumming.
2. Native American/Indian Music
The ethnic and cultural groups of the principal native b. Son
Americans share many similar yet distinctive music The son is a fusion of the popular music or canciones
elements pertaining to melody, harmony, rhythm, (songs) of Spain and the African rumba rhythms of
form, and dynamics. Short musical motives from Bantu origin. Originating in Cuba, it is usually
descending melodic lines were a common feature, where played with the tres (guitar), contrabass, bongos,
tempo, rhythm, and tone colors vary with the specific maracas, and claves (two wooden sticks that are hit
occasion or ritual. together). Although the son is seldom heard today, its
most important legacy is its influence on present-day
3. Afro-Latin American Music Latin American music, particularly as the forerunner of
The African influence on Latin American music is most the salsa.
pronounced in its rich and varied rhythmic patterns c. Salsa
produced by the drums and various percussion The salsa is a social dance with
instruments. Complex layering of rhythmic patterns was marked influences from Cuba and
a favorite device, where fast paced tempos add to the Puerto Rico that started in New
rhythmic density. York in the mid 1970’s. Its style
contains elements from the swing
4. Euro-Latin American Music dance and hustle as well as the
The different regions of Latin America adopted various complex Afro-Cuban and Afro-
characteristics from their European colonizers. Melodies Carribean dance forms of
of the Renaissance period were used in Southern pachanga and guaguanco.
Chile and the Colombian Pacific coasts, while step-wise
melodies were preferred in the heavily Hispanic and MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF LATIN AMERICA
Moorish-influenced areas of Venezuela and Colombia. The varied cultures developed in Latin America gave
Alternating dual meters, such as and, known as rise to different types of wind and percussion
“sesquialtera” found in Chile and adopted in Cuba and instruments. As with the African continent, their rich
Puerto Rico, were immortalized in the song I Wanna Be history dating back thousands of years ago with the
in America from Leonard Bernstein’s Broadway hit West Aztec, Maya, and other prehistoric cultural groups
Side Story. in Latin America understandably generates their own
brands of creativity in making music.
5. Mixed American Music
The diversity of races and cultures from the Native Tlapitzalli
Americans, Afro-Latin Americans, and Euro-Latin The tlapitzalli is a flute
Americans account for the rich combinations of musical variety from the Aztec
elements including the melodic patterns, harmonic culture made of clay with
combinations, rhythmic complexities, wide range of decorations of abstract
colors and dynamics, and various structural formats. designs or images of their deities.

a. Pitus
Teponaztli The pitus are side-blown cane
The teponaztli is a Mexican slit drum hollowed flutes that are played all
out and carved from a piece of year round.
hardwood. It is then decorated
with designs in relief or carved
to represent human figures or b. Wooden Tarkas
animals to be used for both The tarkas are vertical duct flutes
religious and recreational with a mouthpiece similar to that of
purposes. a recorder, used during the rainy
Conch season.
The conch is a wind instrument
made from a seashell usually of a c. Quenas
large sea snail. It is prepared by The quenas are vertical cane
cutting a hole in its spine near the flutes with an end-notched made
apex, then blown into as if it were from fragile bamboo. They are
a trumpet. used during the dry season.

Rasp d. Charango
The rasp is a hand percussion The charango is a ten-
instrument whose sound is stringed Andean guitar
produced by scraping a group of notched sticks with from Bolivia. It is the size
another stick, creating a series of rattling effects. of a ukulele and a smaller
version of the mandolin, imitating the early guitar and
Huehueti lute brought by the Spaniards. It produces bright sounds
The huehueti is a Mexican upright tubular drum used by and is often used in serenades in Southern Peru.
the Aztecs and other ancient
civilizations. It is made of wood opened Mariachi
at the bottom and standing on three legs The Mariachi is an extremely popular band in Mexico
cut from the base, with its stretched skin whose original ensemble consisted of violins, guitars,
beaten by the hand or a wooden mallet. harp, and an enormous
guitarron (acoustic bass
Whistles guitar). Trumpets were later
Whistles are instruments made added, replacing the harp.
of natural elements such as bone Mariachi music is extremely
from animals. The eagle-bone passionate and romantic with
whistle is the most common their blended harmonies and characterized by catchy
whose function is to help rhythms. Its musicians are distinctly adorned with wide-
symbolize the piece’s purpose. brimmed hats and silver buttons.
Among the Incas of South America, two instrumental LATINAMERICAN MUSIC
varieties were most common:
1. Cumbia
a. Ocarina Originating in Panama and Colombia, the cumbia
The ocarina was an ancient vessel became a popular African courtship dance with
flute made of clay or European and African
ceramic with four to 12 finger holes instrumentation and
and a mouthpiece characteristics. It contained
that projected from the body. varying rhythmic meters
among the major locations –
b. Panpipes (Zamponas) 2/4 meter in Colombia; 2/4, 4/4, and 6/8 meters in
The zamponas were ancient Panama and 2/2 meter in Mexico. Instruments used are
instruments tuned to different the drums of African origin, such as the tabora (bass
scalar varieties, played by blowing drum), claves, which are hard, thick sticks that sets the
across the tube top. Typical beat, guitar, accordion, clarinet, modern
models were either in pairs or as flute, and caja, a type of snare drum.
several bamboo tubes of different
lengths tied together to produce 2. Tango
graduated pitches of sound. The word tango may have been
of African origin meaning
Andean Instruments “African dance” or from the
The Andean highlands made use of several varieties of Spanish word taner meaning “to
flutes and string instruments that include the following: play” (an instrument). It is a

