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Ekadashi

Ekadashi is a sacred day, occuring twice a month in the Hindu calendar - on the eleventh day of the bright
half - called Shukla Paksha and on the eleventh of the dark half called Vad Paksha (Padma Puran, Uttar
Khand 36/5/80). A fast is to be observed on this day by all Hindus.

Story of Ekadashi
In Vachanamrut Gadhada II. 8. Bhagwan Swaminarayan has related the story of Ekadashi:
"Once Bhagwan Narayan was resting. A demon named Murdanav came and challenged Him to a duel.
Suddenly a damsel appeared, evolved out of the Ekadash indriyas of God. [The ten indriyas (sense organs)
comprise the five karma indriyas (mouth, hands, feet, anus and genital organs) and five gnan indriyas (eyes,
ears, nose, skin and tongue). The ten indriyas along with the mind are collectively known as Ekadash
indriyas.] Murdanav was so attracted to this damsel that he asked her to marry him. The damsel agreed, but
only if he agreed to a duel with her, "Whoever shall defeat me shall marry me." Blinded by passion, he
fought with her. The damsel killed him. Pleased with her, God granted her a boon. She asked, "O Prabhu!
As I have manifested from your Ekadash indriyas, let my name be Ekadashi. I am wedded to tap (austerity)
and I desire that people should observe the Ekadashi vrat (fast) and control their Ekadash indriyas on this
day. Bhagwan Narayan agreed."
Ever since, Hindus fast on the eleventh day of sud (shukla) paksha and vad paksha of the month.

Ideal Ekadashi
In Vachanamrut Gadhada I, 38, Bhagwan Swaminarayan has elaborated that a true Ekadashi is when one
withdraws the ten indriyas and eleventh - the mind, from their worldly 'foods' and focuses them on God and
devotional activities. So moderation in daily leisure activities is desirable.

Ekadashi Observance
During Ekadashi, a waterless fast is ideal. However those unable to fast may take liquids, or if needed farari
foods. Such fasting a Hindu tradition to please God, by controlling and curbing one's desires. Fasting once a
fortnight eliminates the body's toxins and wastes. In turn this clears the mental apparatus, enhancing mental
clarity and meditation. A clogged system leads to mood swings, malaise, laziness, lethargy and unhealthful
oversleeping. Medical researchers do advocate fasting, on an average of once a week. Novices to fasting
may initially experience headaches or/and nausea. These tend to clear up with regular fasting.
Farari foods include tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, carrots, turnips, suran - (a type of yam),
dairy products, fruits, nuts, some vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, tomatoes) and special type of grains
(moraio, rajgaro). One can use all spices to prepare the farari foods i.e. salt, chilly powder, black pepper,
turmeric, etc.

Tukaram was born in 1608, in the small village of Dehu in the West Indian state of Maharashtra to Bolhoba
and Kanakai a couple belonging to the lower Sudra class. He had two other brothers. Despite their lower
class status the family was well to do and enjoyed good social standing in the village. Tukaram's troubles
started with the illness of his father, due to which he had to start supporting his family at the tender age of
thirteen. Shortly thereafter, both his parents died. Tukaram's problems only mounted; death of his family
members and economic hardship seemed to plague him.

Tukaram was married twice, his first wife Rakhumabai died due to starvation during a famine, his
second wife Jijabai or Avali as she was called, was much younger than his first had been and had little
patience with his devotion and for God and she nagged him continuously. He had three sons.

Tukaram was initiated without any intermediaries as the other saints usually were. He dreamt that he was
initiated by the Lord Hari himself dressed as a Brahman.

Tukaram continuously sang the praises of the Lord, he sang it in the form of abhangs which he wrote. These
were in his mother tongue Marathi. The abhangs express his feelings and philosophical outlook. During his
41 years, Tukaram composed over 5,000 abhangs. Many of them speak of events in his life, which make
them somewhat autobiographical. Yet, they are focused on God, Pandurang, and not Tukaram. His abhangs
became very popular with the masses of common people. It was this very popularity that caused the
religious establishment (the high caste Brahmins) to hate and persecute Tukaram. as, he was causing them
to lose their power over the people.

There are many miracles attributed to Tukaram.

AboutSantTukaram
Tukaram was one of the greatest poet saints ever born in India. It is quite renowned for his contribution to
the Bhakti Movement of Maharashtra. Read this biography further to know more about the Sant Tukaram.

Early Life
The exact records related to the life history of Tukaram are not available. So, there is a little disagreement
regarding his exact birthdate. It is considered to be one of the four - 1568 AD, 1577 AD, 1608 AD or 1598
AD. He was born in Dehu, near the Pune city to a trader father. He was married twice. His first wife died of
starvation, during a period of severe famine. While, his second wife constantly nagged him for not being able
to properly support his family.

Enlightenment
Tortured by the death of his first wife, the constant nagging of the second and the failure in his spiritual
quest, Tukaram went into a severe depression. By the age of twenty-one, he had lost all the hopes in life
and was at the threshold of death. At this point of time, he had a dream, in which one Babaji Chaitanya
initiated him into the spiritual path. That particular moment changed his destiny and he started his journey as
one of the best poet saints of the country.

Teachings of Sant Tukaram

• An individual should make God the center of his universe. Serving others and loving others is the
best way through which we can find Him.
• For the attainment of sadhana, an individual needs to have faith in his/her destiny.
• It is not necessary to renounce the world and lead the life of an ascetic in order to be one with God.
Spirituality does not require elaborate rituals.
• Nama Japa (reciting the name of Lord) is the most important privilege of being a devotee.
• Siddhis serve as impediments in the attainment of genuine sadhana (meditation).
• Traditions prevent an individual from budding in the love of God. One has to sidestep the usual
customs to achieve the same.

Saint Tukaram was the most popular saint of Maharashtra . He was born in 1598. His parents were poor
agriculturists of Maratha community but of pious and charitable nature.

