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WABO Standard No.

27-13

WABO
WELDER AND WELDING OPERATOR
PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION STANDARD
for
• STRUCTURAL STEEL
• SHEET STEEL
• REINFORCING STEEL

Washington Association of Building Officials

WABO Standard No. 27-13
Fourth edition

WABO
WELDER AND WELDING
OPERATOR
PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION
STANDARD
for
• STRUCTURAL STEEL
• SHEET STEEL
• REINFORCING STEEL

Prepared by
WABO Welding Performance Standard
Technical Advisory Task Force

Approved by
WABO Board of Directors

Effective October 2002

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27-13 updates and replaces previous editions of this standard and reflects the applicable requirements and intent of the 1997 edition of the State Building Code: 2000 edition Structural Welding Code-Steel (ANSI/AWS D1. FOREWORD This fourth edition of the Welder Performance Qualification Standard No.wabo. 1998 Structural Welding Code-Sheet Steel (ANSI/AWS D1. Washington 98507-7310 (360) 586-6725 Toll Free: 888-664-9515 Fax: 360-586-5538 E-mail: wabo@wabo.org i . This Standard has been published as follows: 1st edition November 1980 2nd edition May 1982 3rd edition May 1989 4th edition October 2002 Washington Association of Building Officials PO Box 7310 Olympia.4).3) and the 1998 Structural Welding Code- Reinforcing Steel (ANSI/AWS D1. This Standard has been compiled through the joint efforts of members of the Washington Association of Building Officials (WABO) and members of the American Welding Society (AWS).1).org Web page: www.

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The State of Washington has adopted the Uniform Building Code and the Uniform Building Code Standards. requires that welders be qualified and prescribes that welder qualification requirements shall conform to the Uniform Building Code. 27-13. city and towns) actively engaged in the enforcement and administration of the building codes. and requires enforcement by local jurisdictions. The Uniform Building Code. is adopted by the Washington Association of Building Officials (WABO) to establish uniform qualification procedures and testing for certification of welders. PREFACE The Washington Association of Building Officials (WABO) is a State of Washington nonprofit corporation established to research. county. ii . The association’s membership is composed of the Building Officials from the various jurisdictions (state. welding operators and tackers. develop and promote uniform regulations and enforcement pertaining to all phases of building construction in the State of Washington. The WABO Welder and Welding Operator Performance Qualification Standard No.

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.....................................3 Welder Qualifying Agency Requirements ......................................................................... 43 iii .................................... 1 27-13.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 List of Figures ................... 3 27-13.................................... 13 Appendices ...............................8 Visual Inspection Criteria for Acceptance ......... 10 27-13........12 Challenges and Appeals ................................................... 12 27-13................ 6 27-13.................................... Root...........................4 Welder Certification ...... 7 27-13............................................13 Suspensions and Withdrawals................11 Technical Inquiries .........................................................5 Welder Qualification General Requirements ......7 Qualification Tests Required and Limitations ..............1 Purpose .................................... 5 27-13......... 8 27-13....................................................9 Test Specimens................................................................................ 13 27-13.......................................6 Welder Qualification Tests ........................................................................................................................2 Scope ............................................................ ii Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................................................................... Face...................... 10 27-13.......................................................10 Methods of Testing Specimens .......... iii 27-13..... TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Topic Page Foreword ............... 17 List of Tables .......... 1 27-13........................................................................... 1 27-13........................................................................................ or Side-bend ................................................................................ i Preface ..............................................................

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Construction welding shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of a welding procedure specification approved by the engineer of record. SECTION 27-13. 1 . welding operators and tackers in steel in order to certify the ability of the welder to produce sound welds in accordance with the requirements of the State Building Code.1 – PURPOSE The purpose of this standard is to provide a method of qualifying welders. sheet steel and reinforcing steel welding. Certification limitation of welders and welding operator qualifications are found in Table 27-13-I.2 – SCOPE The provisions of this standard shall apply to the qualification and certification of welders. The qualification tests are not intended to be used as a guide for welding during actual construction.3 – WELDER QUALIFYING AGENCY REQUIREMENTS 1. SECTION 27-13. welding operators and tackers performing structural steel.SECTION 27-13. GENERAL Only WABO approved Welder Qualifying Agencies are authorized to perform the welder and welding operator performance qualification tests required by this standard at WABO approved facilities. Welder Qualifying Agencies which wish to become certified by WABO to perform the tests may obtain application forms and information concerning certification by contacting the WABO office.

Standard for Qualification and Certification of Welding Inspectors and successfully completing the WABO written Welder Examiner Test based on the contents of this Standard.1 Independent testing laboratories 2. Agency personnel can become WABO certified welding examiners by submitting proof that they are AWS Certified Welding Inspectors (CWI) qualified and certified in accordance with the provisions of AWS QCI. Only individuals qualified for NDT Level II may perform and interpret radiographic testing. ELIGIBILITY The following organizations are eligible to become approved WABO Welder Qualifying Agencies: 2. subject to periodic reinspections of the agency. The agency will receive a technical survey of its testing facility and methods of record keeping. 4. including those operated by labor unions 2. SNT- TC-1A. Personnel performing radiographic testing will be qualified in accordance with the current edition of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing Recommended Practice No. AGENCY PERSONNEL Agency personnel witnessing the tests and approving the mechanical and visual test coupons must be WABO certified welding examiners. The agency certificate will be valid for a three year period. 2 . WABO will issue certificates identifying the agency and its key personnel. CERTIFICATION OF WELDER QUALIFYING AGENCIES Upon recommendation for certification by the Inspection-Evaluation team.4 Others granted approval by WABO 3. 5.3 Steel fabricator plants certified by the AISC Quality Certification Program 2.2 Private and public welder vocational training institutions.2. INSPECTION-EVALUATION Inspection-Evaluation of welder qualifying agencies will be performed by one or more persons selected by WABO who are knowledgeable in welding and welder qualification.

1.4 . Following are the welder certification classifications available through the WABO Welder Certification Program.Section 27-13. WELDING OPERATOR Process Method Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Automatic 4. SHEET STEEL WELDER Process Method Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Manual Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Manual Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Semi-automatic Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Semi-automatic 3. STRUCTURAL WELDER Process Method Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Manual Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Manual Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Semi-automatic Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Semi-automatic 2. REINFORCING STEEL WELDER Process Method Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Manual Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Semi-automatic Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Semi-automatic 3 .WELDER CERTIFICATION Welders and welding operators may become certified by WABO in one or more of the following categories and processes by satisfactory completion of the applicable qualification tests described in this Standard.

5.1 Welder certificates are issued for a period of one year. for any reason.1 The welder or welding operator is not engaged in the weld process for which he/she is qualified for a period exceeding six (6) months. will deem any and all WABO certificates held by the certificate holder revoked for a period of not less than three (3) years from the date of infraction. In the event the welder or welding operator fails to pass the new qualification test.3 The welder fails to renew his/her certification on or before the expiration date.1 other than the certificate holder.4. Confiscated certification cards must be forwarded to the WABO office. in which case. inspectors. building officials. or by a WABO certified welding examiner.3 The qualification of the welder or welding operator shall remain in effect indefinitely unless: 5. For certifications to remain valid. 4 .2 To renew the certificate. certification shall be suspended until he/she can successfully complete the welding test. which entitles all possession rights to WABO. a new qualification test shall be required. within five (5) working days of the infraction date. and others to confiscate any certification card for probable cause.5. 5. The endorser shall have witnessed the individual’s welding during the calendar quarter being endorsed.2 There is some specific reason to question a welder or welding operator’s ability. 5. Any Certificate issued by WABO for certification and registration programs presented as qualification by an individual: 5.4 Welder Certification Revocation Each certification card carries the statement “This card is the property of WABO”. executive board and program managers to any representative acting on behalf of the WABO. the welder must have the certificate endorsed by his/her supervisor or designee.e. Thereafter.3. 5. EXCEPTION: An expired certification may be reinstated within sixty (60) days after the expiration date.3. a new qualification test may be required. i. thereby extending authority beyond the officers. examiners. in which case a new qualification test shall be required. the welder must return the properly endorsed certificate to WABO and pay a renewal fee. 5.3. WELDER CERTIFICATES 5. accompanied by a written explanation of the circumstances.

2.6 Grinding of root and cover passes not permitted. 1. each test weldment shall be identified by placing a welder or welding operator identification mark and laboratory test number on the test weldment for each process and position.2.4.4 altered certificates.1 Welding machines shall be set at zero or minimum setting prior to the welder or welding operator adjusting the machine.2. 5.WELDER QUALIFICATION GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1.2. 5 .3 if the person presenting another individual’s certificate is not currently certified by WABO.2. 1.4.2 Work Performance. 1.4 Test weldments may not be removed from position during the test. other than those approved and currently on file at WABO carry the same three (3) year revocation provision. undercut and excess bead convexity between passes is acceptable if made in position with the approval of the welder examiner.5 Cleaning and removal of slag. Section 27-13. 1.2 Prior to welding. 1.2. also automatically have any and all WABO certificates revoked for a period of not less than three (3) years from the date of infraction. 1. 5. KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITY 1.3 Each specimen removed from the test weldment shall be stamped with laboratory test number and specimen number. Each welder and welding operator shall be given an oral or written examination designed to show general knowledge and experience in structural steel welding.5 .1 General Subject Knowledge Test. that person will be prohibited from obtaining any WABO certification for a period of not less then three (3) years from the date of infraction. Each welder and welding operator shall perform one or more test welds on prepared test coupons in accordance with the following: 1.

