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High Importance

Avian influenza viruses are highly contagious, extremely variable viruses that are
Pathogenicity widespread in birds, particularly wild waterfowl and shorebirds. Most of these
viruses, which are usually carried asymptomatically by wild birds, cause only mild
Avian Influenza disease in poultry. These viruses are called low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI)
viruses. Others, the high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, can kill up to
Fowl Plague, Grippe Aviaire 90-100% of a poultry flock. Epidemics of high pathogenicity avian influenza can
spread rapidly, devastate the poultry industry and result in severe trade restrictions.
Some avian influenza viruses can also infect mammals including humans. The
Last Updated: January 2010 severity of zoonotic avian influenza varies with the virus. Although many human
infections are limited to conjunctivitis or mild respiratory disease, some viral strains
cause severe disease and death. Generally, avian influenza viruses do not spread
efficiently in mammals, and infections are limited to individual animals or small
groups. However, some viruses can become adapted to a new species and cause
epidemics or pandemics.
HPAI viruses have been eliminated from domesticated poultry in many nations
including the U.S. and Canada; however, these viruses can be reintroduced from
imported poultry, wild birds or pet birds. It is possible for wild birds to carry HPAI
viruses, but historically this seems to be rare. More often, wild birds transmit LPAI
viruses to poultry, and these viruses then mutate to become HPAI viruses while
they are circulating in poultry flocks. Although HPAI outbreaks can be devastating,
the virus is successfully eradicated in most cases. However, the world is currently
experiencing an extensive avian influenza outbreak that has no immediate prospects
for complete, worldwide eradication. In 2003, HPAI viruses of the H5N1 subtype
appeared among poultry in several nations in Southeast Asia. Although at times this
epidemic appeared to be under control, eradication was never complete. The
outbreaks continued to smolder and spread, and eventually Asian lineage H5N1
viruses reached other parts of Asia, Europe, Africa and the Middle East. The strains
responsible for this epidemic appear to be unusually virulent. They have been found
in many species of wild birds, which is unusual, and numerous deaths have been
reported in these species. As of January 2010, these viruses have also been
responsible for approximately 470 human infections, generally as the result of close
contact with poultry; about 60% of these cases were fatal. Asian lineage H5N1
viruses have caused disease in other mammals including housecats, several species
of large felids, palm civets, raccoon dogs, stone martens, a dog and a mink. Some of
these infections were fatal. In addition, these viruses have been detected in pigs and
pikas, and experimental infections have been established in a variety of species
including foxes, ferrets, rodents and rabbits. There are fears that an Asian lineage
H5N1 virus could eventually become adapted to humans, resulting in a severe
human pandemic.
Etiology
Avian influenza results from infection by viruses in the influenzavirus A genus
and influenza A species of the family Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses are also called
type A influenza viruses. In addition to avian influenza viruses, this species includes
the closely related human, equine, swine and canine influenza viruses. Influenza A
viruses are classified into subtypes based on two surface antigens, the hemagglutinin
(H) and neuraminidase (N) proteins. There are 16 hemagglutinin antigens (H1 to
H16) and nine neuraminidase antigens (N1 to N9). These two proteins are involved in
cell attachment and release from cells. They are also major targets for the immune
response. Subtypes of influenza A viruses are classified into strains. Strains of
influenza viruses are described by their type, host, place of first isolation, strain
number (if any), year of isolation, and antigenic subtype. For example, one H5N1
virus isolated from chickens in Hong Kong in 1997 is A/chicken/Hong Kong/y385/97
(H5N1). For human strains, the host is typically omitted.
Avian influenza viruses are classified as either HPAI or LPAI viruses, based on
the genetic features of the virus and the severity of disease in experimentally infected
chickens. Although there are exceptions (e.g., viruses that fit the genetic description
of HPAI viruses but cause mild illness), HPAI viruses usually cause severe disease in
HPAI_H2010 © 2010 page 1 of 18

equine and human influenza A eradicated from domesticated poultry in most developed viruses. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza poultry. and these strains can from one host species into another. an influenza virus can also jump „whole‟ particularly common. numerous variants may occur in the Avian influenza virus infections in mammals population. since the containing H7 or H5 can also occur. Gulls are often infected with H13 from one species to another. if a cell is infected by an avian and a human all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens can be influenza virus. for example. horses. this process is sometimes called „antigenic 2010. Waders (families Charadriidae and Scolopacidae) might contain some segments from the avian influenza seem to have a wider variety of hemagglutinin/ virus and others from the human influenza virus. but nearly example. For an influenza viruses were found in wild passerine birds. H1. H4N2. Occasionally. For example. Subtypes that have been transmitted efficiently. usually in the LPAI form. the new viruses budding from that cell found. and 3) there must be evolve as they accumulate point mutations during virus sustainable transmission in the new species. or 3) the re-emergence evolve into high pathogenicity strains. However. between subtypes. They viruses have been known to jump from birds into people. An avian neuraminidase combinations than ducks. H1 through H12 (LPAI) viruses have been isolated influenza virus might be able to establish itself in humans. which are rare in other avian species. it H4. H10N7. subtypes that contained other result from three mechanisms: 1) genetic reassortment hemagglutinins have been found only in the LPAI form. it spread into domesticated or wild birds in other Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 2 of 18 . the Limited information is available on the subtypes virus is poorly adapted to the new species. new influenza virus subtype must emerge in a species Antigenic shift and drift in influenza A viruses with little or no immunity to that subtype. can also carry H16 viruses. while LPAI infections are generally much milder. H2. The LPAI viruses of a virus that was found previously in a species but is no found in wild birds can be divided into Eurasian and longer in circulation. Geographic Distribution Reassortment between subtypes can result in the Avian influenza (LPAI) viruses occur worldwide in emergence of a new subtype. H10N1. a virus can replicate and be transmitted in H5N2. Isolates from cage birds usually contain H3 or Although cross-species transmission is a rare event. three requirements must be met: 1) a pigeons and doves in one survey. these viruses When a subtype has become established and has can cause influenza epidemics and pandemics. from these birds. In the eastern influenza virus that contained some genes from a human U. Ordinarily. H10N4 and the new host species. carry all of the virus from one species may infect another species. Strains must produce disease in that species. species infect a cell simultaneously. This type of reassortment can result in a „hybrid‟ nations. As of January replication. H4N6. 2) the direct transfer of a whole virus H5 and H7 LPAI viruses also exist. This known H and N antigens. H4 and H6 viruses are detected most often in North can reassort when new virus particles are assembled. infections with high pathogenicity subtypes may be followed by an epidemic or pandemic. dogs. By evading the immune response. the gene segments H3. H7N1. From 2003 to virus proteins. only subtypes containing H5 or H7 have been species is called an „antigenic shift. Reassortment can also occur wild birds and poultry.S. occasionally a natural reservoirs for influenza A viruses. the Asian lineage H5N1 viruses have met the first drift‟. Very few avian new host has no immunity to the new virus. avian influenza LPAI viruses. Reassortment between two different causing significant illness. The Asian lineage H5N1 HPAI outbreak began virus with. which seem to be the species infect only that species. Although viruses occasionally cross result in the periodic emergence of novel influenza between these two geographic regions. this is uncommon. H5N9. cats. seals. however.‟ Antigenic shifts can highly pathogenic. H7N3. when the been reported in any species with the possible exception new viruses (the „progeny‟) are assembled. and quickly dies out. For instance. H5N1. For American and northern European wild ducks. H9N2. mink. pigs and currently found among poultry. If two viruses from different predominant subtypes in wild ducks change periodically. circulated for a time. A more abrupt change can occur during genetic two criteria in humans and some other mammals. Usually. cannot be found in other species of birds. and a permanent jump is made. both avian and human influenza among poultry in Southeast Asia in 2003. viruses. horses and other animals. multiple genotypes and a Avian influenza viruses are closely related to number of clades of Asian lineage H5N1 viruses are influenza A viruses found in humans. efficient or sustainable transmission has not influenza viruses infect a cell simultaneously. detected in ratites include H3N2. H7 and H9-H12 viruses are Sometimes. Antigenic drift and antigenic shifts American lineages. H5N1 viruses have recently been reported to contain some genes from one parent virus and some genes circulate among pikas in China. An abrupt change in the subtypes found in host To date. reassortment. strains results in the periodic emergence of novel strains. The can happen in two ways. they may of pikas. HPAI viruses have been between avian. swine. the influenza viruses found in each Waterfowl and shorebirds. apparently without from the other. Reassortment is possible whenever different However. H5. 2008. 2) the virus Influenza A viruses can change frequently.. epidemic to occur.