Modern scholars such as the late V. Tukaram lost his wife and son. What is more important is the claim that this manuscript is part of the collection Tukaram was forced to sink in the local river Indrayani and which was miraculously restored after he undertook a fast-unto-death.Bendre have made arduous efforts to collate evidence from disparate contemporary sources to establish a well-researched biography of Tukaram. He left his earthy body in 1649 Introduction Part I of IV . and the latest biographer of Marathi poet-saints. presumably by scholars who borrowed it from unsuspecting trustees of the temple. One guru. who died of starvation in a famine. At the beginning of this century the same manuscript was recorded as having about 700 poems and a copy of it is still found in Pandharpur. provided him spiritual guidance in his dreams. Raghava Chaitanya. Singing and chanting of God’s glory was a surest path of God- realisation for Tukaram. the present manuscript has been vandalized in recent times. the contemporary poetess Bahinabai's memoirs in verse. His second wife jeejabai was capable but worldly woman who could not understand or appreciate her husband’s spiritual aspirations.S. After a period of contemplation in isolation and sadhana of severe kind. Mahipati's account.What little we know of his life is a reconstruction from his own autobiographical poems. Dehu. The present manuscript is in a somewhat precarious condition and contains only about 250 poems.By Dilip Chitre Tukaram was born in 1608 and vanished without a trace in 1650. Obviously. The rest is all folklore . poetry dawned on him. Him ‘Abhangas’ reveal the great inner struggle he had to undergo. But even this is largely conjectural. though it cannot be dismissed on those grounds alone. It is important to stress that the claim that this . Tukaram spent much of his spare time in contemplation and studying the works of the famous saints of his native land. There is a similar mystery about Tukaram's manuscripts.Married at the age of fifteen. The Vithoba temple in Tukaram's native village. has a manuscript on display that is claimed to be in Tukaram's own handwriting. But they also provide insight into the stages of God-realisation through the medium of Bhakti or devotion.

The various versions of Tukaram's collected poems are transcriptions made from the oral tradition of the Varkaris and/or copies of the original collection or contemporary "editions " thereof. is there an attempt to seek thematic coherence beyond the obvious and broad traditional divisions made by each anonymous "editor" of the traditional texts. This was reprinted with a new critical introduction in 1950 on the occasion of the tri-centennial of Tukaram's departure and has been reprinted at regular intervals ever since by the Government of Maharashtra. We do not have a single complete manuscript of the collected poems of Tukaram in the poet's own handwriting. ii . . The standard edition of the collected poetry of Tukaram is still the one "printed and published under the patronage of the Bombay Government by the proprietors of the Indu- Prakash Press" in 1873. According to the Warkari pilgrims' tradition . was that he was born in a caste that had no right to high. For a Shudra like Tukaram to write poetry on religious themes in colloquial Marathi was a double encroachment on Brahmin monopoly. Tukaram had many contemporary followers. Brahmins alone were allowed to learn Sanskrit. This collection contains 4607 poems in a certain numbered sequence. We have some contemporary versions but they do not tally. In sum the situation is : i. Tukaram's first offence was to write in Marathi.manuscript is in Tukaram's own handwriting is not seriously disputed. Brahminical religion. We have many other versions on the oldest texts and occasionally. at the bottom of the caste hierarchy. His second. fourteen accompanists supported Tukaram whenever he sang in public. It is an heirloom handed down to Tukaram's present descendants by their forefathers. poems that are not found elsewhere. iii. The point to be noted is that every existing edition of Tukaram's collected works is by and large a massive jumbled collection of randomly scattered poems of which only a few are in clearly linked sequences and thematic units. Nor. some scholars believe Tukaram's available work to be in the region of about 8000 poems. this had always been in the teeth of orthodox opposition. In Tukaram's time in Maharashtra. There is no chronological sequence among them. for that matter. It was only after Shivaji's rise that the two-tier caste structure in Maharashtra was modified to accommodate the new class of kings and warrior chieftains as well as the clans from which they came as proper Kshatriyas. there had been a dissident Varkari tradition of using their native Marathi language for religious self-expression. orthodox Brahmins held that members all varnas other than themselves were Shudras. Although since the thirteenth century poet- saint Jnandev. or for that matter to any opinion on that religion. This is a tangled issue best left to the experts. the language of the gods" and to read religious scriptures and discourses. Manuscripts attributed to some of these are among the chief sources from which the present editions of Tukaram's collected poetry derive. Shivaji established a Maratha kingdom for the first time only after Tukaram's disappearance. This is a subject still open to research. One of the obvious reasons why Tukaram's life is shrouded in mystery and why his work has not been preserved in its original form is because he was born a Shudra. and infinitely worse offence.

Shreedhar More(1916-2004) Translated from the Marathi by Vijay Lele . Rakhma. In his own lifetime Tukaram had to brave the wrath of orthodox Brahmins. there was a terrible famine followed by waves of epidemic diseases. Tukaram's first wife. The Maratha kingdom was yet to be founded when Tukaram departed from this world. It seems that after this episode his detractors were silenced . such speculations seem wild and sensational. things could not have been better for the average farmer in the villages of Maharashtra. This ordeal-by-water and the miraculous restoration of his manuscripts is the pivotal point in Tukaram's career as a poet and a saint. He was eventually forced to throw all his manuscripts into the local Indrayani river at Dehu. he was battling the might of the Mughal military machine. After thirteen days of fasting.. Shivaji was born nineteen years before the disappearance of Tukaram. However. Therefore. Tukaram then undertook a fast-unto-death praying to God for the restoration of his work of a lifetime. At this juncture. played an important role in this revival. Though he had been married to his second wife Jija while Rakhma was still alive. Any attack on his person. Shivaji was born within a year of the terrible famine that ruined Tukaram's family as it did thousands of others.Tukaram's writing of poetry on religious themes was seen by the Brahmins as an act of heresy and of the defiance of the caste system itself. Gopalbuwa. Tukaram's sunken reappeared from the river. Though Shivaji's brief reign was popular by all accounts. small farmers in the village of Maharashtra faced harrowing times. then God would restore his sunken notebooks. They were undamaged. Trampled by rival armies and ravaged by internecine warfare. let alone a successful attempt on his life. the Varkari religious movement witnessed a revival only after the situation became more settled. would not have escaped the keen and constant attention of his numerous followers. waging a constant guerilla war. at least for some time. Tukaram was phenomenally popular during his lifetime and was hailed as "Lord Pandurang incarnate" by contemporary devotees like the poetess Bahinabai. was an asthmatic. Tukram's great grandson. While it had tenaciously survived the political turmoil surrounding it. Even after Shivaji's rise a few years later. for four generations the history of Tukaram tradition remained obscure even though increasing numbers of people claimed to have become Tukaram's followers. Tukaram loved Rakhma very dearly. Otherwise. the whole Deccan region was in the throes of a political upheaval. and was presumably told by his mocking detractors that if indeed he were a true devotee of God. Relative peace and stability returned to Maharashtra only about a century after Tukaram. Rakhma starved to death during the famine while Tukaram watched in helpless horror. But Tukaram and his miraculously restored manuscript collection both disappeared after this. and probably also a consumptive woman. Around 1629. his native village. . Some modern writers speculate on the possibility that Tukaram could have been murdered and his work sought to be destroyed.

