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Structural analysis of pore size distribution of nonwovens
Amit Rawala
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Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India

First published on: 11 February 2010

To cite this Article Rawal, Amit(2010) 'Structural analysis of pore size distribution of nonwovens', Journal of the Textile
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The pores inside the nonwovens method. 2000). namely. Savel’eva.com † This paper. point method was formulated. In the past. Dedov. was first published in the proceedings of EDANA’s 2008 Nonwovens Research Academy (NRA) and publicly presented on the occasion of this event in Chemnitz. fibre properties. capillary. No. It is well known that the flow in the medium pressure of the largest pore of the connecting smaller pores. the model for predicting the pore size distribution of nonwoven structures has been developed by combining the stochastic and stereological or geometrical probability approaches. final version received 20 March 2008) Pore size distribution is a prerequisite to investigate any transport phenomena. Numerous as nonwovens (Pan & Zhong. the fabrics for predicting the pore size distribution (Steele. The analytical model formulated Downloaded By: [Indian Institute of Technology] At: 20:12 19 September 2010 is compared with the existing theories to predict the pore size distribution of nonwoven structures. The capillary pressure curves were deter- Bokova. processing conditions and of square elemental units in addition to the overlapping fabric characteristics (Lifshutz. Indian Institute of Technology. Bomberger. the concept of hydraulic radius model. by fibres. April 2010. geometrical probability Introduction further complex if the material has a hierarchical structure Pore size distribution is a prerequisite to investigate any consisting of pores of different length scales. and the polygon area distribution arrange these strings of beads in a box (Dullien. Germany.informaworld. Capillary pressure and stochastic are the most pop- has been applied to reduce the irregular shapes of the pores ular models for determining the pore size distribution of to circular shapes by matching the same volume flow as an nonwoven fabrics. especially in a porous structure such as nonwovens. hexagonal units. The Journal of The Textile Institute Vol. A comparison is also made between the experimental and theoretical pore size distributions of spun-bonded and needle-punched nonwovens.. 2005. tubes by two-dimensional polygonal networks consisting eters. 1995). shapes and the capillary geometries. The effect of various fibre and fabric parameters including fibre volume fraction. i. 1975. amitrawal77@yahoo. sphere are highly complex in terms of the sizes. especially in a porous structure such and micro-porosity (Vocka & Dubois. the pore geometry depends on numerous param. 1986). and the problem is how to random line network. The theory was valid mainly for granular structures.e. the ratio of path length of the flow to the thickness of 1958). in a slightly different version. pore size distribution. resin impregna. shapes and the cap. India (Received 10 January 2008. transport phenomenon. Fatt (1956) simplified the 3D network of cylindrical In general. 2007). the theory of capillary pressure was employed to more interconnected and should have a lower tortuosity. stochastic model. the fibrous filters were simulated using as fibre and pore. These techniques have incorporated the effects of fibre orientation characteristics in nonwoven structures. The pores inside the nonwovens are highly complex in terms of the sizes. array of irregular-shaped pores (Lawrence & Shen. The list of transport models have been employed to predict the pore size of vari- processes includes filtration. A simple analogy is to represent string and bead On the other hand. occurs if and only if the pores are interconnected (Fatt. wetting and wicking. 2000). Dullien. was approximated by log-normal distribution (Piekaar Yanuka.e. and it has been successfully Pore geometry in nonwovens can be represented as a applied to determine the pore size distribution of various three-dimensional (3D) network of pore bodies connected types of nonwoven geotextiles (Bhatia & Smith. 2005. 1967). pack models and stereological or geometrical probability illary geometries. Simmonds. Sub- 1956).com . 2003). macro- transport phenomena. Keywords: nonwovens. & mined by computing the pressure exceeding the capillary Bryner. Similar expressions were obtained ∗ Email: amitrawal77@hotmail.1080/00405000802442351 http://www. The problem becomes & Clarenburg. 350–359 Structural analysis of pore size distribution of nonwovens† Amit Rawal∗ Department of Textile Technology. ous kinds of porous structures including capillary pressure tion. Using the principle of capillary pressure. New Delhi 110016. i. 4. the bubble medium (Vereoot & Cattle. & Andrianova. 2006). It is reproduced with permission ISSN 0040-5000 print / ISSN 1754-2340 online Copyright  C 2010 The Textile Institute DOI: 10. fibre orientation distribution characteristics and number of layers on pore size distribution of nonwoven structures has been investigated. Highly porous media such as nonwovens tend to be sequently. respectively. deterministic approach. separation. 101. & Elrick.. In this research work. fibre orientation. The majority of existing theories/models of pore size distribution of nonwovens do not account for the fibre orientation distribution characteristics.com.