Records and specimens shall be available to those authorized by WABO to examine them.6 . K-.1 through 27-13.7) The welder qualification test for Sheet Steel welding shall be a fillet welded T-joint test (sheet to supporting member. Original test records shall be forwarded by the welder examiner to the WABO office within thirty (30) days. Bend test specimens and radiographic specimens shall be retained by the welder examiner for a period of six (6) months. QUALIFICATION TEST FOR SHEET STEEL WELDERS (See Figure 27-13. QUALIFICATION TEST FOR STRUCTURAL WELDERS – 1/8 inch thickness and over (See Figures 27-13.6) -The welder qualification test for manual and semi-automatic welding shall be one of the following: 1.) 6 . and of the results of those tests. Certificates shall be issued by WABO. Section 27-13. 2. A roster of currently certified welders and welding operators shall be kept at the WABO office. Visual specimens and bend specimens shall be maintained securely fastened together with identification stamping clearly visible. A copy of each record shall be kept by the welder examiner for a period of three (3) years. 1.09. Copies of radiograph reports shall be forwarded to the WABO office with the original record. or Y-connections on pipe or tubing of unlimited thickness. together with the application and filing fee. RECORDS A complete record shall be made of the tests performed by each welder or welding operator. The original certified welder test records shall be kept at the WABO office indefinitely.09.1 Groove weld test for plate of unlimited thickness. 1.3 Groove weld test for T-.2 Groove weld test for butt joints on pipe or tubing of unlimited thickness.WELDER QUALIFICATION TESTS 1.09. 2.

09. QUALIFICATION TEST FOR WELDING OPERATORS (See Figure 27-13. For structural and reinforced steel qualifications. General Notes Field qualification qualifies for shop. 5.8) The welding operator qualification test shall be a groove weld test on plate. Qualified thickness range and positions are shown on Tables 27-13-A through H.2 A subsequent retest may be made provided the welder or welding operator submits documented proof of eight (8) hours minimum further training or practice. in which case a single retest weld of each type and position failed shall be made.1 An immediate retest may be made within seven (7) days of notification of failure. vertical position welding progression shall be upwards. The limitations of these certifications are shown on Table 27-13-I. 7 .QUALIFICATION TESTS REQUIRED AND LIMITATIONS 1. 3. positions and plate or pipe thicknesses in Tables 27-13-A through E. For each weld process (SMAW. but shop qualification does not qualify for field. FCAW. a retest may be allowed under the following conditions: 5. test plates or pipe shall be welded using any of the structural steels listed in Table 27-13-J using the electrodes. A welding operator qualified with an approved electrode and shielding medium combination shall be considered qualified to weld with any other approved electrode and shielding medium combination for the process used in the procedure qualification test. The retest shall consist of two test welds of each type in each position on which the welder or welding operator failed. SAW) for which certification is required. 4.7 . 5. GTAW. RETEST In case a welder or welding operator fails to meet the requirements of one or more test welds. QUALIFICATION TEST FOR REINFORCING STEEL WELDERS The welder qualification test for reinforcing steel welders shall be a flare bevel groove indirect butt joint. Section 27-13. GMAW.

1. Final visual inspection of welds may begin immediately after the completed welds have cooled to ambient temperature. Section 27-13.8. 1.4. T-weld test plates shall be welded using one of the sheet steels listed in Table 27-13-K using electrodes and positions shown in tables 27-13-F and 27-13-G.5 Undercut is no more than 1/32 inch deep. 8 . The root pass shall be visually inspected and approved by the WABO approved welder examiner prior to continuation. Sheet Steel qualification test qualifies welder for both galvanized and uncoated steel. For sheet steel welder qualifications. For reinforcing steel welder qualifications No. nor exceeds ten (10) percent of the test weld length. 1.2 Thorough fusion exists between adjacent layers of weld metal and between weld metal and base metal.8 . GMAW. GTAW.4 Weld profiles are in accordance with Section 27-13. Two (2) test assemblies are required. are not covered by this Standard.VISUAL INSPECTION CRITERIA FOR ACCEPTANCE All welds shall be visually inspected. Welder shall be qualified to weld all filler metals of the same designation and lower strength than that used in the test (F4 and lower for SMAW process). 1. SAW).1 The weld has no cracks or arc strikes outside the weld area. 1. PLATE AND REINFORCING STEEL WELDS A weld shall be acceptable by visual inspection if it shows the following: 1. 1. including short circuiting (“Short Arc”) GMAW.6 The piping porosity does not exceed one pore. FCAW. 1. 4 ASTM A706 bars shall be welded to any of the structural steels listed in Table 27-13-J with the electrodes and in the positions shown on Table 27-13-H. Certification for all others.7 Welds are started and terminated at the end of a joint in a manner that will insure sound welds. The welder shall be certified for the welding process and method used in qualification tests only (SMAW. See Table 27-13-L.3 All craters are filled to the full cross section of the weld.

2.3 The face of the weld is at least flush with the outside surface of the pipe. A concave root surface is permitted. 2. 2. or inadequate joint penetration in the root. within the limits of Section 27-13. cracks.5 below. Undercut shall not exceed 1/32 inch and weld reinforcement shall not exceed the following: Pipe Wall Thickness Reinforcement. SHEET STEEL FILLET WELDS A fillet weld shall be acceptable by visual inspection if it is reasonably uniform in appearance and is free of overlap.10.1).2. 9 .1 The weld has no cracks or arc strikes outside the weld area. 3. 4.10. Maximum (inches) (inches) 3/8 or less 3/32 3/8 to 3/4 incl.2.5 The maximum root surface concavity is 1/16 inch.8.2). provided the total weld thickness is equal to or greater than that of the base metal. and excessive undercut. and the maximum melt-through is 1/8 inch. Welds shall be free of the discontinuities shown for butt joints. The reinforcement shall not exceed 1/8 inch in height and shall have gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface (See Figure 27-13. PIPE AND TUBING WELDS A pipe weld shall be acceptable by visual inspection if it shows the following: 2. and the weld is merged smoothly with the base metal. incomplete fusion. ACCEPTABLE AND UNACCEPTABLE WELD PROFILES Groove welds shall preferably be made with slight or minimum reinforcement.2 All craters are filled to the full cross section of the weld.4 There is no evidence of cracks. 1/8 Over 3/4 3/16 2.2. (See Figure 27-13.

The weld and heat-affected zones shall be centered and completely within the bent portion of the specimen after testing. the surface shall contain no discontinuities exceeding the following dimensions: 1. Root-bend specimens shall be placed with the root of the weld directed toward the die member. directed toward the die member.9 . Side-bend specimens shall be placed with that side showing the greater discontinuity. TYPE AND NUMBER The type and number of test specimens that must be mechanically tested to qualify a welder when radiographic testing is not used are shown in Figures 27-13.1 and otherwise substantially in accordance with that figure. Each specimen shall be bent in a jig having the contour shown in Figure 27-13. FACE-.12.1 through 11. if any.11. FACE-.1 1/8 inch-measured in any direction on the surface. The convex surface of the bend test specimen shall be visually examined for surface discontinuities. The specimen shall be placed on the die member of the jig with the weld at midspan.2 3/8 inch .METHODS OF TESTING SPECIMENS 1. Section 27-13.8.TEST SPECIMENS. ROOT-.the sum of the greatest dimensions of all discontinuities exceeding 1/32 inch.Section 27-13. OR SIDE-BEND TEST AND EVALUATION The entire length of the groove weld shall be examined visually prior to cutting specimens. For acceptance. OR SIDE-BEND 1. 10 .10 . 1. Face-bend specimens shall be placed with the face of the weld directed toward the die member. The plunger member shall force the specimen into the die member until the specimen becomes U-shaped. ROOT-. Any convenient means may be used to move the plunger member with relation to the die member. but less than or equal to 1/8 inch.

3. 2. Specimens with corner cracks exceeding 1/4 inch with no evidence of slag inclusions or other fusion type discontinuities shall be disregarded. and a replacement test specimen from the original weldment shall be tested. REINFORCING STEEL WELD TEST AND EVALUATION The entire length of the flare bevel groove welds shall be visually examined.the maximum corner crack. The load shall be steadily increased or repeated until the specimen fractures. Exclude 1-1/4 inch at each end of the weld from evaluation in the plate test for welder qualification and exclude three (3) inches at each end of the length of the test plate for welding operator qualification. RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING Radiographic examination of the welder or welding operator test plate may be made in lieu of a bend test. Then each test assembly shall be mechanically cut at two locations to provide two transverse cross sections of each weld assembly.2) shall be examined visually and then the five (5) inch long specimen shall be loaded in such a way that the root of the weld is in tension. a test pipe or tube welded in the 5G.12. 4. 6G or 6GR position shall be radiographed from the top center line to the bottom center line on either side). except when that corner crack resulted from visible slag inclusion or other fusion type discontinuities. (For example. (See Figure 27- 13. Welded test pipe shall be examined for a minimum of one-half of the weld perimeter selected to include a sample of all positions welded. if the fillet weld fractures.9). The specimen shall pass the test if it bends flat upon itself or. 11 . 1. SHEET STEEL FILLET WELD BREAK TEST AND EVALUATION The entire length of the fillet weld (See Figure 27-13. A macroetch test shall be performed by polishing and etching cross sections with a suitable solution to give a clear definition of the weld. If radiographic testing is used in lieu of the prescribed bend tests.3 1/4 inch . The etched cross section shall show the minimum designated effective weld size for the flare groove test assemblies.09. the weld reinforcement need not be ground or otherwise smoothed for inspection unless its surface irregularities or juncture with the base metal would cause objectionable weld discontinuities to be obscured in the radiograph. the fractured surface shows complete fusion to the root of the joint. If the backing is removed for radiography. then the 1/8 inch maximum shall apply. or bends flat upon itself. the root shall be ground flush with the base metal.