pigs. and fecal-oral transmission is (63°F) and for approximately 26 to 30 days at 28°C usually the predominant means of spread in wild bird (82°F). Transmission is flock. domesticated poultry. HPAI viruses have few cases may have resulted from indirect exposure via also been found in the yolk and albumen of eggs from contaminated feces. HPAI H5N2 viruses have also with an Asian lineage H5N1 virus after eating uncooked been detected recently in some asymptomatic wild ducks duck blood. these viruses reassort and/or mutate to ruled out. however. influenza viruses can be introduced One Asian lineage H5N1 infection occurred in a dog into flocks by migratory waterfowl or shorebirds. housecats. these Transmission of avian influenza viruses to strains may no longer be transmitted primarily by the mammals fecal-oral route. and swimming in contaminated infected hens. Once they are introduced were grooming. Close contact with dead or sick birds seems to birds. routes have not been reported in each species. The feces contain still persisted in fresh water for 100 days or more at 17°C large amounts of virus. as well that had eaten infected duck carcasses. it least 20 days at 28-30°C (82-86oF). other felids and dogs. due to the close proximity of the viruses. Fecal-cloacal transmission might also be when frozen. in higher quantities in respiratory secretions than the feces. water is theoretically a source of exposure. ingestion probably occurred. virus from this source. and rarely in humans. with other populations at staging. Fecal transmission is facilitated by the A few studies have examined virus persistence in persistence of avian influenza viruses in aquatic feces. may have been established in cats by intratracheal inoculation persist for relatively long periods in aquatic environments. as well as some housecats. Various avian influenza viruses were reported to survive for four weeks at 18°C (64°F). birds. There are other human cases where and geese in Africa. Fomites can be important in transmission. and for at thought to be unimportant in most wild birds. In other studies. avian influenza viruses are shed in the feces shorter periods in water than LPAI viruses. Some avian influenza viruses can be transmitted to Once an avian influenza virus has entered a poultry mammals by direct or indirect contact. but they were is possible that is might play a role in some species. These viruses. the Pacific. Although some countries have than 100 days at 28°C (82°F) and 200 days at 17°C eradicated the virus from their domesticated poultry. Ingestion of broken shells could transmit the virus to other chicks in H5N1 viruses has been reported in naturally infected the incubator. but additional routes of exposure also existed. This suggests that. Some recent isolates manure. and might have acquired the H5N1 H5N1 strains appear to occur regularly in wild birds. 30°C (86°F) or 37°C expected in the short term. however. One recent study Transmission suggested that H5 and H7 HPAI viruses may survive for In birds. the viruses are reported to persist in distilled water for more Middle East and Africa. and be the principal way this virus is spread to humans. may exchange viruses were apparently infected when they ate raw birds. but a flies may act as mechanical vectors. as by infected poultry. LPAI viruses (H7N2) persisted for up environments for prolonged periods. Similarly. the Asian lineage HPAI chicken carcasses. mice and foxes. Infections which are often transmitted between birds in feces. Cats appear to shed these viruses fresh or brackish water rather than salt water. pet birds or fomites. In humans. inactivated more quickly when mixed with chicken particularly those that live on land. it can spread on the farm by both the fecal–oral best understood for the Asian lineage H5N1 (HPAI) route and aerosols. salinity respiratory. These viruses could temperatures. LPAI viruses were reported to of Asian lineage H5N1 (HPAI) viruses have been found survive for at least 44 or 105 days in feces. Wild birds usually carry only the low pathogenicity ingested contaminated feces from a swan while they form of avian influenza viruses. ferrets. possible. with Asian lineage H5N1 viruses and by feeding them They appear to survive best at low temperatures and in H5N1-infected chicks. this (63°F). but aerosol transmission could not be into poultry. Respiratory transmission of LPAI viruses is survive for up to 32 days at 15-20°C (59-68oF). oral and intraocular routes. Although these eggs are unlikely to hatch. stopover or wintering Infected housecats in an animal shelter probably sites. In one study. Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 3 of 18 . Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza regions of Asia as well as parts of Europe. Migrating leopards and tigers in zoos. Infected raccoon dogs in China were fed produce HPAI viruses. LPAI from the intestinal tract as well as the respiratory tract. at least in some wild birds. which can fly long distances. all and the presence of organic material. the strongest evidence although their importance in transmitting these viruses to for oral transmission is that two people became infected poultry is controversial. pH. Survival of influenza viruses in the environment Experimental studies suggest that Asian lineage The survival of avian influenza viruses in the H5N1 viruses can be transmitted to mammals by the environment is influenced by temperature. However. experimentally infected In countries where HPAI has been eradicated from cats.6°F). These viruses also remained viable for at least 35 epidemic is ongoing and worldwide eradication is not days in peptone water at 4°C (39°F). however. Avian influenza viruses might survive indefinitely reservoirs. (98. they as well as in saliva and nasal secretions. particularly at low to two weeks in feces and on cages.

