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Overview of Anatomy &


Physiology

Introduction

• Anatomy – Study of the structure of human


body
• Physiology – Study of the functions of human
body

 Structure and function cannot be


completely separated

 Form is related to function

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ANATOMY

Divisions of Anatomy

• Gross anatomy • Microscopic anatomy


– Regional anatomy
– Cytology
– Systemic anatomy
– Histology
– Surface anatomy
• Developmental anatomy
– Clinical anatomy

– Surgical anatomy
• Comparative anatomy

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Gross Anatomy
Definition:
– Study of structures which are visible to
the naked eye

• Types:
– Regional anatomy:
• Body studied by region/area

– Systemic anatomy:
• Body studied by systems

– Surface anatomy:
• Study of the configuration of body surface,
especially in relation to its internal parts

Microscopic Anatomy
• Definition:
– Study of structures which
can be seen with the
assisted eye (microscope)

• Types:
– Cytology:
• Study of cells

– Histology:
• Study of tissues

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Developmental Anatomy
• Definition:
– Study of anatomical
changes in a life cycle
• From fertilization to
adulthood

• Types:
– Embryology:
• Study of prenatal
development (growth
before birth)

Structural Organization
• Chemical level – atoms combine
together to form molecules

• Cellular level – cells are made up of


different molecules

• Tissue level – a group of similar


cells performing a common function

• Organ level – a discrete structure


made up of related types of tissues

• Organ system – organs working


together for a common purpose

• Organism – the result of all simpler


levels working in unison

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Tissues in the Human Body

• Epithelial
– Covers or lines
• Connective
– Joins, stores and supports
• Muscle
– Produces movement
• Nerve
– Conducts electrical signals

Human Organ Systems

Circulatory Nervous

Respiratory Endocrine

Digestive Reproductive

Excretory Integumentary

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The Human Body

Body Cavities
Dorsal body cavities
• Cranial cavity
– Inside the skull

– Houses the brain

• Vertebral cavity
– Runs through the
vertebral column

– Encloses the spinal


cord

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Body Cavities contd.


Ventral body cavities
• Thoracic cavity – divided
into 3 parts
– Mediastinum
• containing the heart
surrounded by the
pericardial sac

– Two lateral parts


• each containing a lung
surrounded by a pleural
cavity

Body Cavities contd.


Ventral body cavities
• Abdominopelvic cavity –
divided into 2 parts
– Abdominal cavity
• containing the liver,
stomach, kidneys, and
other organs

– Pelvic cavity
• containing the bladder,
some reproductive
organs, and rectum

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Membranous Body Cavities


Serous cavities – a slit-like space
lined by a serous membrane

– Parietal serosa – outer wall of


the cavity

– Visceral serosa covers the


visceral organs

Pericardium, pleura and peritoneum

Other Body Cavities


• Orbital cavities
• Middle ear cavities
• Nasal cavity
• Synovial cavities
• Oral cavity

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Body Covering System

Integumentary
System

Support & Movement Systems

Skeletal Muscular
System System

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Absorption & Excretion Systems

Respiratory System Digestive System Renal System

Transport Systems

Cardiovascular Lymphatic
System System

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Integration & Coordination Systems

Nervous System Endocrine System

Species Propagative System

Reproductive System

Male Female

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Regional Terms

PHYSIOLOGY

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Physiology

The scientific discipline that studies the


natural/normal functions of human body

Body Constitution & Fluids


Human body is made up of
– Fluid – 60%
– Solid substances – 40%
• Total Body Fluid (TBF)
– Extracellular fluid (ECF) - 1/3rd
• contains more Na+, Cl-
– Intracellular fluid (ICF) - 2/3rd
• contains proteins, more K+, phosphate

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ECF
ECF is the internal environment (milieu interior)
surrounding all cells of the body

• The ECF is constituted by plasma, tissue fluid and


transcellular fluid

• ECF is transported through all parts of the body by


 movement of blood (plasma) in the circulatory system
 movement of tissue fluid between blood capillaries & cells

ECF contd.
The ECF carries various substances across the entire
body.
• Nutrients
– From lungs – oxygen
– From GIT – carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, etc
• Waste products
– To lungs – carbon dioxide
– To kidneys, skin – water, ions

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is maintaining a fairly constant internal


environment in spite of a changing external environment.

All body systems, working harmoniously, attempt to


maintain homeostasis.