foremost Argentinian and Uruguayan urban popular syncopated rhythmic pattern. The tempo
song and dance that is related to the Cuban contradanza, varied from 30 to 40 bars per minute and had a simple
habanera, and Cuban tango, and remains a 20th century duple meter with regular 4-bar phrases. There was no
nationalistic Argentinian piece of music that is most fixed step pattern, instead borrowing from other dance
expressive. forms and having a simple forward/backward sequence.
The foxtrot gave rise to other dances such as the black
3. Cha Cha bottom, Charleston, and shimmy.
The cha cha is a ballroom dance the originated in Cuba
in 1953, derived from the mambo 8. Paso Doble
and its characteristic rhythm of 2 The paso doble (meaning “double
crochets – 3 quavers – quaver rest, step”) is a theatrical Spanish dance
with a syncopation on the fourth used by the Spaniards in bullfights,
beat. The cha cha may be where the music was played as the
danced with Cuban music, Latin matador enters (paseo) and during
Pop, or Latin Rock. The Cuban cha passes just before the kill (faena).
cha, considered more sensual that
may contain polyrhythmic patterns, has a normal count
of ‘two-three-chachacha’ and ‘four and one, two, three’. JAZZ
The arrival of the jazz genre did not come overnight. It
4. Rumba was an offshoot of the music of African slaves who
The rumba popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban migrated to America. As music is considered a
origin, performed in a therapeutic outlet for human feelings, the Africans used
complex duple meter music to recall their nostalgic past in their home country
pattern and tresillo, as well as to voice out their sentiments on their desperate
which is a dotted quaver condition at that time.
– dotted quaver – dotted
semiquaver rhythm. It is RAGTIME
normally used as a Ragtime is an American popular musical style mainly
ballroom dance where a for piano, originating in the Afro-American communities
solo dancer or couple in St. Louis and New Orleans. Its style was said to be a
would be in an embrace modification of the “marching mode” made popular by
though slightly apart, with the rocking John Philip Sousa, where the effect is generated by an
of the hips to a fast-fast-slow sequence and often internally syncopated melodic line pitted against a
containing cross rhythms. rhythmically straightforward bass line. Its music is
written unlike jazz which is mainly improvised, and
5. Bossa nova Bossa nova originated in 1958-59 as a contains regular meters and clear phrases, with an
movement effecting a radical change in the classic alternation of low bass or bass octaves and chords.
Cuban samba. The word bossa comes from the Brazilian
capital of Rio de Janeiro, which means either “trend” or BIG BAND
“something charming,” integrating melody, harmony, The term ‘Big Band” refers to a large ensemble form
and rhythm into a swaying feel, where the vocal style is originating in the United States in the mid 1920’s closely
often nasal. The nylon-stringed classical guitar is the associated with the Swing Era with jazz elements.
most important instrument of this style. Bossa nova Relying heavily on percussion
contains themes centering on love, women, longing, (drums), wind, rhythm section
nature, and youthfulness. (guitar, piano, double bass,
vibes), and brass instruments
6. Reggae (saxophones), with a lyrical
Reggae is an urban popular music and dance style that string section (violins and other
originated in Jamaica in the mid string instruments) to accompany a lyrical melody.
1960’s. It contained English text
coupled with Creole expressions BEBOP
that we’re not so familiar to the Bebop or bop is a musical style of modern jazz which is
non-Jamaican. It was a synthesis characterized by a fast tempo, instrumental virtuosity,
of Western American (Afro- and improvisation that emerged during World War II.
American) popular music and the The speed of the harmony, melody, and rhythm resulted
traditional Afro-Jamaican music, containing a western- in a heavy performance where the instrumental sound
style melodic-harmonic base with African sounds and became more tense and free.
characteristics, American pop and rock music
mannerisms, and a preference for a loud volume in the JAZZ ROCK
bass. Jazz rock is the music of 1960’s and 1970’s bands that
7. Foxtrot inserted jazz elements into rock music. A synonym for
The foxtrot is a 20th century “jazz fusion,” jazz rock is a mix of funk and R&B
social dance that originated after (“rhythm and blues”) rhythms, where the music used
1910 in the USA. It was executed amplification and electronic effects, complex time
as a one step, two step and signatures, and extended instrumental compositions with
lengthy improvisations in the jazz style.

