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The Food Safety Plan –  H.A.C.C.P

Terms of reference:
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This linear HACCP plan covers the manufacture of an apple yogurt product, packaged in a pot.
It will start at raw materials intake through to dispatch of processing plant.
The HACCP plan will cover final product safety and will look at the following hazards:

Physical Glass and hard brittle plastic 


Metal

HACCP Plan HACCP Plan


Chemical Haccp Yang
Pesticide residues HACCP
in fruitPlan HACCP Plan HACCP Plan HACCP(Coca HACCP Plan-
Kitchen… Apple Juice Yoghurt
Chemical residuesOrange Juice
associated withRestaurant
the packagingWholesale
materialsFrui… Cola) Dairy Plant ISA

Chemical residues associated with cleaning

Biological Unwanted bacteria yogurt, raw milk and fruit.

The company has in place a number of effective prerequisite programs including:

   Cleaning and Sanitising


   Pest Control
   Personal Hygiene Requirements
   Staff Training

The company complies with the following acts of legislation

   Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council


   Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council

And the following codes of practice/guidelines documents were used in developing this
HACCP plan:

   Campden BRI HACCP: A Practical Guide (Fourth edition). Guideline No 42


   British Retail Consortium Global Standard for Food Safety (Issue 6)
   Department of Health Guidelines for the Safe Production of Heat Preserved Foods
   Institute of Food Science and Technology Food & Drink Good Manufacturing Practice, A
Guide to its Responsible Management.
   Codex Alimentarius Food Hygien Basic Texts (Third Edition)

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1.1 The HACCP food safety team

1.1.1

The HACCP plan is developed and managed by Fab Foods’ multi-disciplinary food safety team
which includes those responsible for quality/technical, production operations, engineering and
other relevant functions.

The team leader has an in-depth knowledge of HACCP and is able to demonstrate competence
and experience.

The team members have specific knowledge of HACCP and relevant knowledge of product,
 process and associated hazards.

In the event of the company not having appropriate in-house knowledge, external expertise will
used, but day-to-day management of the food safety system remains the responsibility of the
company.

HACCP Team Member Responsibility


Quality Assurance Carries out systematic measurements,
comparison with BRC standard, monitoring
of processes and an aims to prevent error.
Quality Control Reviews the quality of all factors involved in
 production with focus on process outputs.
Production Specialist contribute details of what actually happens
on the production line
throughout all shift patterns
Engineer Provides information on the operating
characteristics of the process
equipment under study and the hygienic
design of equipment and buildings
Microbiologist Understands the microbiological hazards and
risks associated with the product.
Others Including; specialist equipment operators,
hygiene manager, ingredient and packaging
 buyers, distribution manager, maintenance
and calibration operators.
External HACCP Members If knowledge is not available in-company,
consultation with an eternal resource will be
carried out.
 Breakdown of Fab Food’s HACCP Team and Responsibilities.  
Tabl e 1: 

   All persons are trained in HACCP and repeat the training annually.

Below is a table showing how Fab Foods operates an organised structure of the HACCP team.

 Fab Foods operation of an organised structure of the HACCP team.


Tabl e 2: 

1.2 Prerequisite programmes

1.2.1

Fab Foods has established and maintains environmental and operational programmes necessary
to keep an environment suitable to produce safe and legal food products

Prerequisite programmes include:

   Cleaning and Sanitising


   Pest Control
   Personal Hygiene Requirements
   Staff Training

Person
Monitor Monitor Corrective
Process Control Record Responsi
Hazard Prevention Method Frequency action Validation
Step Limits Sheet ble
ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE
Full
investigati
Presence on, re Weekly
Environ Listeria/sa ISO Weekly
of listeria/ clean and review of
mental Environm lmonella approved monthly/ Pathogen QC
Salmonell re swab  pathogen
Hygiene ent swabs absent methods Quarterly file Manager
a area file by QC

HYGIENIC HANDLING OF INGREDIENTS


*  Milk,
* Starter
Cultures
(S.thermo
SOP In case of
 philus& Presence Presence
Testing  pathogen
L.burglari of of
 procedure Pathogen  presence
ous)  pathogeni  pathogeni
Below for screening immediate
* Fruit c Pathogen QC c
 pathogen investigati monitorin rejection
(diced microorga screening Weekly Manager microorga
limits on of g sheet of
apples) nisms nisms
 pathogens  product.
*Stabiliser
(pectin)
* Flavour
Enhancers
CLEANING, MAINTENANCE & PERSONNEL HYGIENE AT PRIMARY PRODUCTION
Areas not
Cleaning,
cleaned
Maintena
correctly,
nce & Weekly
Hygiene revisit
Personnel review of
Clean records areas with
Hygiene Physical hygiene
Cleaning areas, Cleaning operator,
at /Micro Hygiene cleaning
 procedure swab records Technical reclean
Primary contamina inspection and
s enterobact Weekly Maintenan Manager and
Productio tion , swabs maintenan
eria <10 ce records reswab
n ce
LOCATION
Productio
n areas
must be
segregated Internal
Location Cross Productio
, if this is and
of contamina n area Segregate
Visual NA NA Technical violated, external
Factory tion segregated d area
investigat audits
e reason