Sampson. structures Dodson and his colleagues established that the pore size Faure and colleagues (Faure et al. 2007). Gourc. π Tg Df ρf . 2003). 1985). 1972). 1996.. 2001. Matheron.e. Each elementary conduit connects to one demonstrated that fibre orientation is the key parameter and only one elementary conduit in the successive layer of influencing the pore size distribution of nonwoven and a nonwoven structure. the gradation of conduits related structures (Kim & Pourdeyhimi. Abdelfattah. and hence. & Sampson. 2 + χ (d + Df ) Rollin. Handley. i. Rollin. & Gendrin. Faure. G(d) = 1 − e−χd (1) 2 + χ Df Estaque. and a relationship between the fibre and fabric properties  2 Downloaded By: [Indian Institute of Technology] At: 20:12 19 September 2010 was formulated (Faure. & Wolff. & Masounave. & through the layers of nonwovens. & Sunjoto. It will be shown later that this 4 type of model is highly useful in predicting the pore size and distribution as it can easily capture the information about fibre orientation in a nonwoven structure. dicting the pore size distributions of nonwoven structures and they established that the mean number of sides per are briefly described below. Ghosh. (5) porometry models that have been used in the past for pre. Velu. Komori & provides the cumulative probability of passage of particles Makashima. Df is the fibre diameter. also known as longitudinal porometry K(d) = + σd + 1 exp (−σ d) (4) model (Faure et al. pore size distribution of nonwoven structures. compared with the existing theories to determine the pore passing through a pore channel in the nonwoven. it has been fibre diameter. Nevertheless. µ is of fibre orientation has not been accounted to compute the the mass per unit area of fabric. 2003. In addition. The longitudinal 8µ σ = . probabilistic plane. 1996. This 3D model of nonwoven polygon. the pore size distribution of nonwoven geotextiles based on Dodson & Sampson. 1972. 1990. 1989. the gamma distribution of pore radii has also is based upon Poisson line networks where the lines sim- been extended in anisotropic assembly of fibres (Castro ulating the network of fibres are randomly oriented in the & Ostoja-Starzewski. Oba.. Tg is the fabric thickness. polygon is four and the free fibre length between the crossover points are distributed according to negative Faure model of pore size distribution of nonwoven exponential distribution (Miles. the pore ity of obtaining an inscribed circle between the polygons of size distribution of nonwoven structures has been predicted diameter equal to or less than d are shown below. parallel to   σ 2d 2 the plane of sheet). Denis. More recently. 1964). The main where χ is the specific length representing the total length drawback of the above theories/models is that the effect of lines per unit area. distribution exhibited gamma distribution in a random Millot. 1982). Therefore. Jaksic & Jaksic. Gourc. The inter-fibre spaces or pores between the straight models of inscribed circles in the polygons have been well lines consist of convex polygons. Poissonian polyhedra theory (Matheron. Castro and Ostoja-Starzewski (2000) have proposed that The pores were assumed as a disc or an elementary the pore size distribution of anisotropic fibrous assemblies conduit in each layer with axis perpendicular to the plane is independent of effect of fibre orientation. The cumulative probabil- represented as a Poisson’s distribution. Subsequently. the model is validated with the experimental results. The analytical model is where Q(d) is the probability of a particle with diameter d. 1986) proposed a model for predicting fibre network (Dodson. 1990). 1997. d is the inscribed circle diameter. 