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Educational Research (ISSN: 2141-5161) Vol. 1(8) pp.

293-303 September 2010
Available online http://www.interesjournals.org/ER
Copyright ©2010 International Research Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Performance appraisal systems in private Universities
in Nigeria: A Study of Crawford University, Igbesa-
Nigeria
Akinyele, S.T.
School of Business, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria. Email: akinsamolu2000@yahoo.com
Accepted 03 August, 2010

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of performance appraisal system at private
universities in Nigeria. The focus of the study was on the administrative staff of Crawford University.
The study evaluated the purpose of performance appraisal in private universities and identifies relevant
factors for achieving an effective performance appraisal. A cross- sectional survey was selected for this
study because it was easy to undertake compared to longitudinal survey and the results from the same
can be inferred to the larger population. The study population was for all the administrative staff of
Crawford University. The whole populations of staff were selected as respondents. A structured
questionnaire was used to collect the data for analysis. The analysis of collected data was done by the
help of SPSS and presented using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and percentages. The
findings from the study have established that performance appraisal system is the only tangible metric
way by which an organization can know the level of performance of its diverse members of staff. The
effectiveness of performance appraisal systems in private universities are only based on training the
members of staff involved in the rating/ appraising process and are multi- rating systems. Conclusively
because the performance appraisal systems used in private universities are not effective and that they
exist just as a matter of formalities, the private universities cannot measure members of staff
performance, hence making it difficult to achieve the intended human resource management objective.

Keywords: Employees, human resource management, performance appraisal systems, private universities,
training.

INTRODUCTION

Armstrong (2001) notes that issues of accuracy and appraisal therefore is an important human resource
fairness in performance appraisal is one of the key function, which provides management with a systematic
research interest. In the field of Human Resource basis for effectively recognizing and evaluating the
Management (HRM), performance appraisal may be present and potential capabilities for human resource.
used as a means of measuring performance. The Performance appraisal should be a continuous function.
purpose of measuring performance is not to indicate only The supervisors should continuously determine how
where things are not going according to plan but also to effectively their subordinates are performing different
identify why things are going well so that steps can be tasks. Employees should be appraised at least once a
taken to build on success. The goal of performance year, as this will contribute to increased employee
appraisal is to access and summarize pest performance, efficiency, productivity and morale.
and develop future work, performance goals and Private universities in Nigeria have administrative and
expectations. It is a process of systematically evaluating professional faculty performance appraisal system
performance and providing feedback on which designed to provide documented, constructive feedback
performance adjustments can be made. Cash (1993) regarding performance expectations, spur growth and
indicates that from the employee’s view point, the development as well as provide a fair and equitable
purpose of performance appraisal is in four fold: tell me means to determine rewards for contributions to the
what you want me to do, help me improve my university, the “senior staff” and faculty.
performance, reward me for doing well. Performance Members of staff are measured by their breadth of