aldehydes (formalin. but fecal Asian lineage H5N1 infections suggest that the incubation shedding has not been reported. After intraocular inoculation of mice and ferrets occasionally been reported in humans. China. Limited data from have been found in respiratory secretions. the symptoms may include chest pain. illness. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Pigs and foxes can also be infected by feeding them Infections in Humans H5N1-infected poultry. as well as those with chronic medical detected in the respiratory tract and caused systemic conditions. were serious or fatal. especially those caused by Asian antigens and nucleic acids were detected in the fetus of a lineage H5N1 viruses. lineage H5N1 viruses seem to be rare. Many patients However. or gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea. Most patients deteriorate to-human transmission has not been reported. virus has been recovered from a child with diarrhea. there may also be mucosal animal-to-animal transmission was reported in the bleeding. cattle period for this virus may range from two to eight days and excreted small amounts of H5N1 viruses from the could be as long as 17 days. virus surveillance. In to determine in humans. was Organization (WHO) currently suggests using an used to inoculate the cattle. suggesting that transplacental transmission may be Milder cases have been reported occasionally. other cases. Infected foxes can excrete this Incubation Period virus in both respiratory secretions and feces. Thailand exhibited only fever and diarrhea. Avian influenza viruses seem to be more people were reported during an HPAI outbreak resistant to high temperatures and low pH than among poultry in Hong Kong. and these cases during inspiration. woman who died of an Asian lineage H5N1 infection. glutaraldehyde. the viruses could be and adults. only rare cases of limited person-to- dyspnea. In one experiment. In one study. Heart failure. or to three dogs in contact with infected cats. povidone-iodine and lipid solvents. it may be found in the urine of some mammals. as well as by ionizing radiation or In 1997. a patient from dogs. Healthy children with H7 and H5N1 (HPAI) isolates. The following human infections with Asian lineage phenols. encephalitis and January 2010. kidney disease. detected in the fetus of a pregnant woman who died of her and disseminated intravascular coagulation can occur. In addition. Similarly. in some cases. hoarseness of the voice and crackles person spread have been documented. included fever. They can H5N1 and other HPAI and LPAI avian influenza viruses also be inactivated by heating to 56°C (133°F) for a were reported between 1997 and 2009: minimum of 60 minutes. the first respiratory tract after intranasal inoculation. cause more severe disease than other HPAI viruses or with the possible exception of pikas. which had been recovered from cats. as well as by intranasal or intratracheal inoculation. there is recent evidence that these viruses might develop lower respiratory tract disease shortly after the have become established among some pika populations in first signs. High fever and upper respiratory symptoms animal transmission has been reported among zoo tigers. sore throat and cough and. viral symptoms. Fecal shedding of Asian incubation period of seven days for field investigations lineage H5N1 virus may also be possible in humans: this and monitoring patient contacts. One H5N1 infection in a child with Disinfection upper respiratory signs and an uncomplicated recovery The influenza viruses are susceptible to a wide variety after antibiotic treatment was recognized only by routine of disinfectants including sodium hypochlorite. The World Health of the virus. 70% ethanol. acids. In most cases. Viral antigens and nucleic acids were multiorgan dysfunction are common in the later stages. two patients from southern lineage H5N1 virus was not transmitted to one dog or Vietnam had acute encephalitis without symptoms to three cats in contact with four experimentally infected indicate respiratory involvement. as of rapidly. The respiratory secretions and sputum occurred after close. the first eighteen H5N1 HPAI infections in low pH (pH 2). Asymptomatic infections with Asian oxidizing agents. formaldehyde). but pigs are The incubation period for avian influenza is difficult known to shed it only from the respiratory tract. In some patients. The symptoms mammalian influenza viruses. severe respiratory distress and viral Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 4 of 18 . particularly possible in some species. among children. Asian lineage H5N1 viruses As of January 2010. Respiratory signs are not in experimentally infected pigs. Clinical Signs The eye might act as an entry point for some HPAI Infections with avian influenza viruses have viruses. however. In humans. quaternary ammonium compounds. prolonged contact. No signs. Limited animal-to- LPAI viruses. tachypnea. a high dose symptoms appear in two to five days. Some infections have disease. have been affected. asymptomatic cats infected by exposure to a sick swan. or vomiting and abdominal pain. Asian always present at diagnosis. resembling human seasonal influenza tend to be the initial as well as in experimentally infected housecats. Human influenza viruses usually experimentally infected dogs. Asian lineage H5N1 viruses cause disease in one to four days. Sustained human- are sometimes blood-tinged. little or no host-to-host The Asian lineage H5N1 HPAI viruses appear to transmission of H5N1 viruses has been seen in mammals. Transplacental transmission of avian influenza been limited to conjunctivitis and/or typical influenza viruses is not well studied in mammals.

In 2002.amantadine. coughing and muscle aches. The child was viruses. influenza viruses. Further testing. antiviral drug. while other H7 viruses from milder human U. have such as fever. hospitalized but recovered. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza pneumonia. fever. particularly Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 5 of 18 . an H9N2 virus infection was reported in a 3- was done. case had accumulated a significant number of antigen detection or virus isolation. Most cases occurred in poultry workers. an H9N2 virus was found in a 2-month-old of the two people died. In 2007. antibodies to an avian H7N2 virus were 467 confirmed human cases had been reported to found in one person after an LPAI outbreak among WHO. two cases of conjunctivitis and flu-like Oseltamivir appears to increase the chance of survival in symptoms were confirmed in poultry workers in patients infected with Asian lineage H5N1 viruses. Ten other infections were suspected In 1999. and oseltamivir . The symptoms included mild reliable test for detecting antibodies to avian influenza fever. In 2004. RT-PCR and antigen testing of avian influenza viruses must be carried out in Biosafety Cases of conjunctivitis have been reported after Level (BSL) 2 laboratory conditions. avian influenza (LPAI H9N2) was but not confirmed. Netherlands. who had serious underlying medical zanamivir. was hospitalized but recovered. these cases included both confirmed in two children with upper respiratory conjunctivitis and upper respiratory symptoms. Enhanced BSL 3+ contact with HPAI H7N7 avian viruses from infected laboratory conditions are required for the isolation of seals. an LPAI H7N2 infection with respiratory Treatment signs was reported in a patient in New York. person. developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and other complications. One virus was LPAI. but no testing In 2009. confirmed human infections were associated with an There is no indication in the report that this case was H7N7 HPAI outbreak among poultry in the more severe than the previously reported infections. a mild LPAI H9N2 virus infection was In 2003. conjunctivitis was the only sign Rare cases of probable person-to-person of infection. (Four viruses. All of signs. In 78 of Communicability the confirmed cases. samples that test positive by RT-PCR or antigen cases in North America were significantly less tests are confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control virulent. cough and rhinorrhea in In 2003. His initial symptoms included a Diagnostic Tests persistent high fever and headache but no signs of Avian influenza viruses can be identified by reverse respiratory disease. of a respiratory illness while in China. while viruses from most of the other the primary test for infection with Asian lineage H5N1 individuals had not.are active against human conditions. and Prevention (CDC). In the mice. The illnesses were mild and outbreak in poultry. Fecal shedding of an Asian lineage H5N1 virus cases were classified as “other. particularly if it is given early. all six people recovered influenza among poultry. the other was HPAI. abdominal pain and the infections were associated with an H7N3 virus vomiting in Hong Kong. Canada. Studies suggest that these drugs may also be helpful in avian influenza infections in humans. poultry in Virginia.S. The virus isolated from the fatal transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. Another family member died infant in China. As of December 31 2009. One In 2008. Five had been reported in humans infected with avian influenza both conjunctivitis and influenza-like illnesses. year-old child with a fever. occurred in an otherwise healthy veterinarian who Transplacental transmission of this virus may be possible. an H9N2 LPAI infection was confirmed in a surveillance. sporadic human illness and Six unrelated H9N2 infections associated with acute deaths were associated with widespread outbreaks of respiratory disease were also reported from mainland Asian lineage H5N1 high pathogenicity avian China in 1998-99. 282 cases were fatal.”) The single death has been documented in a child with diarrhea. H5N1 HPAI viruses. 347 total (suspected and confirmed) and 89 Hong Kong. Serology has been used for In 2003. The Four antiviral drugs -. The microneutralization assay is the most child in Hong Kong. both children recovered. but three family members also became ill. In 2003. From 2004 to 2008. rimantadine. RT-PCR is usually mutations. No other cases were found. and no cases of sustained transmission. She was hospitalized but recovered. two HPAI H5N1 infections were reported in reported in a 9-month-old child in Hong Kong. This virus also caused severe or viruses. Two people had influenza symptoms transmission. a Hong Kong family that had traveled to China.. Virus isolation is done at World Health fatal infections in experimentally infected ferrets and Organization (WHO) H5 Reference Laboratories. Eighteen people were hospitalized and Both people recovered after treatment with an six died. sore throat. mild dehydration and cough.

