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MICROCONTROLLER BASED

AUTOMATIC RAILWAY
GATE CONTROL

GODAVARI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY

Presented by:

1

crossings in the country. the stationmaster informs the INTRODUCTION: gatekeeper about the arrival of the train through the telephone. It deals manual operation is prevented . Firstly. By the presently existing system once the train leaves the station. the a levelcrossing replacing the gates operation is automatic. error due to operated by the gatekeeper. This type of gates 2 . And highly economical microcontroller secondly. Hence. if the train keepers and also the is late due to certain reasons. it deals with the reduction of time for which the Automatic railway gate control is gate is being kept closed.ABSTRACT: can be employed in an unmanned level crossing where the chances of The objective of this paper is to accidents are higher and reliable provide an automatic railway gate at operation is required. it causing traffic near the gates. to provide safety to gate control at the level crossing the the road users by reducing the arrival of the train is detected by the accidents that usually occur due to sensor placed near to the gate. with two things. carelessness of road users and at Hence.he closes the gate control at unmanned level crossings depending on the timing at which replacing the gates operated by gate the train arrives. Once In this paper we are concerned of the gatekeeper receives the providing an automatic railway gate information. the time for which it is closed times errors made by the is less compared to the manually gatekeepers.then semiautomatically operated gates. By employing the automatic railway And secondly. Firstly. deals with the reduction of time for which the gate is being kept closed. Since. designed for use road users by reducing the in almost all the unmanned level accidents. to provide safety to the based arrangement. It gate remain closed for a long time deals with two things. operated gates and also reduces the human labour.

Subsequently. the time for which the SG1. Thus.so as to bring it to halt well before the level crossing. again M B R1 R4 R3 R2 using sensors. By employing the manually operated gates since the automatic railway gate control at the gate is closed depending upon the level crossing the arrival of train is telephone call from the previous detected by the sensor placed on station. indicated. the sensed signal is L S G1 S G2 B S G4 S G3 sent to the microcontroller and it M r a il checks for possible presence of t r ac k L E VE L C R O S S IN G vehicle between the gates. which in turn either directions. Once the R A I L WA Y G A TE C O N T R O L arrival is sensed .SG2. for the worst case if any obstacle is sensed it is indicated to the train driver by signals(RED) placed at about 2km and 180m. Also reliability is high as it is either side of the gate at about 5km from the level crossing. about 1km from the gate. When no obstacle is sensed GREEN light is R1 & R2 Sensors on the track. to detect the train arrival on either directions. Once. The signal placed at about 1 km from the gate about the departure is sent to the to detect the train departure on microcontroller. not subjected to manual errors. buzzer r o ad L indication and light signals on either M IC R O C O N TR O L L E R side are provided to the road users 89C51 indicating the closure of gates.SG3 & SG4 Signals gate is closed is less compared to the placed by the side of the track to 3 . no vehicle is sensed in between the gate the motor is activated and the gates are closed. The departure of the train is detected by sensors placed at R3 & R4 Sensors on the track. But. and the train is to free to placed at about 5 km from the gate move. operates the motor and opens the gate.

IR receiver.R4 senses the approach placed near the gate each at a and R2 the departure respectively in specified distance. In the Signals SG1. placed at 2Km on either side of the Based on the vibration of the track gate whereas SG2 and SG3 are as the train approaches the sensor placed at 180m from the gate. vibration of track that corresponds to the input frequency .R3 and R4 placed on working of the above model can be either side of the gate. So all four signals comparator and a transistor switch. ~ L Light signal to warn the road user. If frequency The road user signals are made increases its wavelength increases GREEN so that they can freely move and thus reduces the resistance of through the gate buzzer is made the IR receiver. The sensor comprises of an train may be approaching the gate in IR transmitter.R1 i) Initial Signal Display: is used to sense the arrival while R3 senses the departure of train.R2. particular direction of approach.indicate the train driver about the ‘OFF’ since there is no approach of closing of the gate. are made RED initially to indicate IR transmitter gives IR rays whose that gate is open and vehicles are wavelength depends upon the passing through the gate. train and road users need not be warned. In a explained under various heads.SG2. +V M Motor IR IR Transistor Comparator transmitter receiver switch for gate operation. B Buzzer. ii) Train Arrival Detection: Detection of a train approaching the gate can be sensed by means of The detailed description of the sensors R1. a either direction. The works. an audio signal to warn the road user about the approach of train. SG1 and SG4 are the other direction of train arrival. It reduces voltage 4 .SG3 and SG4 are same way.

