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Introduction to cellular


not just voice.• A wireless mobile communication network enables users equipped with mobile terminals to initiate and receive phone calls. . • Cellular telephony has evolved to include many services that are based on the transmission of data and multimedia. This capability is referred to as cellular telephony.

• Radio frequencies are allocated to different cellular radio technologies as shown in the map of Figure • Radio frequencies allocation. .

– The first commercial cellular network was the Nordic mobile telephone (NMT) network deployed in the Scandinavian countries in 1981 – The advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) cellular system was deployed in the United States in 1983 and was followed by other analog deployments across the world.Cellular Telephony Evolution: from 1G to 3G • 1G Cellular Systems – The concept of cellular telephony was invented in AT&T’s Bell Labs in the early 1970’s. .

These first analog-technology mobile systems are referred to as first generation or 1G.– The total access communications system (TACS) is another analog system developed by Motorola in the early 1980s. . – For example. – The analog systems use a frequency division multiple access (FDMA) radio system where each user channel has a dedicated carrier band. the AMPS system uses a 30 KHz wide carrier band for each mobile user channel.

– Data speeds reached up to 19.– An improvement upon the AMPS system is Narrow AMPS (NAMPS) where each carrier band is only 10 KHz wide so that three times as many mobile subscribers can be supported. – An add-on to the AMPS system is cellular digital packet data (CDPD) developed in the early 1990s and first deployed in 1994.2 .

These digital systems form the second generation or 2G. digital systems were invented. the European initiated global system for mobile communication (GSM) and the United States initiated code division multiple access (CDMA). . among others. – The 2G version of CDMA is referred to as cdmaOne.• 2G Cellular Systems – As the number of cellular subscribers grew and there was a need for increased network capacity. – These included.

– GSM was developed by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) in the late 1980’s. of smaller scale. known as cdmaOne. and the IS-95 CDMA standard. included the Japanese personal digital cellular (PDC) and the time division multiple access (TDMA) IS-136 used mainly in the Americas. was introduced by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) in 1993. – Other 2G systems. .

• The GSM system is a TDMA radio system with carrier bands that are 200 KHz wide. • This is a circuit switched system where a dedicated bearer slot (a circuit) is allocated to each voice communication so that up to eight mobile subscribers can be supported on one carrier band. . • Each band is comprised of eight bearer slots.

– iDEN provided a unique capability as its cell phones include an integrated push-to-talk (PTT) capability. a digital wireless standard designed to work in special frequencies originally designated for analog Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) networks used for dispatch operations.– Another TDMA system. similar to walkie-talkie . introduced by Motorola in 1994. is the integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN).

• In cdmaOne. .23 MHz wide. each voice channel is assigned a unique code within the carrier and the voice signal is spread to a transmitted rate of about 1.23 Megabits per second.• cdmaOne uses a different radio technology referred to as “spread spectrum” where the radio spectrum is divided into carriers which are approximately 1.

ETSI developed the general packet radio service (GPRS).5G. a packet transmission system that overlays GSM and inter-works with external packet data networks such as the Internet. wireless communication system.5G Cellular Systems – To provide better support for data services.5 generation. or 2. GPRS is a 2.• 2. .

. The mobile subscriber is charged for the amount of data transferred. as determined by the cellular operator. on a per connection basis. not on a time basis as done for voice calls. – Data rate of up to 115 kbps is achieved. it is always connected to GPRS. – When the mobile terminal is on.– In a GPRS system. each mobile terminal is assigned an IP address. or else dynamic. The assignment can be static.

mainly GSM and cdmaOne. . – Also prominent was the desire to define a new system that resolved many incompatibilities between the different standards.• 3G Cellular systems – The evolution towards third generation cellular systems (3G) was driven by the need of higher capacity. and better quality-of- service (QoS). mobile roaming between the different systems. so as to facilitate. for example. faster data rates.

. these are worked on by the original GSM proponents and handled by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) established in 1998. – The IMT-2000 effort could not reach agreement on one common standard and now consists of a family of standards to handle the evolution of GSM and cdmaOne.– This work was spearheaded by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and referred to as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT- 2000). – Some of the standards are based on wideband CDMA (W-CDMA). also referred to as universal mobile telecommunications systems (UMTS).

– The evolution of the cdmaOne standard.– The stated objectives of 3GPP are to develop a 3G mobile system based on evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies that they support. established in 1999. 3GPP2. is managed by another standards body. 3GPP handles the development of GSM and enhanced data rates for GSM evolution (EDGE) standards. – 3GPP2 is a collaborative 3G telecommunications specifications project that comprises North American and Asian interests for cellular networks. . – In addition. referred to as cdma2000.

– UMTS employs a 5 MHz channel carrier width to deliver these higher data rates and increased capacity. and up to 2 Mbps in stationary/nomadic user environments.– The data rates for transferring data between the mobile terminals and the network increase with each new cellular generation. a much wider carrier compared to the 1.23 MHz wide carrier of 2G networks. . – The 3G systems are expected to deliver bit rates in the hundreds of kbps.


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