Homeostatic Imbalance
Disease
is a temporary homeostatic imbalance that may be reversible
completely or partially
 Signs are objective changes which can be observed or
measured
 Symptoms are subjective changes that are not apparent
to an observer
Death
is permanent homeostatic imbalance that is irreversible

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Homeostatic Regulation
There are 2 basic types of regulatory/control
mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis
– Negative Feedback mechanism

– Positive Feedback mechanism

These act whenever there is an alteration in the


internal environment

Feedback loop

1. Receptors monitor changes


4. A response is brought about
2. Control center receive information
5. Negative feedback reverses changes
from the receptors
6. Positive feedback brings a process
3. Effectors receive command from
to completion
the control center

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Feedback mechanisms
Negative Feedback Positive Feedback
mechanism mechanism

Stimulus/cause and the Cause and effect are in the


effect are in opposite same direction
directions
Response is Response is
negative to positive to
the stimulus the stimulus

Most control systems of the body act


by negative feedback

Examples of Negative feedback


mechanisms

• Regulation of blood glucose level


• Regulation of arterial blood pressure by
baroreceptors
• Regulation of CO2 levels
• Regulation of thyroid hormone secretion

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Regulation of thyroid hormone secretion


Increase/Decrease T3/T4

Hypothalamus
TRH
Anterior Pituitary
TSH
Thyroid gland

Decrease/Increase T3/T4

Normal level

Examples of Positive feedback


mechanisms

• Blood clotting

• Uterine contractions during childbirth

• Heavy blood loss (>2 L)

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Childbirth

Heavy Blood loss


Loss of blood more than 2 litres

Venous return

Cardiac output  BP

Coronary blood flow

Contractility

Death following reduced blood flow to vital organs

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Integumentary System
• Components
– Skin
– Hair
– Nail
• Functions
– External covering
– Protection
– Synthesis of Vitamin D
– Location of sensory receptors

Musculoskeletal System
• Components
– Bones & Joints
– Muscles
– Associated connective tissues
• Tendons, ligaments & cartilages

• Functions • Functions
– Framework (Support) – Produces movement
– Protection – Maintains posture
– Aids in movement – Locomotion
– Blood cell production – Produces heat
– Mineral storage – Expression
• Calcium and Phosphorus

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Respiratory System
• Components
– Lungs
– Tubing (trachea, bronchus, etc.)
– Larynx (vocal cords)

• Functions
– Exchange of respiratory gases
(O2 and CO2)
• Between blood and atmosphere

– Voice production

Cardiovascular System
• Components
– Heart
– Blood vessels
• Functions
– Transportation of blood
• Blood is composed of
plasma and cells
• Blood carries O2, CO2,
nutrients, wastes, etc.

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Digestive System
• Components
– Alimentary canal
• Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small
intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus

– Allied structures
• Salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas,
etc.

• Functions
– Break down food into small, absorbable
pieces
– Exchange of food particles between
blood and lumen
– Eliminate waste

Urinary System
• Components
– Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary
bladder, Urethra
• Functions
– Eliminates waste (nitrogen)
from blood
– Regulates water, electrolytes,
acid/base, temperature, and
blood pressure

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Lymphatic System
• Components
– Lymphatic Organs
• Spleen, lymph nodes,
thymus, tonsils, etc.

– Lymphatic Vessels
• Functions
– Body’s defense
– Houses white blood cells
– Transportation of lymph

Immune System
• Components
– Immune Organs
• Tonsils, spleen, thymus,
bone marrow, etc.
– White blood cells
• Lymphocytes, macrophages,
etc.

• Function
– Defense
• Immune response

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Nervous System
• Components
– CNS
• Brain and Spinal cord

– PNS
• Nerves & ganglia
• Sensory receptors

• Functions
– Control system (fast, “hard wired”)
– Response to external and internal
environments

Endocrine System
• Components
– Glands that secrete hormones
• Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, etc.

• Functions
– Control system (slow,
“chemical”)
– Regulates processes such as
growth, reproduction, nutrient
use, etc.

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Reproductive System

• Components
– Male reproductive organs
• Testes (within scrotum), vas deferens,
seminal vesicle, prostate gland, penis

– Female reproductive organs


• Ovaries, fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, vagina

• Functions
– Perpetuation of the species
– Hormones influence structure and
function of various body regions

Thank you

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