Rakhumai (Rukmini) stands to His left. for Lord Vithoba Himself is believed to reside there. Though the saints related and sang stories of the gods so effectively. for Lord Vithoba Himself dwells there’ Village Dehu (‘Dehu Gaon’ in Marathi).WHEREAS God’s biography is referred to as ‘nectar supreme’. 1. in brief. it is difficult for us to narrate tales of the saints themselves. Tukaram (1609-1650).They will simply reply “Nothing. BIRTH AND ANCESTORS ‘Praise be to village Dehu.” Despite these limitations we have attempted to present. Dehu also wears a halo because it is considere d a jagrut sthaan. the life and work of the great saint- poet. our verbal equipment too has its own limitations. A temple of Lord Vithoba adorns the beautiful bank of the river Indrayani. Besides. If we were to ask them: Who art thou? Where have thou come from? Where art thou going? What is thy name? What is thy form? -. is considered a blessed place for it was here that Tukaram was born and performed his divine deeds. for they are not what they seem to be and they do not look like what they really are. as Jnanadev (1275-1296) aptly puts it in Amrutanubhav. Just . that of the devotee is called ‘nectar of religion’. near Pune. The Creator of the Universe stands here with his hands resting on his waist. “an abode of live divinity”.

They sought royal patronage along with their families and became officers of the royal army of that time. Their mother. It was on Aashadh (fourth month of the Hindu lunar calendar) shudh Dashmi (the tenth day of the bright/waxing moon) the Lord appeared in Vishwambhar’s dream and told him of His existence there and went to retire in a mango grove. As fate would have it. stands with his hands folded. paid no heed. An annual festival soon became a regular feature and a tract of land was bequeathed upon Vishwambhar to take care of the festival expenditure. his ancestor. Just outside are Lord Bhairav (Shiva) and Lord Hanuman. He then brought those over to his wada (house) and installed them in his place of worship there. reciting as they do the name of the Lord God. Vishwambhar. About hundred years before Tukaram. Garuda (the eagle). The sons. Amabai. At the entrance is Lord Vighnaraj (Ganesha). Blessed are the inhabitants of this place. was living at Dehu. Thus goes the description of village Dehu at the time Tukaram lived there. they are very fortunate indeed. his sons. but you chose to leave me and seek royal patronage.’ He said. The very next morning Vishwambhar went into the grove along with fellow villagers and found the idols of Lord Vithoba and Rakhumai. however. Hari and Mukund. ‘I left Pandharpur and came to Dehu for you. The whole family owed its religious allegiance to Lord Vithoba. It was his unwavering and steadfast devotion that compelled. You should return to Dehu. the Lord to rush from Pandharpur to Dehu just as the exemplary devotion of Pundalik had earlier attracted Him over from Vaikunth to Pandharpur. Amabai spoke to her sons about the Lord’s admonition and tried to persuade them to return to Dehu. opposite stands the Holy Fig Tree (ficus religiosa). as it were. The Lord was also displeased with their decision. It is supposed to be the seat of Lord Siddheshwar. The Pandharpur wari (pilgrimage) during the holy months of Aashadh and Kartik had been a long tradition in the family of Vishwambhar since his forebears. People soon came to know of this divine miracle and started coming in droves to pay obeisance. the Lord’s vehicle. To the south is the temple of Lord Hareshwar and close by is the Ballalvan (woods). This is not fair. frowned upon this. the state was soon invaded by an alien power and both the brothers laid down . showed no religious inclination and turned towards their original vocation: the armed services. However. Vithoba-Rakhumai A pilgrimage would be held on shudh Ekadashi (the 11th day of the bright/waxing moon) of each month. after the demise of Vishwambhar. He once appeared in Amabai’s dream and told her of His unhappiness over the state of affairs.

the Kshatriyas were also being counted among the shudras. the youngest. Shankar’s son Kanhoba and Kanhoba’s son was Bolhoba. Hari’s widow gave birth to a son. The family in which Tukaram was born was indeed a very pious one. because of which he came to called gosavi (someone like a fakir). He was initiated into education by the pantoji (the non-formal village teacher). Bolhoba. When Savji refused to take up the family business and money-lending. Tukaram abjured all these. ‘Venerable are the families and venerable the land in which God’s disciples are born. The Portuguese ruled Goa.’ noted Tukaram. Thus Tukaram also came to be called a shudra. His childhood was spent in great comfort and luxury. Therefore. It enjoyed the respect of the villagers and also of those living in the immediate environs. The family was also very cultured and religious. Bolhoba had three sons: Savji was the eldest. He received lessons in business while working under the guidance of his father at the mahajan’s wada (shop) in the marketplace. Only two castes (Varna) had remained: the Brahmins and the shudras. Bolhoba. Mukund’s wife preferred to go sati following her husband’s demise. The alphabet was learnt with the help of pebbles that gave form to each letter. His forefathers had embraced martyrdom while fighting the enemy on the battlefield. ‘Gosavi’ was never the surname of the family. Nevertheless. Tukaram was born to a great devotee. the Kshatriyas were bleeding the Vaishyas and forcible conversions were the rule of the day. Vitthal’s son was Padaji. Nizamshah of Ahmednagar and Kutubshah of Golconda – were perpetually at loggerheads with each other. because the family was prosperous. ‘The Brahmins had given up their pious deportment. Worship of Lord Vithoba had been its hallmark for generations together and so was the annual pilgrimage to Pandharpur. Soon the daughter-in-law was sent to her parents for delivery and Amabai devoted herself to the Lord’s service. because they engaged in agriculture and vanis (trading community) because of trading.’ Tukaram’s family belonged to the Kshatriya (warrior) caste. Kanakai. Amabai returned to Dehu with her. Religion held no attraction for anybody and ignorance ruled the roost. People were looking forward to a new sunrise and such a sunrise was witnessed at Dehu. The three main Muslim rulers – Adilshah of Bijapur. Padaji’s son Shankar. The vaishya (trader) community had come to be included among the shudras (the lowest in the social scale) about the time of the Bhagawad-geeta and during Jnanadev’s time. for trade and business. The Muslim reign was firmly entrenched in the south at that time. So far as his initiation into the temporal and spiritual life was concerned. It was ‘More’ and ‘Gosavi’ was an honorific. Marriage came about at the age of . Tukaram was asked by his father to take upon him the responsibility. The family owned two wadas (houses) at Dehu: one for residence and the other. The society had become split at many levels. Anarchy prevailed in every sphere. They were called kunbis (farming community). The family also had the distinction of being mahajans (money-lenders). Tukaram did so at the knee of his father. the upshot being that villages were being looted recklessly and rendered barren while the rulers themselves were enjoying to the hilt all the perquisites of royalty. However. and his wife. The undesirable had usurped the place of the desirable and the saints had been robbed of their place of honour. who was named Vitthal. in the marketplace. followed by Tukaram and Kanhoba. Hari’s wife was pregnant at the time of his death on the battlefield. The subjects were living in abject conditions. in 1609.their lives in the ensuing battle with the foe. It owned farmland engaged in money-lending and trade.