PREMISES 
Design, Action log
Visual and Hygiene
layout, created.
Physical Food Hygiene and Internal
Internal Clean & Actions
/Micro grade and Housekee and
Structure undamage monitored
contamina walls and housekeep Ongoing.  ping Technical external
s& d continuou
tion equipment ing audits Audits audits
Fittings sly
EQUIPMENT
Hygiene
Food and
Control household
& Visual and Hygiene records
Monitori Physical Clean & Hygiene and created. Internal
Audit/Vis
ng /Micro undamage and Housekee Continuou and
ual Ongoing. QC
Equipme contamina d housekeep  ping s external
Inspection manager
nt tion ing audits Audits monitorin audits
g.
Containe
Clean Correct Visual and Hygiene
rs For Physical
colour colour, Hygiene and Daily
Waste & /Micro Monitorin
coded clean and and Housekee monitorin
Inedible contamina Clean Productio g log
waste undamage housekeep  ping g of waste
Substanc tion daily n created.
containers d ing audits Audits containers
es
FACILITIES
Investigat
e if
External All areas
Legionella Water Quality legionella
Water Legionella company at least Legionella
contamina Absent storage Control found in
Storage testing sample twice file
tion records Officer water, risk
and test annually
access
 product
Correct
Visual
hand
hand
washing Report
Personal Physical Hand swabs,
 procedure On- All deviations
Hygiene/c /Micro washing/c and Hygiene
s and going/qua Employee to Action log
aptive contamina aptive Hygiene records
change of rterly s supervisor 
clothing tion clothing and
clothing in /manager
housekeep
 productio
ing audits
n areas
Temperat Temperat Report Weekly
Temperat Product Calibrated Temperat
ure ure As per QC deviations audit of
ure contamina thermome ure
monitorin specificati schedules manager to QC temperatu
Control tion ters Records
g ons manager re records
CLEANING MANAGEMENT 
Do not
Spray Weekly
 proceed
with review of
with
Contamin acidic cleaning
 productio
ation due solution logs.
n until
Cleaning to after clean Surface Surface After each Productio
satisfactor 
Program ineffective on filler hygiene hygiene cleaning Cleaning n Internal/e
y hygiene
mes hygiene inside tests tests cycle logs operators xternal
has been
 procedure surfaces audits
achieved
Do not
Cleaning  proceed Weekly
Visual
Contamin carried out with review of
CIP and inspection As per
ation due to correct Operators/  productio cleaning
Cleaning hand s, sanitizer cleaning
to time, Cleaning Team n until logs.
Program cleaning checks scheduled/
ineffective temperatu logs leaders/Te satisfactor 
mes  procedure and frequencie
hygiene re and chnical y plant Internal/e
s swabbing s
 procedure sanitizer hygiene xternal
regimes
strength has been audits
achieved.
PEST CONTROL SYSTEMS 
All pest
control
Microbiol actions &
ogical, All corrective
Physical evidence Pest actions
Pestguard
or of pest Pest control taken
Plus
Pest chemical activity Control technician Rentokil reported
contract in Technical Rentokil
Control risks reported Technicia -monthly File to
 place with Manager report.
associated and n visits reports. technical
Rentokil
with pests. controlled. manager.

WASTE MANAGEMENT
Waste
transportat
ion
document
ation
Any
reports of
visual
Rubbish Hygiene Action log
Rubbish sightings
cleared on & created
 provides All of
a regular Housekee and issued Waste
Waste environme rubbish to waste/deb Waste
and  ping Audit Once per to document
Managem nt for pest  be ris in the coordinati
routine schedule month Technical ation file.
ent harborage. removed.  productio ng officer
 basis. in place. Manager
n area or
surroundi
ng areas.
PERSONAL CLEANLINESS 
Fully
document
ed
Hygiene
Code of
Practice
Action log
compiled
created
from
Hygiene  Non- Hygiene and issued
Customer 100%
Policy complianc & to General Hygiene
Codes of complianc
e with Housekee Manager and
Practice e by all Hygiene Technical
general  ping Audit Quarterly Housekee
and Good site records Manager
hygiene schedule  ping audit
Manufact  personnel.
 practises in place.
uring
Practices.
Re swab
Personnel and if
hand  positive
swabbing Technical discuss Hygiene
regime in manager hygiene and
Hygiene
 place for  policy Housekee
Monthly records
 productio with the  ping audit
n area. operator
Rules for
Visitors
Procedure
Vistors
Visitors in place.
must meet
not aware Sign in at
the correct
of the site reception.
 No unfit safety
hygiene Sign in
visitors citeria to
requireme agreement Annual
allowed in  be
nts. to follow audit of
Visitors high risk Hygiene Each Visitors Reception allowed
Unfit/unw company visitor
areas of rules visitor. Book ist access to
ell visitors rules records
factory. the
enter site. while on
 premise
site.

  Fab Foods Prerequisite Process.


Tabl e 3: 

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  Cleaning and Sanitising

The order of operation for cleaning/sanitizing of food product contact surfaces is

   Rinse
   Clean
   Rinse
   Sanitize.

The company uses a number of types of cleaning.

 Mechanical Cleaning . Often referred to as clean-in-place (CIP). Requires no disassembly or


 partial disassembly.
Clean-out-of-Place  (COP). Can be partially disassembled and cleaned in specialized COP
 pressure tanks.
 Manual Cleaning . Requires total disassembly for cleaning and inspection.