2000). Furthermore. (1989) used the same analogy of Poisson’s polyhedra theory for obtaining the expressions for prob- A nonwoven is a 3D structure consisting of layers of fibres ability of diameter distribution of a circle inscribed in a oriented in certain directions. Lombard. the objective of the research work is to develop a simple model for predicting the pore Q(d) = 1 − [1 − G(d)]Tg /Df (3) size distribution of nonwoven structures that includes the effect of fibre orientation. and ρ f is the density of the fibre. K(d). 2004). The Journal of The Textile Institute 351 for random network lines by Corte and Lloyd (1966). Therefore. The model Similarly. 1979. The Monte-Carlo technique has also been applied to simulate the fibre network by and assuming the nonwoven structure in the form of layers and obtained pore size distribution numerically (Abdel-Ghani 4µ & Davies. 2000. (2) π Tg Df ρf pore size distribution have been developed for nonwoven structures (Giroud. 1952. Lombard model of pore size distribution of nonwoven structures Theoretical approaches Lombard et al. semi-empirical models of χ= .e. but the theories of a sheet such that the length of each disc is defined as the were not experimentally validated. structure can be easily developed by assuming the fibres to be stacked in elementary longitudinal planes (i. Ollson & Pihl. However. size distribution of nonwoven structures. 1990.

(1989) analysis. intersection or superposition has been neglected. the model for pore size distribution of nonwoven structures. (1986. respectively. ωk k−1 −ωx f (x) = x e (8) logical or geometrical probability approach can include the . clearly shown that the effect of fibre crimp has neg- ligible influence on the pore size distribution of non- Downloaded By: [Indian Institute of Technology] At: 20:12 19 September 2010 woven structures. representing the total length second method is much simpler and based upon the com- of lines per unit area. however. However. the gamma distribution has the following In the above models. the specific length of fibre (total length probability density function (Dodson & Sampson. the particle should travel through tics. 352 A. Therefore. The following assumptions have been made to simplify the layers of the nonwoven. bination of gamma distribution of polygon-inscribed cir- Equation (4) shows that the particle of a given diameter cles relating the fibre orientation distribution characteris- can be retained. Rawal where σ is the specific length. account because Kim and Pourdeyhimi (2000) have 1990) and Lombard et al. One of the fundamental differences between the expres- r The nonwoven structure has been divided into ele- sions for obtaining the cumulative probability of passage of mentary planes of equal thickness and has similar particles through the layers is that the effective layer thick. fibre orientation distribution characteristics. (6) r The constituent fibres used in the nonwoven structure have identical geometrical properties. 1996. and the 1997): methodology has not captured about the information of orientation of fibres in the structure. Theoretical model for pore size distribution of nonwoven structures In general. the stereo. where Ff (d) is the cumulative probability of passage of r The decrease in the length of the fibres due to the particles of diameter d through the layers of the nonwoven. of fibre per unit area) is distributed stochastically. Ff (d) = 1 − [K(d)]Tg /2Df . ness or thickness of each layer is considered to be fibre r The effect of fibre crimp has not been taken into diameter and twice the fibre diameter in Faure et al.

The first method is based on calculat- ing the total length of fibres in a given volume of the plane . There are two ways of dealing the problem through geometrical and probability approach.(k) effect of fibre orientation on pore size distributions.