The hands. They after antibiotic treatment was recognized only by routine are also discouraged from having contact with sick birds virus surveillance. In lower case fatality rates have been reported in smaller addition. pathogens are sufficient to kill avian influenza viruses. In areas where Asian lineage H5N1 viruses could be asymptomatic infections seem to be rare. poultry farms and live Human disease has also been reported occasionally bird markets should be avoided. people in contact with infected upper respiratory signs and an uncomplicated recovery birds should be vaccinated against human influenza. be taken when handling raw meat and eggs. veterinarians and waterfowl washed with soap and water before eating. Precautions should also after infections with various H7 viruses and H9N2 viruses. infection geese. H10 and H11 avian influenza viruses have been contaminated surfaces are touched. swans. recommended to destroy Salmonella and other poultry Most infections with H7 viruses. H5. was 60%. Higher or specific recommendations may vary with the virus. hunters. For example. contact with an infected individual. During an (165ºF). gulls.8% of poultry are both firm. pandemic. including HPAI viruses. The H5N1 viruses currently circulating in poultry distributed by public health officials if they are needed. terns and waders. Interestingly. cancellation of of viruses found in birds are LPAI. the gallinaceous birds vaccines have also been developed. Sanitary precautions and cooking methods resembled human influenza. tribal or federal natural human influenza viruses remains to be determined. To prevent reassortment between human and among children. Important reservoir hosts include ducks. If birds or potentially H7.S. In other studies. WHO recommends prophylaxis with antiviral series. it is uncommon. and they have not been fatal. The fatality rate. During a that live in wetlands and other aquatic environments. present in domesticated poultry. Eggs should be cooked until the whites and yolks H7N3 LPAI outbreak in Italy in 2003. A single death occurred in an warm water after handling meat or eggs. resource agencies. which can The reported infections with LPAI H9N2 viruses have contain virus. the hands should be found in poultry workers. H5N1 may be seen. no seropositive individuals were identified and these birds could be the initial source of infection in in serum samples collected during H7N1 epidemics from an area. an HPAI H7N7 virus. should be thoroughly Species Affected washed after dressing the carcass. species. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza on the optimum dose and duration of treatment. Hunters should not handle or eat sick game. in these viruses. In wild If a human avian influenza pandemic occurs. these viruses are especially common among birds additional precautions will be necessary. Cutting boards otherwise healthy veterinarian who became infected with and utensils should be washed with soap and hot water.. Wild birds should be observed from a distance. close contact is discouraged. 3. The prevalence of human infections while suffering flu symptoms. All game should be Birds cooked thoroughly. In the U. these Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 6 of 18 . Avian influenza viruses can be carried in wild birds. Avian influenza viruses mainly infect birds. The vast majority control measures such as good hygiene. Most should follow good hygiene practices and wear patients infected with these viruses have been young and appropriate protective clothing such as boots (or shoe have had no predisposing conditions. workers tested developed antibodies to H7 viruses. however. People working with infected birds reported with Asian lineage H5N1 (HPAI) viruses. HPAI viruses are social events and voluntary quarantine of infected usually detected mainly in poultry. Whether these antibodies result from productive smoking. Although Avian influenza vaccines for humans are not resistance to zanamivir and oseltamivir has been reported commercially available in the U. but influenza symptoms The hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and have also been seen. Particularly severe infections have been exposure for humans. Morbidity and Mortality Prevention The severity of zoonotic influenza seems to vary with Controlling epidemics in poultry decreases the risk of the virus isolate. with Asian lineage H5N1 viruses is unknown. drinking. H6. particularly viruses. or rubbing the eyes. unrecognized infections. antibodies to H4. coveralls. exposure to antigens or cross-reactions with should be reported to state. In addition. drugs in people who cull birds infected with H5N1 HPAI A few milder cases have been documented. as of December 31. Some host specificity individuals can limit the spread of disease. gloves.S. is still vaccines are stockpiled by the government and will be needed. respirators and goggles. and carry all of the protective equipment may be advisable during close known subtypes. The overall case covers). are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Some isolates may also cause Poultry should be cooked to a temperature of at least 74ºC asymptomatic or mild. varying with the country and the clade of the virus. were limited to conjunctivitis. as well as equipment and surfaces. and should always wear rubber or latex gloves Infections in Animals while handling and cleaning wild birds. Respirators and other reservoirs for the influenza A viruses. 1999-2002. crowded conditions and close contact with Waterfowl and shorebirds appear to be the natural other people should be avoided. Dead or diseased wildlife infections. H9. One H5N1 infection in a child with avian influenza viruses.