Following cleaning, sanitization is completed, types include;

Thermal Sanitization involving the use of hot water or steam for a specified temperature and
contact time.

Chemical Sanitization  involving the use of an approved chemical sanitizer at a specified


concentration and contact time.

Cleaning and Sanitization is carried out to remove unwanted matter on food-contact surface,
referred to as Food Soil.

Detergents and cleaning compounds are composed of mixtures of ingredients that interact with
soils in several ways: Physically active ingredients alter physical characteristics such as
solubility or colloidal stability. Chemically active ingredients modify soil components to make
them more soluble and, thus, easier to remove. Example of cleaning agents used are Alkaline
Builders, Acid Builders, Water Conditioners, Oxidizing Agents, and Enzyme-based detergents.

The below table is used when selecting cleaning agent to use.

Surface Deposit Cleaning Solubility


Sugar Water soluble
Fat Alkali soluble
Protein Alkali soluble
Starch Water soluble, Alkali soluble
Monovalent Salts Water soluble; Acid soluble

 Surface Deposit vs. the Cleaning Solubility


Tabl e 4: 

Examples of sanitizers include; Chlorine, Iodophors, Quarternary ammonium compounds,


Acid anionic, Fatty Acid, Peroxyacetic acid

The below table can be used when selecting cleaning agent to use

Quarternary  Fatty Peroxyacetic 


Chlorine  Iodophors  ammonium  Acid anionic  Acid  acid 
compounds 
 
Corrosive  Corrosive Slightly  Noncorrosive Slightly Slightly Slightly
corrosive corrosive corrosive corrosive
  Irritating
I rr itating to skin  Not  Not irritating Slightly Slightly  Not irritating
irritating irritating irritating
Ef fective at Yes Depends In most cases No No Yes
neutral pH   on type
Ef fective at acid Yes, but In some Yes, below Yes, Yes
pH   unstable Yes cases 3.0-3.5  below 3.5-
4.0
Yes, but
Ef fective at less than  No In most cases No No Less
alkal in e pH   at neutral effective
 pH
Af fected by Yes Moderately Moderately Moderately Partically Partially
 
organic mater ial 
Af fected by  No Slightly Yes Slightly Slightly Slightly
 
water har dness 
Residual
antimicrobial  None Moderate Yes Yes Yes None
 
activity 
 
Cost  Low High Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
Acid Highly Anionic Cationic Cationic Reducing
solutions, alkaline wetting surfactants surfactants agents, metal
   phenols,
Incompatibilities  detergents agents, and alkaline and ions, strong
amines soaps, and detergents alkaline alkalies
acids detergents
Stabili ty of use Dissipates Dissipates Stable Stable Stable Dissipates
solution    rapidly slowly slowly
M aximum level
permitted by
FD A without 200ppm 25ppm 200ppm Varied Varied 100-200ppm
 
rinse 
Water Moderate None
temperature  None High Moderate Moderate
 
sensitivity 
 
F oam level   None Low Moderate Low/Moderate Low None
Phosphate     None High None High Moderate None
Soil load  None Low High Low Low Low
tolerance  

Tabl e 5:  Comparison of the Chemical and Physical Properties in commonly used Sanitizers

It is important that the clean, sanitized equipment and surfaces drain dry and are stored dry so
as to prevent bacteria growth. Necessary equipment must also be cleaned and stored in a clean,
sanitary manner.

Cleaning/sanitizing procedures are evaluated for adequacy through evaluation and inspection
 procedures. Adherence to prescribed written procedures (inspection, swab testing, direct
observation of personnel) are continuously monitored, and records maintained to evaluate long-
term compliance.

(Schmidt, 2000)

All areas regarding Cleaning and Sanitizing must be documented and signed in appropriate
specification sheets.

  Pest Control

Pest Control is carried out to eliminate the entry of insects and rodents into the food processing
 premises.

Pests include: Rodents (Rats, Squirrels, Mice etc.) Cockroaches, Flies, Ant, Birds and other
vertebrates.

Control of Pests in done by an outside service provided by Rentokil . (Hazel House, Millennium
Park, Naas, Co Kildare, 1890 333 888).

Poisoned Bait, Traps, Electrical Discharge system, Repellents, Pitfall traps and Sticky insect
traps are among the controls put in place by Rentokil .

In addition to this:

   The exterior of the premises is well-maintained by designated maintenance staff, lawns


are mowed once a week and any debris which could be a possible nesting place for
rodents/insects are removed. Evidence of pests such as dropping are examined for.
   The interior and exterior of processing plant is inspected twice weekly to ensure that no
 pests have begun to congregate.
   Pest control is included on the factory daily schedule.
   Drains onsite are fitted with rodent traps.
   All entrances to the factory are effectively concealed from pests when closed.
   In the event that a pest is found on the premises immediate action must be taken.
Incident should be immediately reported to supervisor. Product recall may be necessary.
   All areas regarding Pest Control must be documented and signed in appropriate
specification sheets.

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Personal Hygiene Requirements / Staff Training

The below ‘house’ rules are in place as well and in conjunction with H.A.C.C.P. Staff are
trained upon entry and annually by an official body which comply with the FSAI’s Guide to
Food Safety Training Level 1 and Level 2.