performance management is Performance appraisal has become a key feature of an a joint process that involves both the supervisor and the organization drive towards competitive advantage members of staff. monitoring and review. This needs to be discouraged. Akinyele and improved quality of output. It is also used for linking training.294 Educ. knowledge. The appraisal of individual off duty. Administrative uses. The linkage can be Meyer (1992) states that performance management is a thought of as follows. private organizations make more great investment in Design an acceptable. If it has resulted in the development of integrated employees are effectively appraised. shown trust. gave the following point as the reasons for performance review. employee’s strengths and weaknesses. campus. therefore appraisal systems vary from there is likelihood of bias. positively to the attainment of the institution/ Mbiti (1994) proposed the human temperaments as the organizational objectives. One will most performance planning. For effective development and utilization of of sophistication. then the performance management system (PMS) based on a organization will experience increased productivity and competency framework (Strebler.umn. Appraisals The policy establishes general procedures for such should not have footnotes in corporate calendar. because this gives them pleasures than writing. reasons why we need to appraise employees. performance appraisal plays a key role process. When people are treated with Obamiro 2005). listened to and encouraged to do Quchi (1997) indicates that many companies in Nigeria better they reciprocate by being responsible and conduct performance appraisals. evaluations and delegates oversight on specific formats Companies that have moved to quarterly appraisals get and detailed procedures to the senior administrator of the more objective results. attend such performance discussions. They are still learning the ropes. The national production board of for nothing except their pay at the end of the month. improvement and employees development. identification as. Insist on support and sponsorship others. which correlate to . The appraisal process the importance of the processes of identification of the therefore offers a valuable opportunity to focus on work employee with manager. The criteria for such reviews will vary according Managers may easily get away with subjectively if to the nature of the unit in which it is located. of mistakes. 1997. which through a continuous performance improvement and that correlate to the higher goals of the institution. start by since it enables an organization to identify objectively the delinking the results of the appraisal from salary reviews. encourage a third party to institution to institution. This will help all the employees to contribute organization on target setting. and a tool to encourage likely succeed where the process is tied to perform. care. easy-to-use but reliable people and in the skills necessary to be effective with appraisal instrument. joint process that involves both the supervisor and the employee. He Performances appraisal in most Nigerian companies classifies employee into four major vegetations and involved supervisors merely filling out confidential forms rejecters. Res. http// discussions on performance are not based on recorded www. development. they will take the slightest excuse to be through a series of seminars.edu/ohr/policies/performance organization do facts and figures. by the highest office in the organization. 1995: Akinyele and Obamiro 2005). them. Mbiti describes vegetations as people who care for the last two years. Thus the performance of the whole organization is complete rejection of dependency needs repression of enhanced (Roger. intolerance. Levinson (1992) stresses the university’s strategic plan. Phil long (1986). rivalry. But a number have not actualized the the human talent. and to encourage better future performance. understanding of roles and contributions to a higher goal of the institution. Levinson also suggests that to help the development of the process of identification it is necessary for the manager to also Performance appraisal as a Management Process examine his own process and needs of interacting with the subordinates. employees. lack of time. where original strategies. performance appraisal Why Performance Appraisal system is the link between the rewards employees hope to receive and their productivity. and unexamined relationship. performance is undeveloped in Nigerian organization and They require constant supervision without appraising teamwork and original identity are promoted. He also states several barriers activities and goals as well as identify and correct existing which may come in the way of such legitimate process of problems. Get will then be able to counsel the employees to improve the policies and procedures manuals and train the entire weak areas. who identify common goals. regardless of their level productive. they will try to hide amongst others while they do Performance feedback is smooth and indirect. the utilize performance appraisal systems that suit their training required must come often as the appraisal. According to Davis (1995). They Nigeria started promoting open appraisal systems have no initiative. Most nothing. who identify common goals. The organization Put in place structures to manage the process.

Akinyele 295 Productivity. too many programme with clearly stated objectives. Most suggests dropping the word “appraisal” because it puts studies discusses performance appraisal that allows employees in the defensive. attention to their progress at work then the organization Development uses. To found appraising to be based on personality traits. we have a The outcome could be a set of objectives to be problem)the second hand compliment is communicating achieved by individual employees such objectives may . The primary reasons includes. Clinton (1992) notes that formal performance employees what skills to develop and work out appraisal programme sometimes yield disappoint results. one uses you to compliment and we needs for attainment original objectives. development plans. performance. Most companies have employee performance appraisal from time to time so as modified their appraisal systems to better acknowledge to keep them in check and replace. lack of top management The combination of administrative and development information and support. influencing would involve providing conflict. reinforcement. He asserted that the tension between evaluation. 1990). the main objective of the study purpose of performance appraisal reflect in a specific was to evaluate the effectiveness of strategic marketing way. Mzenge appraisal programme will not be successful. Also if the appraisal Gary (1999) establishes that change in behavior cannot programme is used for salary review and at the same is be brought about in human beings through punishment or used to motivate used to motivate employees the negative reinforcement. Harper (1993) research in this field of performance appraisal. and potential has to be and commitment of its human resources. appraisal as a judgment process and a supportive development process and a supportive development process has never been resolved and is likely to continue Statement of the problem for some time to come.Rewards be concerned with immediate performance against current tasks and standards. and use of the programme for revealed that performance reports in Nigeria play a conflicting purposes. These are encouraged through positive employee performance and satisfaction specifically. therefore. while underscore the importance of the responsibility. and the manager’s role will resolve employees. He further recommended a employees to develop their skill and to meet business shift towards future oriented review and development goal. themselves would be evaluated. necessary to have a formal appraisal Unclear performance standards rater bias. as it will influence the members of staff that each organization has to carry out employee’s performance or output. McGregor further says that making judgment about an employee’s contribution. There has been little process improvement (Fowler. motivate. the inevitable tension that will result between individual When supervisors identify the weak areas and the goals and the manager’s interpretation of organization training needs of the employee. advice developing ways of improving performance in line with request technique. which leads to manager’s making He said that once employees are encouraged to pay compensation recommendations for employees. Top actual job performance and ability to achieve goals given management should announce that effectiveness in little emphasis. but they might also be The manager’s role is to evaluate subordinates concerned with a variety of work and personal changes. Thus it is important that performance appraising is a standard in which the appraisers appraisal roles be understood by the original managers. person take more initiative and is able to experiment and The content of performance evaluation influences risk taking. capability. This reinforces individual behaviour. It is companies in Nigeria.Appraisal. second-hand complement. performance appraisal can be a must be able to respond to their medium and long term primary source of information and feedback for career aspirations. The success of every institution depends on the quality value. but only through positive administrative and the development purpose will be in reinforcement. this informs the goals. retain or quality of performance in addition to teamwork and take any other appropriate action. This might have little influence on the employees’ encouragement and reinforcing success so that the future job performance. Morrisay(1992) suggest a few other techniques like which actively involve employees in continuously a you-we technique. Mzenge (1993) forms to complete. human resources management plays a larger role in practice on the performance of oil and gas marketing integrating the individual with the organization. the general management of the human resources. relatively minor role in influencing decisions regarding the If the support of top management is lacking. performance and employee satisfaction are interested McGregor (1997) indicates that mangers experienced when the evaluation is based on behavioral result the appraisal of others as a hostile and aggressive act oriented criteria when career issues are discussed and against employees which resulted in feelings of guilt of when the employee has the opportunity to participate in employees. to criticize (you are doing a great job.Performance. In order to considered as a vital dimension of a manager’s ensure continued efficiency and effectiveness of relationship with employees. which is key to their future development. worth.