POPULAR MUSIC that was more danceable, thus leading to the

Popular music literally means “music of the populace,” establishment of venues for public dancing also called
similar to traditional folk music of the past. As it discos. The term originated from the French word
developed in the 20th century, pop music (as it has come “discotheque” which means a library for phonograph
to be called) generally consisted of music for records.
entertainment of large numbers of people, whether on
radio or in live performances. From the standard songs HIP HOPAND RAP
and ballads of the legendary Cole Porter, George Hip hop music is a stylized, highly rhythmic type of
Gershwin, and Frank Sinatra to the rock and roll craze of music that usually (but not always) includes portions of
Elvis Presley and the Beatles and the present day idols in rhythmically chanted words called “rap.” In rapping, the
the alternative music and disco modes, popular music is artist speaks along with an instrumental or synthesized
now shared by the entire world. beat. Hip hop arose in the 1970s within the Afro-
American and Latino youth in the Bronx area of New
BALLADS York City. But by the 1980s, it had spread to many other
The ballad originated as an expressive folksong in countries. It has since evolved into a subculture that
narrative verse with text dealing typically about love. encompasses music (rapping, DJing, scratching, and
The word is derived both from the medieval French beatboxing); a nearly acrobatic style of dancing, called
“chanson balladee” and “ballade” which refers to a break dancing; a distinct manner of dress; and graffiti-
dancing song. Used by poets and composers since the style artwork.
18th century, it became a slow popular love song in the
Alternative music was an underground independent form
1. Blues Ballads of music that arose in the 1980’s. It became widely
This is a fusion of Anglo-American and Afro-American popular in the 1990’s as a way to defy “mainstream”
styles from the 19th century that deals with the anti- rock music. Thus, it was known for its unconventional
heroes resisting authority. The form emphasizes the practices such as distorted guitar sounds, oppressive
character of the performer more than the narrative lyrics, and defiant attitudes. It was also characterized by
content, and is accompanied by the banjo or guitar. high energy levels that bred new styles such as new
wave, punk rock, post-punk, indie rock, gothic rock,
2. Pop Standard and Jazz Ballads jangle pop, noise pop, C86, Madchester, Industrial Rock,
This is a blues style built from a single verse of 16 bars and Shoegazing. Examples of alternative music are You
ending on the dominant or half-cadence, followed by a Belong with Me, Shake It Off.
refrain/chorus part of 16 or 32 bars in AABA form.
The B section acts as the bridge, and the piece normally PHILIPPINE POPULAR MUSIC
ends with a brief coda. The one word that comes to mind when we think of
contemporary Philippine music is the type commonly
3. Pop and Rock Ballads termed as Original Pinoy Music or Original Philippine
A pop and rock ballad is an emotional love song with Music, or OPM for short. It was originally used to refer
suggestions of folk music, as in the Beatles’ composition only to Philippine pop songs, particularly ballads, such
“The Ballad of John and Yoko” and Billy Joel’s “The as those popular after the collapse of its predecessor, the
Ballad of Billy.” This style is sometimes applied to Manila Sound, in the late 1970s up until the present.
strophic story-songs, such as Don McLean’s “American In the 1960s to 1970s, Nora Aunor, Pilita Corrales,
Pie.” Eddie Peregrina, Victor Wood, Asin, APO Hiking
Society, and others were highly popular OPM singers. In
STANDARDS the 1970s to 1980s, the major commercial Philippine
In music, the term “standard” is used to denote the most pop music artists were Claire dela Fuente, Didith
popular and enduring songs from a particular genre or Reyes, Rico Puno, Ryan Cayabyab, Basil Valdez,
style, such as those by Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and Celeste Legaspi, Hajji Alejandro, Rey Valera, Freddie
Rodgers and Hart. Its style is mostly in a slow or Aguilar, Imelda Papin, Eva Eugenio, Nonoy Zuñiga, and
moderate tempo with a relaxed mood. It also features many others.
highly singable melodies within the range and technical
capacity of the everyday listener. PHILIPPINE JAZZ
Philippine musicians have also been inspired by jazz
ROCK AND ROLL music. Among them are jazz pianist and recording artist
Rock and roll was a hugely popular song form in the Boy Katindig, who comes from the well-known clan of
United States during the late 1940’s to the 1950’s. It musicians that includes jazz piano legend Romy
combined Afro-American forms such as the blues, jump Katindig and saxophonist Eddie Katindig. The Katindig
blues, jazz, and gospel music with the Western swing family pioneered Latin jazz in Manila. Other notable
and country music. The lead instruments were the piano Filipino jazz musicians include Lito Molina, Angel
and saxophone, but these were eventually replaced by Peña, Emil Mijares, and internationally known jazz
modern instruments. pianist Bobby Enriquez.