Prerequisite Control Measure


All staff in contact with food items must Require new staff members to complete a
confirm they are free of disease before they questionnaire about their medical situation
are employed. and/or arrange for them to be tested for
infectious diseases.
Clean white cotton/polyester overalls or
All staff in contact with food items must coats for all staff in contact with
wear protective clothing. unpackaged food are provided and dry
cleaned.
If a person has these symptoms either send
Staff are prohibited staff who are them home until they are better or move
experiencing vomiting or diarrhoea or have them to an area when they do not handle
infected wounds on their hands or lower unpackaged food items. Provide adhesive
arms from handling unpackaged food items. medical dressings for staff to put over any
wounds, cuts or abrasions on hands or lower
arms
Ensure that staff put on disposable hair nets, It is company policy to arrange for staff to
and beard nets (where applicable) before  be inducted and trained to do this.
 putting on their protective clothing.
Glove sizes are available to take into
account the different sized hands/ The
gloves should be tight fitting but not so tight
Use gloves that are fit for purpose. as to be uncomfortable. Disposable gloves
have are designed for use with food. For
tasks such as cleaning or pest control use
rubber, non-disposable, thick gloves.
The facility is designed so staff must outer
Staff must remove protective clothing layer of protective clothing - prior to going
 before going to the toilet. to the toilet. This will include installing
hooks on which to hang the clothes coming
off.
Provide facilities for staff to store outdoor Install lockable cabinets in the changing
clothes and personal effects. facility.
Staff must to wash hands regularly
especially after bathroom, food or smoke Signs are placed in bathrooms and in
 breaks; after handling waste or uncooked entrances to the processing areas
food items and after sneezing or touching reminding people to wash their hands
their faces.
It is policy that eating, drinking or chewing
Eating, drinking or chewing of gum in food of gum in food processing areas is
 processing areas is prohibited.  prohibited. A canteen is provided for such
activities.

  Staff are trained to turn away and sneeze


into the crook of their arm or into hands
Staff should not sneeze over food items. over their face. Afterwards they should
 blow their nose with tissues & wash their
hands
All staff must sign a declaration saying they
Wearing of any jewellery in food will abide by this policy.
 processing areas is prohibited. This Visitors are asked to remove jewellery.
includes watches, ring, earrings, necklaces Signs to doorways leading into processing
 bracelets and hairpieces. areas remind people they should remove
 jewellery.
 Personal Hygiene Requirements / Staff Training & Control Measures.
Tabl e 6: 

1.3 Description of the product

1.3.1

The scope of each HACCP plan, includes the products and processes covered, including

   Composition, e.g. raw materials, ingredients, allergens, recipe


   Origin of ingredients
   Physical or chemical properties that impact food safety, e.g. pH, aw
   Treatment and processing, e.g. cooking, cooling
   Packaging system, e.g. modified atmosphere, vacuum
   Storage and distribution conditions, e.g. chilled, ambient
   Target safe shelf life under prescribed storage and usage conditions
   Instructions for use, and potential for known customer misuse, e.g. storage, preparation.

Process/Product type: Yogurt


Product name: Absolutely Apple 
Composition: Skim milk, skim milk powder, apple fruit,
 preservatives, bacterial cultures (
Important product characteristics aw, pH, preservatives, processing
How it is to be used: Direct consumption
Packaging: Plastic cup and foil –  sealed
Shelf life: 2 weeks
Where it will be sold: Retailers
Labelling instructions: Within legal limits, as per BRC standards.
Special storage and distribution control: Refrigerated at < 5°C

 Product Description
Tabl e 7: 

1.3.2
Fab Foods ensures that the HACCP plan is based on comprehensive information sources, which
are referenced and available on request. It uses:

   the latest scientific literatures


   historical & known hazards associated with specific food products relevant codes of
 practice
   recognized guidelines
   food safety legislation relevant for the production and sale of products
   customer requirements.

1.4 Identified intended use


1.4.1

The intended use of the product by the customer is described, defining the consume target
groups, including the suitability of the product for vulnerable groups of the population (e.g.
infants, elderly, allergy sufferers).

1.5 Construction a process flow diagram


1.5.1

The prepared flow diagram covers each product, product category or process. This sets out all
aspects of the food process operation within the HACCP scope, from raw material receipt
through to processing, storage and distribution. It contains the following:

    plan of premises and equipment layout


   raw materials including introduction of utilities & other contact materials, e.g water,
 packaging
   sequence and interaction of all process steps
   outsourced processes and subcontracted work
    process parameters
    potential for process delay
   rework and recycling
   low/high-care/high-risk area segregation
   finished products, intermediate/semi-processed products, by-products and waste.

1.Organic Milk Storage Silo 6,7,8


3b Incoming
Packaging/ingredients

3. Addition of dry
Ingredients (SMP,
4. Filtration 2. Mixing Hopper NaC) from ambient
storage
Packaging
in
warehouse

5. Pumping of milk
through balance tank

Waste Milk to Effluent

6a. Preheating of Milk in


Pasteuriser

6b. Homogenisation

Path of 
Milk

6c. De-aeration
6d.Pasteurisation
93˚ C x 4min

7. Inoculation
- addition of 
CCP 1 Cultures from
freezer
Divert of Product
where applicable

8. Incubation 36°-43°C

9. Cutting of yogurt ph
4.6

10.Filtration 0.5mm

11. Cooled 25° -30°C

14. Addition & 13. Fruit


mixing of fruit of
& yogurt in addition from
12. Holding
yogurt ambient
holding tanks storage

15a. Lid
& pot
deboxing

16.Filling, sealing & 15b.Pot & lid


dating of yogurt pots packaging

Waste yog to
effluent plant &
packaging to
recycling/skip

19. Sleeves &


trays
packaging
17. Metal Detection

18. Blast Chilled

20.Trayed/palletised

Unit Operations

   Milk storage Silo


When the milk is received after passing quality testing. The milk is pumped from the tanker to
the milk storage silos. Here the milk should be stored at <7˚C and held for no longer than 72
hours. Silos are agitated to make sure that the entire volume remains cold and that the milk fat
does not separate from the milk. When the silo is empty, it is Cleaned In place with specific
agents before the next milk from tankers are received.

