YEAR 2010

matching. Subjective items: require students to write and present an original answer. On the whole. problem solving. All test items. however. in the case of the marking. Thus.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Subjective and objective are terms used to refer to the scoring of tests. Then. Objective items: require students to select the correct response from several alternatives or supply a word or short phrase to answer a question. Since objective tests usually have only one correct answer. The fact that objective tests can be marked by computer is one important reason for their evident popularity among examining bodies responsible for testing large number of candidates. require candidates to exercise a subjective judgment. This means that a testee will score the same mark no matter which examiner marks the test. and what kind of items to use for this purpose. Furthermore. how to test those particular areas. Examiners tend to spend a relatively short time on setting the questions but considerable time on marking. The effort is rewarded. extended-response essay. all tests are constructed subjectively by the tester. true/false. Include multiple-choice. . and completion items. we can clarify about the difference between subjective and objective that. who decides which areas of language to test. it is only the scoring of a test that can be described as objective. and performance tasks. objective tests require far more careful preparation than subjective tests. Include short-answer essay. attempting to anticipate the various reactions of the testees at each stage. no matter how they are devised. they can be scored mechanically. That means in an objective test the tester spends a great deal of time constructing each item as carefully as possible.

. aren¶t we b. vocabulary. toys c. they are given to a small but truly representative sample of the test population and then each item is evaluated in the light of the testee¶s performance. are you frighten the birds in the rice farm. Objective tests can be pre-tested before being administered on a wider basis: i. noises d. rather than to use a language. Principles to construct Multiple choice items 1. rake The correct answer is C (only one key answer) 2. Each multiple choice item should have only one answer. Although they rarely measure communication as such.CHAPTER II OBJECTIVE TESTS Objective tests are frequently criticized on the grounds that they are simpler to answer than subjective tests. are we d.«. etc. It means that four or five alternatives for each item are sufficient to reduce the possibility of guessing. etc. Only feature at a time should be tested.1. Multiple-choice items Multiple choice items are the traditional 'choose one from a list' of possible answers. 2.Irrelevant areas and skills are emphasized in the test simply because they are ³testable´ . and to make important discriminations in the target language. Items in an objective test. multiple choice items can help both student and teacher to identify areas of difficulty. Multiple choice items can provide a useful means of teaching and testing in various learning situations (particularly at the lower level) provided that it is always recognized that such items test knowledge of grammar.e. Example: You and I are having breakfast. An objective test will be a very poor tests if: . they can prove useful measuring student¶s ability to recognize correct grammatical forms.The test items are poorly written .1. can be made just as easy or as difficult as the test constructor..It is confined to language-based usage and neglects the communicative skills involved 2. In doing this. Example: The farmers make a «««.? a. a.1. didn¶t they This principle means that there must be one skill is emphasized. however. scare crow b.

1. items are arranged in rough order of increasing difficulty. seat d. Example: Who is the ««««.girl in your class? a. pocket The options must be as same as level as students proficiency 5. nobody«««. passenger b. Although the stem should be short. looked b. a surgeon Each options must be grammatically correct. An incomplete statement Example: Mark ««««. the card c. a nurse d. y The stem may take the following forms: a. The stem should not contain extraneous information or irrelevant clues. took B. it should be convey enough information to indicate the basis on which the correct option should be selected. 6.´ What does this refer to? a. a doctor c.a lot of great photos on his holiday. Example: When I went through passport. had b. Example: Test for 9th grade ³You will find this in the pocket of the seat«. checked c. Example: Someone who take care of the patient in the hospital is«« a. 2. a.. A. Multiple-choice items should be as brief and as clear as possible (though it is desirable to provide short contexts for grammar items). A complete statement Example: .. In many test. put D. taller d. controlled d. Each option should be grammatically correct when placed in the stem. 4. Writing Stem y Stem is the text of the question. The primary purpose of the stem is to present the problem clearly and concisely. thereby confusing the problem being tested. a dentist b. watched All options must be less difficult than the key answer. did C. highest c.3. higher b.2.tallest The test item must be as concise and clear as possible. All multiple-choice items should be at a level appropriate to the proficiency level of the testees.

The following item contains two absurd items: How did Picard first travel in space? A. He¶s been taken there c. cough and vomit C. life show y The stem should be usually contain those words or phrases which would otherwise have to be repeated in each option. where there is a tendency to make the correct option longer than the distracters simply because it is so often necessary to qualify a statement or word in order to make it absolutely correct. a. Constructing The Distracters The distracters are the incorrect answer in the list option. He will have been there d. be unable to breathe because of something in the windpipe D. advertisement c. die B.1. He¶s been going there d. The correct option should be approximately the same length as the distracters. Example: ³Cabin´ is used in the passage above to refer to a room for a. Distracters should be reasonably attractive and plausible. entertainment c. He travelled in a space-ship B. pilot c. He¶s been there b.We don¶t get this program from radio. It should be appear right to any testee who is unsure of the correct option. waitress d. Each distracter should be grammatically correct when it stands by itself: otherwise testees will be exposed to incorrect forms.3. He went in a submarine D. Constructing The Key The key is the correct answer in the list of options. He jumped from a tall building . operator b. A question Example: Which of these is a passive sentence? a. He used a large balloon C. 2. News b. For example: He began to choke while he was eating the fish A.1.4. This principle applies especially to vocabulary tests and tests of reading and listening comprehension. passenger y The stem should allow for the number of choices which have been decided upon. grow very angry 2.

its incl sion in a test item is superfluous. angry B.. A contrastive anal sis between the native and target languages Distracters should not be too difficult nor demand a higher proficiency in the language than the correct option.. angry d. hungry c. perspiculty they went to a restaurant. a. a. Exampl You need a «««««to enter that military they went to a restaurant. fat ¡  . Wri i the test Where multiple-choice items are used. angry d. a.Unl it t i tt ti t t t nt i not o t f correct answer. hungry c. Put a circle round the letter at the side of the correct option They were all«««.so they went to a restaurant. thirsty b. Underline the correct option They were all«««. fat D. who will be led into considering the correct option too easy and trap. fat 3.2... d. angry d. perdition C. hungry c. 4.. a. fat 2.. fat 5.. permutation B. Plausi le distracters are best based on: a. There is a tendency for this to happen. Their answers in previous tests c.. Write out the correct option in full in the blank They were all__________so they went to a restaurant. etc) They were all. they will succeed only in distracting the good student.. c. particularly in vocabulary test items. Put a tick or cross at the side of the correct option or in a separate box They were all«««. thirsty b. thirsty they went to a restaurant. If they are too difficult. the testees may be required to perform any of the following tasks: 1. A. thirsty b. permit D. thirsty a... The teacher¶s experience d.. Mistakes in t e students¶ own written work b. hungry b. hungry A. Write only the letter of the correct option in the blank or in a box (which may appear at the side of the question. c. b. angry d.

. There are six principles to construct multiple choices items. but easy for scoring. 2. 3. Parts of a multiple choice question are stem. options. Objective tests require far more careful preparation than subjective tests. the key and distracters.CHAPTER III CONCLUSION 1.

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