13.1 for the size of discontinuity under examination. and affiliation of the inquirer and they must provide enough information for the Task Force members to fully understand the point of concern in the inquiry.2 Discontinuities having a greatest dimension of less than 1/16 inch shall be unacceptable if the sum of their greatest dimension exceeds 3/8 inch in any linear inch of weld. the weld shall have no cracks and shall conform to the following: 4. figures and tables. Sketches should be used when appropriate and all paragraphs. yet complete.11 – TECHNICAL INQUIRIES All inquiries must be submitted in writing to: Welding Performance Standard Technical Advisory Task Force WABO PO Box 7310. 27-13 should be limited to questions of a general nature or to matters directly related to administration of the WABO Welder Certification Program. Welder program support personnel can not provide consulting services 12 .1 The greatest dimension of any porosity or fusion-type discontinuity that is 1/16 inch or larger in greatest dimension shall not exceed size (B). the inquiry should be concise. The radiographic procedure and technique shall be in accordance with the current requirements of ANSI/AWS D1.1 for the effective throat or weld size involved. indicated in Figure 27-13. Olympia WA 98507-7310 All inquiries must contain the name. Each inquiry should be limited to a single point unless the inquiry involves two or more interrelated concerns. For acceptable qualification by the radiograph. The distance from any porosity or fusion-type discontinuity described above to another such discontinuity shall not be less than the minimum clearance allowed (C) indicated in Figure 27-13. 4. to enable the Task Force members to quickly and fully understand the point of inquiry. which relate to the inquiry must be provided. SECTION 27-13. And.13.1. Where that point is not clearly defined. address. Telephone inquires to WABO concerning the WABO Standard No. Inquires should be typewritten – electronic mail is acceptable. WABO Board of Directors policy requires that all program support personnel respond to a telephone request for a technical inquiry with information that such an inquiry can only be obtained through a written request. the inquiry will be returned for clarification.

individual application review. 13 . the challenger may then appeal in writing to the WABO Certification and Registration Committee. pursuant to the procedures adopted to implement this policy. the challenger may then appeal in writing to the WABO Executive Board. Failure to abide by any terms of a suspension may result in registration for the agency and/or certification of its personnel being withdrawn. pursuant to the procedures adopted to implement this policy. or their designee. or. any program-related disciplinary action.SECTION 27-13. If the challenge is rejected by the executive director. the challenger’s final right of appeal shall be to a Hearing Officer appointed by the WABO Executive Board. examination or interview.SUSPENSION AND WITHDRAWALS The registration of a specific agency and/or the certification of its personnel may be suspended or withdrawn. in writing. If the WABO Executive Board denies the appeal. the result of an agency survey/audit. pursuant to the procedures adopted to implement this policy. SECTION 27-13. If the challenge is rejected by the Certification and Registration Committee. WABO executive director shall advise the agency contact person of his/her right to challenge or appeal a suspension or withdrawal action.CHALLENGES AND APPEALS An agency contact of a registered agency or a certified welder in the WABO Welder Qualifying Agency Registration and Welder Certification Program may challenge or appeal.12 . or designee. A challenge shall be submitted in writing to and reviewed by the WABO executive director. upon any ground. A registration or certification need not have been suspended before being withdrawn.13 .

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APPENDICES 15 .

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LIST OF FIGURES
QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – GROOVE
Figure Page
27-13.01 Test Position 1G (Plates) ....................................................................................... 19
27-13.01 Test Position 2G (Plates) ....................................................................................... 19
27-13.01 Test Position 3G (Plates) ....................................................................................... 19
27-13.01 Test Position 4G (Plates) ....................................................................................... 19
QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – FILLET
27-13.02 Test Position 3F (Plates) ........................................................................................ 20
27-13.02 Test Position 4F (Plates) ........................................................................................ 20
QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – PIPE OR TUBING
27-13.03 Test Position 2G (Pipe or Tubing) ......................................................................... 21
27-13.03 Test Position 5G (Pipe or Tubing) ........................................................................ 21
27-13.04 Test Position 6G (Pipe) ......................................................................................... 22
27-13.04 Test Position 6GR (Pipe) ...................................................................................... 22
27-13.05 Parts of a Tubular Connection ............................................................................... 23
(Figures 27-13.6 through 27-13.7 intentionally left blank)
QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – REINFORCING STEEL
27-13.08 Test Position – Vertical .......................................................................................... 24
27-13.08 Test Position – Overhead ....................................................................................... 24
QUALIFICATION TEST CONFIGURATIONS
27-13.09.1 Test Plate – Unlimited Thickness .......................................................................... 25
27-13.09.2 Test Plate – Limited Thickness (GMAW and GTAW only) .................................. 26
27-13.09.3 Test Plate – Optional Unlimited Thickness ........................................................... 27
27-13.09.4 Test Plate – Optional Limited Thickness ............................................................... 27
27-13.09.5 Pipe – Butt Joint (Without Backing) ..................................................................... 28
27-13.09.5 Pipe – Butt Joint (With Backing)........................................................................... 28

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
QUALIFICATION TEST CONFIGURATIONS (continued)
27-13.09.6 Test Joint for T-, K-, and Y-Connections on Pipe or Tubing .................................. 29
27-13.09.7 Sheet Steel Fillet Weld Test Assembly .................................................................. 30
27-13.09.8 Welding Operator – Unlimited Thickness ............................................................. 31
27-13.09.9 Reinforcing Steel Test Assembly ........................................................................... 32
27-13.10.1 Acceptable Groove Weld Profile (Plate) ................................................................ 33
27-13.10.2 Unacceptable Groove Weld Profiles (Plate) .......................................................... 33
TEST SPECIMENS, ROOT-, FACE-, OR SIDE-BEND
27-13.11.1 Groove Test Plate – Unlimited Thickness ............................................................. 34
27-13.11.2 Groove Test Plate – Limited Thickness (GMAW and GTAW only) ..................... 35
27-13.11.3 Pipe Test – 2G Position.......................................................................................... 35
27-13.11.4 Pipe Test – 5G and 6G Position ............................................................................. 36
27-13.11.5 Pipe Test – 6GR Position ....................................................................................... 36
27-13.11.6 Welding Operator Test Plate – Unlimited Thickness ............................................. 37
27-13.11.7 Side-Bend .............................................................................................................. 38
27-13.11.8 Face and Root-Bend .............................................................................................. 38
27-13.12.1 Guided Bend Test Jig Specifications ..................................................................... 39
27-13.12.2 Fillet Break Specimen ........................................................................................... 40
27-13.13.1 Radiographic Weld Quality Requirements for Discontinuities ............................. 41

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QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – GROOVE FIGURE 27-13.01 19 .

QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – FILLET FIGURE 27-13.02 20 .

03 21 .QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – PIPE FIGURE 27-13.

04 22 .QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – PIPE FIGURE 27-13.

PARTS OF A TUBULAR CONNECTION FIGURE 27-13.05 23 .

OVERHEAD (AXIS OF WELD HORIZONTAL) FIGURE 27-13.QUALIFICATION TEST POSITIONS – REINFORCING STEEL TEST POSITION.08 24 . VERTICAL (AXIS OF WELD VERTICAL) TEST POSITION.

* Minimum length of welding groove shall be 5 inch. Backing must be 1/4 inch to 3/8 inch by 1 inch. FIGURE 27-13. backing must be at least 3/8 inch by 3 inch. no tack welds shall be in the test area. TEST PLATE FOR WELDER QUALIFICATION UNLIMITED THICKNESS Note: When radiography is used for testing.09. single-V-groove. When radiography is used for qualification. 45 degree included angle. 1/4 inch maximum root opening with backing.1 25 . if backing is not removed prior to test. The joint detail shall be as follows: 1 inch plate.

1/4 inch maximum root opening with backing. *When radiography is used for qualification attempts. Backing must be 1/4 inch to 3/8 inch by 1 inch. single-V-groove. backing must be at least 3/8 inch by 3 inch (1/4 inch by 3 inch for GTAW). if backing is not removed prior to test. 45 degree angle. The joint detail shall be as follows: Plate of designated thickness. FIGURE 27-13. no tack welds shall be in the test area.2 26 .09. TEST PLATE FOR WELDER QUALIFICATION LIMITED THICKNESS (GMAW AND GTAW ONLY) Note: When radiography is used for testing.* Minimum length of welding groove shall be 7 inch.

the joint detail may be as follows: single-bevel groove.09. 45 degree angle. no tack welds shall be in the test area. For horizontal position qualification. 1/4 inch maximum root opening with backing. FIGURE 27-13.4 27 .3 Limited Thickness Note: When radiography is used for testing. OPTIONAL TEST PLATE FOR WELDER QUALIFICATIONS HORIZONTAL POSITION 5˝ Unlimited Thickness DIRECTION OF ROLLING 6˝ min 45° 1˝ FIGURE 27-13.09.

09.Without Backing The joint detail shall be as follows: Pipe diameter-wall thickness as designated. single-V-groove.With Backing Note: Qualification with backing strip or ring does not qualify for welding without backing strip. 1/8 inch maximum root face and root opening without backing strip.5 28 . PIPE BUTT JOINT Welder Qualification . 60 degree included angle. FIGURE 27-13. PIPE BUTT JOINT Welder Qualification .