mild respiratory disease or budgerigars (order Psittaciformes). the most tigers (Panthera tigris). pigeons (order The incubation period for avian influenza viruses in Columbiformes). red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea). orioles. HPAI viruses can Phoenicopteriformes). white-eye (Zosterops japonicus) and magpies. The clinical signs are birds including various finches. and pheasants often apparently healthy wild pikas. there was no apparent difference in the addition. comb and wattle. and viruses have ducks. crows. diarrhea and an increased clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulos). Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 7 of 18 . which and other species may also be susceptible to infection usually carry avian influenza viruses asymptomatically. Most of occasionally cause disease in mammals including pigs. Symptomatic Clinical signs are minimal in ducks and geese infected infections with these viruses have been reported in captive with most HPAI viruses. foxes. partridges. and buzzards/ vultures (order Falconiformes). sneezing. is used fowl. Asymptomatic infections that were experimentally infected with an HPAI H7N1 have been reported in some housecats. dogs. pigs. house sparrows (Passer variable. shrikes. Psittacine birds are rarely affected. feet. jackdaws. and green to birds that appeared healthy. moorhens. jungle account the transmission dynamics of the virus. stone martens. Sinusitis. ecchymoses on the shanks and other birds. swans and geese) and Charadriiformes The incubation period in poultry is one to seven (shorebirds. kites. watercocks. Because HPAI viruses are partly horses. kestrels. acute disease with neurological as housecats. These viruses can infect and cause rodents. mynahs. antibodies to H5N1 viruses. Symptomatic natural or cause severe infections in some species of birds on a farm experimental infections have been reported in passeriform while leaving others unaffected. which takes into also been reported in pheasants. blood-tinged prevalence of the H5N1 virus between waterfowl and oral and nasal discharges. mink. circulating in poultry. hornbills (order decreased egg production and other reproductive signs. for an HPAI virus to be isolated from gallinaceous birds The Asian lineage H5N1 (HPAI) viruses seem to showing mild signs consistent with LPAI. Cattle can be disease in many species of birds in addition to poultry. falcons. as well isolates have caused severe. Symptomatic infections have days. ravens. Ostriches civets (Chrotogale owstoni). with decreased feed and water consumption. A 21-day incubation period. In a recent study from white diarrhea may be present in some poultry. marine mammals and other species. Oriental magpie robins respiratory signs. quail. starlings. some recent H5N1 and Asiatic golden cats (Catopuma temminckii). serological evidence of infection or exposure has viruses may cause only minor disease when they infect been reported in cats. some species of wild waterfowl and shorebirds. stone martens (Mustela foina). dogs and swine. there can be coughing. In domesticated ducks. cats. dogs. eagles. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza including chickens. leopards (Panthera pardus). Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus). none of these clinical signs is pathognomonic. egrets. cyanosis of the lineage H5N1 viruses have also been found in a variety of head. asymptomatic infections. common presentation. particularly the families Incubation Period Anatidae (ducks. lacrimation. it is also possible civets. Among cage birds. owls (order Clinical Signs Strigiformes). Systemic signs. loss Mammals of egg pigmentation and deformed or shell-less eggs. Some strains of avian influenza viruses may and sudden death can occur with few other signs. and/or disease. geese and other waterfowl. During outbreaks in have severe infections with HPAI viruses. for an avian population in the context of disease control. ferrets. munias. bustards. cranes. Coraciiformes) and flamingos (order the HPAI viruses are highly virulent. common signs are sinusitis. Japanese depressed. may be noted in chickens. Asian and ruffled feathers. been isolated rarely from pigs in China. they have caused severe disease and deaths in The Asian lineage H5N1 viruses are continuing to evolve. In Thailand. There are few descriptions mink (Mustela vison). raccoon dogs and captive palm of the clinical signs in other domesticated birds. coots and sultans (order Gruiformes). decreased egg production. neurological disease. gulls and terns). storks and herons (order Ciconiiformes). goshawks mammals is also thought to be short. turkeys and (Copsychus saularis). Experimental infections have Several clades of H5N1 viruses are currently been established in housecats. The birds can be markedly mesias. and Asian lineage virus developed mild depression and hemorrhagic H5N1 viruses have been recovered from populations of diarrhea. cynomolgus macaques and rabbits. but the same poultry. However. crakes. Unpublished most avian influenza virus infections have been recorded research suggests that some raccoons in Japan also have in passerine birds. Many Asian lineage H5N1 viruses have been isolated from birds in the order Anseriformes. other gallinaceous birds. lions (Panthera leo) mortality rate in the flock. grebes (order Podicipediformes). have a particularly broad host range. edema of the head. ferrets. Unusually. a dog. turkeys. Sudden death of large numbers of birds is a domesticus). and in some cases. experimentally infected with viruses isolated from cats. palm defined by their genetic composition. emus In contrast to LPAI viruses. quail. guineafowl and peafowl {order Galliformes). the flock usually dies. Birds cormorants and pelicans (order Pelecaniformes). which usually cause (order Struthioniformes). However. a wild signs and high mortality rates.

the siskin. other cases. neurological signs. A dog that ate infected poultry infections in wood ducks (Aix sponsa) caused severe developed a high fever. Fatal infections have also been reported in some generally found dead. the Asian lineage H5N1 infections in pigs appear to be other recovered completely. while some birds discharge. these birds are death. swine influenza viruses. Fatal respiratory disease was reported ducks including mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). domestica). which remained asymptomatic. circling and seizures. foxes. Laughing gulls (Larus was also found with neurological signs. some experimentally infected pigs. and coughing. and a few infected cause fatal illness include some of the currently housecats were found dead. some strains can cause illness and death. Most infected gulls died. Although and the route of inoculation (respiratory or intragastric). mice and cattle. Experimental infections with H5N1 captive tigers and leopards. In another miniature pigs were resistant to infection. there was no evidence that the pika population was incoordination and torticollis. depression. blue-winged teals (Anas crecca) and farm had died with respiratory signs and/or diarrhea redheads (Aythya americana) remained asymptomatic before the virus was found. torticollis. Other indigenous North American and conjunctivitis. resulted in drowsiness. however. but other clinical signs were not seen. with the specific isolate and the route of inoculation Mammals infected with Asian lineage H5N1 (intranasal or intragastric). Some been reported in experimentally infected gulls and infections in palm civets were fatal. and weakness and incoordination. In another study. and died rapidly. diarrhea and neurological Both symptomatic and subclinical Asian lineage signs. Some infected foxes birds. A wild stone marten passerine or psittacine birds. however. tremors. in canaries and a lung lesions were reported at necropsy. ruffled feathers. Some captive apparently well up to 24 hours before its death. lethargy. fatal disease. Cattle inoculated with high titers of H5N1 viruses isolated little is known about the clinical signs after natural Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 8 of 18 . study. seriously affected. HPAI H5N1 atricilla) developed severe neurological disease. wild and domesticated ducks. Experimental lineage H5N1 viruses. The clinical signs in severe viruses cases included high fever. Swans have been conjunctivitis. apathy and developed a fever but no other clinical signs. One group reported that and starlings. the clinical signs included fever. In housecats that had been accidentally exposed to a sick. anorexia. with a high mortality rate. respiratory disease. H5N1 infections were mild in house sparrows. Other mammals may also be affected by Asian ataxia. Asian lineage H5N1 strains caused slight and transient depression and neurological signs. One of the latter cats was circulating Asian lineage H5N1 viruses. without apparent clinical signs. One gull that recovered had a persistent head tilt. house sparrows but not starlings had severe. fever and transient anorexia were observed in 100% of the birds died within five days of inoculation. Similarly. ferrets. One H7N1 virus caused conjunctivitis. In weight loss. died the following day. mergansers also seem to be highly susceptible to these leopards and Asiatic golden cats were lethargic and had viruses. high fever and neurological signs before death. infections in mice varied with the isolate H5N1 virus infections have been seen in felids. captive lions. often Experimental infections have been established in fatal infections. cloudy eyes. northern in infected raccoon dogs. Captive palm civets had when inoculated with the same strain. anorexia. some House finches and budgerigars developed anorexia. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Avian influenza is often subclinical in wild birds. encephalitis and hepatitis at necropsy. ducks (Anas platyrhyncha var. were seen. shed virus subclinically. and one study. serosanguineous nasal mute swans and sudden death in others. the pathogenicity varied 1960s. dyspnea and severely affected by H5N1 viruses. grebes and During an outbreak in Cambodia. Strains known to dyspnea. fatal infections have been reported in some housecats. In ferrets. convulsions and ataxia. Experimentally infected dogs rhythmic dilation and constriction of the pupils. dark green H5N1-infected swan. protrusion of the third eyelid. but exposure in this species. Experimental infections with H5N1 viruses in call decreased appetites without respiratory signs for 5-7 days. cloudy eyes. weight loss. anorexia. Other raccoon dogs on the same pintails (Anas acuta). Diving ducks. In wild birds infected with these viruses have died suddenly. have been asymptomatic or developed only transient fever seizures and death. An H5N3 HPAI virus caused an outbreak with a syndromes ranged from very mild upper respiratory high mortality rate among South African terns in the infections to severe. although no naturally Other subtypes can also be pathogenic to some wild infected animals have been reported. lung lesions were much less severe than those caused by which experienced only mild depression and survived. a cross between but recovered. extreme lethargy. ruffled feathers. the signs viruses have been isolated from wild pikas. Mild respiratory signs including occurred in experimentally infected zebra finches. Some of these animals viruses resulted in severe neurological disease in some exhibited respiratory distress. respiratory distress and/or neurological signs housecats. Anorexia and depression mild or asymptomatic. with evidence of interstitial Symptomatic infections with H5N1 viruses have also pneumonia. with panting and lethargy. contrast. asymptomatic infections were reported in within a few hours. with death within 1-2 days. included weakness. One cat had fever. extreme lethargy. In experimentally infected diarrhea. tigers.