The cup of people’s woes began overflowing. This. His life. who achieve their nefarious objects by creating a situation of artificial scarcity. the next year (1631). He left home for pilgrimage after his wife’s death and never came back. the human situation and . The prices of essential commodities went up sky-high. the wife of his elder brother. he came forward to help the famine-hit population generously. at the age of twenty. re-building his life afresh. however. Plaudits came his way from the general public. passed away. He became successful both in trade and money-lending. That meant that the family was suddenly bereft of four of its important members. The family of Tukaram suffered very much in this time of great adversity. Tukaram was just twenty-one when the whole region found itself in the grip of an unprecedented famine. He was desirous of conquest in the work-a-day life and also wanted to cull the elixir of it all. There was belated rainfall in 1629 and ultimately. The house was always well-stocked with grains. Now people became desperate. people still held on to their hopes. Alas. a famous money-lender in Pune. was suddenly robbed of its mainstay. The money-lending business was lost. fell prey to the famine. On the contrary. the daughter of Appaji Gulwe. ‘I put a zero in the name of the family. He never was an escapist. sorrow follows happiness in a cyclical manner. Tukaram summoned all the reserves of fortitude at his disposal and began. keeping aside his personal grief. All these disasters had made him evaluate money. ‘Much had been spent. passed away. It is common knowledge that the people to take the greatest undue advantage of a famine are merchants and money-lenders. It was an alliance between two affluent families that marked the pinnacle of prosperity for Tukaram’s family. It was the loss of a veritable protective shield and Tukaram was crestfallen on account of that. He faced them all. Bolhoba. it was not to be. He lost all his cattle. Life everywhere was thrown into disarray.’ he says in a couplet. which was given away to Brahmins and alms-seekers. crops were lost due to a surfeit of rain. when Tukaram was still eighteen. Even well-to-do families became impoverished. There was some left. There was not a single thing to complain about. departed from the world the very next year. did not run away from them. However. Santoba. As it was. However. Since Tukaram’s first wife was chronically afflicted by asthma. Savji had shown little interest in matters temporal. It was a year of tremendously excessive rainfall. Tukaram was not a heartless businessman to insist on repayment when people were suffering untold misery. It was renunciation by choice. only son. It was with great courage and resilience that Tukaram faced the bereavement of his near and dear ones and the blows dealt by natural calamities and the family’s dwindling fortunes. He successfully transferred the atmosphere of piety prevailing at home to his workplace.’ he says. and his beloved. Cattle perished by the hundred in the absence of feed and many people died of sheer starvation. which was replete with everything desirable. a second wedding was arranged with Jijabai (alias Awali). As they say. Days went by in a perpetual state of happiness and well-being. Tukaram was only seventeen when his father and spiritual mentor. The next year. A demonstration of this was in store. because of which all crops were washed away. was one of drought. Soon thereafter. Everyone praised him. Kanakai. No sooner had he managed to overcome this grief than his mother. should not be construed to mean (as is generally done) that Tukaram allowed himself to become bankrupt. Tukaram was thrown into a bottomless pit of bereavement. there were affectionate parents and brothers and Tukaram himself enjoyed good health. Rakhumabai. Tukaram’s first wife. Savji.13 and soon Tukaram began looking after the family business independently. 1630. Nevertheless. which marked the culmination of natural calamity. Even today we see such people. but did this charitable work.

when I met Vithoba. He would get up early in the morning. The futility of it all had amply been borne in upon him. He wanted to offer the people a place where religious programmes such as keertan. absolved his borrowers of their bounden responsibility at a time when his own monetary affairs were in great disarray! He showed the world that he had renounced the business of money-lending. It was on the fifteenth day that Revelation came. thus paving the way for their salvation. built a new temple on the beautiful bank of the Indrayani and shifted the idols there. That was his determination. This was an act of supreme sacrifice on the part of this money-lender.’ Thus. ‘I then memorised the (spiritual) answers given by the saints of yore. Tukaram then broke his fifteen day long fast. The small temple in their residential wada (house) proved insufficient to cope with the rising number of pilgrims during the time of his father. by destroying the promissory notes. He began thinking in terms of sailing through all these to reach the shore yonder. He had. . had set out in search of his elder brother ever since Tukaram left home. scorpions and tigers attacked me. which inspired me towards renovation. His search eventually led him to the cave on the Bhamnath Mountain and was taken aback by the spectacle that he saw there. Harijagaran could be held for all the people. He set out for the Bhamnath Mountain in search of truth. the family deity. His quest now was directed towards the permanent values. ‘The temple was in bad disrepair. The Lord God gave his benediction to the disciple and gave him much courage. It was true socialism! Instead of attending to his worldly affairs. offer prayers to Vithoba. Half of them he gave back to Kanhoba and consigned the remaining half to the waters of the Indrayani. He had scoured all the hills. ‘I lived on the Bhamgiri Mountain and concentrated all my faculties on Him Snakes. Kanhoba. Wild animals attacked him and reptiles troubled him. These were the promissory notes taken from the borrowers. So that religious the programme could be held there for the benefit of one and all. No coming back till he found the immortal truth. Bolhoba. His perseverance reached fruition on the fifteenth day when he encountered Eternal Truth. the younger brother of Tukaram. therefore. valleys and jungles in the vicinity of Dehu. Rakhumai. Tukaram decided to renovate the temple that had suffered the ravages of famine.’ Tukaram re-built the temple to do keertan and began going up the Bhandara Mountain to prepare for these discourses in an atmosphere of complete solitude.’ It was an encounter void of form or figure (niraakaar). his principal motive in renovating the temple was purely altruistic. and set out for Bhandara. That temple was now in need of renovation and Tukaram undertook the task himself. Tukaram divided these into two. thus proclaiming to the world that he had now definitely taken the metaphysical path. scorpions and snakes and the Lord God had appeared before him! Kanhoba was spellbound! It was the most memorable day of his life. who. Both the brothers embraced each other. Having first placed my implicit faith in them. there was trouble everywhere. but Tukaram remained undeterred. He now asked Kanhoba to bring over all the documents pledged to them by their borrowers. The whole body of Tukaram was covered with ants. to mark the spot where his elder brother had the divine visitation and both then returned to the confluence of the Rivers Sudha-Indrayani and bathed there.human relationships. Kanhoba then arranged a few stones at the place.