   Mixing Hopper
Milk from the silo is then passed in to the mixing hopper, where ingredients which were stored
at ambient temperature, such as calcium and vitamins are added to the milk to be enriched. It
 provides gentle agitated to distribute the ingredients to form a precise liquid. It provides cooling
so the milk stays under 7˚C.

   Filtration

The type of filtration technology used in the industry is Microfiltration which is a low pressure-
driven membrane filtration process, which is based on a membrane with an open structure
allowing dissolved components to pass while most non-dissolved components are rejected by
the membrane. In the dairy industry, microfiltration here which is used for bacteria reduction
and fat removal in milk and whey as well as for protein and casein standardisation. The size of
the membrane is 1.4µm.

This is an essential process step to protect flavour, ensure nutritional value, and prevent
microbial or physical contamination. It allows a product to have a specified fat content and for
total fat and solids content.

The type of membrane used in this filtration system is ceramic. They are resistant to
temperature, chemicals and are easy to clean.

   Balance tank

The milk is then pumped in to a balance tank or float tank. The tank is equipped with a float
valve. The purpose of this is to keep the milk at a constant level and to maintain a constant
supply of milk to the regeneration section of the pasteuriser.

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   Pasteurisation

Milk which is still at 4˚C is pumped from the balance tank into the regeneration section of the
 plate heat exchanger, where it is heated. The plate heat exchanger contains a series of stainless
steel plates stacked together with spaces in between them. The spaces are the forming chambers
which hold the milk as it passes through.

The milk will increase from 4˚C to 72˚C for effective pasteurisation. This is held for 15 seconds
and then chilled again to 4˚C.

In the regeneration section the heat of the pasteurised milk is used to warm up the cold milk.
Therefore the outgoing hot milk is the heating medium for the cold raw milk. The cold milk is
the cooling medium for the hot milk, as it is used to cool down the hot milk from 72˚C to 4˚C.
This all takes place in the plate heat exchanger where counter current flow is the most effective
way of heat exchange. When the cold milk meets the oncoming hot milk, and is heated up, it
is then passed through the holding tube which is long enough to last at least 15 seconds. Here
the milk is being pasteurised. It flows to the regeneration section where it warms up the cool
milk coming in and then off to the cooling section which is the final section.

The divert valve on the processing unit is used for diversion of any liquid that may be under
the pasteurisation temperature. In this case if it’s under 72˚C the milk is brought back to the
regeneration section and pasteurised again.

Pasteurisation is a thermal processing technique whereby milk is exposed to a


time / temperature combination of 72˚C for 15 seconds. This will make the product safe for
human consumption. Pasteurisation does not affect chemical, physical or organoleptic
characteristics of the milk. The primary function of pasteurisation is a food safety function.
However, as well as destroying pathogenic bacteria, pasteurisation will also destroy spoilage
 bacteria and denature enzymes. This has the effect of extending the shelf-life of milk, both
chemically and microbiologically. Therefore pasteurisation is a critical control point in the
 process.

A Phosphastase test must be carried out to show pasteurisation was effective.(<350mU/L =


Pass) All tests are recorded.

Raw milk contains acid and alkaline phosphatases. These enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of
certain phosphate esters. The thermal stability of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in milk is slightly
higher than that of Microbacterium tuberculosis. AP is inactivated by heating milk to 72C and
holding for 15seconds. Inactivation of AP ensures the destruction of  Microbacterium
tuberculosis. Adequately pasteurised milk will be phosphate negative.

   Homogenisation
Homogenisation process allows two immiscible liquids to become mixed. This is achieved by
turning one of the liquids into a state consisting of extremely small particles distributed
uniformly throughout the other liquid.

When the milk is fed through the homogeniser, the workhead generates high shear rates. The
milk is forced through a small passage at high velocity. The disruption of the fat globules is
due to turbulence and cavitation.

While milk is forced through, the large fat globules are broken down into smaller ones.
Resulting in a size of 2-5 microns. This results in a stable emulsion, better mouth feel of the
 product, reduced sensitivity to lipid oxidation.

   Deaeration
Deaeration is the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gassed in the product. This is to
 prevent/avoid undesirable changes in the final end product. Not only free air can be removed
 but also mechanical air. Deaeration of a product can result in an oxygen level of <1ppm. This
improves product quality and shelf life.

   Inoculation of culture starters


After deaeration of the milk, the temperature is maintained, The milk here is getting ready for
yogurt production. This heat treatment is to denature about 80% of the whey proteins,
 particularly β-lactoglobulin, which in turn reacts with the κ casein to form a more stable
micelle, and, to produce yoghurt with increased body and viscosity the starter cultures with are
used are, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles. 