difficulty maneuvering and Hemorrhages may also be seen on the mucosa and in the sloughing skin. tracheitis. A birds. diseases. avian origin. especially when there is acute high morbidity in viruses for up to 30 days. and they may exude fluid milder or asymptomatic. Cats that were experimentally infected with the Asian Experimentally infected wood ducks had multiple lineage H5N1 virus shed the virus by the third day post. or prolonged transmission has not been reported with Asian Animals inoculated with avian H7 (LPAI and HPAI) lineage H5N1 viruses in any of these mammals. petechial hemorrhages were found in appeared to excrete virus only sporadically. dyspnea and neurological signs. and H7N7 outbreak in the Netherlands suggested that the shedding for as long as 36 days has been reported in occurrence of peritonitis. incoordination. Experimental infections with these viruses were hemorrhages and congestion. in others. edema and Infections with influenza A viruses. the clinical signs were and they can sometimes be found in the muscles. in these birds. apex of the heart. subcutaneous edema on the head and neck. the inoculation Post Mortem Lesions Click to view images of an HPAI H7N7 virus from a fatal case in a Dutch The lesions in chickens and turkeys are highly veterinarian resulted in severe disease with fever. the tracheal lesions may be limited to white or bloody nasal discharge was seen in some excess mucoid exudate. and Limited animal-to-animal transmission was reported pulmonary congestion and edema. the sinuses may be experiment. and congestion. Naturally infected. pigs and cattle. subepicardial hemorrhages. In ferrets inoculated with influenza viruses from various cattle. anorexia. and in the intestinal mucosa. beneath the lining of the gizzard. viruses from recent outbreaks developed illness of the recent isolation of H5N1 viruses from pikas suggests varying severity. on serosal surfaces and on the peritoneum. Birds that die peracutely and young birds may diarrhea. glands of the proventriculus. nasal discharge. had only a transient elevation in temperature. and the comb and wattle are often edematous. Virus shedding can begin as early as 1 to 2 degenerated. variable and resemble those found in other systemic avian lethargy. but horizontal transmission has not been reported. and ducks can shed these infection. mammals seems to be uncommon. single known case in a whale. which may cause viruses for only a week. Turkeys may excrete some and/or neck. The ovaries may be hemorrhagic or between birds. Horizontal transmission was not observed In naturally infected swans. Hemorrhagic tracheitis can be seen in some dyspnea and subcutaneous emphysema of the neck. but did not have an elevated temperature. asymptomatic cats gulls. the shedding was transient and occurred after high species. Postmortem lesions have occasionally been described Asian lineage H5N1 viruses in mammals in wild birds infected with Asian lineage H5N1 viruses. this LPAI or HPAI avian influenza viruses. alone or no gross lesions have also been seen in some Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 9 of 18 . HPAI viruses) caused relatively mild illness with fever. virus has been found only in respiratory secretions. The lungs may be reddened from animals. Sustained and shivering. Cats appear to shed avian influenza viruses most consistent lesions were multifocal hemorrhagic from the intestinal tract as well as the respiratory tract. swelling and hemorrhages of the clinical signs in seals included weakness. Asian lineage H5N1 Mammals infected with other subtypes viruses were detected in both respiratory secretions and Ferrets have been infected experimentally with a few feces. In another have few or no lesions. and were able to infect two sentinel cats in lesions were reported in experimentally infected laughing close contact. pigs and cattle can also shed HPAI transiently shed virus. developed rhinitis. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza from infected cats remained asymptomatic but could Dogs. In the abdominal fat. There may be developed no other clinical signs. and for less the ventriculus. Although most viruses (including H7N7 that these viruses may be maintained in this population. In experimentally infected foxes. In other cases. In one early study. congested and/or cyanotic. The cavity. The kidneys can be Communicability severely congested and they are sometimes plugged with Avian influenza viruses are transmitted readily urate deposits. The peritoneal cavity days after infection. edema of the wattles experimentally infected birds. necrosis in the pancreas. but a minority of the flock can severe airsacculitis and peritonitis. conjunctivae. Waterfowl are proventriculus may be particularly suggestive of an HPAI often infected subclinically. A study of the 2003 excrete the virus in the feces for up to two weeks. ferrets infected with an H7N3 (LPAI) virus swollen. or petechial hemorrhages in the avian influenza viruses for up to 72 days. with areas of necrosis. In experimentally infected dogs. Most chickens shed LPAI influenza often contains yolk from ruptured ova. viruses. apparently of diffuse subcutaneous hemorrhages on the feet and shanks. petechial hemorrhages in the pancreas. one study reported that the in this instance. than two weeks. and hemorrhagic. cerebrum and pancreas. foxes. extreme emaciation. However. More extensive inoculation. severe weight loss. transient weight loss and respiratory signs. suggesting that co-infections may when cut. including birds. have been associated with outbreaks of fluid (which may contain blood) in the nares and oral pneumonia in seals and disease in a pilot whale. Transmission from birds to the flock. Petechiae may be noted throughout the have increased the severity of the clinical signs. Pancreatic lesions among tigers in a zoo. with sneezing dose inoculation with a virus isolated from cats.