The research questions included: Besides. In addition 1) To determine the main purpose of performance research in this three areas will help to develop more appraisal in private universities. and then provides resources to upgrade abilities. adoption and linkage with other human resource systems. The study aimed at benefiting private relevant measurable behaviours. It will also provide a basis for Organizations using a performance appraisal system to further academic research on the topic. reviews. routine activity. to the subordinate a compliment received from a third It is therefore very important for an organization to have party. evaluate their employees. It has been Richi (1996) introduced a skill. The study was as a basis of performance reviews and management therefore to determine the effectiveness and the purpose rewards which rewards in more objective performance of performance appraisal system in private universities. the study seeks to inferred to the larger population. . This leads they need to meet business goals. In addition. through there is a general dissatisfaction by because it was easy to undertake compared to members of staff with the manner in which they are longitudinal survey and the result from the sample can be evaluated or appraised. However. appraisal system in this institution. managerial goals and designing systems to meet specific The specific objectives are: organization conditions and expectations. proposed using customer satisfaction measures to retain qualified and competent staff. thus take it as an organizational subjective traits are replaced by objective and job. validity. To make a performance appraisal a Objectives of the study viable management tool. The it must have effective performance contracts with university is one of the privately registered missions members of staff are expected to commit themselves. there is a lot of competition among themselves What are the main purposes of performance appraisal? as well as with established conventional public 1) What are the main purposes of performance universities. The system as an annual routine exercise. Hence. and universities in Nigeria. To ensure they become more competitive appraisal system in private universities? this institutions needs to retain high caliber staff both 2) What are the factors that contribute to an effective teaching and non –teaching staff through effective performance appraisal system? performance appraisals. from a broader perspective. universities in Nigeria.based method of noted that employees working in private universities performance management that creates a work serve in the same capacities for a longer period even environment that allows employees to develop the skills after a performance appraisal has been done.sectional survey was selected for this study university. abroad. organizations and researchers must invest time in The main aim of the study was to evaluate the performance appraisal skills. staff (administrative) of Crawford University. in developing systems effectiveness of performance appraisal system in private evaluation which take into account reliability. There has been a proliferation of private universities in 3) To assess the awareness of the performance Nigeria in the recent past and most Nigerians are finding appraisal by the members of staff (administrative) of the them a cheaper alternative than sending their children university. acceptable and successful performance appraisal system 2) To analyze the factors that contributes to effective (Devries 1983) performance appraisal system. Crawford University has a fairly 3) What is the level of awareness of existence of competitive performance appraisal system which utilizes performance appraisal in the university? the ranking method.296 Educ. identifies employee skills gaps rewarding them accordingly is not considered. METHODOLOGY no empirical study has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of the appraisal system at the Crawford A cross. Res. an effective performance appraisal system. more effective employees. The assessor is furnished with a checklist of pre-scaled descriptions or behaviour. The study is important The target population in the study was the members of because for private universities to achieve its objectives. more satisfied Most managers do perceive a performance appraisal customers and better business performance. This has made majority of empirical studies on performance appraisal members of staff attach no value to the performance systems focus on the search for the perfect form in which appraisal systems. This study was therefore set to observed change other than the independent variable determine and access the effectiveness of performance concerned. which are then used to evaluate the members of staff. Murray Effective performance appraisal system therefore helps (1980). struggle with issues of implementation. The skill-based to highly skilled employees leaving these organizations management measures skill and tracks and combines since the mode of acknowledging their good work and them into job descriptions. some evaluate the effectiveness of the current performance extraneous factors could have manifested in the appraisal system. Most of these institutions are relatively young.