6 29 . K-. 1/16 inch maximum root face and 1/8 inch root opening.09.TEST JOINT FOR T-. FIGURE 27-13. AND Y-CONNECTIONS ON PIPE OR TUBING The joint detail shall be as follows: Single-bevel. A restriction ring shall be placed on the thicker material. the square edge of the pipe or tube shall be at least 3/16 inch thicker than the beveled pipe thickness. 37 1/2 degree included angle with bevel on pipe or tube at least 1/2 inch thick. within 1/2 inch of the joint and shall extend at least 6 inches beyond the surface of the pipe or tube.

QUALIFICATION TEST CONFIGURATION – SHEET STEEL FILLET WELD TEST ASSEMBLY FIGURE 27-13.09.7 30 .

or for radiographic testing after the backing is removed. FIGURE 27-13. Backing must be at least 3/8 inch by 1 1/2 inch for mechanical testing. Backing must be at least 3/8 inch by 3 inch if radiography is used for testing without removal of backing.8 31 . 20 degree included angle. single-V-groove. Minimum length of welding groove shall be 15 inches.09. 5/8 inch root opening with backing plate. QUALIFICATION TEST CONFIGURATION – WELDING OPERATOR – UNLIMITED THICKNESS The joint detail shall be as follows: 1 inch plate.

QUALIFICATION TEST CONFIGURATIONS – REINFORCING STEEL TEST ASSEMBLY [EFFECTIVE WELD SIZE (E) = 0.09.9 32 .10"] FIGURE 27-13.4S = 0.

1 UNACCEPTABLE GROOVE WELD PROFILES – PLATE FIGURE 27-13.10. ACCEPTABLE GROOVE WELD PROFILE – PLATE FIGURE 27-13.2 33 .10.

11.GROOVE TEST PLATE – UNLIMITED THICKNESS FIGURE 27-13.1 34 .

11.2 PIPE TEST 2G POSITION FIGURE 27-13.3 35 .11. GROOVE TEST PLATE – LIMITED THICKNESS (FOR GMAW AND GTAW ONLY) Note: When radiography is used for testing. FIGURE 27-13. no tack welds shall be in the test area.

11.5 36 .11.4 PIPE TEST – 6GR POSITION Specimens for side bends shall be taken as indicated and machined to be standard specimens with parallel sides. PIPE TEST – 5G AND 6G POSITIONS FIGURE 27-13. FIGURE 27-13.

FIGURE 27-13.11. no tack welds shall be in the test area.6 37 . WELDING OPERATOR TEST PLATE UNLIMITED THICKNESS Note: When radiography is used for testing.

FIGURE 27-13.8 38 .11. These edges may be oxygen-cut and may or may not be machined. in such cases. If a recessed backing is used. shall be removed flush with the surface of the specimen. this surface may be machined to a depth not exceeding the depth of the recess to remove the backing.11. the thickness of the finished specimen shall be that specified above. if any. Cut surfaces shall be smooth and parallel. SIDE-BEND FIGURE 27-13. The weld reinforcement and backing. 2.7 FACE AND ROOT-BEND Notes: 1.

000 & under FIGURE 27-13.12. GUIDED BEND TEST JIG SPECIFICATIONS Thickness of Specimens A B C D Material 3/8 inch 1-1/2 inch 3/4 inch 2-3/8 inch 1-3/16 inch All Steels with minimum specified yield strength of 50.1 39 .

12. FIGURE 27-13.2 40 .FILLET BREAK SPECIMEN The fillet weld break specimen shall be cut from the test coupon as shown.

RADIOGRAPHIC WELD QUALITY REQUIREMENTS FOR DISCONTINUITIES Note: Adjacent discontinuities. FIGURE 27-13.13.1 41 . spaced less than the minimum spacing required by Figure 27-13-32 shall be measured as one length equal to the sum of the total length of the discontinuities plus the length of the space between them and evaluated as a single discontinuity.

27-13 are available from the WABO Bookstore 360-586-6725 42 .Copies of the WABO Standard No.

................ 46 27-13-I Limitation of Certifications ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 50 27-13-N Designations for Welding and Allied Processes (Alphabetically by Process) ............................................................................... and Y.......................... 49 27-13-M Nominal Dimensions of Standard Reinforcing Bars ................................... 45 27-13-E Specifications for Field and Shop Certification T-...................................................... K-...................... 45 27-13-F Specifications for Field Certification Sheet Steel Fillet Weld ................ 51 27-13-O Designations for Welding and Allied Processes (Alphabetically by Designation) .............................................................................................. 53 27-13-Q Terms and Definitions..... 57 43 ............................................................................... 47 27-13-J Matching Filler Metal Requirements ............. LIST OF TABLES Table Page 27-13-A Specifications for Field Certification Structural Welder – Plate ............................................................................................................................................... 49 27-13-L Filler Metal Numbers – SMAW Process ................................................................................ 44 27-13-C Specifications for Field Certification Structural Welder – Pipe ............ 44 27-13-D Specifications for Shop Certification Structural Welder – Pipe .............. 48 27-13-K Sheet Steel ................................................. 44 27-13-B Specifications for Shop Certification Structural Welder – Plate .....................................................................................................Connections – Pipe or Tubing ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 52 27-13-P Standard Welding Symbols ....................................... 46 27-13-H Specifications for Reinforcing Steel Weld .................................................. 46 27-13-G Specifications for Shop Certification Sheet Steel Fillet Weld ...................................

1 1 3/8” 1/8” . 1 -.PIPE USE QUANTITY OF PIPE OR ELECTRODE TEST PLATES MATERIAL PLATE WITH AWS TO WELD IN TEST PIPE SIZE THICKNESS POSITION DESIGNATION POSITIONS PIPE SIZE QUALIFIED QUALIFIED QUALIFIED 2G 5G 6G SMAW E7018*.3/4” F. H OR 1 F. 1” 1/8” & OVER F. E7016* (1 & 1) or 1 8” SCHEDULE 80 4” OR LARGER 1/8” & OVER ALL GMAW E70S-X (1 & 1) or 1 OR 4” OR LARGER 1/8” & OVER ALL FCAW E71T-X (1 & 1) or 1 6” SCHEDULE 120 4” OR LARGER 1/8” & OVER ALL GTAW ER70S-X (1 & 1) or 1 4” OR LARGER 1/8” & OVER ALL * ROOT PASS MAY BE E6010. H. TABLE 27-13-A SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIELD CERTIFICATION STRUCTURAL WELDER . 1 -. H.PLATE USE QUANTITY OF ELECTRODE TEST PLATES THICKNESS THICKNESS WITH AWS TO WELD IN OF EACH RANGE POSITION DESIGNATION POSITIONS TEST PLATE QUALIFIED QUALIFIED 1G 2G 3G SMAW E7018. 3/8” 1/8” . H OR 1 F. H OR 1 F.3/4” ALL SAW F7X . 1” 1/8” & OVER F. V SAW F7X .3/4” ALL FCAW E71T-X -. 1 1 1” 1/8” & OVER ALL GTAW ER70S-X -.EXXX 1 -. H OR 1 F. 1 1 1” 1/8” & OVER ALL GMAW E70S-X -. E7016 -. 1 -. V GTAW ER70S-X -. 3/8” 1/8” . 1 1 3/8” 1/8” . V FCAW E71T-X -.EXXX 1 -. OR GTAW 44 . E7016 -. -. V GMAW E70S-X -.PLATE USE QUANTITY OF ELECTRODE TEST PLATES THICKNESS THICKNESS WITH AWS TO WELD IN OF EACH RANGE POSITION DESIGNATION POSITIONS TEST PLATE QUALIFIED QUALIFIED 1G 3G 4G SMAW E7018. E6011. H. 1 -. H. 1” 1/8” & OVER F TABLE 27-13-C SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIELD CERTIFICATION STRUCTURAL WELDER .3/4” F. -. 1” 1/8” & OVER FLAT TABLE 27-13-B SPECIFICATIONS FOR SHOP CERTIFICATION STRUCTURAL WELDER .

K-. Y. OR GTAW TABLE 27-13-E SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIELD & SHOP CERTIFICATION T-. 8” SCHEDULE 80 4” OR LARGER 1/8” & OVER F. AND Y-CONNECTIONS . TABLE 27-13-D SPECIFICATIONS FOR SHOP CERTIFICATION STRUCTURAL WELDER . 4” OR LARGER 1/8” & OVER F. OR GTAW 45 . AND K 3/16” & OVER ALL CONNECTIONS GMAW E70S-X 1 1/2” T. H OR 1 ALL FCAW E71T-X 1 -. Y. AND K 3/16” & OVER ALL CONNECTIONS FCAW E71T-X 1 THICK T. E7016* 1 AT LEAST T.PIPE OR TUBING USE QUANTITY OF PIPE OR ELECTRODE TEST PLATES MATERIAL PLATE WITH AWS TO WELD IN TEST PIPE SIZE THICKNESS POSITION DESIGNATION POSITIONS PIPE SIZE QUALIFIED QUALIFIED QUALIFIED 6G SMAW E7018*. H OR 1 ALL * ROOT PASS MAY BE E6010. E6011. 6” SCHEDULE 120 4” OR LARGER 1/8” & OVER F. AND K 3/16” & OVER ALL CONNECTIONS * ROOT PASS MAY BE E6010. E6011. H OR 1 ALL GTAW ER70S-X 1 -. Y. Y. OR 4” OR LARGER 1/8” & OVER F. H OR 1 ALL GMAW E70S-X 1 -.PIPE USE QUANTITY OF PIPE OR ELECTRODE TEST PLATES MATERIAL PLATE WITH AWS TO WELD IN TEST PIPE SIZE THICKNESS POSITION DESIGNATION POSITIONS PIPE SIZE QUALIFIED QUALIFIED QUALIFIED 2G 5G SMAW E7018*. E7016* 1 -. AND K 3/16” & OVER ALL CONNECTIONS GTAW ER70S-X 1 T.