the liver lesions were accompanied by valuable for surveillance and to demonstrate freedom generalized icterus.. and myocarditis. bronchiolitis and alveolitis detected on histopathological examination. and controls and surveillance should be established. and congestion of the spleen. kidney and liver H5N1 infections. some Bloody nasal discharge. and Canada. If the floor is earthen. The compost should be covered tightly with black polyethylene sheets to prevent the entry of birds.g. brain. The manure can be specific antisera in AGID or hemagglutination and buried at least five feet deep. measures. premises must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. air sacs. AGID tests can recognize all avian leopards. recovered from oropharyngeal. study. The identity of the virus can be been killed. Farms should be quarantined. proper disposal of carcasses birds if cloacal samples are not practical (e. conjunctivitis. thymus. Experimentally infected foxes also Prevention developed lesions mainly in the lung. kidney. the gross lesions included severe pulmonary influenza subtypes in poultry. Birds should not be returned to the farm from Diagnostic Tests live bird markets or other slaughter channels. cats Serological tests including agar gel infected by ingestion also had enlarged tonsils with immunodiffusion. tracheal and/or cloacal Outbreaks can be controlled by rapid depopulation of swabs in live birds. More severe lesions Poultry can be infected by contact with newly were seen in foxes inoculated intratracheally than in introduced birds or fomites. perirenal tissue and/or diaphragm. in clinical samples. Mild or absent gross lesions were reported in characteristic patterns in the hemagglutinin. particularly waterfowl. spleen. hemagglutination multifocal petechial hemorrhages. then the flock depopulated and the carcasses destroyed by hemagglutinating activity indicates the presence of burying. but hemagglutination consolidation and multifocal hemorrhages in multiple inhibition tests are subtype specific and may miss some organs including the lung. In one In most countries including the U. with multiple to coalescing recommended that antigen detection tests be used to foci of pulmonary consolidation. Virus isolation is performed in embryonated eggs. by preventing any contact with wild birds or their water sources. Avian influenza can be diagnosed by variety of strict hygiene and biosecurity measures are necessary to techniques including virus isolation. In one study. one inch or ELISAs. It may also be composted neuraminidase inhibition tests. with mild to moderate treated. Real-time RT-PCR is the method of choice for nodes. Virulence tests in for 90 days or longer. Pulmonary lesions including interstitial pneumonia have been Treatment reported in some experimentally infected pigs. are used to experimentally infected zebra finches. The virus can be prevent virus transmission on fomites.S. heart. as well as by contact with animals fed infected birds. Oropharyngeal. Infected organ samples (trachea. mandibular and/ or retropharyngeal lymph nodes. house finches and differentiate LPAI from HPAI viruses. were reported in a naturally infected dog. lymph subtypes. Asian lineage H5N1-infected pigs had mild to high pathogenicity avian influenza in poultry is not minimal gross lung lesions. Avian influenza viruses are subtyped with more of soil should be removed. lungs. infected cats. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza swans. Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 10 of 18 . and movement tracheal or cloacal swabs (or intestinal contents). budgerigars despite high mortality rates in these species. Viral antigens can be hemorrhagic pancreatitis have been reported in naturally detected with ELISAs including rapid tests. outbreaks are controlled by eradication. In addition. As of 2008. together with genetic tests to identify conditions. Once the birds have influenza virus. These tests can also distinguish some necrosis. renal and splenic congestion. hemorrhages in the intestinal serosa. as well as enlarged inhibition and ELISAs are useful as supplemental tests. severe pulmonary congestion serological tests may underestimate the prevalence of and edema. multifocal hepatic some cases. Although most gallinaceous birds and other susceptible Petechial hemorrhages occurred in the liver of some cats. liver and lymph nodes. and can replace virus isolation in cerebral. stomach. RT-PCR assays can identify avian influenza viruses Pulmonary edema. composting or rendering. and severe diagnosis in many laboratories. infections. AGID tests are not reliable for detecting avian intestines. In wild birds. liver and heart) are tested in dead birds. Feces can be substituted in small infected and exposed flocks. and strict biosecurity collected without harming the bird). Insects and mice on the premises should be eliminated. influenza in ducks or geese. the manure and feed should be removed down confirmed with agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) or to a bare concrete floor. birds die before developing antibodies. These lesions were identify avian influenza only in flocks and not in similar whether the cats were infected intratracheally or individual birds. serology can be and in one cat. pneumonia. depending on the environmental susceptible birds. The lungs were also affected in the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) experimentally infected cats. In naturally infected tigers and from infection. hemagglutination. and some of these animals also wild birds. by the ingestion of infected chicks. intestine. cannot be and contaminated materials. The risk of infection had histopathological evidence of encephalitis and can be decreased by all-in/all-out flock management.

some of the Asian Although Asian lineage H5N1 viruses have been lineage H5N1 viruses have resulted in high mortality rates reported in pigs. Mallard. or house sparrows. In experimentally infected In domesticated poultry (particularly chickens). both mild and asymptomatic. most other countries. Feathers can be burned or composted. In one study. A are critical in a vaccination campaign. fatal cases were reported among captive tigers other HPAI avian influenza viruses. material. asymptomatic infections were reported in cats Vaccination may place selection pressures on avian that had been exposed to an infected swan in an animal influenza viruses. kept indoors whenever possible. All six laughing gulls infected with recent severe illness among swine. In an unpublished study during an outbreak. However. Methods used to few fatal cases have been documented in naturally recognize infections with field viruses in vaccinated infected housecats. Morbidity and mortality rates in passerine and alternatively. Few of the latter cats shed virus. In a study with a approved residual disinfectant. but no deaths were seen in starlings. ducks died and one recovered. ill despite the presence of other viral and bacterial Mammals should not be fed poultry or other birds infections. Currently licensed vaccines in the were detected in 171 cats from areas of Austria and U. Any survivors are (intranasal or intragastric). with disinfectant. During outbreaks. raccoon dogs. there is no usually in poor condition and do not begin laying again evidence that HPAI H5N1 viruses are causing significant for several weeks. infected zebra finches.25%) had been migratory wild birds. blue-winged teal and redhead ducks inoculated with the same viral strains did not become ill. and none became evolution of vaccine-resistant isolates.. deaths have occurred in housecats. different H5N1 virus. and some experimentally infected cats flocks include a “DIVA” (differentiating vaccinated from exhibited severe disease and high mortality rates. and four died. a dog. there are no reports of wild birds. and the use of sentinel birds. Asymptomatic or mild infections were seen in experimentally infected dogs. that may be infected with Asian lineage H5N1 viruses or Similarly. However. northern pintail. In infected animals) strategy. Ducks and geese are clinically illness among infected pikas in China. they may be removed and the area wet down psittacine birds have varied with the species. no antibodies hemagglutinin type. Interestingly. the severity of the clinical signs varied HPAI viruses are often associated with morbidity and with the specific isolate and the route of inoculation mortality rates that approach 90-100%. some H5 and H7 vaccines. in the case of have been fatal. of six infected wood ducks also became severely ill while and miniature pigs were resistant to infection in one two others remained asymptomatic. Experimental infections also strains of H5N1 became severely ill. include inactivated whole virus and recombinant Germany where infections had been reported in wild fowlpox. an outbreak at Qinghai Lake this species. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza insects and rodents. nations may consider Asian lineage H5N1 viruses have been reported in a vaccination as a preventative or adjunct control measure variety of mammalian species. the mortality rate was 66-100% in HPAI vaccines are not used routinely in the U. severe disease does not seem to occur in in wild birds. In contrast. tigers. Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 11 of 18 . In April 2005. USDA approval. but captive leopards. including waterfowl. good surveillance and movement controls severe cases have been seen in several of these species. A serological study conducted in Vietnam in central China caused the death of more than 6000 found that a low percentage of pigs (0. Three of the sick study. house finches and budgerigars. and these viruses have been isolated rarely been reported in some but not all experimentally infected from pigs in China. Asian lineage isolated from a variety of dead birds. however. antibodies to these viruses were found in 8 autogenous or from viruses of the same subtype or of 11 cats and 160 of 629 dogs. kept from contact with potentially infected flocks and Asiatic golden cats and lions at a wildlife rescue center in wild birds. H5N1 viruses have also been detected in swine in in a number of other countries. and might eventually result in the shelter.S. High–pressure spray equipment should mortality rates approached 100% in experimentally be used to clean all equipment and building surfaces.H5 vaccines. ferrets and mice. and high stress levels in this population. and Asian lineage unaffected by many HPAI viruses. but one death was reported Morbidity and Mortality in a naturally infected dog. but Once all surfaces are clean and free of all organic all house sparrows experienced mild disease and survived. contrast. Because vaccines large felids. H5N1 viruses have also been exposed to H5N1 influenza viruses in 2004. High mortality rates have Indonesia. typically asymptomatic. Four suggest that the clinical signs may be mild in this species.S. the entire premises should be sprayed with an and all starlings remained asymptomatic. Avian vaccines are usually from Thailand. They should also be and leopards in Thailand. cats and dogs should be Cambodia all recovered after an illness lasting 5-7 days. The use of these vaccines requires birds. H5N1 viruses isolated from Indonesian pigs were less Avian influenza virus infections in wild birds are virulent in mice than isolates from poultry. Some infections with Asian lineage H5N1 viruses the approval of the state veterinarian and. however. palm civets and can allow birds to shed virus while remaining experimentally infected ferrets.