The 1970s saw the rise of another form of pop music The Philippines also saw the rise of alternative folk
known as “disco.” Disco music pertained to rock music music which was different from the traditional and
popular form. This new form combined ethnic

instrumentation with electronic accompaniment, while image manipulation programs and applications to create
presenting themes or issues of society and the their works which can appear in an entire range of
environment. Some of the Filipino composers who media—whether as a physical output or a virtual
championed this style were Joey Ayala, Grace Nono, experience.
and Edru Abraham of Kontragapi (“Kontemporaryong Computer/Digital Arts
Gamelan Pilipino”). Among other Filipino composers Origin and Early Stages
whose styles ranged from folk to semi-ethnic werewere Computer art or digital art first came on the scene in the
Freddie Aguilar, best known for his song Anak; Yoyoy early 1960s. Understandably, this was due to the
Villame, composer of Magellan; technology that was constantly developing and that
became available at that time. Thus, the early
PHILIPPINE ROCK experimenters were not necessarily artists, but engineers
The year 1973 saw the birth of Philippine or “Pinoy” and scientists who had access to and experience with the
rock music which successfully merged the rock beat hardware needed. It was they who began to recognize
with Filipino lyrics. This new sound was introduced by the potential of artistic expression through the
the legendary Juan de la Cruz Band (with their song Ang application of scientific and mathematical principles. In
Himig Natin) which had for its members Joey “Pepe” fact, even in the sample works we present here, you will
Smith, Wally Gonzales, and the originator of Jeproks, note a strong scientific or mathematical look and feel to
Mike Hanopol, who later became a major symbol of the creations of many digital artists. Geometric forms
Pinoy rock. Other early exponents of Pinoy rock and repeating patterns appear frequently. More
included the band Maria Cafra; Sampaguita, the female traditional subjects like human beings, landscapes,
rocker; and folk-rock singer Heber Bartolome and his animals, and still life elements are simply incorporated
Banyuhay band, whose songs expressed strong messages as part of those forms and patterns—rather than as the
of nationalism. Continuing this legacy of Pinoy rock main focus. Also understandable was the initial reaction
today are vocal groups and bands that include River of the public to computer-generated art. There were
Maya, The Dawn, True Faith, The Eraserheads, questions as to whether it was, in fact, “true art” since it
Wolfgang, Bamboo, Parokya ni Edgar, Hale, Sandwich, made use of electronic and mechanical devices, rather
SugarFree, Sponge Cola,and others. than the artist’s own hand, to produce the images and
effects. Within a few years, however, there was a general
PINOY RAP acceptance of digital art as an exciting and thought-
In the Philippines, rap was also made popular by such provoking form of modern art. Exhibits of computer art
composers and performers as Francis Magalona (Mga became highly popular and critically acclaimed, as
Kababayan Ko and Watawat) and Andrew E (Humanap digital artists or computer art masters or “superstars”
Ka ng Pangit). Francis Magalona was born on October came to the fore in Europe, Russia, and the United
4, 1964 and died on March 6, 2009. He is also known as States.
FrancisM, “Master Rapper,” and “The Man From
Manila.” He was a Filipino rapper, songwriter, producer,
actor, director, television host, and photographer. He is
often hailed as the “King of Pinoy Rap” and is
considered a legend in the Philippine music community.
With the success of his earliest albums, Magalona was
the first Filipino rapper to cross over to the mainstream.
He is also credited for having pioneered the merging of
rap with Pinoy rock, becoming a significant influence on Frieder Nake Georg Nees
artists in that genre as well. He was later awarded a - Polygon Drawing -Schrotter (Gravel)
posthumous Presidential Medal of Merit “for his musical
and artistic brilliance, his deep faith in the Filipino, and
his sense of national pride that continue to inspire us.”