ϕ. ω2 d 2 −ωd F (d) = 1 − 1 + ωd + e . ) (θ. and ω is A fibre of the orientation (θ . the cumulative probability. the total length of fibres in a given volume of the plane can be incorporated into Equation (11) shows that in each layer. and (θ . However. the total number of in. (11) experimentally. The ameter greater than the pore diameter.). (9) 2 and Therefore. (10) 0 2 where L is the total length of a fibre in a given volume. with an orientation (. k is the shape parameter. ϕ. therefore. tersections. where x is any variable. the cumulative probability for the particle of di- termine the number of intersections experimentally. i.ϕ) is the orientation distribution function of fibres. . the particle of diam- any stochastic model for the passage of particle through eter.(k) = (k − 1)!. of obtaining   an inscribed circle between the polygons of diameter equal π π B(. υ(. However.e.ϕ) is intersected by the plane the scale or coverage parameter. 1978). which will be defined later.). ) (7) ω3 2 −ωx f (x) = x e . Subsequently. by considering the intersection between the orientation of fibre and sectioning plane (Komori & Makashima. ) = dθ dϕA(θ. υ(. Integrating by parts has yielded the following expression: The total length of the fibre in each layer can be calcu. in each . Based on Castro and Ostoja-Starzewski (2000) analysis. dp . ) = |sin θ sin  cos(ϕ − ) + cos θ cos | . it is a cumbersome process to de. ω3 2 −ωx F (d) = x e dx. . F (d). each layer has a thickness of twice 2 the fibre diameter. the polygons.   lated by determining the number of intersections. Here. υ(.). ) = L · B(. will not be retained on convex polygons if dp ≤ d. ϕ) sin θ to or less than d is given below: 0 0  d A(θ. dp > d. of fibres having all possible directions it has been shown that the value of shape parameter (k) is on a unit area of the secant plane is shown below: 3.

and hence. Ngo. Lomov. Hence. are susceptible to the num. where Df is the fibre diameter. the number of intersections be. and in our intersections. Ff (d) = 1 − Hf (d). and Backer (1997) and To calculate the number of layers. the structure must consist of Tg /2Df planes where Tg is 2Vf ndVj = Kj (17) the thickness of the fabric and Df is the fibre diameter. dVj . 1989). (13) where Hf (d) is the cumulative probability of a particle with diameter d retaining on the layers of nonwoven. Vf is the fibre volume frac- ture. (14) Figure 1. (12) where H (d) is the probability of a particle with diameter d retaining on each layer of nonwoven. jected on the planar direction j .   N the largest diameter of the particle passing through a pore. According to Pan. Downloaded By: [Indian Institute of Technology] At: 20:12 19 September 2010 i. The cumulative probability for the particle to be retained on a given number of layers (N) is shown below. is limited by two planes nor- nonwoven to the effective thickness of elementary plane mal to the test direction. ω2 d 2 Strictly speaking. 1986. The area and shape of irregular polygon. and hence. it is assumed that each elementary plane consists of two fibres. Lombard et al. j . the num- layer is stacked in an elementary plane and the number ber of intersections formed in a volume. the parti- cle of diameter (dp ) will be retained on the inscribed circle of diameter d. ndVj . and Kj is the directional parameter or geometric coefficient ber of the intersections and the angle formed between the when the average distance between the intersections is pro- two fibres. as- model. ϕ) |cos ϕ| dϕ. (15) 2 will have the same number of fibre intersections. The volume. is calculated inside the volume. According corresponding to the average distance between the intersec- to Faure et al.ϕ) is the orientation distribution function of fibres. The number of plane has a significant influence on their model. Hf (d) = [1 − F (d)]N . Chen. Combining the Equations (11)–(14) has yielded the follow- ing expression: control the geometry of an irregular polygon. the cumulative probability of a particle with diameter d not being retained on the layers of nonwoven. as shown in Figure 1. For an in-plane distribution tween the fibres and the orientation of the fibre in a structure (θ. In other words. therefore. ϕ) = ϕ (ϕ) · δ (θ − π/2). Ff (d) or the particle with diameter d passing through the layers of a nonwoven is shown below. specifically in tion. the number of fibres forming a polygon Ff (d) = 1 − 1 + ωd + e−ωd .. 1990. anisotropic fibrous assemblies. dVj . has the thickness (Faure et al. and Vankerrebrouck (2007). H (d) = [1 − F (d)] . π Df2 Hence.. Hence. For a particle to (Rawal et al. (θ . Equation (18) changes to . having a unit of layers is defined as the ratio of total thickness of the cross-sectional area (Aj = 1). (18) 2 0 −π/2 It is important to quantify the coverage parameter (ω) as it reveals the shape and dimension of the pore in the struc. Seo. each layer is assumed to have a thickness of twice suming that the fibres are distributed uniformly in the space the fibre diameter. the following relation to determine the cumulative probability of passage of particles through the layers of and nonwoven is obtained:   Tg /2Df   ω2 d 2 π/2 π/2 Ff (d) = 1 − 1 + ωd + e−ωd . the effective thickness of elementary tions projected on the planar direction... (16) Kj = 2 sin θ dθ (θ. it is assumed that each Rawal. 2007). In other words. Pores modelled in a layer of fibres. dVj .e. (1986). The Journal of The Textile Institute 353 layer is complement to 1 of F (d). travel through the layers of nonwoven.