   Incubation/holding tanks
The milk is held for the fermentation process to be carried out. This occurs at a temperature
around 45˚C.

   Cutting of yogurt pH

These bacteria form a symbiotic starter culture to ferment milk. By creating the starter culture
it increases the production of lactic acid in the fermentation process.

Streptococcus thermophilus starts to grow first dropping the milks pH from 6.6 to 5.0, and
 produces carbon dioxide and lactic acid. These products stimulate Lactobacillus bulgaricus to
grow and further drop the pH to 4.2. The sugar found in milk is lactose, when the starter culture
is added to milk it breaks the lactose into glucose. After the sugar glucose is formed it. Then it
is fermented into lactic acid by the microorganisms.

The lactic acid decreases the pH of the milk and causes the casein, protein found in milk,
molecules to denature and stick together. The milk then curdles to produce yogurt

   Filtration
Filtration of yogurt can remove the excess whey from fermentation process and gasses which
were produced form the starter cultures. This improves quality and shelf life of the product.
Filtration membrane used in this process is 0.5mm.

   Yogurt Holding Tanks

After filtration the yogurt is cooled and then passed into yogurt holding tanks. The tanks here
keep the yogurt at the right temperature under atmospheric pressure. The yogurt is gently
agitated to keep the yogurt mixed with no whey separation and to keep a good consistency for
the product.

   Metal Detection

Metal detection is a very important procedure in the manufacturing process. The yogurt is
frequently checked using a pipeline metal detector prior to final processing and final packaging.
The product is normally pumped through a non-metallic pipeline which passes through the
detector. Removal of contaminated product is achieved through the use of automated reject
valves which divert the product flow out of the process. Any high viscosity products that are
 being produced which have the potential to solidify in the pipeline, there are heated pipelines
and valves are used, to limit pipe blockages. This will remove all contaminated substances
from the product, resulting in a high quality and safe product.

   Blast Chilling

Blast chillers/freezers rapidly chill foods from a temperature of 140˚C to 40˚C in less than two
hours. As for yogurt, this will be even less. Blast chillers are ideal for chilling foods quickly
that are made on a daily basis. Blast chillers and freezers have powerful fans that create a fast
even air flow that is very cold. It uses a high-powered refrigeration system to blast the cold air
laterally over the product at high speed, extracting heat at an optimum rate, whilst maintaining
food quality. After the chill or freeze cycle is complete, the equipment switches into Hold mode
to keep the food at the required temperature.

   Traying/Packaging

After the yogurt has been chilled, it is then ready to be put into yogurt pots. These are single
yogurt pots chosen for this product. The machine used here is the Automatic Rotary Type Cup
Filling & Sealing Machine SP-2502.

Cups fall into the holders on the machine, there are two stacks of yogurt cups, were two falls
each time into the individual holders. These are then passed along to the dust and blow suction
system. This takes away any access particles away from the cup. It passes on to a UV sterilizer,
this kills all microbes that may be present in the cups which could have got contaminated during
storage. It provides a sterile environment for the yoghurt. It moves on to the piston filler where
the cup fills up with the chilled yogurt from the blast chillier.

The amount of yogurt is poured out is calibrated on the machine.


The cups are ready to be sealed, they are flushed with nitrogen, and the oxygen is reduced so
that a longer shelf life can be obtained from the product. The yogurt cup is then sealed, brought
to the out feed system of the machine where a lever comes down and sucks the yogurt filled
cups out on to the vender belt to the labelling machine.

The yogurt cups pass though the labelling machine, where is puts on a sleeve around the yogurt
cup, stating all the requirements, such as yogurt name and nutritional information. A label is
also stuck on the lid of the yogurt stating the best before date.

   Cold storage/Dispatch
The yogurts are taken of the labelling line and are stored at 4˚C in trays/ boxes in cold storage
rooms. These are now ready to be picked up by the truckers through dispatch. A physical test
is done before any of the yogurts are dispatched. The Yogurt is now sold to consumers.

1.6 Verification of flow diagram  

1.6.1

The HACCP food safety team verifies the accuracy of the flow diagrams by on-site audit and
challenge at least annually. Daily and seasonal variations are considered and evaluated.
Records of verified flow diagrams are maintained.

1.7 List all potential hazards associated with each process step, conduct a
hazard analysis and consider any measures to control identified hazards

1.7.1

The HACCP food safety team identifies and records all the potential hazards that are
reasonably expected to occur at each step in relation to product, process and facilities.

This includes hazards present in raw materials, those introduced during the process or surviving
the process steps, and allergen risks. It also takes account of the preceding and following steps
in the process chain.

Fab Foods uses Risk Analysis to establish Hazards and uses it in conjunction with Food
Standards such as Food Safety Requirements, HACCP, Good Manufacturing & Hygiene
Practices and Total Quality Management to put an effective Food Management programme in
 place.

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Table 8:   Risk Analysis in conjunction with Food Standards such as Food Safety

Requirements, HACCP, Good Manufacturing & Hygiene Practices and Total Quality
Management.

1.7.2

The HACCP food safety team conducts a hazard analysis to identify hazards which need to be
 prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels. Consideration are given to the following:

   likely occurrence of hazard


   severity of the effects on consumer safety
   vulnerability of those exposed
   survival and multiplication of micro-organisms of specific concern to the product
    presence or production of toxins, chemicals or foreign bodies
   contamination of raw materials, intermediate/semi-processed or finished product.