6 43.6 7. The university employees various assessment of the awareness of performance appraisal.43% indicating organizational goals and the factors that contribute to an that employees have not been properly sensitized on effective performance appraisal system.6 31. percentages and.8 42.6 100 Discipline 57.9 5.5 5.4 100 Connecting and 7. The 85% agreed that the system is used in training new pre-testing was done to avoid any possible influence on assessment. The response were scaled from 1 the respondents. The results are all in percentages. frequency tables.5 4. Akinyele 297 Table 1.37 14. performance appraisal by the university.1 0.6 3. agree.1 5.5 10.9 100 redeployment Transfers 64.3 indicated partially agree. Awareness of the the performance appraisal.1 17. staff with different specialties and at various levels.2 3.2 30. awareness of the performance appraisal system used In order to test the main purpose of the performance was tested using chi-square.7 100 New assignment 5.3 29. of staff (administrative) understand the main purpose for A structural questionnaire was used to collect data from performance appraisal. the researcher chose to study the entire respondent’s views on individual purpose as presented in population.9 12.3 5. Purpose of Performance Appraisal Purpose 1 2 3 4 5 Total Renewal of 3. the level of these purpose of the system. the table 1 above. All the percentages under each appraisal system and a assessment of the awareness of indentified purpose added up to 100%.9 55.1 100 Training needs 1.5 31. Ota. useful in determining promotion criteria among the Descriptive statistics allow the generalization of the data employees. the study used a regression analysis model to test the dependency between whether the respondents were Data Analysis.5 100 Rewards 16.47 28.4 43. where 1 indicated totally not agree.9 3. pie charts.6 100 Formality 80 10.4 36.2 45.1 8. The Table 2 below indicates how the respondents agree questionnaire was pre-tested with 5 respondents in with the purpose of the performance appraisal system. appraisal system (PAS) which is the first objective of the study. Although the employee identified performance appraisal system was tested to determine above major purposes of the performance appraisal its effectiveness in achieving its purposes of providing system. to authenticate reliability.5 47.72 24.1 10.4 42. analysis of the factors performance appraisal system was the dependent contributing to an effective performance appraisal and an variable whereas the purposes of the system were the .2 100 Average % 25.07 6. Effective Crawford University. The questionnaire was developed to to 5.9 7.1 2.9 4.5 9.6% indicated that the system is statistics.71 100 Source: Field data (2010) university in Nigeria.7% generally agreed that the system is trial respondents before the actual survey.4 100 service contract Promotion 7. this formed the sample for the study with need to use any The table was used to evaluate whether the members sampling method. Because this population was not purpose of performance appraisal system and the very large.7 100 Coaching 7.7 9.8 4.4 15. 2 indicated may capture the information on the level of respondents.6 7.1 50. Administrative staff at the Crawford University have a The data was organized in terms of the list of the total population of 100.5 5. it is important to note that the purposes of the linkages between employee performance and performance appraisal system is only 53. Covenant University. 4 indicated agree and 5 knowledge on the main purpose of performance of indicated totally agreed. because the entire population was studied. used to evaluate the employees who may review the The analyzed data was presented using descriptive service contract and 83. 84. These three were therefore recorded as the to give an account of the structure or the characteristics main purpose of performance appraisal system in of the population as represented by the sample.9 28. Finding and Discussion aware of an existence of performance appraisal system and their views on the purpose of the system as was The study presents the finding on the main purpose of designed in the tool for data collection.7 1.

