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Particle Physics

Unit 4 Physics A2 Level

The Standard Model
The standard model encompasses 12 fundamental particles, of which all matter is made of. Every particle in the
Standard Model has an anti-particle.

Quarks Leptons

u d c s t b e νe μ νμ τ ντ electron muon tau
up down charm strange top bottom electron neutrino muon neutrino tau neutrino

Charge +2/3 -1/3 +2/3 -1/3 +2/3 -1/3 -1 0 -1 0 -1 0
Spin 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2
Mass 0.003 0.006 1.3 0.1 175 4.3 0.511 <2.2 106 <0.17 1780 <20
GeV/c2 GeV/c2 GeV/c2 GeV/c2 GeV/c2 GeV/c2 MeV/c2 eV/c2 MeV/c2 MeV/c2 MeV/c2 MeV/c2

Each quark has a baryon number (B) of +1/3. Each lepton has a lepton number (L) of +1.
Anti particles have the opposite number. The strange quark has a strangeness of +1. The anti strange quark has
a strangeness of -1.

Particle families
Particles that feel the strong nuclear force.
All the quarks are hardrons.
Leptons are not.

Baryons Mesons
A composite particle that is made of 3 A composite particle made of a quark
quarks. (qqq) and an anti quark. (qq)
Protons, and neutrons are quarks. e.g. Pions (π0, π+, π-) and Kaons.
Protons (uud) and Neutrons (udd). π+ = ud, π- = ud

Fermions Bosons
(Composite) particles with fraction spin. (Composite) particles with integer spin.
e.g. 1/2, 3/2 e.g. 1, 2, 3
Obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle Do not obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle
e.g. Protons (uud), Neutrons (udd) e.g. Gluons (g), Photons (γ)

Force Carrier Particles (Exchange Bosons)
Electromagnetic Strong Nuclear Gravity Weak Nuclear

γ g not yet discovered W- W+ Z0
photon gluon graviton W boson W boson Z boson

Charge 0 0 -1 +1 0
Spin 1 1 not yet discovered 1 1 1
Mass 0 0 80.4 80.4 91.2
GeV/c2 GeV/c2 GeV/c2

© I. Samee 2010 Page 1
Particle Physics
Unit 4 Physics A2 Level

Strong nuclear force: gluons are constantly being exchanged by quarks within baryons and mesons. They are the
force carrier particles of the strong nuclear force that that holds baryons and mesons together. This force holds
atomic nuclei together and stops them coming apart due to repulsions of the protons.

Electromagnetic force: This force acts between charged particles and is responsible for electromagnetism. The
force is mediated by photons.

Weak nuclear force: This is the force involved in nuclear beta decay and other radioactive decays. All hadrons
and leptons feel the weak force.

Gravitational force: Gravity is the force that attracts all matter, however is very weak to act on subatomic scales.

Various Composite Particles

u u u
d s
d u d d d s
Proton Neutron Kaon (K0) Lambda (Λ)
Baryon/Fermion/Hadron Baryon/Fermion/Hadron Meson/Hadron/Boson Baryon/Fermion/Hadron
Pions are a type of mesons, that are made of combination of up and down quarks. π+ = ud, π- = ud

Particle Reactions
During a particle reaction: lepton number, baryon number, strangeness, charge and mass are conserved.
Alpha decay Beta positive decay
92 U → 23190Th + 42 α p → n + e+ + νe
charge: +92 → +90 + +2 charge: +1 → 0 + 1 + 0
baryon number: +235 → +231 + +4 baryon number: +1 → +1 + 0 + 0
lepton number: 0 → 0 + 0 lepton number: 0 → 0 + -1 + -1
strangeness: 0 → 0 + 0 strangeness: 0 → 0 + 0 + 0
Certain reactions involve mass being created out of energy. According to the equation: E = mc 2
This is called pair production. When mass is created out of energy, matter and it’s anti matter equivalent
particles are always created.

e.g. A photon of 2.47 x 1020 Hz spontaneously converts into a matter and anti matter particle. Find the mass
of one of the particles (matter or antimatter).
X = indicates B into
E = hf = (6.63 × 10 −34 )(2.47 × 10 20 ) = 16.4 × 10 −14 J X X the paper.

E 16.4 × 10 −14 X X X X The paths of the particles
E = 2mc 2 → m = = = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg
2c 2 2 (3 × 10 8 ) 2 e + e- curve in different directions
since they are oppositely
X X X X X X charged.

So the particle is an electron, according to it’s mass, and it’s anti matter particle a positron (e+).

© I. Samee 2010 Page 2
Particle Physics
Unit 4 Physics A2 Level

Particle Accelerators
Linear Accelerator (linac)

1 2 3 4 5

High frequency AC voltage (3 GHz)

A linear accelerator consists of a series of tubes, each successive one being longer than the previous.
The odd numbered tubes are connected to an AC source together, and the remaining even numbered tubes are
connected to the other terminal of the AC source. This allows all the odd numbered tubes to have the same
voltage, and the even numbered tubes to have the opposite voltage. The AC source constantly changes polarity
of the tubes together at a high frequency. This setup allows particles to be accelerated through the tubes, and
reach high velocities via the electric field created between the tubes. Within the tubes, there is no acceleration
as there is no pd. Each successive tube is longer as particles are accelerated between the tubes. This gives them a
higher velocity, so the tubes must be longer for them to spend the same time within each tube.

X X Particles are inserted in between the two ‘dees’. An electric
field acts between the two dees and accelerates the parti-
cle. When the particle enters the dee, since the whole dee
X X is at a specific voltage, there is no pd, so no acceleration.
The particles path begins to curve due to the magnetic
field acting on the particles. The particles are curved 180o
X X X and re enter the field where they are re-accelerated. Now
the particles have a higher velocity in the second dee, and
so their radius of curvature increases. Eventually their
radius is almost that of the dees, and the particles are
released from the cyclotron at very high velocities.
X X X The voltage needs to switch, every half a turn for the
particle to be accelerated once it re-enters the field.

High frequency AC source

mv 2 mv 2 mv 2πm Bq
F = Bqv , F = = Bqv → r = T= → f = ← Cyclotron Frequency
r r Bq Bq 2π m
mv mv 2πr 2π mv πm Bq
= Bqv → r = v= = × T= → f = ← Cyclotron period for AC source
r Bq T T Bq Bq πm

In all such accelerators, particles get harder to accelerate as they reach relativistic speeds (speeds close to the
speed of light). Due to this, particles require a more and more energy to reach the speed of light, as they get
closer to the speed of light. Due to this, particles require energies upto TeV to reach the speed of light.
In accelerators such as the cyclotron, when particles such as electrons are accelerated, they begin to radiate
energy outwards which can be lethal. This radiation is typically gamma ray photons.

© I. Samee 2010 Page 3