Where elimination of the hazard is not practical, justification for acceptable levels of the hazard
in the finished product shall be determined and documented.

1.7.3

The HACCP food safety team considers the control measures necessary to prevent or eliminate
a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level. Where the control is achieved through
existing prerequisite programmes, this is stated and the adequacy of the programme to control
the hazard is validated.

Control Critical Monitoring Corrective


Step Process step Hazards measures limits procedure action
Microbiologi Reject milk if
Raw Milk Presence of cal analysis. Bactoscan Raw milk not to
1(a) (Receive Milk) micro- Keep records results  procedure microbiologic
organisms for each al limits
tanker route
Rosa test
Kundrat test
Antibiotics ATK test  Negative Raw milk Reject milk
Raw milk In-line filter.  procedure Follow up
1(b) (Release tests) Foreign Inspect  No damage
material tanker before gaskets Raw milk Daily tanker
offloading.  procedure inspections
Quality of
gaskets
Raw milk Milk Cold chain Maintenance
1(c) (Cooling) Microbial Temperature Cooled to <  procedure of ice banks
3oC
Milk to be Maintenance
Microbial Temperature kept at Cold chain of silos
1(d) Raw milk (Silo and time minimum  procedure
relase) Chemical of 3oC Quarterly
risk Cleaning Within GMP check by
 parameters supplier of
chemicals

  Quarterly
Cream Chemical Within GMP check by
2(a) separation risk Cleaning  parameters SOCP supplier of
chemicals

Quarterly
Homogenisatio Chemical Within GMP check by
3(a) n risk Cleaning  parameters SOCP supplier of
chemicals

4(a) Pasteurisation Microbial Temperature Temperatur  GMP WI Re-pasteurise


and time e and time GLP
Pasteurisation Wash not
4(b) (Transfer of Microbial Cleaning more than Visual on Wash
milk to holding 24 h before PC display
tank)
Loading milk Wash not Visual on
5 for mixing Microbial Cleaning more than PC display Wash
24 h before
Physical Production Wash not Visual on
6 Powder mixing foreign and process more than PC display Wash
material control 24 h before
T105 to storage Wash not Visual on
7 tank Microbial Cleaning more than PC display Wash
24 h before
Temperatur  Empty
Pasteurisation Pasteurisati e and  pasteuriser
8 and Microbial Time and on recorder and repeat
homogenisation temperature Temperature   and visual washing and
 process & time on PC sanitisation
display
Temperatur  Too high: can
Cooling down e and  be cooled
to maturation recorder with ice
Temperature
9 temperature and Microbial Temperature and visual water; too
ferment on PC low; stop the
addition display  process

Maturation and Wash not Visual on


10  breaking of Microbial Cleaning more than PC display Wash
curd 24 h before
Cooling down,
smoothing with Wash 1 Visual on
11 filter and Microbial Cleaning hour before PC display Wash
transfer to
storage tank
Addition of Wash 24 h Visual on
12 sterile apple Microbial Cleaning  before PC display Wash
fruit pieces
13 Packing Microbial Cleaning Wash 24 h Visual on Wash
 before PC display
Viscosity Visual on PC
14 Storage Microbial Lab test < 4ºC 24 h Coliform display
Count
Pre-cool Visual on PC
15 Dispatch Microbial Temperature < 4ºC temperatur  display
e

1.8 Determination of the critical control points (CCP)

1.8.1 For each hazard that requires control, control points are reviewed to identify those that
are critical. CCPs are those control points which are required in order to prevent or eliminate a
food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level. If a hazard is identified at a step where
control is necessary for safety but the control does not exist, the product or process shall be
modified at that step, or at an earlier or later step, to provide a control measure.

Fab Foods implements a system by which critical points can be identified.

 Decision Tree used by company to establish Critical Control Points.


Tabl e 9: 

Simplified Decision Tree

Would a loss of control at this point result in a realistic risk of ill ness or
injury?

YES NO

Q2. Is there a later step at which this


hazard is or can be controll ed? (Under
your control)

NO YES

CCP Not CCP Not CCP

Ref: Advi sed by the Chartered I nsti tute of Envir onmental Heal th (C.I.E.H) U.K.

Results of Decision Tree for CCP Determination

Step Process step Hazards Control measures Control point


1(a) Raw Milk Presence of micro- Microbiological analysis. CP
(Receive Milk) organisms Keep records for each tanker
route
1(b) Raw milk Antibiotics Rosa test Kundrat test ATK test CCP
(Release tests) In-line filter. Inspect tanker
Foreign material  before offloading. Quality of CCP
gaskets
1(c) Raw milk Microbial Temperature CP
(Cooling)
1(d) Raw milk (Silo Microbial Temperature and time CP
relase)
Chemical risk Cleaning
GMP

2(a) Cream Chemical risk Cleaning GMP


separation
3(a) Homogenisatio Chemical risk Cleaning GMP
n
4(a) Pasteurisation Microbial Temperature and time CCP

4(b) Pasteurisation Microbial Cleaning GMP


(Transfer of
milk to holding
tank)
5 Loading milk Microbial Cleaning GMP
for mixing
6 Powder mixing Physical foreign Production and process control GMP
material
7 T105 to storage Microbial Cleaning GMP
tank
8 Pasteurisation Microbial Time and temperature CCP
and
homogenisation
 process
9 Cooling down Microbial Temperature CCP
to maturation
temperature and
ferment
addition
10 Maturation and Microbial Cleaning GMP
 breaking of
curd
11 Cooling down, Microbial Cleaning GMP
smoothing with
filter and
transfer to
storage tank
12 Addition of Microbial Cleaning GMP
sterile apple
fruit pieces
13 Packing Microbial Cleaning GMP

14 Storage Microbial Lab test CP

15 Dispatch Microbial Temperature CP

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Fab Foods recognises the below as Critical Control Points in the production of the
product.