15 -0.06 0.01 0.03 0.31 0.12 0.03 0.1 Coaching 54.12 0.15 0.04 0.86 communication Identification of 0. For renewal of 0.5 Discipline 24.2 Counseling and redeployment 74. Test of the Main Purpose of Performance Appraisal System Unstandardized coefficient Standardized coefficient Purpose of PAS B Std.04 0.9 Average % 53. that the promotion in the university .18 0.58 0.6 Formality 5.03 0.14 0.03 0.14 0.02 0.6 Rewards 72.07 -0.42 0.66 4.43 Rewards -0.70 counseling and redeployment Transfers 0.9 Renewal of service contract 84.16 -0.7 Promotion 83.17 -0.06 0.51 For formality 0.39 0.00 Improving -0.71 Regular open -0.11 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.24 0.77 Utilizing results -0. some of the key issues to University.02 -0.00 -0.43 Source: Field Data (2010) Table 3. Agreement Level of the Purpose of Performance Appraisal Purpose Agreement Training needs 85. contract must be pegged on the performance system see it to be just a formality without any important appraisal system.10 0.08 -0.19 -0. Tables 3 above show the results objectives.13 -0.38 0.04 0.18 0.56 Discipline 0.07 -0.16 0.79 0.66 coinciding with formality as the leading staff (administrative) can understand and appreciate the purpose of performance appraisal system in Crawford critical purpose of the system.02 0.38 0. Table 2. that the renewal of respondents that are aware of the performance appraisal employees.05 0.28 0. This finding indicates that the university of the regression model analyzed from the data.7 Transfers 10.17 0.92 Source: Field Data (2010) independent variables.00 0.11 -0.68 service contract Promotion -0.70 New assignment -0.07 -0.13 0.11 0.298 Educ.18 0. Res.68 0.40 -1.10 0.84 Clarifying 0.20 0.08 0. Error Beta T Sig.19 0.88 Accountability 0.04 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.21 0.20 Coaching 0. it can be observed that the highest performance appraisal system among the members of co-efficient is 0.97 individuals roles Providing feedback 0.29 0.16 0.08 0.16 -0.96 training needs of a member of staff Employees 0.16 0.03 0.84 performance planning Transparency 0. From the administration should do a lot of training of the results in the table.01 0.03 0.83 For identifying 0. This result indicates that 66% of the be addressed include the following.1 New assignment 36.

2 7.1 35.9 12.2 68.7 48.1 measurement Multi-rater system 4. 3 information and decisions.9 22. Percentage Frequency of Factors Leading to Effective Performance Appraisal System Factors for effective PAS 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency of use 3.2 17. the performance according to the design used in data collection. Organizations today face a lot represents fairly effective. In order to attain scale up the factors using Likert scaling system 1-5 objective and transparent rewards. 4 represents effective and 5 of discipline related challenges.4 4. organization employee objective and self appraisal.5 8.7 1.9 Employees performance 3. effective counseling and coaching.7 7.9 Accurate record keeping 3.2 8. see table 5 below. 2 represented least effective.4 24. effective decision that can be obtained from an effective organization/employees motivator.8%) evaluate and assign employee new assignment through other favorite factors with an average of 70% included.2 23. Perpetrators of such offence – the researcher further summarized the table 4 above by performance appraisal system thereby is very handy in adding both the effective and very effective frequencies identifying. organizations must have Table 5 above indicate that that the respondents found appropriate response mechanism to handle those accurate records keeping to be most important factor scenarios.4 5.6 23. and less demanding.5 objective Training of the appraisers 9.9 50.6 14. This complex requires Employees motivator.7 Organizational/employee 2.5 28. executing and evaluating such disciplinary to help understand the respondents.3 27.2 56.1 Employees performance 4.1 Source: Field Data (2010) must be based on merit and that the merit indication must Factors contributing to an effective performance be obtained from the system. .1 4. Akinyele 299 Table 4.7 5. Some of the way in which one can adopt is to used for effective performance appraisal system.5 2. As the business environment becomes complex the effectiveness of the system.4 review Employees strength and 4. frequency of use. performance appraisal system.4 5.9 23.2 11. The performance appraisal system should performance appraisal.7 60.5 Void of biasness 4.5 3.7 60 12.1 process/procedure Average % 4. have information about.8 4.5 27. Some of the discipline represents very effective (see table 6 below) cases go unattended because the organizations do not In order to determine the respondent’s inclination level. Rewards University.6 27. This factor was explored through the are the human resources element that must be awarded frequency table and regression models as the method of to the employees to the heightened their moral which is a arriving at the conclusion of this objective.5 7. (85. the researcher identified the be used as a source of such information that would be following to be the main factors that contributes to an selectively identified the unique training needs and match effective performance appraisal system in Crawford them with the specific employees to the training.0 36.9 52. frequency of use.5 28.3 Self appraisal 4.1 32.6 50.1 PAS provide 1. appraisal system The university must develop objective oriented training needs assessment to have a continuous training needs To addresses the second objective of the study which assessment to have a better out and results based was to analyze the factors that contributes to effective management.7 5.2 weakness Employee motivator PAS orovide feedback 7.6 15.8 71.2 9.7 1. inclination toward cases.2 9. The research function of the high expected output.2 56. 1 appraisal must be dependent on to generate the required represented not effective.2 33.9 17.1 17.5 16.9 27.