02 0.47 Fibre diameter (µm) 20 23. . Nev- ω = ndVj (2Df ) = . Rawal Table 1. (19) thickness.05 0.09 0. where ϕ (ϕ) is an in-plane distribution of fibres (ϕ).08 0.5 Fibre density (g/cm3 ) 0. −π/2 From Equations (20) and (21). Therefore.03 0. (20) πDf ertheless.38 Also. structures. (21) the following expression: ρf Tg  π/2 where µ is the mass per unit area of fabric.08 0.06 0.04 0.03 0. Fibre properties used in the production of nonwoven Table 2. Equation (2) and coverage parameter stated in Equation (22) are similar except that the directional parameter is 4Vf Kj incorporated in computing the coverage parameter.01 0 –90 –80 –70 –60 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Fibre orientation angle (o) Figure 2. Tg is the fabric Kj = |cos ϕ| ϕ (ϕ)dϕ.06 0.05 0.07 Relative frequency 0.07 Relative frequency 0.02 0. Properties of nonwoven structures.01 0 –90 –80 –70 –60 –50–40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Fibre orientation angle (o) (b) 0. 354 A. and ρf is the density of fibre. (22) π Tg Df ρf uct of number of intersections formed in a volume (dVj ) having a unit cross-sectional area (ndVj ) and thickness of The expressions for Faure’s specific length as shown in each layer (twice the fibre diameter).95 1.04 0. µ Vf = .89 3. Equations (16) and (22) involve basic fibre and (a) 0. Properties Spun-bonded Needle-punched Properties Spun-bonded Needle-punched Mass per unit area (g/m2 ) 75 296 Type of fibre Polyethylene Polyester Thickness (mm) 0. . Fibre orientation distributions for (a) spun-bonded and (b) needle-punched nonwoven structures. 4µKj ω= Downloaded By: [Indian Institute of Technology] At: 20:12 19 September 2010 The coverage parameter (ω) can be defined as the prod.