1.  The presence of antibiotics, and foreign material in raw milk,


2.  Effective pasteurisation and homogenisation,
3.  Maintaining the correct fermentation Temperatures

1.9 Establishment critical limits for each CCP

1.9.1

For each CCP, the appropriate critical limits are defined in order to identify clearly whether the
 process is in or out of control. Critical limits include:

   measurable wherever possible, e.g. time, temperature, pH


   supported by clear guidance or examples where measures are subjective, e.g.
 photographs.

1.9.2

The HACCP food safety team validate each CCP. Documented evidence show that the control
measures selected and critical limits identified are capable of consistently controlling the
hazard to the specified acceptable level.

1.10 Establishment of a monitoring system for each CCP

1.10.1

A monitoring procedure is established for each CCP to ensure compliance with critical limits.
The monitoring system is able to detect loss of control of CCPs and wherever possible provides
information in time for corrective action to be taken. Means of monitoring include:

   online measurement
   offline measurement
   continuous measurement, e.g. thermographs, pH meters etc.
   where discontinuous measurement is used, the system ensures that the sample taken is
representative of the batch of product.

1.10.2

Records associated with the monitoring of each CCP include the date, time and result of
measurement and are signed by the person responsible for the monitoring and verified, as
appropriate, by an authorised person. Where records   are in electronic form there is evidence
that records have been checked and verified.

1.11 Establishment a corrective action plan

1.11.1

The HACCP food safety team specifies and documents the corrective action to be taken when
monitored results indicate a failure to meet a control limit, or when monitored results indicate
a trend towards loss of control. This includes the action to be taken by nominated personnel
with regard to any products that have been manufactured during the period when the process
was out of control.

1.12 Establishment of verification procedures

1.12.1

Procedures of verification are established to confirm that the HACCP plan, including controls
managed by prerequisite programmes, are effective. Examples of verification activities
include:

   internal audits
   review of records where acceptable limits have been exceeded
   review of complaints by enforcement authorities or customers
   review of incidents of product withdrawal or recall.

Results of verification are recorded and communicated to the HACCP food safety team.

Critical Control Points Management

Critical
Critical Limits for Monitoring
Control Significan each Correcti Verificati
Point t preventat ve Records on
(CCP) Hazard ive What How Frequenc Who actions
measure y

Allergic On each Reject &


reactions  batch of Dispose,
to Presence milk in all inform Corrective For each
Presence of residues, of DSM tankers, Farm action log.  batch
Antibiotics Developm See Table antibiotic Delvo- silos, On site Liaison Antibiotic  processed
in raw milk ent of 11 Below s Test cream micro lab. Officer testing log. the QA
resistant Mainly & vats, and the Milk & superviso
strains of Beta- Charm fermentati Dep.t of Yogurts r will
 bacteria, Lactam Test on tanks. Agricult quality review
Removes ure log. each log
starter
cultures
Remove
On each or Reject
Can cause ISO  batch of & For each
 physical, 5538:200 milk in all Dispose, Corrective  batch
Presence of  biological Foreign 4 tankers, inform action log.  processed
foreign and/or material Presence Milk - silos, On site Farm Antibiotic the QA
material in chemical must be of Inspectio cream micro lab. Liaison testing log. superviso
raw milk adverse absent in Foreign n by vats, Officer Milk & r will
effects. milk. Matter attributes fermentati and the Yogurts review
on tanks. Dep.t of quality each log
Agricult log.
ure
72°C for
20
If not seconds Temperat Empty Corrective For each
carried out ure 0C Check &  pasteuris action log.  batch
HTST correctly, sign-off Pasteurize er and Pasteurisat  processed
harmful TVC Presence on Every 2 r Operator repeat ion testing the QA
Pasteurisat spoilage <1,000 of cfus continuou hours washing log. Milk superviso
ion m/org can cfu/ml on  per ml of s chart and & Yogurts r will
grow day 1; the recorder sanitisati quality review
<5,000 sample on log. each log
cfu/ml on
day 12

Too
high: can Corrective For each
Maintainin Temperat  be action log.  batch
g the ure and Fermentat cooled Fermentati  processed
o
correct Microbial 25 –  30 C Temperat recorder Every 30 ion with ice on testing the QA
Fermentati ure 0C and visual minutes Superviso water; log. superviso
on Temp. on PC r too low; Yogurt r will
display stop the quality review
 process log. each log

  Critical Control Points Management including; Significant Hazard, Critical


Tabl e 10: 

Limits, Monitoring, Corrective actions, Records, and Verification

Table 11: Comparison of the EU maximum residue limits (EEC Regulation 2377/90 and

amendments) with the sensitivities of the microbial inhibition assays for the detection of
antibiotics in milk.

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