1/8” F. E7016 -. 4 & ABOVE ALL FCAW E71T-X -.1/8” ALL 16 GA.1/8” ALL FCAW E71T-1. TABLE 27-13-F SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIELD CERTIFICATION SHEET STEEL FILLET WELD USE QUANTITY OF ELECTRODE TEST PLATES THICKNESS THICKNESS WITH AWS TO WELD IN OF EACH RANGE POSITION DESIGNATION POSITIONS TEST PLATE QUALIFIED QUALIFIED 3F 4F SMAW E6011 1 1 GALVANIZED 1/16” . 4 & ABOVE ALL 46 . V FCAW E71T-1.1/2” 1/16” . E71T-2 1 1/4” . 2 2 NO. 4 NO.1/8” ALL UNCOATED PLATE GTAW ER70S-X 1 1 1/16” . E71T-2 1 1 1/4” .1/2” 1/16” . H. H. V 16 GA.1/8” F. 4 NO.1/8” ALL TABLE 27-13-G SPECIFICATIONS FOR SHOP CERTIFICATION SHEET STEEL FILLET WELD USE QUANTITY OF ELECTRODE TEST PLATES THICKNESS THICKNESS WITH AWS TO WELD IN OF EACH RANGE POSITION DESIGNATION POSITIONS TEST PLATE QUALIFIED QUALIFIED 3F SMAW E6011 1 GALVANIZED 1/16” .1/8” F. V UNCOATED PLATE GTAW ER70S-6 1 1/16” . H. 2 2 NO. 4 NO.1/8” F. 2 2 NO. H. TEE GMAW E70S-6 1 TO 1/16” . 4 & ABOVE ALL GMAW E70S-X -. V TABLE 27-13-H SPECIFICATIONS FOR REINFORCING STEEL WELD USE QUANTITY OF ELECTRODE TEST PLATES WITH AWS TO WELD IN BAR SIZE BAR SIZE POSITION DESIGNATION POSITIONS TESTED QUALIFIED QUALIFIED 1G 3G 4G SMAW E7018. TEE GMAW E70S-6 1 1 TO 1/16” .

ANY SEPARATE TESTS REQUIRED TO QUALIFY A WELDER FOR CONDITIONS NOT COVERED ARE TO BE APPROVED BY WABO AND ADMINISTERED BY A WABO-CERTIFIED TESTING AGENCY. Direct butt and bar to bar joints are not covered by this Standard. X X X X X 4. Grooves and fillets. 65. The welding process and method used in qualification tests only (SMAW. X 9. X X X X X 6. X 17. Welding with or without backing material in complete joint penetration welds welded from one side. X X X 15. X X X 7. X 11. TABLE 27-13-I LIMITATION OF CERTIFICATIONS CATEGORY OF WELDER CERTIFICATE AND TEST REQUIRED Reinforcing Structural Sheet Steel Welding The Welder/Welding Operator is Steel Welder Welder Welder Operator qualified for the following: Indirect Groove Pipe Butt Fillet Groove Butt Plate & T-K-Y-Connection Weld Plate Joint Test Test Test Test X X X 1. Certification welding steels with yield strengths over 60 ksi requires a separate qualification test on that material (e. and other carbon steels of similar chemistry with yield strengths of 80 ksi or less. X X 16. GMAW. X X X 5. X 12. Indirect butt joints. Equal to or less than 1/8 inch. requires a separate qualification test. if the qualification test is done without backing. X 3. Grooves and fillets. GMAW thickness between and including 1/8 inch and 3/4 inch. X 14. Welding with backing material in complete joint penetration welds welded from one side.) X 10. and lap-joints in sheet to sheet and sheet to supporting members. and other carbon steels of similar chemistry. 70). X X 8. X 13. welding and tacking. All filler metals designated F4 and lower (SMAW process). A514 or A572. All sheet thicknesses between and including 1/16 inch and 1/8 inch. 47 . All those steels listed in this standard.. including short circuiting (“Short Arc”) GMAW. FCAW. welding and tacking of plate and pipe or tubing over 24 inches in diameter. All reinforcing steel no. Gr. Welding of sheet to sheet and sheet to supporting members.g. butt-. or A572. 4 and above. See Table 27-13-L. lap joints and for fillet welds bar to plate. All filler metals of the same designation and lower strength than that used in the test. Fillet welding and tacking T-. GTAW thickness between and including 1/8 inch and 3/4 inch. Gr. X 2. SAW) Certification for all others. 1/16 inch – 1/8 inch. (Observe thickness and material limitation. All steels listed in Table 27-13-J with yield strengths of 60 ksi or less.

III 50 65 min ASTM A633 Grades A. 51 71-90 AWS A5. CS. 45. -10. E ASTM A139 Grade B 35 60 min ASTM A381 Grade Y35 35 60 min ASTM A500 Grade A 33/39 45 min SAW Grade B 41/46 58 min ASTM A501 36 58 min AWS A5. TABLE 27-13-J MATCHING FILLER METAL REQUIREMENTS STEEL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FILLER METAL REQUIREMENTS G Minimum Tensile Minimum Tensile R O Yield Strength Yield Strength U Steel Specification Point Range Electrode Specification Point Range P ksi ksi ksi ksi ASTM A36 36 58-809 SMAW ASTM A53 Grade B 35 60 min ASTM A106 Grade B 35 60 min AWS A5. -10.5 DH36. -3.23 Grade 50 50 65 min F7X-EXXX 60 70-90 min ASTM A588 (4: and under) 50 70 min ASTM A595 Grade A 55 65 min Grades B and C 60 70 min ASTM A606 45 65 min GMAW ASTM A607 Grade 45 45 60 min II Grade 50 50 65 min AWS A5.5 68-85 SMAW DH32.20 ABS Grades A. 45.18 Grade 40 40 55 min ER70S-X 60 72 min Grade 45 45 60 min Grade 50 50 65 min ASTM A573 Grade 65 35 65-77 ASTM A709 Grade 36 36 58-80 FCAW API 5L Grade B 35 60 API 5LX Grade X42 42 60 AWS A5. -GS) Grade E 58-71 ASTM A131 Grades AH32.20 ASTM A710 Grade A.5 71-90 CH32. B.1 or A5. D. E7XT-X 60 72 min CS. -GS) ASTM A808 (2-1/2” and under) 42 60 min API 2H 42 62-80 API 5LX Grade X52 52 66-72 ABS Grades AH32. E7018 60 72 min ASTM A242 42-50 63-70 min ASTM A441 42-50 63-70 min ASTM A516 Grade 65 35 65-77 Grade 70 38 70-85 SAW ASTM A537 Class I 50 70-90 ASTM A572 Grade 42 42 60 min AWS A5. EH36 48 . EH36 E7016. E7018 60 72 min D.17 or A5. EH32 Grades AH36. DS 58-71 (except -2.5 ASTM A131 Grades A.18 Grade 55 55 70 min ER70S-X 60 72 min ASTM A618 Grades I b. B 42 63-83 Grades C. 34 58-71 E7016. II.23 ASTM A516 Grade 55 30 55-65 F7X-EXXX 60 70-90 Grade 60 32 60-72 ASTM A524 Grade I 35 60-85 I Grade II 30 55-60 ASTM A529 42 60-85 GMAW ASTM A570 Grade 30 30 49 min Grade 36 36 53 min AWS A5. -3. DS.17 or A5. Class 2 55 65 min E7XT-X 60 72 min (2” and over) (Except -2. 51 71-90 DH36. EH32 Grades AH36. B.1 or A5. D 50 70-90 (2-1/2” and under) FCAW ASTM A709 Grade 50 50 65 min Grade 50W 50 70 min AWS A5.

SMAW PROCESS Group Designation AWS Electrode Classification* F4 EXX15. EXX27. 90.5 Gr B 37 52 E 6011 Gr C 40 55 A570 Gr A 25 45 Gr B 30 49 Gr C 33 52 Gr D 40 55 GMAW AWS A5. 70. EXX16. EXX13. 100 and 120) for deposited weld metal. 80. EXX18 F3 EXX10.1 or A5.20 Gr 50 50 65 E 71T-1 A611 Gr A 25 42 E 71T-2 Gr B 30 45 Gr C 33 48 Gr D 40 52 TABLE 27-13-L FILLER METAL NUMBERS . EXX14 F1 EXX20.18 Gr E 42 58 E 70S-6 A 606 45 65 A 607 Gr 45 45 60 FCAW AWS A5. EXX28 * The letters “XX” used in the classification-designation in this table stand for the various strength levels (60. 49 . EXX24. EXX11 F2 EXX12. TABLE 27-13-K SHEET STEEL Minimum Minimum Steel Yield Point Tensile Strength Specification ksi ksi Filler Metal Requirements A446 Gr A 33 45 SMAW AWS A5.