8 Frequency of use 76. training of the appraisers scored the highest value understand the factors they under rated not to be (80%).8 Average 59.8 Employee motivator 78. The table indicates that that the square test was used to test the objective (Figure 7). The least factor were void of biasness.1 Self appraisal 70.3 Multi-rater system 65. Frequency Standardized co efficient was used to judge the tables were used to gauge the respondents and chi- regression model output. the researcher appraisal system used was selected to be the dependent considered two important variables. The researcher used a linear regression model to find out the relation between the employees awareness of Level of Awareness of the existing performance performance appraisal in use and their preferred factors appraisal system that contribute to an effective performance appraisal system. the least rated factors (employee strength and the training of the appraisers should always considered to weakness.0 Source: Field Data (2010) employees performance measurement. Through the regression The funding indicate that employees seem not to model. Frequencies of Factors from Effective Performance Appraisal System (%) Factors for effective PAS Effective (%) Accurate record keeping 85. the factors contributing to an effective respondents are aware the performance appraisal performance appraisal system were the independent system currently in use in Crawford university and variables as shown in the table 6 below. First the factors that scored an average of 60% were void of accurate record keeping scored the highest percent when business.6 Employees performance measurement 67. employee performance review. Tables 5. performance appraisal system. worst important factor was training of rates which scored Majority of the respondents 84.8%). whether the system achieve its objectives. self Crawford University. According to the performance appraisal The research concludes this objective by indicating that principles.5 Organizational/employee objective 74. multi-rate system appraisal system used in the Crawford University. Whereas.6 Employee strength and weakness 37. it scored the least (-0. at that factor in isolation with when they look at the The level of awareness of existence of performance factors in relation to their view of the performance appraisal in the university. employee.4 PAS provide process/procedure 44. effective.9 Void of biasness 62. first whether the variable.6 Training of the appraisers 25. appraisal.7 PAS provide feedback 40 Employees performance review 37. observed in isolation (25. .92) on the other hand weakness. the majority of them were not respondents viewed varied significantly when they looked aware of the objective of the system. frequency of appraisal and accurate records of Table 8 above indicates that although the majority of employees which scored below 0% the respondents were aware of the performance The most interesting funding from this study is that the appraisal system used.7% observed that they 80% and multi rater system which scored 72% are aware of the performance appraisal system in respectively.5%) whereas when it was Other important funding indicates that was training of analyzed by the regression of the factors and awareness the appraiser (28. Res. performance review. looked at in isolation (85. feedback be the most important factors contributing to an effective provision and process/procedure provision) are equally performance appraisal system in private university very important in the evaluation of an effective environment. The employee’s awareness of performance To answer the third objective of this study.300 Educ. feedback training of the appraisers was the least when it was provision and process/ procedure provision.8) other factors which were low rated to of performance appraisal system used in Crawford the average of 40% were employee strength and university.