ca/english/anima/heasan/dise 8th ed. Tumpey TM. J Hyg (London). Webster. Prommuang P. 155-172. Mays A. http://www. Avian Pathol. http://www. List of species affected by H5N1 Richmond. Last Updated: January 2010 © 2010 page 12 of 18 . Beare.119:37- World Health Organization.inspection. 2009.gc.1 Xu J. J Virol. S. 2009.390(2):212-20.35(3):250-253.vet. Avian Influenza 42. Stuart JC. Washington DC: http://www. 2007.usgs. Pathogenesis of avian influenza http://www. Tissue tropism of a and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).gov/disease_information/ avian_influenza/affected_species_chart. National Wildlife Beard. Theamboonlers http://www. Fact Sheet .int 1966. Vet Rec.int/eng/normes/mcode/A_summry. Pakistan. Arch Virol.81(20):11139-47.45(2):519-21. Material Safety Alexander. p. Health Center. Lu X.php Antarasena C. http://www. Ahmed Z.7_0_A/ Bean WJ. C. Franks J. References Ocular infection of mice with influenza A (H7) viruses: a site of primary replication and spread to the respiratory Aamir UB. The Merck Manual 1982.html. 3rd ed.ca/english/anima/heasan/dise PAHO.aphis. A review of avian influenza [online]. and R. A. mala/avflu/plan/plane.gov/flu/avian/ Available at: http://www. Wood JM.htm (H7) virus infection in mice and ferrets: enhanced OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code virulence of Eurasian H7N7 viruses isolated from http://www. Pearson JE. Poovorawan Y. Nature 2003. NJ: Merck and Co. G.oie. http://www. Li Y.). J Virol.who. 1991. 2003. Kawaoka Y.unizh.shtml coturnix japonica) and ducks (Anas spp. 1991. Foreign Animal Diseases. Krauss tract.usda.html from domestic fowl in Great Britain. (H5N1) derived from domestic cat and dog in Thailand. 2006 Jun. Arch Virol.54:151-60. OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Belser JA. In Foreign animal diseases. Sirimujalin R. Clara M. USDAAPHIS.111:416. p. J Virol.ca/msds-ftss/index. Terrestrial Animals Katz JM. editors. CFIA Notifiable Avian Influenza Hazard Specific Plan Aiello SE. Scientific and Technical Publication No.int/eng/normes/mmanual/a_summry. A. Payungporn S. Biosecurity for the Birds role of defective interfering RNAs in nature.64:309-320. 1998.W. Zoonotic potential of highly pathogenic avian H7N3 influenza viruses from Blanc A. 1359-1360.gc. Smith C.shtml 580. 71-80.uga. Seiler P. Human fatality adds fresh impetus to fight against australis). United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal Promkuntod N.oie.inspection. Szyfres B (Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]). S. bird flu.gov/animal_health/birdbiosecurity/ 1985.merck. Prommuang P. Avian influenza.Virology.htm humans. Zoonoses and communicable diseases Canadian Food Inspection Agency [CFIA]. VA: United States Animal Health (avian influenza) Association.aphis. Serologic evidence of influenza A and B viruses in South American fur seals (Arctocephalus Abbott. Blacksell SD.usda. Belser JA. Avian Thailand strain of high-pathogenicity avian influenza Influenza.phac-aspc. http://www. Webster RG. 7_0_1OB?navid=AVIAN_INFLUENZA&navtype=SU Characterization of virulent and avirulent A/chicken/Pennsylvania/83 influenza A viruses: potential USDA APHIS. 2009. United States Geological Survey (USGS). 2007. 1998. Genetic analysis of influenza A virus United States Animal Health Association. Ruchansky D..gov/newsroom/hot_issues/avian_ chickens (Gallus gallus). Japanese quail (Coturnix influenza/avian_influenza.152:1925-1933. Accessed 30 Aug 2004. Whitehouse Station. Songserm T. Tumpey TM. http://www. Maines TR.nwhc. Avian Influenza Portal http://www. Avian Influenza Alexander DY. common to man and animals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Katz JM. Webster RG.com/pubs/mmanual/ Amonsin A. Obert CA.cdc. The isolation and classification of Tern virus: World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) influenza A-Tern South Africa: 1961. Avian Influenza rickettsioses and viroses. Replication of avian influenza viruses in humans. Le Bas A. Data Sheets Alexander DJ. Sae- The Merck Veterinary Manual Heng N.83(14):7075-84.merckvetmanual.ch/gent_abstracts/ Public Health Agency of Canada. Naeem K. http://www. Volume 2.gc.esvv. Achaval F. Donis RO. Chlamydiosis.oie. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Internet Resources Acha PN.jsp. http://www. Jam-On R.edu/vpp/gray_book02/fad/index.423:5. Wadford DA.usda. Arbiza J. virus (H5N1) in tissues of naturally infected native http://www. mala/avflu/avflufse. Chutinimitkul S. Isolation of an influenza A virus http://www. Pariyothorn N. J Wildl Dis.gov/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s. The Merck veterinary manual.com/mvm/index.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/ Becker WB.shtml Marine mammals: Influenza virus.jsp A. Influenza.

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