7 9 29 3.56 0.7 18 57 13.33 4. TABLE 27-13-M NOMINAL DIMENSIONS OF STANDARD REINFORCING BARS Bar Size 1. 50 .1 8 25 2.668 1.670 3.65 1.0 4 13 0. The nominal dimensions of a deformed bar are equivalent to those of a plain round bar having the same weight per foot as the deformed bar.79 509. mm lb/ft kg/m in.22 0.000 25.257 57.70 0.25 1451.9 7 22 2.40 1. The bar size number is based on the number of eighths of an inch in the nominal diameter of the bar.2 mm2 3 10 0.00 645.65 11.00 2580.41 1.375 9.8 Notes: 1.00 0.303 6.043 1.400 5.98 1.64 0.750 19.0 6 19 1.92 1.2 10 32 4. mm in.81 1.31 200.20 129.88 0.875 22.40 0.5 14 43 7.05 0.693 43.128 28.26 1.270 32.56 1006.313 7.502 2.2 Unit Weight Diameter Cross-Sectional Area in.07 1.500 12.625 15.55 0.26 0.11 71.60 387.376 0.044 3.410 35.27 819.26 2.0 5 16 1.00 2. 2.52 0.4 11 36 5.60 20.44 283.

TABLE 27-13-N DESIGNATION OF WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES (Alphabetically by Process) Welding and Letter Welding and Letter allied processes designation allied processes designation adhesive bonding ABD resistance welding RW arc welding AW flash welding FW atomic hydrogen welding AHW high frequency resistance welding HFRW bare metal arc welding BMAW percussion welding PEW carbon arc welding CAW projection welding RPW electrogas welding* EGW resistance seam welding RSEW flux cored arc welding FCAW resistance spot welding RSW gas metal arc welding GMAW upset welding UW gas tungsten arc welding GTAW soldering S plasma arc welding PAW dip soldering DS shielded metal arc welding SMAW furnace soldering FS stud arc welding SW induction soldering IS submerged arc welding SAW infrared soldering IRS arc welding process variations iron soldering INS gas carbon arc welding CAW-G resistance soldering RS gas metal arc welding . diffusion welding DFW pulsed arc GTAW-P explosion welding EXW series submerged arc welding SAW-S forge welding FOW shielded carbon arc welding CAN-S friction welding FRW twin carbon arc welding CAW-T hot pressure welding HPW brazing B roll welding ROW arc brazing AB ultrasonic welding USW block brazing BB thermal cutting TC diffusion brazing DFB arc cutting AC dip brazing DB air carbon arc cutting AAC flow brazing FLB carbon arc cutting CAC furnace brazing FB gas metal arc cutting GMAC induction brazing IB gas tungsten arc cutting GTAC infrared brazing IRB metal arc cutting MAC resistance brazing RB plasma arc cutting PAC torch brazing TB shielded metal arc cutting SMAC twin carbon arc brazing TCAB electron beam cutting EBC other welding processes laser beam cutting LBC electron beam welding EBW oxygen cutting OC electroslag welding ESW chemical flux cutting FOC flow welding FLOW metal powder cutting POC induction welding 1W oxyfuel gas cutting OFC laser beam welding LBW oxyacetylene cutting OFC-A thermit welding TW oxyhydrogen cutting OFC-H oxyfuel gas welding OFW oxynatural gas cutting OFC-N air acetylene welding AAW oxypropane cutting AOC oxyacetylene welding OAW oxygen arc cutting AOC oxyhydrogen welding OHW oxygen lance cutting LOC pressure gas welding PGW thermal spraying THSP electric arc spraying EASP *In the 1976 edition of AWS A24. electro gas welding was designated flame spraying FLSP FCAW-EG and GMAW-EG. plasma spraying PSP 51 . torch soldering TS pulsed arc GMAW-P wave soldering WS gas metal arc welding . solid state welding SSW short circuiting arc GMAW-S cold welding CW gas tungsten arc welding . depending on the manner of application.

SSW solid state welding pulsed arc SW stud arc welding GMAW-S gas metal arc welding . TB torch brazing short circuiting arc TC thermal cutting GTAC gas tungsten arc cutting TCAB twin carbon arc brazing GTAW gas tungsten arc welding THSP thermal spraying GTAW-P gas tungsten arc welding is torch soldering pulsed arc TW thermit welding HFRW high frequency resistance welding UsW ultrasonic welding HPW hot pressure welding UW upset welding 52 . TABLE 27-13-O DESIGNATION OF WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES (Alphabetically by Designation) Letter Welding and Letter Welding and designation allied processes designation allied processes AAC air carbon cutting IB induction brazing AAW air acetylene welding INS iron soldering ABD adhesive bonding IRB infrared brazing AB arc brazing IRS infrared soldering AC arc cutting IS induction soldering AHW atomic hydrogen welding IW induction welding AOC oxygen arc cutting LBC laser beam cutting AU automatic LBW laser beam welding AN arc welding LOC oxygen lance cutting B brazing MA manual BB block brazing MAC metal arc cutting BMAW bare metal arc welding ME machine CAC carbon arc cutting OAW oxyacetylene welding CAW carbon arc welding OC oxygen cutting CAW-G gas carbon arc welding OFC oxyfuel gas cutting CAW-S shielded carbon arc welding OFC-A oxyacetylene cutting CAW-T twin carbon arc welding OFC-H oxyhydrogen cutting CW cold welding OFC-N oxynatural gas cutting DB dip brazing OFC-P oxypropane. cutting DFB diffusion brazing OFW oxyfuel gas welding DFW diffusion welding OHW oxyhydrogen welding DS dip soldering PAC plasma arc cutting EASP electric arc spraying PAW plasma arc welding EBC electron beam cutting PEW percussion welding EBW electron beam welding PGW pressure gas welding EGW electrogas welding POC metal powder cutting ESW electroslag welding PSP plasma spraying EXW explosion welding RB resistance brazing FB furnace brazing RPW projection welding FCAW flux cored arc welding RS resistance soldering FLB flow brazing RSEW resistance seam welding FLOW flow welding RSW resistance spot welding FLSP flame spraying ROW roll welding FOC chemical flux cutting RW resistance welding FOW forge welding S soldering FRW friction welding SA semiautomatic FS furnace soldering SAW submerged arc welding FW flash welding SAW-S series submerged arc cutting GMAC gas metal arc cutting SMAC shielded metal arc cutting GMAW gas metal arc welding SMAK shielded metal arc -welding GMAW-P gas metal arc welding .

information Field Weld symbol Complete Penetration Location of Elements of a Welding Symbol Field Weld symbol Indicates complete penetration Finish symbol Groove angle. indicates weld specified contour but supplementary data G not degree of finish 3rd without subsequent Third operation. When standard) indicates method of obtaining Second operation. or other reference R Arrow connecting reference line to arrow Contour S (E) L-P side member of joint Weld-All- Around Field Weld Melt- Thru Backing. Table 27-13-P STANDARD WELDING SYMBOLS Basic Welding Symbols and Their Location Significance Location Plug Spot Back or Scarf for Flange Fillet or Slot or Projection Seam Backing Surfacing Brazed Joint Significance Edge Groove weld symbol Arrow Side Not Other Side used Groove weld symbol Not Not Not Not Not Not Both Side used used used used used used No Arrow Side or Other Side Not Not Not Not Not Not Significance used used used used used used Supplementary Symbols Used with Welding Symbols Convex Contour Symbol Weld-All-Around Symbol Finish symbol (user's Convex contour symbol standard) indicates Weld-all-around symbol indicates face of weld to method of obtaining indicates that weld be finished to specific contour but extends completely convex contour not degree of finish. or test finishing. Spacer Flush Convex Concave T (ARROW Tail (Tail omitted Weld-all-around symbol when reference Reference line is not used) (N) Elements in this area remain as shown when Basic weld symbol or Number of spot or tail and arrow are detail reference projection welds. or 2nd used without a finish symbol. around the joint. included indicates that weld is to regardless of type of weld or joint angle of countersink for be made at a place other preparation Contour symbol plug welds than that of initial Root opening: depth of filling construction Length of weld for plug and slot welds Pitch (center-to-center CP Effective throat F spacing) of welds Depth of preparation. Joint with Backing Joint with Spacer Melt-Thru Symbol With groove weld symbol With Modified groove weld symbol Any applicable weld symbol M See 1 mm See M note note Note Material and dimensions Note Material and dimensions Melt-thru symbol is not of spacer are as specified Double bevel-groove of spacer are as specified dimensioned (except height) Flush Contour Symbol Multiple Reference Lines Flush contour symbol First operation shown on Finish symbol (user's 1st indicates face of weld to reference line nearest arrow be made flush. size SIDE )(SIDE ) A OTHER or strength for certain welds Field weld symbol (BOTH SIDES) Supplementary Symbols specification. process. reversed 53 .