If indeed these were the outcome of a divine order. ‘You are a shudra.’ He perused in right earnest the Jnanadevi and Amrutanubhav of Jnanadev. which had given a figure and form to the Eternal Principle essentially devoid of both. saying there was no divine order or benediction in the first place. Eknath’s criticism of the Bhagawat. Rameshwar Bhat was far from mollified. who ordered me to versify. He also appraised the village head (Patil) of this ‘misdemeanour’ of Tukaram. He memorised the sayings of all these great saints. Tukaram was very fond of this atmosphere of solitude. Tukaram’s wife. Jijabai. which is not your right. it is God speaking through me. Bhavartha Ramayan.’ ‘It was Namdev and Lord Vithoba Himself. Hence his famous abhang: Vrikshavalli amha soyare vanachare. The Patil became angry. She would have her own lunch there after Tukaram had his.’ he said. Tuka would study in such a manner as the ocean would welcome the river. but no.’ Verses (abhang) began gushing forth from his mouth and the fortunate among the people began listening to him. Jijabai looked after Tukaram with great solicitude during this period of his spiritual quest and therefore. God would save them from perishing. He ordered Tukaram to sink his verses in the river. Tukaram used to do keertan at the gate of Jnanadev’s abode at Alandi. ‘Angry is the Patil and angry the villagers. for it offered him a whole new range of near and dear ones in the form of trees. ‘It is not my own speech. The great scholar Rameshwar Bhat happened to listen to those sweet compositions. who makes me talk. The do-or-die spirit in him had been fully aroused. People began heaping derision on him. Thirteen days passed and yet . The message was clear: Tukaram had attained salvation himself. where should I go now and where live?’ Tukaram collected all his abhang books. she had an important share in that as well. He was inspired towards versification. His abhangs encapsulated the essence of ancient shrutis and shastras in a very lucid manner. so that people could be edified. It is sacrilegious to listen to it from your mouth. now it was time to disseminate this divine benediction among one and all. Your abhangs elucidate the essence of the Vedas. it is God. Swatmanubhav and the religious compositions of Namdev and Kabir. creepers and birds. Who incited you to undertake such an enterprise?’ Tukaram said. tied a heavy stone to the bundle and consigned it to the Indrayani. I put my hands around Lord Vithoba’s feet. ‘I was then inspired to versify and in my mind. Tukaram partook of this saintly offering. He said. It was all a sham! Tukaram then launched a protest in front of the temple with great determination. Nor is it my own skill. Tukaram was now woebegone. He also had recourse to the ancient Puranas and ancient sciences. would take his lunch to the Bhandara after finishing all her domestic chores in the morning. The people at large also took umbrage. He was surprised to find the essence of the Bhagawad-geeta and the Bhagawat in the Prakrit language and with such lucidity! He was scandalised and denounced this novel happening. this time it was matter spiritual. However. this is not my own language. he said. It was while Tukaram was completely immersed in this spiritual pursuit that Lord Vithoba appeared in his dream along with Namdev and exhorted Tukaram to undertake versification. Whatever was heard was committed to memory and books were also read.’ ‘You might think these are my verses. ‘In order to master the art of doing keertan. Tuka undertook the study. That was a matter temporal. in much the same manner as he had sunk his borrowers’ promissory notes earlier.

The surprising fact was that all the books were completely untouched by water! Tukaram felt that the Lord God was put too much trouble on his account and expressed his regret in an abhang. Jnanadev said to Rameshwar Bhat. having denounced Tukaram. even flames become soothing balm. He then draped himself in wet clothes and returned to Alandi to seek expiation from the fakir’s curse. who enjoyed his company. Public disgrace was averted for Tukaram. Similar was the case of Tukaram. Some of the devout at Dehu also received similar divine messages and accordingly. Though he was born at Dehu. who had started from Alandi. True to their original meaning. Lord Krishna was born at Mathura. The news of Tukaram’s books being retrieved unscathed from the river soon spread everywhere. He went to Tukaram’s house and asked for alms.nothing happened. The Lord God was seen in his visible form. a fakir came there to fetch water. he wrote an abhang especially for the scholar and sent it to him with one of his disciples. Here at Dehu the Lord God paid a visit to Tukaram in a child’s garb on the thirteenth night and told him that He had safeguarded Tukaram’s abhang books underwater for thirteen days and that these would re- surface the very next day. The fakir was enraged by this. even wild animals and serpents cannot do anything to such a soul. went to the bank of the Indrayani the next day. He came to Dehu with the intention of harassing Tukaram. Rameshwar Bhat set out for Dehu.’ Accordingly. He then stayed on at Dehu to listen to Tukaram’s discourses and keertan. he asked the latter who he was and whence he had come. his whole body began smarting with heat. ‘Your suffering is all due to your denunciation of Tukaram. All his suffering ceased as soon as Rameshwar Bhat read that. unwilling to hear the Yavan’s (Muslim) language. but it was the people of Gokul. He realised the spiritual power of Tukaram and called on Tukaram with a sense of devotion. for it was the means chosen by him for people’s edification and uplift. Tukaram was now free to continue with his discourses and keertan. but it enlarged itself within the bowl. Angadshah came to know of how Rameshwar Bhat had been rid of his trouble by Tukaram. Encountering a stranger in Rameshwar Bhat. Rameshwar Bhat. However.’ Rameshwar Bhat then came to Dehu to meet Tukaram and stayed on there to listen to the latter’s keertan. Tukaram’s daughter put only a pinch of flour into his bowl. Lo and behold. In the meantime. He was dismayed. Tukaram now began delivering his discourses and keertan with renewed vigour. the abhangs proved to be indestructible. it is from grief that happiness ensues. put his fingers into his ears and took a deep dip into the water. came to the source of the Nagzari (stream) and entered its waters for a bath. all the books of Tukaram’s verses were seen floating on the water surface! The good swimmers among them immediately plunged into the river and brought all the books ashore. While he was bathing. it was the people of Lohgaon (the village of . ‘Even foes become friends if the mind is clean. Go to Dehu and meet him. Thus it was that knowledge and scholarship bowed their heads before devotion. Rameshwar Bhat. At Alandi. The result was that as soon as Rameshwar Bhat emerged from the water-body. which soon overflowed. There is only one way to atone for it. When Tukaram came to know of this.