Vera Mornal Ronald Davis

INTRODUCTION -Des (Ordres) -Mountain and Staurolytes
Technology has literally taken over every aspect of life
in the 21st century, and the creative and visual arts have Some digital artists have even used their works to
not been spared. In fact, for the younger generations, art express their views on political, social, and cultural
as you know it is defined by technology—from its issues; as well as to advocate causes that are critical to
creation, to its manipulation, to its reproduction, and modern life, such as the environment and climate
even to its distribution. change. Others even explore the philosophical
Technology-based art is essentially computer-generated relationship between science and technology and the
and/or manipulated. Through the centuries, visual artists arts.
used actual brushes and palettes, and a whole array of
paints, inks, and natural pigments applied to paper,
canvas, fabric, stucco walls and ceilings. Today’s
computer artists employ the ever-expanding powers of

The Philippine Scene Pic Collage – allows you to make collages

In our country, Filipino artists were likewise influenced incorporating photos, stickers, text, and frames
by the technology trend in art. However, this was more Photo Grid – a downloadable application for android
in the commercial sphere. From the 1960s to the 1990s, phones that allows you to make collages out of images
their computer-generated works were primarily geared from your photo gallery
towards illustrating for international comic books. In Doodle Booth – an iPad application (with a free
fact, Filipino illustrators earned quite a reputation for downloadable version) that enables you to ‘doodle’ on
their talents and were highly in demand in this field. your images using available stickers
They eventually became equally sought after as Photo Booth – an application for taking photos and
animators for some of the major film production videos using an iPad or iPad mini (a version for the
companies in the United States, as well as animated iPhone, called Simple Booth, is also available)
television series produced in different countries. Magic Mirror Booth – an iPhone application that
allows you to take amusing, distorted images, simulating
camera effects
Pic Monkey – a free online photo editing tool that
provides filters, frames, text, and effects to manipulate
your images
Flipagram – a downloadable application that allows
you to ‘bring your photos to life’ in short videos set to
Cityscape music of your choice
-Antonio Gorordo
Picsart – a free photo editor and drawing application,
as well as a social network for you to share your art with
There are also institutions offering training courses on
the digital arts, such as the First Academy of Computer
Arts, the Philippine Center for Creative Imaging Snapseed – a photo application that enables you to
(PCCI), as well as the Technical Education and Skills enhance, transform, and share your photos; a free
Development Authority (TESDA) through scholarships downloadable version for android phones is available
given by the Animation Council of the Philippines Instagram – a fast and fun way to share images with
(ACPI). Courses such as these open up an array of career others; snap a photo, choose from among the available
opportunities for young Filipinos in the fields of filters, and share via Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, and
advertising, animation design, multimedia more.
communication, and web development.

Digital Art in the Hands of Everyone

Computer technology has by now invaded
Every aspect of modern
life. It was, therefore,
inevitable that it would
develop into forms and
devices that could be -Original Copy - Modified with cropping,
mass produced, mass superimposed text, and a
distributed, and therefore ‘silk’ texture
widely accessible to
everyone. In other words, anyone with a computer
device— from a desktop PC to a laptop, to a tablet or
android phone can now capture and edit images and

Mobile Phone Art / Computer-generated Images

Mobile Phone Art
The mobile phone that you constantly hold has evolved
from a mere communication
tool, into a creative device
-Mirror Photo - Modified to a multi-image
that allows you to generate
collage in different tints
original works of art for an
entire range of purposes.
These could be personal Computer Generated Images
If you want to create original images from scratch, you
photographs and videos that
may make your own illustrations using specialized
you can manipulate with a myriad special effects, both
programs for image generation and manipulation.
visual as well as sound and music. They could also be
Examples of these would be Adobe Illustrator and Corel
school projects or reports that require you to combine
Draw. These are, however, designed to run on desktop
images, incorporate text, even include simple animation.
computers and laptops, so you would need to have
You are probably already familiar with the following
access to these larger and more complex devices.
image manipulation programs and applications that run
There are scaled-down versions of such programs
on today’s android devices:
specifically developed for use on smaller, handheld units
Pixlr – a powerful, free online image editor