Joint Arrow of Arrow side Arrow side Arrow of Arrow side welding symbol of joint of joint welding symbol of joint Arrow of welding symbol Other side Other side Other side of joint of joint of joint Flange Groove Location Corner Square V Bevel U J Flare-V Flare-Bevel Significance Arrow Side Other Side Not Used Both Sides No Arrow Side Not Not Not Not Not Not Not or Other Side Used Used Used Used Used Used Used Significance Typical Welding Symbols Slot Welding Symbol Square-Groove Welding Symbol Flare-V and Flare-Bevel-Groove Welding Symbol Orientation. Root opening 1/8 1 _ other that depth of indicates complete 1/4 1 _ 32 sion Indicates 3/4 1 _ 16 Size is considered filling are shown joint penetration 4 filling is complete) on the drawing as extending only Root opening to tangent points Root opening Plug Welding Symbol Chain Intermittent Fillet Welding Symbol Edge-and-Corner-Flange Welding Symbol Included angle Pitch (distance 3/32 Radius of countersink between centers) 1/8 • 1:16 2/64 • 1/16 of welds Depth of filling 5/16 2-5 Pitch (distance between Size of weld 5/16 2-5 30 in inches (omis. location second operation Size (height of deposit and all dimensions Note Total effective throat Any applicable single other than size are 1/2 (9/16) not to exceed thickness groove weld symbol Omission indicates no 1/8 specific height desired shown on the drawing of member Flash or Upset Welding Symbol Staggered Intermittent Fillet Welding Symbol Single-V Groove Welding Symbol Indication Root Penetration Pitch (distance between Process 1/2 3-5 centers) of increments 1/2 (1/2) 0 references 1/2 3-5 Size 90° No arrow side fw must be used to Root opening or other side indicate process Depth of preparation significance Size (length of leg) Length of increments Effective throat Groove angle desired Spot Welding Symbol Double-Bevel-Groove Welding Symbol Size (diameter of weld) Number of welds Arrow points toward 45 Root opening Strength (in lb per weld) member to be prepared 1 _ may be used instead Pitch (distance 1 8 Process reference (5) between centers) Omission of size dimension must be used to RSW 0 25 4 of weld indicates a total depth 1 1/4 1 _ indicate process of preparation equal to 8 desired thickness of members 35 Groove angle Seam Welding Symbol Projection Welding Symbol Length of weld or Size (width of weld) Pitch (distance between Projection welding increments Strength (in lb per centers) of increments reference must be used Pitch (distance Size (strength in lb Omission indicates that linear inch) may be 0.30 39 Process reference per weld) between centers) weld extends between used instead RSEW must be used to Diameter of weld may RPW of welds 500 6 abrupt changes in indicate process be used instead for direction or as dimensioned Number of welds desired circular projection welds (7) 54 . location Depth of filling and all dimensions Omission of size in inches (omis. centers) of increments 1:16 Size (diameter 1 3:8 sion indicates height above point of hole as root) filling is complete) Size (length of leg) Length of increments of tangency Background Welding Symbol Back or Backing Welding Symbol Surfacing Welding Symbol Indicating Built-up Surface Second reference line 3/8 (7/16) used for back gouging C Back Gouge 1/8 and welding as a Orientation. Table 27-13-P STANDARD WELDING SYMBOLS (continued) Basic Joints-Identification of Arrow Side and Other Side of Joint Butt Joint Corner Joint T.

INC. 0f AWS 2. reference is made to Table A. Florida 33125 member of joint 55 . process.4-79. Designation of Welding and Allied Processes Arrow of by letters. 5 16 4 changes in direction 8 or other reference or as dimensioned 80° Basic Joints-Identification of Arrow Side and Other Side of Joint Process Abbreviations Lap Joint Edge Joint Other side Arrow side Where process abbreviations are to be included in member of joint of joint the tail of the welding symbol. Arrow side 0-30 2501 N 7th Street. Table 27-13-P STANDARD WELDING SYMBOLS (continued) Welding Symbols for Combined Welds Double-Fillet Welding Symbol Size (length of leg) Length 1/4 1/4 Omission indicates 5/16 14 that weld extends 6 1 1G between abrupt _ Specification.71. welding symbol Joint Arrow of welding symbol AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY. Miami.

56 .

mechanical. soldered. Backing in the form of a ring. BACK WELD. it extends completely around the joint. BUTT WELD. which the weld metal completely fills the groove and is fused to the base metal throughout its total thickness. Fusion that has occurred over the machine welding. or chemical treatments. In arc welding. The initial closing D pass in a complete joint penetration groove weld. Material (metal. weld metal. ANGLE OF BEVEL. of a weld bead or in the molten weld pool. BACKING STRIP. AUTOMATIC WELDING. Joint penetration in section. See COMPLETE FUSION. Where of supporting molten weld metal. See preferred term complete BACK GOUGING. Backing in the form of a weld. The continuation of a fillet weld around a comer ARC GOUGING. See preferred term gas metal arc welding. The removal of weld metal and base joint penetration. ALL-WELD-METAL TEST SPECIMEN. which serves as a backing for subsequent DEFECT. A weld deposited at the back of a single- groove weld. edge of a member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member. meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications. metal from the other side of a partially welded joint to assure complete penetration upon subsequent welding from that CONSUMABLE GUIDE ELECTROSLAG WELDING. BOXING. Welding with equipment which performs the welding operation without adjustment of the C controls by a welding operator. C02 WELDING. side. A joint between two members aligned AS-WELDED. B COMPLETE PENETRATION. A line through the length of a weld perpendicular to and at the geometric center of its cross COMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION. The equipment may or may no perform the loading and unloading of the work. The metal to be welded. bevel or groove. made from one side only. BACKUP WELD (tubular structures). 57 . BACKING. welded joints approximately in the same plane. used in the welding of piping. This term designates rejectability. BACKING PASS. A weld which extends granular) placed at the root of a weld joint for the purpose continuously from one end of a joint to the other. TABLE 27-13-Q TERMS AND DEFINITIONS A BASE METAL. generally approximately at right angles to each other. See butt joint. An erroneous term for a weld in a butt joint. A joint between two members located BACKING RING. See preferred term bevel angle. CORNER JOINT. and weldments after welding prior to any subsequent thermal. A test specimen BEVEL ANGLE. the joint is essentially circular. AXIS OF A WELD. CRATER. a depression at the termination BACKING WELD. An arc cutting procedure used to form a of a member as an extension of the principal weld. A pass made to deposit a backing weld. or cut. entire base material surfaces intended for welding and between all layers and weld beads. Backing in the form of a strip. The condition of weld metal. A discontinuity or discontinuities which by nature welding but is not considered as a part of the theoretical or accumulated effect render a part or product unable to weld. The angle formed between the prepared with the reduced section composed wholly of weld metal. See electroslag welding. carbon or CONTINUOUS WELD. BUTT JOINT.

The material which is expelled or squeezed out of a defect. The metal. which results in electrodes may be either flux cored or solid. Molding shoe(s) are used to confine FUSION. See preferred term flat position. Shielding is obtained welding process variation in which filler metal is supplied entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture. with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work. The mating surface of a member (GMAW-S). a weld joint and which forms around the weld. mechanical or metallurgical or physical characteristics of the material or weldment. A welding process and similar discontinuities associated with fusion. moves along the FULL cross section of the joint as welding progresses. The arc is then extinguished and the conductive slag is maintained in a molten condition by its resistance to GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW). The length of weld FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW). (consumable) electrode and the work. 58 . it shall be measured along the axis them with an arc between a continuous filler metal of the weld. See electrode and welding rod. Sometimes this process is referred to as MIG or C02 welding (nonpreferred terms). TABLE 27-13-Q TERMS AND DEFINITIONS (continued) DEFECTIVE WELD. Some methods of this process are called MIG or C02 welding (nonpreferred terms). by an electrode and its guiding member. An arc welding electric current passing between the electrode and the work. The process is initiated by an arc which heats G the slag. incomplete joint penetration. A discontinuity is not necessarily FLASH. DISCONTINUITY. ELECTROSLAG WELDING (ESW). incomplete fusion. Shielding may coalescence. The molten weld pool is shielded by this slag which determined on the cross section of a weld. producing coalescence of metals with molten slag which melts the filler metal and the surfaces of the work to be FUSION ZONE. See depth of fusion. or the melting of base metal only. FUSION TYPE DISCONTINUITY. Signifies slag inclusion. a planar member. In a curved weld. process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal consumable guide electroslag welding — An electroslag (consumable) electrode and the work. A weld containing one or more FILLER METAL. An interruption of the typical structure FLARE-V-GROOVE WELD. joint. A gas metal arc welding process variation in which is in contact or in close proximity with another which the consumable electrode is deposited during repeated member to which it is to be joined. F GAS METAL ARC WELDING .SHORT CIRCUIT ARC FAYING SURFACE. DOWNHAND. short circuits. The area of base metal melted as welded. The distance that fusion extends into FLARE-BEVEL-GROOVE WELD. The melting together of filler metal and base the molten weld metal for vertical position welding. Additional ELECTROGAS WELDING (EGW). An arc welding shielding may or may not be obtained from an externally process which produces coalescence of metals by heating supplied gas or gas mixture. or may not be obtained from an externally supplied gas or mixture. A weld in a groove formed of a weldment such as a lack of homogeneity in the by two members with curved surfaces. An arc welding throughout which the correctly proportioned cross section process which produces coalescence of metals by heating exists. A weld in a groove the base metal or previous pass from the surface melted formed by a member with a curved surface in contact with during welding. The welding position used to weld from the upper side of the joint and the face of the weld is E approximately horizontal. EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF WELD. DEPTH OF FUSION. Shielding is provided by a flux contained within the electrode. The metal to be added in making a welded defects. FLAT POSITION.