100 upon the Brahmins. Harikatha is the mother of all and the very fount of all happine rest to the Tukaram offered such important advice to the persistent devotee. Dadoji asked them for an explanation. ‘You seem to provide me exactly the things that do not interest me.’ Deshpande. punitive action is called for. ‘The Brahmins of Lohgaon have renounced their bounden duty. He first made an entreaty to Lord God.’ they said to the Brahmins. you should go t is now held there. He should n appease the old man from ADVICE TO THE DEVOTEE Do not now have recourse to books and tomes. but the fool that he was. They were quite surprised by what they beheld: men and women were lost in listening to Tukaram. Live and eat in happiness and contemplate the Creator. Therefore. Do only one thing: worship God for the sake of God. The two monks. There they lodged a complaint. for Lohgaon was the place where he delivered his discourses often. saying that since He could divine everything in one’s mind. he came to Jnanadev at Alandi and became insistent about his demand. Tukaram politely refused the gift and sent a letter containing four of his abhan God. He said. ‘Look. They left the venue of the keertan and made straight for Dadoji Konddev’s residence. They berated Tukaram for this and censured the Brahmins. saying. he left those eleven abhangs at Dehu Tukaram’s reputation eventually reached Shivaji (1630-1680). ‘You have fallen from grace. He sent a messenger bearing valuable gift horses and gems to the saint. Tukaram and the villagers of Lohgaon were summoned to Pune. who benefited the most from his keertans. Tukaram came to the Mula-Mutha confluence (Sangam) in Pune along with Lohgaon villagers and began a keertan there. Instead of adopting the path of work.’ Thereupon Dadoji himself felicitated Tukaram and ordered the monks to leave the city at once. Two monks (sanyasi) once came to listen to Tukaram’s keertan. At that time Tukaram composed thirty-one abhangs. Since true scholarship was rule advanced age. Do not waste any more time s an old man.Tukaram’s maternal grandparents). The Deshpande of Beed was now an old man. he complained. Religion has been defiled there. Dadoji also came and listened to the keertan. How can this be so?’ The monks said. Accordingly. Eleven of these counsel for the devotee. All these thirty-one compositions eloquently show Tukaram’s perceptions. therefore. his meth his philosophy. his thought processes. He suddenly began harbouring scholarly ambitions. came to Dehu. all social and age difference were lost. were there among the audience.’ Dadoji promptly dispatched a few soldiers and imposed a fine of Rs. ‘We saw God Himself in Tukaram during the keertan. Jnanadev told him. Brahmins were rubbing shoulders with shudras and not a vestige of social discrimination was to be seen at this assembly. The news of Tukaram’s arrival in Pune spread everywhere and the people of the city soon made a beeline for the darshan and keertan of Tukaram. ‘First you lodge a complaint about Brahmins falling from grace by paying obeisance to a shudra and now you too follow suit. who had earlier lodged a complaint against Tukaram.’ . you have chosen just to recite the name of God. Now they were so impressed by the discourse that they fell at the feet of Tukaram. They have begun revering a shudra.

I made God my own and He gave the answers to my questions whenever and wherever I It was destiny that led Tukaram’s worldly affairs to destruction. translate became a great force to reckon The mentor (guru) has a special place in the path of knowledge (jnan marga). but the Kshatra way of life. In case of a skirmish. Your gesture shows your generosity. he said. This happened on a Thursday of Magh ((tenth month of the Hindu lunar calendar) shudh Dashmi (the tenth day of the However. the soldiers should go forward and protect ruler on the b Tukaram offered his blessing to Shivaji and saw him off. No happiness would be possible till mortals their ‘Look at my experience. he said. philosophy. It is such love that binds the whole society together . Th not bring happiness to us. A perpetual give-and-take of love forms a part of their whole enterprise. reminded him and his soldiers the importance of abiding by their Kshatra (warrior) way of life. not so in the path of devotion (bhakti marga). Shivaji and his soldiers embraced the saint’s counsel. Shivaji was astounded by Tukaram’s attitude and later. Therefore. ‘What use is this treasure to us. Tukaram himself never asked anyone for a mantra. no scholars and the knowledgeable. God had to abide by the restriction put by the love o ‘The devotee’s love is like the leash.he was going to the River Indrayani for a bath and coming across a Brahmin on the way paid his Pleased with this gesture. came to Lohgaon to meet the saint h gifts of expensive clothes. Otherwise. jewellery and gold said. He was very much opposed to the advaita (oneness) theory. we Vithoba. You should give us Love is abundant wherever saints live. pebbles. Later. ‘I just do not allow the language of advaita to come to my e divine manifestation that had a form and a figure. No human being would ever attain happiness in life till there was a place for God in it. and told Sh name of God and become a servant of Lord Vi Shivaji was so impressed by this that he gave up his ruler’s functions and devoted himself instead to the discourses of Tukaram. the Brahmin put his hand on Tukaram’s head and offered him the chant (mantra) of ‘Ramakrishna Hari’ the tradition. Tukaram never went in searc Once Tukaram had a dream . have no idea of the bliss offered by devotion. Wealth to us is as undesirable as cow most insignificant living being like the ant a personage of the land are just the same to us. It was through divine benediction that he attained a great spiri destiny was uncontrollable. Hari goes wherever H Such divine love is attained through perpetual remembrance ‘We should recite Your name. F difference between gold and soil. ‘We should preach to the world.

Navji Mali of 13. Mahadjipant Kulkarni: He was the Kulkarni of village Dehu and mentioned by Bahinabai Sioorkar in her writings. so we Janabai long before her. She came to Dehu for Tukara was inspired towards versification. therefore. Kondpatil of 12. now the only advice henceforth is that keep your life For your valuable life goes waste if no thought is given to it. Shivba Kasar of 14. Kondopant Lohkare: A resident of 7. Kanhoba:Tukaram’s 5. had a visitation in her dr who offered her counsel. abjure the bad and hanker Make money through honest means only and amass it with a d It may be seen that the teachings of Tukaram centre round good thought. thus sings Tuka. He als the construction of the temple at 2. Bahinabai Sioorkar’s eminence Tukaram’s and her compositions should be read Bahinabai Sioorkar(1629-1700) is remarkable am poet-saints not just because she is a woman.all differences and discrimination. Bahinabai is . thus Tuka says undertake that enterprise. which takes care of your interests. Gangadhar Mawal: He was a resident of the neighbouring Talegaon wrote abhangs and documentary evidence is there of his being in the 3. what more can one teach The one who is alive to what is good for him makes his parents e Even God is delighted by the pious behaviour of the sons and daughters born in such a family. Rameshwar Bhat 11. They were 1.Geeta and Bhagawat should be h should centre round Lord Vithoba. strive always to be in the compa Uplift of the downtrodden is the greatness of saints. He also wrote 4. It transforms unhappiness and happiness and indeed. This heavenly love is obtained fro Almighty and from association with the saints. Malharpant Kulkarni: A resident of 9. impeccable deportment and equality. Sonba Thakur: He used to accompany Tukaram on the mridang. Santaji Teli Jagnade: He was a resident of Chakan. It is such love that makes man’s life happy and prosperous. Malji Gade:Tukaram’s 6. For there is great benefit in contemplating Him with a clean and clear BENEFITS OF SAINTLY ‘Never keep the company of bad people. Sioorkar. Abajipant 10. Gawarsheth Wani: A resident of 8. tran COUNSEL ‘No point in offering advice where it goes unheeded. Tukaram’s disciple. He never hesitat a spade while disseminating messages for the benefit of human welfare. She also had the fo to Tukaram’s keertans. Mention is found at many places in hagiographer Mahipati’s (1715-1790) writings that there were fourteen accompanists to Tuka used to recite the dhrupad during his keertan.