92 -4.98 0.09 0.27 0.06 0. The need for appropriate appraisal system in use in the university.48 1.00 appraisals Accurate records of -0.24 0.19 0.12 Self appraisals -0.40 -1.13 0.04 0.5x 85= 42.00 Multi-rater systems 0. CONCLUSIONS.3 Total 85.0 84.15 0.00 Employee motivator 0.72 3.36 0.17 1.15 0.07 -0.14 0.33 0.09 0.0 12.0 15.9 No 74.77 0.59 0.56 performance review Organizational 0. Akinyele 301 Table 6.45 0.13 system Process/procedure 0.25 0.54 0. Test of Factors Contributing to Effective Performance Appraisal System Unstandardized coefficient Standardized coefficient Factors B Std.07 0.09 -0.00 employees Source: Field Data (2010) Table 7.04 0.56 -3. AND above is given by RECOMMENDATIONS E1=E2=0.07 0.0 100 Source: Field Data (2010) Tables 8.28 0. The calculated chi-square is 41. contributing to effective PAS Training of raters 0.08 0.56 -2.0 100 Source: Field Data (2010) The probability of the cases in the frequency table SUMMARY.28 for system Employees 0.08 0.09 0. Since the calculated organization to organize a participatory performance chi is much higher than the critical chi-square.80 objectives No biasness -0. Indication whether the system achieve its objective Response Frequency Percent Yes 11.08 0.0 whereas the critical It’s the obligation of the top management in any chi at 1 degree of freedom is 3.08 0.05 0.80 4.5 Summary of the Key Findings The observed frequency 0 are shown in tables 9 and 10 below.04 Frequency of -0.04 to employee Measurement 0. the appraisal system that would handle all the appraisal researcher thereby concludes that the respondents are activities in the human resource department in the aware of the existence of performance appraisal system organization.44 2.07 0.02 0.29 1.08 0. .58 0. Awareness of Performance Appraisal System Currently Used Response Frequency Percent Yes 72.07 -0.09 -0. Error Beta T Sig.1 Total 85.84.55 The sample size was 85 The expected frequency E=0.05 Provides feedback 0.32 0.7 No 13.0 87.

0 1740. The management objectives.25 20.47647 No 42. purpose. Such prepare them for deployment. Chi-square Test of the Level of Awareness 2 2 Response E 0-E (0-E) E) /E Yes 42.0 Source: Field Data (2010 cannot be overemphasized in a complex organization like The effectiveness of Performance Application a university because modern management is today run Systems on a result based management approach. hence making it aware of the performance appraisal system used at the difficult to achieve the intended human resource Crawford University found it to be just at formality. that’s. used for renewing employees’ contract. Conclusively.5 870.0 100 Source: Field Data (2010) Table 10.0 84. They should be the tool used to evaluate the performance appraisal system which is conveniently employees’ performance and decision support system used to appraise them.25 20. Res. the private universities cannot the researcher established that the employees were measure employee’s performance.5 29. the study establish that the major factor that contributes to an effective RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT performance appraisal system in the private universities. most employees are aware of the performance.0 0. and multi rating systems. because the The study came up with a number of important findings performance application systems used in private that should be taken up by the private university in the universities are not effective and that they exist just as a design or overhaul of their past-appraisal systems. an effective performance following recommendations are crucial for developing appraisal system should multi-rating. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness In the private universities are only based on training to of performance appraisal system in private universities in the employees involved in the rating/appraising process Nigeria. their execution and evaluation on whether they achieve their intended Performance appraisal system is the only tangible metric objective. system should be based in the following important Thirdly. This will ensure that the right employees are retained for the right job.first matter of formalities. The performance application performance. system does not address the important purpose upon which it was designed.302 Educ.5 41. The system should be used to evaluate the way by which an organization can know the level of employees which are ready for promotion and other performance of its diverse employees. Firstly the provision of training to the employees involved From the findings and conclusion of this study.5 870.7 No 13. which they are designed. Although most motivational rewards. the in the appraising.47647 Total 85.0 15.5 -29. The system should be able to guide the universities in CONCLUSIONS identifying employees’ training needs. Table 9. transfers on new systems are not based n any serious formal purpose for assignments. During the design of performance application system in . Awareness of Appraisal System Currently in Use Response Frequency Percent Yes 72. The system should also be used to employees are aware of the type of performance evaluate the employees who should be coached and application system used in the private universities. there should effective performance application systems in private be input from all the supervisions on the employees’ universities in Nigeria. secondly.3 Total 85. secondly.

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