A weld made in the groove between two a particular joint. GROOVE FACE. The minimum depth of a groove GROOVE ANGLE. The junction of members of the edges of members removal. That portion of the base metal which has not been melted. or cutting. but whose mechanical properties LAYER. arc gouging. See automatic welding. A stratum of weld metal or surfacing material. and oxygen that are to be joined or have been joined. approximately horizontal. Welding with equipment which in which welding is performed on the upper side of an performs the welding operation under the constant approximately horizontal surface and against an observation and control of an operator. A weld in which the continuity reaction is facilitated by the use of a chemical flux or metal is broken by recurring unwelded spaces. The layer may consist of one or more welds beads laid side brazing. In the case of oxidation-resistant metals. The position of welding in which the axis of the weld lies in an MANUAL WELDING. A welding operation performed and approximately horizontal plane and the face of the weld controlled completely by hand. HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE. The equipment may approximately vertical surface. HORIZONTAL FIXED POSITION (PIPE WELDING). or root of the weld.FILLET WELD. machine welding. JOINT WELDING PROCEDURE. OXYGEN GOUGING. In a multiple-pass weld. of reinforcement. The materials and detailed methods and practices employed in the welding of GROOVE WELD. I OXYGEN CUTTING (OC). approximately horizontal.GROOVE WELD. lies in an approximately vertical plane. and welding is performed in the flat position by rotating the pipe. soldering. or microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding. 59 . powder. The position in which welding The position of a pipe joint in which the axis of the pipe is is performed from the underside of the joint. See also back gouging. INTERPASS TEMPERATURE. face. the deposited weld before the next pass is started. JOINT PENETRATION. The protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe. L H LAP JOINT. members to be joined. HORIZONTAL ROLLED POSITION (PIPE WELDING). LEG OF A FILLET WELD. and semiautomatic welding. That surface of a member included in the groove. by side. TABLE 27-13-Q TERMS AND DEFINITIONS (continued) GAS POCKET. An application of oxygen cutting the temperature (minimum or maximum as specified) of in which a bevel or groove is formed. The distance from the root of The position of a pipe joint in which the axis of the pipe is the joint to the toe of the fillet weld. reaction of oxygen with the base metal at elevated temperatures. The position MACHINE WELDING. The total included angle of the groove or flange weld extends from its face into a joint exclusive between parts to be joined by a groove weld. A cavity caused by entrapped gas. See automatic welding. OVERHEAD POSITION. J GOUGING. or may not perform the loading and unloading of the work. OVERLAP. See preferred term used to sever or remove metals by means of the chemical gas metal arc welding. The forming of a bevel or groove by material JOIN. M HORIZONTAL POSITION . HORIZONTAL POSITION . the INTERMITTENT WELD. A group of cutting processes INERT GAS METAL ARC WELDING. and the pipe is not rotated during welding. A joint between two overlapping members. gouging. Joint penetration may include root penetration.

SEMIAUTOMATIC ARC WELDING. See submerged arc welding RANDOM SEQUENCE. Tubular-shaped product of circular cross section. heating with an arc between a covered metal electrode and the work. TABLE 27-13. holes” when the porosity extends to the weld surface. See tubular. The POSITIONED WELD. In arc and gas welding. or cutting. PARTIAL JOINT PENETRATION. the leg lengths Q of the largest isosceles right triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. standards. Pressure is not used and filler metal is immediately before welding. 60 . Joint penetration which REINFORCEMENT OF WELD. The walls of the hole may or may not be parallel and the hole may be partially or completely filled with weld metal. For unequal QUALIFICATION. SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW). Protective gas used to prevent the base metal must attain in the welding. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the PREHEATING. PIPING POROSITY (GENERAL). Arc welding with equipment which controls only the filler metal feed. See preferred term weld pass. been so placed as to facilitate making the weld. The separation. REJECTABLE DISCONTINUITY. S POROSITY. PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION. sequence. brazing. that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. Any heat treatment welding process which produces coalescence of metals by subsequent to welding. The application of heat to the base metal electrode covering. That portion of a joint to be welded where whose major dimension lies in a direction approximately the members approach closest to each other. at the root of the joint. A circular weld made through a hole in one at which the back of the weld intersects the base metal member of a lap or T-joint fusing that member to the other. any joint welded from one side only.Q TERMS AND DEFINITIONS (continued) P R PARALLEL ELECTRODE. ROOT FACE. ROOT GAP. or an area. In cross section. or cutting area immediately before these operations are performed. That portion of the groove face adjacent to the root of the joint. Weld metal in excess of is less than complete. A weld made in a joint which has advance of the welding is manually controlled. (A fillet welded hole or a spot weld should not be construed between the members to be joined. PIPE. SINGLE-WELDED JOINT. PREHEAT TEMPERATURE. soldering. the leg lengths of the largest right triangle performance qualification and procedure qualification. as conforming to this definition. surfaces. atmospheric contamination. fillet weld size. For equal leg fillet welds. See preferred terms welder leg fillet welds. brazing. Cavity type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification. as shown in cross section. PLUG WELD. The points. The mechanical working of metals using impact blows. obtained from the electrode. See preferred term root opening. Elongated porosity ROOT OF JOINT. A specified temperature that SHIELDING GAS. soldering. ROOT OPENING. The demonstration that welds made by a specific procedure can meet prescribed SIZE OF WELD. normal to the weld surface. ROOT OF WELD. PASS. a line. the quantity required to fill a joint. PEENING. Frequently referred to as “pin the root of the joint may be either a point. See preferred term wandering (SAW). An arc POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT. See preferred term defect.

TABLE 27-13. when specified. A weld made in an elongated hole in one alignment until the final welds are made. width b nominal minor width. Two electrodes connected of hollow section products of various cross-sectional electrically in parallel and exclusively to the same power configuration. A joint between two members located process which produces coalescence of metals by heating approximately at right angles to each other in the form of a with an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or T. This dimension is based on the which produces coalescence of metals by heating with an assumption that the root opening is equal to zero. the leg length (size) is of less significance than the effective throat. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW). A weld made to hold parts of a weldment in controlling factor for the strength of the weld. or someone under the direction of a fitter. Each of the component in Section 10) Where TS = the group symbol t nominal systems has its own independent power source and its own wall thickness D nominal outside diameter a nominal major electrode feeder. TACKER. fillet welded slot should not be construed as conforming to this definition. Tubular products is a generic term for a family PARALLEL ELECTRODE. Welding current. The junction between the face of a weld and filler metal is obtained from the electrode and and the base metal. root and the face of a fillet weld. joint root perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the cross section STUD ARC WELDING (SW). who tack welds parts of a weldment to hold them in proper SLOT WELD. they are brought together under pressure. The combination of two or rectangular tubes (referred to collectively as box sections more parallel electrode systems. TUBULAR. electrodes and the work. A nonstandard term for groove the stud.) TEMPORARY WELD. proper alignment until the final welds are made. is the products. which is the TACK WELD. Both electrodes are usually fed by means of a single to differentiate from square and rectangular hollow section electrode feeder. An arc welding process of a fillet weld. (A direction of welding.Q TERMS AND DEFINITIONS (continued) Note: When one member makes an angle with the other T member greater than 105%. An arc welding T-JOINT. weld size. The term “pipe” denotes cylindrical products source. sometimes from a supplementary welding rod. 61 . When the surfaces to be joined are properly heated. Pressure is not used TOE OF WELD. groove weld size. User should note the AISC designation of tubular sections: TSC x t for circular tubes (pipe) TSa x b x t for square and MULTIPLE ELECTRODES. The shortest distance between the weld part. The distance from the beginning of appreciable weaving motion. Refers to a geometrical arrangement of through the hole. total for the two electrodes. shipping. arc between a metal stud or similar part and the other work actual throat. or working on the weldment. Shielding gas or flux may or may not be used. Partial shielding may be obtained by the use of a ceramic ferrule surrounding throat of a groove weld. member of a lap or T-joint joining that member to that portion of the surface of the other member which is exposed TANDEM. A type of weld bead made without theoretical throat. The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular. TRANSVERSE DISCONTINUITY. The metal particles expelled during welding. a tube or tubing can also be cylindrical. SPATTER. The joint penetration of a groove weld. The hole may be open at one end and electrodes in which a line through the arcs is parallel to the may be partially or completely filled with weld metal. However. One electrode connected whose major dimension is in a direction perpendicular to exclusively to one power source which may consist of one the weld axis “X. throat of a fillet weld. A weld discontinuity SINGLE ELECTRODE. A fitter. STRINGER BEAD. A weld made to attach a piece or pieces to a weldment for temporary use in handling. fusible material on the work.” or more power units. they do not form a part of the weld.

WELDMENT. Equipment used to perform the welding operation. with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone. 62 . WELDING OPERATOR. WELDING. spot welding machine. tubular member intersecting another. etc. A type of weld bead made with transverse oscillation. WELD BEAD. One who operates machine or VERTICAL POSITION PIPE WELDING. See joint welding procedure. The capacity of a metal to be welded under the fabrication conditions imposed into a specific suitably designed structure and to perform satisfactorily in the intended service.Q TERMS AND DEFINITIONS (continued) TUBULAR CONNECTION. The position of automatic welding equipment. WELDER CERTIFICATION. A weld deposit resulting from a pass. and with or without the use of filler metal. WELD. WELDABILITY. A longitudinal sequence in which the weld bead increments are deposited at random. The U demonstration of a welder’s ability to produce welds meeting prescribed standards. A connection in the portion WELDER. For example. V WELDING MACHINE. Certification in writing that TUBULAR JOINT. An assembly whose component parts are joined by welding. the axis of the weld is approximately vertical. A joint in the interface created by one a welder has produced welds meeting prescribed standards. seam welding machine. The detailed methods and practices including all joint welding procedures involved W in the production of a weldment. TABLE 27-13. A localized coalescence of metals produced either by heating to suitable temperatures. WELDER PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION. intersecting tubular members. a pipe joint wherein welding is performed in the horizontal position and the pipe shall not be rotated during welding. A metal joining process used in making welds. WELDING SEQUENCE. arc VERTICAL POSITION. WEAVE BEAD. WELDING PROCEDURE. One who performs a manual or semiautomatic of a tubular structure which contains two or more welding operation. WANDERING SEQUENCE. The position of welding in which welding machine. See stringer bead and weave bead. UNDERCUT. A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the toe or root of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal. The order of making the welds in a weldment.