my mind is distressed by witnessing others’ predicament. there was no divine response to his appeal.Abbott and have been recently republished with a percepti Feldhaus. there they saw Tukaram and attended his keertans.Bahinabai Sioorkar unique because she was an orthodox. It’s time for me to leave now and beseech all for their blessings. Janoji Bhosale then went along with Mahadev to meet the great ruler. this is the only contemporary eyewitness account of Tukaram availab autobiography and verses are translated into English prose by Justin E. married Brahmin and yet was attracted to Bhakti and particularly to the poetry of Tukaram ab in distant Kolhapur from a keertan-performer called Jayaramaswami. please bring back my brother. Shivaji announced an endowment. ‘I just cannot see so much grief. she was obsessed by the idea of meeting Tukaram in per Tukaram blessed her and became her guru. There was a large turnout. His children. Vithoba has been waiting for quite some time now. On the fifth day Tukaram’s cymbals. He said to all. Tukaram then went to the bank of the Indrayani along with all and began a keertan there under the shed of a tree. Tukaram did a great lot for Jnanadev. ‘Tukaram attained Vaikunth in his own body. Once Tukaram was delivering a discourse at Lohgaon when enemy attacked the village and plundered it. The news of Tukaram’s bodily departure for Vaikunth greatly surprised Shivaji. In a gesture of gratitude Jnanadev himself had a reincarnation as Jijai’s son. One more incident. It consisted of food-grains and a sovereign for clothing. Mahadev. this resulted in her husband beating her up in jealous fury. ‘God. Tukaram then cast a look at Jijabai and said to all. to go and call on him. All the people were engulfed in great grief with the disappearance of Tukaram. Mahadev Vithoba. to be paid annually. He made enquiries with Janoji Bhosale of Dehu about the saint’s family and directed Tukaram’s eldest son.’ he said. It’s high time I responded to Vithoba’s call in Vaikunth. the husband changed his mind when persuaded by a accompanied Bahinabai to Dehu. Rameshwar Bhat said that Tukaram had bodily attained Vaikunth. Tukaram’s children and brother then had a quarrel with God. he was horrified that his wif want to make a Shudra who had no scriptural knowledge her guru. came forward and paid his respects to the father. ‘Bid thee farewell to me now and each return home now.’ Thus Tukaram bodily disappeared while reciting the name of the Lord.’ Nobody showed willingness. God then pacified Kanhoba. Baloji Teli Jagnade in his notes writes . Tukaram realised that God was doing service to him. He appealed to God.’ However. letter and papers descended down from sky. He did not relish this. A mention of this is found in historical documents. Tukaram became very distressed. The topic of exposition was: can the body ever become one with the Brahma? Has anyone ever achieved it? Tukaram said that he would do it. This was continued later even by Shivaji’s son. Sambhaji. Bahinabai's vivid account of Dehu and Tuka journal that vividly recreates scenes in evocative detail. Come along with me. for Tukaram’s family. Narayan (1650-1723) was the posthumous son of Tukaram. Because he was a reincarnation of . Do not take him to Vaikunth. brother and disciples stayed put at the place.’ Santaji himself was present at the time of Tukaram’s departure. Vithoba has come true for me at the end and Tuka will now disappear bodily. It was on the Kartik (eighth month of the Hindu lunar calendar) vadya Ekadashi (eleventh day of the dark/waning moon) that Tukaram was doing keertan at Alandi before Jnanadev’s samadhi. He affectionately embraced all his fourteen accompanists. ‘I am going to Vaikunth. however. His son.

They are fulfilling the promise made by Tukaram : Fruit of nectar. His great contribution was writing the biography of Tukaram. The day-long fast is observed with reverence during the death anniversary of Angadshah’s guru. Dhrupad: The couplet that contains the central theme of the abhang. He prevented the exploitation of those going to Pandharpur and Shingnapur when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb was in Maharashtra. People then sought Narayan. Vasudev Dehukar. Neelkanth renounced his all after many days. Therefore. of which the second couplet contains the central theme of the poem. Abaji came back to Dehu bearing the water of the holy Ganga. Angadshah was based in the Astanpur area (now Bhavani Peth) of Pune. Meanwhile. The Tukaram Beej Festival was begun by him. consigned his mortal remains to the Ganga following a pilgrimage to Varanasi. undertook penance and later. held on the 25th day of Dhul Hijja. The people of Dehu have made an enormous contribution to the warkari community by performing keertans in village after village. son of Vitthal. His demise came about in the month of Shravan. The ruler of the day did not pay much attention to it. the villages of Dehu and Kinhai were also similarly bequeathed to him by Kings Shivaji II and Shahu. also made noteworthy contribution to the warkari tradition. Both Vitthal and Narayan set out on a great pilgrimage after her demise to consign her mortal remains. Angadshah: 17th century Sufi mystic and contemporary of Tukaram. where he ran an Asoorkhana (guesthouse). He then gave away all his domestic belonging to Brahmins. While singing this is repeated in chorus after each couplet is sung. Uddhav.’ Thus Niloba Gosavi Pimpalnerkar came for his darshan. the Islamic calendar. He refused to hand over the reigns to Abaji. the same tradition is carried forward by the seeds too. He brought fame to the Dehu temple and enlarged the sect. for his darshan and his association. His son. “Angadshah Baba is a folk hero. also fought for the control of the temple. He has written a number of abhangs. ‘Tukaram had already left for Vaikunth. It was a quarrel over seniority. Mention of Narayan being a great spiritual personage is found in many historical documents. Mahadev looked after the daily rituals of the temple. Later on. Niloba was determined for a glimpse of the great saint and was obliged after forty-two days by Tukaram. They offered precious service to protect the clan’s deity and the warkari tradition. King Shahu and Queen Sarvarbai greatly revered Narayan. After Abaji his son. vine of nectar.Jnanadev. King Rajaram bequeathed village Yelwadi to him in 1691. Abhang:Generally consists of four couplets. built an impressive temple of Lord Vithoba. Mahadev left Dehu and went to Pandharpur for the sake of the sect. Mahadev. His lineage of disciples staying at Bhavani Peth in Pune. Niloba was then inspired to write verses. He offered food to all on the occasion. Narayan narrated the whole biography of Tukaram and went on a pilgrimage with him. by now. They all lived together till the demise of their mother. He undertook the important task of collating all the abhangs of Tukaram and made a compendium (gaatha) of them. had expanded till Karnataka. Angadshah and Tukaram became very good friends.” . According to historian Sadanand More. came back to Dehu and began looking after the affairs of the temple. himself a great devotee of the Lord. the son of Tukaram. Many people began coming to meet him. Narayan then began living in a royal manner. Abaji. observe a fast every year in memory of the friendship between Tukaram and Angadshah. Once Santaji Pawar came to meet him and berated him for it. He enriched the Dehukar tradition. was also a spiritual authority. son of Mahadev. The Dehu Sansthan has kept alive the family’s great tradition of the “wari palkhi” (pilgrimage with palanquin). both his elder brothers deferred to him. Hazrat Lakhanshah. which. Gopal. Mahadev has written Tukaram’s abhangs. who was with King Shahu. It was Narayan who began taking Tukaram’s palkhi (palanquin) to Pandharpur during each Ashadh wari (pilgrimage). After his visit to Dehu. head of the Tukaram chair at Pune University. Therefore. Descendants of Angadshah fast on Tukaram Beej (the day Tukaram was last seen in 1650). The aura around him has been passed down the generations through folklore. Tukaram’s great grandson.

