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As such. where multiple routes are combined in a routing table as a single route. As the Internet grew.0. dividing a network address into multiple smaller subnets. CIDR routers use the following information to identify networks. y| The beginning network address in the range y| The number of bits used in the subnet mask For example. c  addresses are those that use a custom mask value to separate network and host portions of the IP address. CIDR allows for variable length subnet masking (VLSM) and enables the following features: y| Subnetting. each device on the network needs its own unique IP address. For example.0/21. combining multiple network addresses into a single larger subnet. A special router (called a Network Address Translation or NAT router) translates the multiple private addresses into the single registered IP address. this allows a single Class B or Class C addresses to be divided and used by multiple organizations. the following other solutions were put into place to make efficient use of available IP addresses: y| IP version 6. hosts are assigned an unregistered address in a predefined range. y| Supernetting. it became apparent that the number of hosts would quickly exceed the number of possible IP addresses.70. c  addresses are IP addresses that use the default subnet mask. In addition to CIDR. the routing table represents the address as 199. this allows multiple Class C addresses to be combined into a single network. every device would receive a registered IP address. With private addressing. y| Private addressing with address translation. y| Route aggregation (also called route summarization).   . They are classfull because the default subnet mask is used to identify the network and host portions of the address. One solution to the problem is Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). All hosts on the private network use a single registered IP address to connect to the Internet. In the early days of the Internet. where 21 is the number of bits in the custom subnet mask. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses instead of the 32-bit addresses used with IPv4.c  You can think of the Internet as one big network. however. For example.


c  .

When working with IP addresses. work with each octet separately. The following table shows the decimal value for various binary values with a single 1 bit. you will need to be proficient at converting decimal and binary numbers.  y| To perform subnetting operations. G.

  10000000 01000000 00100000 00010000 00001000 00000100 00000010 00000001 .

For example. simply add the decimal value of the bits together. Use the following chart to identify the exponent values and the final possible number (after subtracting 2 from each exponent).    128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 y| To find the decimal value of a number with multiple 1 bits. you will need to know how to find the exponential values of 2. å . the decimal value of the binary number 10010101 is: y| 10000000 = 128 00010000 = 16 00000100 = 4 00000001 = 1 Total = 128 + 16 + 4 + 1 = 149 y| To calculate the number of valid subnets or the number of hosts per subnet.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11   2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 212    2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096     0 2 6 14 30 62 128 254 510 1022 2046 4094 y| .

To find smaller or larger values.Memorize the shaded values.  . divide or multiply the exponent value by 2.



Use the following chart to identify the solutions to common subnetting tasks. ½.

½ .

such as RIP version 2. EIGRP.  Given a network address and subnet Begin by converting the subnet mask to a binary number. Then mask. or OSPF y| The . how many subnets can you have? decide which formula to use (p is the number of additional bits borrowed from the default mask): p Use if: y| The network uses a classless routing protocol.

! command is configured y| Variable-length Subnet Mask (VLSM) is used p Use  if: y| The network uses a classful routing protocol. such as RIP version 1 or IGRP y| The  .

n = the number of unmasked bits by the custom mask. p Given a network address and subnet  mask. Given a network address and a subnet  p .! command is configured "  If no network details are provided. Then borrow bits and you use? use the formula to find the number that gives you enough subnets and hosts. use p. Then use you have? the formula to find the number of hosts. how many hosts per subnet can Begin by converting the subnet mask to a binary number. To find the number of valid hosts. what subnet mask should Write out the default subnet mask in binary. p p Given a network address and customer   requirements.

x. The magic number identifies: y| The first valid subnet address y| The increment value to find additional subnet addresses Given an IP address and subnet mask. identify the valid subnet The magic number is the decimal value of the last 1 bit in the addresses. subnet mask. mask.

| Identify the subnet and host portions of the mask.| The valid host range is: .| To find the subnet address. draw a y| Broadcast address line y| Valid host address range 2. set all host bits to 1 4.   p find the: Use the following process to find the information you need: y| Subnet address 1. set all host bits to 0 3.| To find the broadcast address.

„| First address = Subnet address + 1 „| Last address = Broadcast address .1 .