respec. The pore sizes of the nonwoven fabrics were experimentally deter.9 Cumulative frequencies 0. Figure 2 shows the histograms of relative fre- results is given below.7 Lombard's Model 0.4 Theoretical 0. pore initially.2 0. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results mined by capillary flow porometer based on the principle The pore size distributions of spun-bonded and needle- of liquid extrusion porosimetry technique. spun-bonded (supplied by the Technical University of in removal of the bubbles from smaller pores.8 0. the effect of some fibre quency of fibres with respect to the machine direction (0◦ ) and fabric parameters has also been analysed.3 0. liquid (Galwick) of low surface tension (15. at the lowest pressure and the gas flow through the speci- bonded and needle-punched nonwoven structures.5 Experimental 0. An increase Experimental in air pressure causes the bubble to escape from the largest The reported work is based upon two types of nonwovens. .9 Cumulative frequencies 0. Polyethylene and that the liquid from the largest pores would be emptied polyester fibres have been used in the production of spun. A needle-punched structure was produced by opening the fibres by carding and. punched nonwoven structures are theoretically obtained 1 0. of spun-bonded and needle-punched nonwoven structures. Further details of liquid extrusion tively. In addition.1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Pore diameter (µm) Figure 4. The Journal of The Textile Institute 355 1 0.. and the properties of constituent fibres are shown porosimetry technique are given by Jena and Gupta (2003).1 cm in diameter is saturated with wetting distribution characteristics.2 0. in Table 1. The fabric properties are also given in Table 2. Results and discussion entially orientated in the cross-machine direction using a A comparison between the theoretical and experimental cross-lapper.6 Faure's Model 0.8 0. subsequently.1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Pore diameter (µm) Figure 3.9 dynes/cm) and unidirectional air pressure is applied to the saturated specimen to force the liquid on the other side.3 0.7 Lombard's Model 0. and a further increase in air pressure results i. Comparison between theoretical and experimental pore size distribution of a spun-bonded nonwoven structure.e. This implies Liberec) and needle-punched structures.4 Theoretical 0.6 Faure's Model 0. Downloaded By: [Indian Institute of Technology] At: 20:12 19 September 2010 fabric properties including the effect of fibre orientation a specimen of 2. men would be initiated. prefer.5 Experimental 0. Comparison between theoretical and experimental pore size distribution of a needle-punched nonwoven structure. In this method.

there may be some variation in the physical char- acteristics of nonwovens including mass-per-unit area and thickness. It is clearly shown that there nonwovens. the particles can move laterally forming a larger passage in the structure (Lombard et al. and a comparison is made between the theoretical and ex- perimental results.e. Thirdly. there are fibres orientated through the plane (z varied. & Pourdeyhimi.6. 356 A. may not be suitable for predicting the pore size distribution of using Equations (16) and (22).. It is contradictory to Figure 6. pore size the distance between the bond points or free fibre length is decreases as the anisotropy increases. and it is also evident from Figure 5. Therefore. Top view of a spun-bonded nonwoven structure. there is an excellent correlation (R = 0. of particles through the layers of nonwoven is dependent on The differences between the two sets of results are due to the fibre volume fraction. entation distribution characteristics and number of layers. Firstly. however. the above parameters can be easily nonwovens. 1989). there is a fibre diameter variation in the case of a spun-bonded nonwoven structure that can become significant at the microscale and can lead to inevitable errors as it has been assumed that the geometrical properties of constituent fibres are the same. a comparison nonwoven structures. The pore size distribution of spun-bonded and needle- punched nonwoven structures is also predicted using the models of Lombard et al. It has been found that these models have largely underestimated the Figure 5. therefore. (1989) and Faure et al. lighter fabrics. the value of directional parameter is direction). as shown in Figures 3 and 4.. is made between the theoretical and experimental results of pore size distribution of spun-bonded and needle-punched nonwovens. Equations (16) and (22) show that the probability of passage tribution of spun-bonded and needle-punched nonwovens. directional parameter or fibre ori- following reasons. Figure 6 shows the passage orientation of the fibre still dictates the structural charac. size distribution of nonwoven structures tween theoretical and experimental results of pore size dis. Subsequently. In case of needle-punched For a given fibre type.99) be. Theoretically. Similarly. i. (1990). respectively. Relationship between cumulative probability of passage of particles and directional parameter for a nonwoven of area density 75 g/m2 with varying fibre orientation distributions. of particles through the layers of nonwoven as a function teristics of any nonwoven (Mao. some of the pores are not convex. Russell. that leads to an unavoidable error. of directional parameter for a fictive nonwoven keeping 2007). Secondly. especially spun-bonded other parameters constant. as shown in Figures 3 and 4. In Effect of fibre and fabric parameters on the pore general. are more sensitive to structural deformation as is a shift in pore size distribution curves. assuming that the fibres are uniformly and randomly small fraction of the total number of fibres and the in-plane distributed in the structure. Downloaded By: [Indian Institute of Technology] At: 20:12 19 September 2010 pore size distribution of nonwovens and. the ratio of fibres in the z direction is a 0. . Rawal quite high.