in Dehu. Legend has it that Tukaram's body simply disintegrated and returned to the state of absolute. who could be of either gender. they must serve as an impregnable wall to stave off the enemy assault. The day was Phalgun (eleventh month of the Hindu lunar calendar) vadya Beej (second day of the dark/waning moon). they are regarded as part of the scriptures. till their master reaches the safety of the fort. Eknath and Tukaram drew inspiration. author of the popular book.Jnanadevi in Marathi and not Sanskrit. Responding to the need of the times. carrying a veena (stringed instrument) who leads the group with a series of abhangs. says: “Mystics like Angadshah enjoyed a common chord with warkari mystics of their time. Writer-poet Dilip Chitre. he was equally adept at writing verses which bore the stamp of practical genius. They preferred to concentrate on the spiritual aspects of religion as understood by common people. which till then was for the privileged few. Janabai. Jnanadev in the beginning of his commentary itself took cognizance of various religions present at that time and performed the great feat of bridging the gap between them. Another describes how once a ‘paik’ (foot soldier) becomes a ‘naik’ (an officer). ” Jnanadev: Jnanadev's writings became the fountainhead from which poets . Savata Mali. expounding on the principal duties of the ‘paik’ or soldier. leaving no trace of its material form and identity. Jnanadev broke away from tradition to become the first person to write commentary on Bhagawad-Geeta . Shivaji: The great Maratha King and founder of a nationalist tradition was contemporary of Tukaram. . After singing of each couplet the keertankar gives a discourse on it. Each of the eleven verses gently guides the soldier to realise his responsibility towards his king. the youngest son of Tukaram. Shivaji made it a point to meet the poet saint. unconditioned being. For instance. Keertan: A performance where the keertankar (a lead singer and group leader). Tukaram Beej: Tukaram disappeared on this day while performing keertan at Dehu.Namdev. Chokamela. ‘Paikiche Abhang’ is his collection of 11 long verses. his dedication and judgement must grow to match his new responsibility. This is significant because Tukaram was a contemporary of Shivaji . one ‘abhang’ invokes the soldiers that. Puranas: medieval compilations of myths concerning various deities of the Hindu pantheon. True to the pilgrimage's spirit of communal harmony. There is evidence to indicate that Tukaram was not just a devotional saint and mystic. Says Tuka. in an emergency. started the tradition of carrying the padukas (footwear) of both Jnanadev and Tukaram in the same palkhi (palanquin) in the latter half of the 17th Century in Dehu near Pune. Palkhi: Narayan. the Tukaram palkhi first stops at the mausoleum of Angadshah a Sufi mystic and contemporary of Tukaram. The group supports the keertankar in a chorus.It is no coincidence that some years after his famous verses. his notebooks contain the only contemporary copies of some of Tukaram's work. Santaji Teli Jagnade: a devoted companion of Tukaram. thereby opening the reservoir of knowledge to the multitude in their own mother tongue.

Ke and Vasudevrao Warlikar.A duty-based approach towards life. B.Strictly vegetarian diet. The Varkari follows a number of specific principles and practices. along with associates Haribhau Pataskar. Shreedhar More (1916-2004) Born : 1916. and on the origin and growth of the sacred ‘palkhi’. (A renowned pilgrim hundreds of years and pays homage to Sant Jnanadev and Sant Tukaram.S. and songs.Vaikunth: Lord Vithoba’s abode. Took an oath to wear “kh symbol of Undertook an exhaustive study of all sects and sub-sects of the ‘Warkari’ tradition. in a Maharashtrian village to the Vithoba temple in Pandharpur and back. attended by pilgrims from all over Maharashtra.Moral behavior and strict avoidance of alcohol and tobacco. Gave up college to join India’s freedom moveme collaboration with Bhau Vishnupant Chitale. 2. Trustee of the De temple authority). Ninth generation descendant of Maharashtra’s renowned saint.Brahmacharya (self-restraint) during student life. G. Imbibed the ‘warkari’ tradition from his father Nathurambuwa. Wari: Circular pilgrimage to Pandharpur. Author of searching philo the tale of Saint Tukaram’s ascendance to heaven . At Dehu (birthplace of Saint Tukaram and a prominent pilgrimage centre). Joined S.Worship of Lord Vithoba. while still a young boy and memorised the works of Tukaram Did his primary education at village Dehu. Keshavrao Jedhe. Warkari: A person who makes the wari (circular pilgrimage). It is usually from his/her home. 4. Vithoba Anna Ajrekar. 3. Rahirkar. 5. Adv.P Bahirat. .Rejecting discrimination based on caste or wealth. and its pilgrimages.P. including: 1. 6. College at Pune. The shudh Ekadashi (the eleventh day of the bright/waxing moon) in the Hindu calendar months of Aashad (fourth month of the Hindu lunar calendar) and Kartik (eighth month of the Hindu lunar calendar) are the days of Vithoba's festival in Pandharpur. Mentor to various national and international scholars studying the ‘Warkari’ tradition. two legendary figures of the Founded the Warkari Board / Warkari Authority. Abasaheb Joshi.