like your personal tablet or android phone. These enable choose from among all these for the best photo or
you to perform virtually all of the tasks that a program photos.
like Illustrator performs but, almost literally, in the palm
of your hand. Many of these come at a fraction of the Video Games / Digital Painting / Imaging Videos
cost of the more complex programs or, in some cases, Video Games
even for free. For today’s younger generation that grew up in a
digital world, even entertainment now comes
Digital Photography courtesy of computer devices. A major component of
Another means of generating an original image is to such entertainment is in the form of video games of
capture it first as a digital file. In the case of today’s every conceivable genre, subject matter, and skill level.
electronic technology, that would mean recording the These range from educational games and mind twisters,
image using a digital camera or a device with a built-in to building and construction
camera, like your mobile phone, android device, or games, to ones that entail
tablet. Prior to the development of digital photography, physical interaction by the users
cameras were essentially sealed boxes that would allow (sports, fitness, dance). Then
a split-second entry of light to strike a section of light there are the tremendously
sensitive film inside it. The result was that whatever was popular games of strategy, war,
in front of the camera at the precise instant that the light science fiction, and mythical worlds that employ
entered it would be imprinted on that exposed section of amazingly complex and realistic graphics, motion,
film as a photographic image. The photographer (or a sound, and other special effects.
commercial developing service) would then have to
process the exposed film in a special enclosed space Digital painting is a method of creating an artwork
known as a “dark room”—and only then would the using a computer. This is, however, different from the
recorded images be seen. image generating devices and programs discussed above,
which create, modify, store, and share images entirely on
Point-and-shoot vs. DSLR a laptop, tablet, or android phone. Digital painting still
The multi-step process described above has since been makes use of traditional painting mediums such as
overtaken by the magic of digital photography. Today’s acrylic paint, oils, ink, and water color and also applies
users have the option of a “point-and-shoot” type of the pigment to traditional surfaces, such as canvas,
digital camera which automatically makes all the paper, polyester etc. But it does so by employing
adjustments in lighting, focus, zoom-in and zoom-out, computer software that drives a type of robot device
even removal of “red eye” with the user being given (such as a plotter) or an office machine (such as a
some leeway for slight adjustments. It offers image printer) that takes the place of the artist’s hand.
enhancement features like adjusting color and brightness
imbalances, as well as sharpening or blurring the image. Video Technology / Imaging Videos
It may even offer unique effects like “fish eye” or filters Social media purposes - Another tremendously powerful
that allow pre-setting of the photo to be taken with a and innovative field that
colored tint or a special texture. digital technology has
revolutionized is that of
Basic Tips for Taking Good Photographs creating and presenting
Whether you are using a point-and-shoot camera or a videos. The explosion of
DSLR, there are basic guidelines for capturing a good social media in recent
quality photographic image: decades has provided a new
1. Choose a good location. An interesting location can platform for video materials
sometimes make the difference between a good and a targeting the “netizens” of
great photo. today. Not only are there online advertisements that
2. Check that the available background is relatively continuously bombard the users’ computer screens and
simple and not too cluttered, so that the focus will be on mobile phone displays.
your chosen subject.
3. Natural light in the outdoors or near a window is Medical/scientific purposes – Another extremely
usually the most flattering or effective for any kind of valuable use of today’s video technology is that of
subject. Ideally, the best light for photos is within the imaging videos in the fields of medicine and science.
first hour after sunrise and the last hour before sunset. You may be familiar with Magnetic Resonance Imaging
4. Avoid taking shots facing the light, as this would (MRI), Computerized Tomography (CT scans), and the
make your subject back-lit and most of the details would like which are used to create and record visual images of
be lost in shadow. a patient’s internal anatomy in order to diagnose and
5. If you intend to take a posed shot, position your treat diseases and injuries. There are also ultrasound
subject where you want in relation to the location, tests or sonograms, which translate sound waves
background, and source of light. bouncing off physical objects into images that can be
6. If you intend to take a candid shot, position yourself studied—whether a baby developing in the womb (in
where you can capture the most interesting, amusing, 2D, 3D, and 4D options), growths or malformations
touching, or engaging moment or expression. inside the body, structural flaws in buildings, as well as
7. Take a variety of shots—ranging from far shots objects in outer space, underground, and deep
showing the surroundings, to medium-distance shots in the ocean.
concentrating on the main subject, to tight or close-up
shots that focus on details of the subject. You can then