iii) Warning For Road Users: Due to some unavoidable At the moment circumstances. Since produces -12V saturation when it there is no vehicle or obstacle. This change of voltage drop and input voltage to the resistance of LDR is used for sensing sensor. then the laser minimum frequency caused by a light from the source falls on the slow train. applied for in the other direction This is transmitted employing FM to and SG3 and SG4 are made GREEN the microcontroller. When circuit and hence close the gate for light strokes on LDR its resistance the passage of train. Thus. and gates are closed. the comparator LDR since there is no obstacle. be warned to clear the path. train should be made RED in order RED signal appears for the road to slow down the train to avoid user once the train cuts the relay collision. road users are gate. by the micro controller 89C51 by the This is fed to the comparator whose use of compensation. if there is a sudden the train arrival is sensed on either breakdown of a vehicle between the side of the gate. Then the obstacle should sensor placed 5Km before the gate. reference voltage is based on the If there is no vehicle in between or threshold frequency which is beneath the gates. a transistor switch through the gate. decreases and when light does not 5 . It indicates the RED signals placed to caution the presence of vehicle and the signal for road users passing through the gate. The same is produces +5V and 0V respectively. A buzzer is made ON as a v) Gate Closing Operation: precautionary measure for the road Once the user and that nobody should enter microcontroller senses that there is the gate at that moment. Its output strike LDR its resistance remains at voltage is the difference between this normal value.drop across the receiver. then it iv) Sensing For Vehicles: Laser automatically produces the signal to light is used as a source and LDR as operate the motor through relay a tool for sensing purpose. is made GREEN for the train to pass Correspondingly. signal senses a train and +12V if not. then the light from laser source warned about the train approach by does not fall on LDR. no vehicle inside.

When the path is clear inside the gate. for obstacle to clear the path and Once the gate is opened signal for once the path is cleaned. 6 . This rotary motion is converted to linear motion of the gate using a ALGORITHM: gear. STEP 1 : Start. when train approaches if then If the train is sensed provisions if then provisions should go to step 5 otherwise go to step 4. Detection of train STEP 6 : Check for the presence departure is also done using relay of the obstacle using sensors. Actually the vehicles can pass through the rotary motion occurs in a motor. GREEN signal is STEP 3 : Make initial settings of produced for the train when there is the signals for the train and road any obstacle. R3 and R2 respectively considering STEP 7 : Close the gate and the directions of train approach. STEP 4 : Check for the arrival Another signal placed at 180 m of the train in either direction by the before the gate. STEP 5 : Make the warning signal for the road users and set the signal for vi)Train Departure Detection: the train. signal is made RED for users. gate. When any presence of which operates the motor in reverse obstacle is sensed. vi) Signal For Train: STEP 2 : Set the variables. motor is road users are made GREEN so that operated to close the gate. If there technique as explained under the is no head of train arrival detection. when it is still RED sensors. Train Obstacle go to step7 departure sensing is done by sensors otherwise repeat step6. stop the buzzer warning. the train in order to slow down its speed before 5 Km from the gate. 89C51 gives signal direction and the gates are opened. viii) Gate Opening:When the train departure is sensed by the sensors. STEP 8 : Change the signal for signal is given to the Microcontroller the train. be stop the train.

If the train sensed to next STEP.STEP 9 : Check for the train STEP 10: Open the gate. STEP 12: St FLOW CHART: 7 . departure by the sensors. repeat STEP 9. Otherwise STEP 11: Go to STEP 3.

Make the initial settings for train & road users If arrival of train in either of directions If obstacl ess Buzzers & signal warnings to road users 8 .

Stop warning & close the gate Set the signal for train If train departur e Open the gate FUTURE ENHANCEMENT: unnecessity of a gatekeeper. It can be the basic things such as prevention avoided and a battery charged by of accidents inside the gate and the means of a solar cell. But still the power supply for the motor This paper has satisfactorily fulfilled operation and signal lights. It can be used 9 .

As the system is completely automated.e. it avoids manual errors and thus provides ultimate safety to road users. sensing . The mechanism works on a simple principle and there is not much of complexity needed in the circuit.directly during the daytime and by charging the battery during night. THE LAST WORD… The idea of automating the process of railway gate operation in level crossings has been undertaken. The obstacle detection part can be implemented using Fuzzy logic. As it thinks in different angles or aspects. Microcontroller 89C51 performs the complete operation i. By this mechanism. presence of a gatekeeper is not necessary and automatic operation of the gate through the motor action is achieved.gate closing and opening operation is done by software coding written for the controller.. the system works still more efficiently. Hence this arrangement can be used in remote areas where the power supply can’t be expected. 10 .