. The researchers have demonstrated that dicted is not affected by fibre orientation distribution. Probability of particles passing through the fictive spun-bonded nonwovens having uniform randomly oriented fibres (diameter 30 µm) as a function of pore diameter and number of layers. ilar to that simulated by Kim and Pourdeyhimi (2000) and Starzewski (2000) in which the pore size distribution pre. tion and particle diameter on the probability of passage Figure 8. the relationship obtained between pore size and Furthermore. The Journal of The Textile Institute 357 Downloaded By: [Indian Institute of Technology] At: 20:12 19 September 2010 Figure 7. the combined effect of fibre volume frac- anisotropic characteristics of nonwovens is found to be sim. (2004). Probability of particles passing through the fictive spun-bonded nonwovens having uniform randomly oriented fibres (diameter 30 µm) as a function of pore diameter and fibre volume fraction. However. the pore radius decreases with an increase in the anisotropy. the previous theories proposed by Castro and Ostoja. Velu et al.

. woven fibre mats and the application to coalescers. 565–680). N.. testing and modelling of nonwoven fabrics. A. Montreal. It has also been 48. Proceedings of Geo-filters be suitable for predicting the pore size distribution of these ’96 (pp. G. Fatt. an analytical model of pore size dis- porous media. & Sampson. Subsequently. which fibre orientation has no effect on pore size distri. Bolam (Ed. 117–129. 1990.G. & Sunjoto. 208–217. in thin webs. 21. Geosyn- intersections forming a polygon on the given volume of thetics: Microstructure and Performance (ASTM special tech- the plane. & Sampson. 233– lished) 237. The layers in a nonwoven structure.). Bhatia.T. S.. 10. (2003). Komori & Makashima. Applied Mathematics Letters. H. 1989). & Makashima. 1076. 358 A. Particle sieving in a plied Probability. Nevertheless. Appita Journal. ensembles 105. & Davies. & Lloyd. Lawrence. Dullien. D. The pore radius distribution in paper. Journal of Pulp and Paper Science. Transactions of the 3rd Fundamental Research Ollson. A note on the effect of bution of fibrous assemblies (Castro & Ostoja-Starzewski. J. G. M. 61–77. 165–169. structures (Faure et al. Rawal of the particles through spun-bonded nonwoven has also Dodson.. 94– Matheron. 49. & Sampson. 4. Svensk Paper. A. & A.H. Rollin. Consolidation of the paper web. & Gupta. (1985). Geometrical expressions increase in fibre volume fraction and the number of layers. Y. Random polygons determined by random lines 523–534. (1956). Estimation of fibre orienta- to be similar to that of the reported work by Kim and tion and length in fibre assemblies. 15– 19. (2005). increases in each layer of a nonwoven structure. 207. may not J. 14. & Wolff. Faure. (1996).. 18–24. (1979). (1995). Winter. as shown in Figure 8. B. 40.. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the existing analytical models of pore size distribution of Geotextiles. Conclusions 87–89. therefore.. Miles. It is Jaksic. W. International Nonwovens Journal. J. & Gendrin. nonwovens and experimental results has revealed that these Giroud. demonstrated that pore size significantly decreases with an Komori.. the pressure characteristics. (Original work pub. Research Journal.T. (1989). 550–555.A. fect of fibre orientation on pore size distribution is found Komori. Boca method to the characterization of the pore size distribution Raton. C. 24. Lombard et al.. random fibre network. On the ‘mean flow’ pore size distribution respectively. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Corte. Faure.K. 9.). A comparison between ical and experimental determination of the filtration opening size. N. In general.. (2007).W. Liquid extrusion techniques for pore creases and it is contrary to the previous research work in structure evaluation of nonwovens. T. 77.. K. 299–307. C. (2007). been analysed. (1952). supplying and measuring the pore size distributions of nonwovens. Simulation of non. 55.J.J. S. 59. (2004).W. 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